Passages 2002

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					        Planning Your Visit                                Hiking, camping and                             Cave Tour Schedules
              Page 2                                           backcountry                                    Page 6 and 7
                                                                  Page 3

                                       2002 Visitor’s Guide to Wind Cave National Park

The Incredible
Wind Cave Prairie
                                       in Wind Cave. These sites
  S    waying grasses blown by a
       gentle wind create a fasci-
nating motion on the prairie; the
                                       are rated on their diversity
                                       and management plans.
grasses seem to move in waves.         The park itself is recognized
Seeing these wind-caused waves         as an exemplary site because
prompted early travelers to call       of the quality and diversity
the prairie a "sea of grass." The      of plant communities found
prairie conjures many images.          here and the natural way
For people living on the prairie,      they are managed.
there is no sight equal to the            Why is diversity impor-
sweeping view of a land stretch-       tant? Plants are the basis of
ing for miles under a towering         most food chains and are
sky. To Stephen Long crossing          critical to the survival of
the prairie in 1820 it was "a region   animal life. The blending of
of hopeless and irreclaimable          diverse plant communities
sterility." He was puzzled by the      means that the park has
abundance of wildlife, but con-        hundreds of species growing at
cluded that they survived only         different times. This variety does
through stupidity.                     more than look pretty; it ensures

There is no sight equal to the sweeping view of a land
stretching for miles under a towering sky.
    This sea of grass or prairie is    against biological disaster.
very much like an ocean. It con-       During wet years, tall grasses
tains many habitats, with numer-       dominate. During dry years,
ous species of plants. Wind Cave       short grasses thrive. Some
National Park is part of this sea      grasses grow in warm seasons,
of grass. It is also part of the       others in cool seasons. When                                              aged to protect prairie ecosys-
Black Hills. It is in a meeting        insects or diseases strike, some                                          tems and their natural processes.
zone, a mixed-grass prairie that       plants suffer - others survive.                                              Wind Cave National Park is
combines many of the features of       These plants have evolved to                                              one of those places. Here we can
the eastern tall-grass prairie and     withstand drought, drying                                                 explore grassland communities,
the western short-grass prairie. It    winds, grazing, and frequent                                              behold thundering herds of
is a place where the mountains         fires. Confronting adversity         dance of little bluestem grass in    bison, or listen to the riotous
touch the plains.                      through diversity ensures that       one place and an abundance of        noise in a prairie dog town.
          Confronting adversity through diversity                           needle-and-thread grass in              To experience these diverse
                                                                            another. The understory of the       communities, drive the park
         ensures that there will always be a prairie.                       ponderosa pine forest may            roads or hike the trails. The grav-
                                                                            change from wheatgrass to            el roads, NPS 5 and 6, travel
   Because it is a meeting zone,       there will always be a prairie and   sunsedge. These different com-       through the prairie portions of
or an ecotone, Wind Cave               food for the wildlife.               munities supply the required         the park. The more than 30 miles
National Park has many different          Animals eat different plants.     habitats for the large variety of    of hiking trails allow you to
vegetative, or plant, communities.     Some prefer grass; some prefer       animals living in the park.          explore many different habitats.
According to The Nature                wildflowers; some prefer to             Today, much of the prairie that   As you travel, look for the vast
Conservancy these communities          browse on shrubs. This helps         once stretched across the Great      array of life supported by the sea
are noteworthy because of their        them avoid competition in            Plains has been plowed and set-      of grass in this remarkable
               condition. The          obtaining food. There are over       tled. There are few places man-      national park.
               Nature Conser-          20 different vegetative communi-
               vancy evaluates         ties within the park. For the
               ecosystems based        casual observer, there are three
               on their health and     major categories: the forest, the
               diversity. They have    prairie, and the riparian or                      Contacting the park:
               identified 16 exem-     stream habitats. However, within
               plary vegetative        those categories there are others.          In case of Emergency dial 911
               sites within the        Each community is characterized              Visitor Center: 605-745-4600
               Black Hills. Nine of    by its dominant plant species. In
               those sites are with-   the prairie, you may see an abun-       Wind Cave’s website:
Visitor Information                                                                                                                 2
CHECK OUT OUR WEBSITE                                                    RANGER PROGRAMS
I f you are planning your visit or
  doing a project about Wind
Cave, look for us at
                                                                           W       hen you are planning
                                                                                   your visit, plan to
                                                                         attend a ranger-led program.
                                                                                                               about the
                                                                                                               Again, the on the                                                 There are many interesting pro-       topics vary.
Internet. Our website has                                                grams each day. Programs              Check with
almost anything you might want                                           include a hike on the prairie or      the camp-
to know about the park, the                                              in the forest investigating the       ground
cave, the animals, or the plants.                                        natural history of the park.          hosts or at
We have even included some                                               Topics might include edible           the visitor
animal sounds. If you want to                                            plants, the relationships of the      center
know what's happening in the                                             park's animals and plants, the        information
park, this is the place to be.                                           effects of exotic plants, or the      desk for more information.
                                                                         importance of fire to the park's          Cave tours are offered daily
                                                                         ecosystems. For more informa-         (except Thanksgiving and
                                                                         tion, please ask at the visitor       Christmas) throughout the year.
FOOD, LODGING AND GASOLINE                                               center information desk.              Tours provide opportunities to
                                                                            Nightly, during the summer         discover new things about this

    T  he park operates one
       campground and has lim-
ited food and beverage vending
                                                                         months, park rangers present
                                                                         campfire programs. These are
                                                                                                               unusual cave. Tour schedules vary
                                                                                                               throughout the year. The schedule
                                                                         great opportunities to learn          is listed on page 7.
services in the visitor center.
There are no lodging, gasoline,
grocery, or restaurants available
                                                                         VISITOR CENTER EXHIBITS
in the park. These services are
                                                                                                                cave formations and the colorful
available in the nearby towns of
Hot Springs (15 minutes south)
                                                                           T    he Visitor Center is a
                                                                                great place to start your
                                                                         park visit. Whether you are
                                                                                                                history of the park. A slide pro-
                                                                                                                gram explains the development
and Custer (25 minutes north).          Custer State Park, bordering
                                                                         intrigued with the cave, prairie,      of the cave. A video about the
The town of Pringle (10 minutes      Wind Cave National Park on the
                                                                         or both, it is easy to discover        cave, the prairie, and the park is
west) has gasoline and limited       north, has campgrounds, restau-
                                                                         more about the park by explor-         shown in our auditorium.
food services. For information       rants, motels, and some grocery
                                                                         ing the exhibit rooms. The                Stop in the visitor center for
regarding services in Hot            services. Information about
                                                                         upper exhibit room has displays        cave tours, maps, exhibits, book
Springs, call 605-745-4140 or        Custer State Park is available by
                                                                         ranging from how the Plains            sales, backcountry permits, and
800-325-6991. In Custer, call        calling 605-255-4515. For infor-
                                                                         Indians used the bison to how          Golden Age and Golden Access
605-673-2244 or out of state call    mation about state park lodging,
                                                                         the park manages the prairie.          Passports, or National Parks
800-992-9818.                        please call 800-658-3530.
                                                                         The cave exhibit room explains         Passes.

    W    ind Cave National Park
         and the rest of the
southern Black Hills are much
                                     pared for them. Large hail is
                                     common and the storms can
                                     produce severe lightening. Slow
warmer and drier than the            moving storms can dump great
northern hills. Winter snowfall      amounts of rain over a small
averages 30 inches annually. The     area. The steep canyons, rock
spring and fall can be warm and      cliffs, and small creeks of the
sunny, or rainy and snowy with a     Black Hills are prone to flash
chilly wind. Summer brings           flooding. Be cautious when
warm daytime temperatures            camping near a creek bed even if
with cool evenings.                  it is dry.                          THE CAVE
   Severe thunderstorms are              For current forecasts and
common in June and July and
occasionally in August.
                                     warnings, listen to NOAA
                                     Weather Radio on 162.425 MHz          W       ind Cave is quite differ-
                                                                                   ent from other caves.
                                                                         Instead of stalactites and stalag-
                                                                                                                filled the cracks were revealed.
                                                                                                                    Wind Cave is also known for
                                                                                                                the maze-like configuration of
Thunderstorms can be danger-         in the southern Black Hills or
ous and visitors should be pre-      162.550 MHz in Rapid City.          mites, the cave is decorated with      its passageways. Few caves are
                                                                         boxwork. Boxwork is a crys-            longer or more complex. All of
                                                                         talline formation that probably        the known cave passageways lie
                                                                         predates the cave. We believe          beneath a land area of about
                                                                         that it formed in tiny cracks          one-square mile.
                                                                         within the limestone. Later,               To see the cave, stop at the
                                                                         when the cave formed, the water        visitor center. The newspaper
                                                                         dissolved the limestone and the        has a complete schedule of avail-
                                                                         delicate crystal fins that had         able tours on page 7.
Hiking, Camping, and Backcountry                                                                                                       3


                                                                                                                  Unpaved Road


                                                                                                                   Equals 1 Mile

HIKING TRAILS                                                               CAMPING
                                      CENTENNIAL TRAIL
                                         An excellent example of the           W      ind Cave National Park
                                                                                      maintains a developed
                                                                            campground one-mile north of
                                                                                                                 per night from mid-May to mid-
                                                                                                                 September. From April to mid-
                                                                                                                 May and mid-September to late
                                      diversity of the park is Wind
                                      Cave's six-mile section of the        the visitor center. The camp-        October facilities at the camp-
                                      Centennial Trail. This trail cross-   ground is open from the first        ground are reduced. The fee is
                                      es the prairie, climbs the forested   Monday in April until the last       $5.00 per night during these
                                      ridges, and explores the wetter,      Monday in October. The camp-         times. Visitors holding a Golden
                                      riparian habitat of Beaver Creek.     ground rarely fills to capacity.     Age or Golden Access Passport
                                      The 110-mile Centennial Trail            Occupancy is on a first-come,     pay a half price fee. The camp-
                                      meanders from Wind Cave               first-served basis. Each site        ground is closed from late
                                      National Park north through the       accommodates up to eight peo-        October until the first Monday in

  W       ind Cave National Park
          includes 28,295 acres of
prairie grasslands and ponderosa
                                      Black Hills.
                                      NATURE TRAILS
                                                                            ple. There are two sites accessi-
                                                                            ble for campers with disabilities.
                                                                                                                 April. For more information call
                                                                            Restrooms have cold water and           Group camping is available by
pine forest. The park is a fasci-        There are three nature trails in   flush toilets, but no showers or     reservation. Contact the park at
nating combination of ecosys-         the park. The Rankin Ridge            dump stations.                       605-745-4600 for group camping
tems where eastern habitats meet      Nature Trail leads to the highest        The fee for camping is $10.00     reservations or information.
western ones. They support a          point in the park, where the
diverse assortment of life.
Hiking any of the 30 miles of
                                      views are spectacular. The Elk
                                      Mountain Nature Trail explores
                                                                            BACKCOUNTRY CAMPING
trails can help visitors better       an ecotone, or meeting zone,
understand the park. You may
want to leave the trails and travel
                                      where the grassland and forest
                                      converge. The Prairie Vista
                                                                               T    he backcountry of Wind
                                                                                    Cave National Park offers
                                                                            visitors an excellent opportunity
                                                                                                                 several different habitats - prairie,
                                                                                                                 forest, and riparian - with a vari-
                                                                                                                 ety of plants and animals living
cross-country along the ridges,       Nature Trail starts at the visitor    to experience and enjoy the          there.
through the canyons, or across        center and explores the prairie       abundant resources of the park.         Permits are required and are
the rolling prairie. A topographic    grasslands. Booklets are available    Backcountry camping is permit-       free. They can be obtained at the
map is recommended and can be         at the trailheads. The trails are     ted in the northwestern part of      visitor center or at either of the
purchased at the visitor center.      about one mile in length.             the park. Within this area are       Centennial Trailheads.

                                        PROTECTING PARK RESOURCES
  P    ark resources are for everyone to enjoy.
       Antlers, bones, rocks, and plants are
part of the ecosystem and important for the
                                                   need to survive the winter.
                                                      When driving park roads please obey all
                                                   speed limits. They are designed to protect
                                                                                                     unsightly and
                                                                                                     spoils the
                                                                                                     park experi-
survival of some animals. Please do not col-       you and the wildlife.                             ence for
lect or remove anything from the park.                Be aware that rattlesnakes are sometimes       everyone.
   Please do not feed the wildlife. When you       found in dog towns and in rocky areas of the         Animals
feed animals they become attracted to high-        park. Bison also frequent dog towns. They         in the park are
ways where they can be struck by passing           can run 35 mph and may weigh a ton! Do not        wild and unpre-
vehicles. They also may become dependent           approach them or any wildlife.                    dictable. Respect them
on handouts and fail to store fat reserves they       Do not leave traces of your visit. Litter is   and give them plenty of space.
 Deep, Dark, and Mysterious                                                                                                                4
                                                                             reach of most individuals.
                                                                                What causes these otherwise
                                                                             normal people to crawl around in
                                                                             the dank and dark bowels of the
                                                                             earth? Is it beauty they seek or
                                                                             the physical challenge? Certainly,
                                                                             the lure of the unknown compels
                                                                             many cavers. When further
                                                                             pressed as to what motivated
                                                                             him, Mallory responded, "What
                                                                             we get from this adventure, is just     flowers, popcorn, and other fea-
                                                                             sheer joy. And joy is, after all, the   tures are extremely delicate and
                                                                             end of life."                           may never form again. The lead-
  C       rawling through tight pas-
          sages and climbing high
chimneys, Alvin McDonald
                                       they're called cavers. They are
                                       people who enjoy climbing high
                                       chimneys, slithering through
                                                                             “What we get from this
                                                                                                                     ers of Wind Cave expeditions are
                                                                                                                     highly experienced cavers certi-
explored Wind Cave using only a        tight passages, and learning about    adventure, is just sheer                fied by the National Park Service.
                                                                                                                     They have proven that they care
candle for light and string to         caves as a hobby. There are per-      joy.”          George Mallory
                                                                                                                     about caves and are proficient in
mark his trail. McDonald was           haps ten thousand such people in
                                                                                                                     the exploration of them.
one of the first explorers of Wind     this country. Scientists who              For the cavers who wish to "go         Most cavers gain experience
Cave. As he explored, he record-       study caves are speleologists, and    where no person has ever gone           through the National
ed his underground adventures          their numbers are very few.           before," Wind Cave does not dis-        Speleological Society (NSS), an
in his diary. From this informa-       Many cavers and speleologists         appoint. Once a month, cavers           organization dedicated to the
tion, we believe he discovered         volunteer their time to assist the    gather at the park to continue the      study and conservation of caves.
about eight miles of subterranean                                            exploration. Their activities are       The Society has chapters in
passages. January 23, 1891, he                                               coordinated by the park’s cave          major cities and towns located in
wrote that he had given up the                                               management staff. These cavers          prime caving areas. If you think
idea of ever finding the end of                                              receive a list of 'leads' - which       that you might be interested in
Wind Cave. Today, we have sur-                                               means a hole or passage that            caving, the Society is a good
veyed more than 100 miles of                                                 needs to be 'pushed' or explored.       place to start. You can find infor-
cave and McDonald's challenge                                                If the lead 'goes,' the resulting       mation about the NSS at
is still a hopeless endeavor.                                                passage is mapped and invento- Another option
“Have given up the idea                                                                                              would be to try one of the wild
                                                                                                                     cave tours offered at most
of finding the end of Wind                                                                                           National Park Service cave sites.
Cave.”      Alvin McDonald, 1891       National Park Service in explor-
                                                                                                                        Caving is definitely not for
                                       ing and studying Wind Cave.
                                                                                                                     everyone. It is an acquired taste.
                                           The 'why' part of the question
                                                                                                                     Those who are even slightly
   Exploring and mapping the           is harder to answer. To quote
                                                                                                                     claustrophobic know to look
cave is an ongoing process. With       Jules Verne, in Journey to the
                                                                                                                     elsewhere for amusement. Those
more than one hundred miles of         Center of the Earth “There is
                                                                                                                     who don't like to get dirty need
passageways documented in this         nothing more powerful that this
                                                                                                                     not apply; anyone who detests
multi-level labyrinth, indications     attraction toward an abyss.”
                                                                                                                     physical exertion should steer
are that we have done little more         Mountain climber George
                                                                                                                     clear. When considering cave
than scratch the surface, or sub-      Mallory, when asked why he
                                                                                                                     exploration, keep in mind the
surface, that is. To determine         wanted to climb Mount Everest,           The park requires that cavers        words of Herb Conn, a Jewel
how much cave we might eventu-         replied, "Because it is there."       map and inventory passages as           Cave explorer:
ally find, cave specialists have       This reasoning does not seem to       they are explored. The explorers
compared the volume of air mov-        be applicable to cave exploration.    spend very long days pushing
ing through the openings of the                                              and mapping. On a good day,
cave to the volume of the rooms        “There is nothing more                they may find a thousand feet of
and passages discovered thus far.      powerful than this attrac-            cave - on a not so good day,             You have to be a little
These studies indicate that only a     tion toward an abyss.”                much less.
fraction of the cave has been                                                   Why does the park permit
                                                              Jules Verne
found.                                                                       exploration of the cave? We              To seek adventure in a
   Who are the people that ven-           A mountain stands in the open      must know where the cave pas-                     cave.
ture beyond the lighted walkways       for all to see. The route to the      sages are in order to insure pro-
and into the unrelenting dark-         summit can be scrutinized. The        tection. Some human activities
                                                                                                                     But if you find you like it,
ness of the cave, and why do they      only evidence of a cave's exis-       on the surface can alter the flow                 chum,
do such a thing? The first part of     tence is a hole in the ground - the   of water and damage cave                 You have to be a little
the question is easy to answer;        cave's entrance. The entrance         resources.
                                       usually gives no indication as to        It is also important that people
                                       what the interior of the cave will    visiting or exploring the cave
                                       be like. The only way to find out     cause no damage. Boxwork,
                                       what's down there is to start         frostwork, helictites, gypsum
                                          Colorado caver Donald G.
                                       Davis once observed that
                                       "Caving is the only endeavor
                                       where a person of modest means
                                       can actually explore the
                                       unknown." A person can start
                                       caving with about a hundred dol-
                                       lars' worth of equipment. The
                                       kind of money required for the
                                       exploration of our other fron-
                                       tiers, the deepest oceans or vast
                                       reaches of space, is beyond the
Wild at Wind Cave National Park                                                                                                          5
                                                                                                                   to less than 30 and we believe
                                                                                                                   there may be too few for a
                                                                                                                   healthy viable population. South
                                                                                                                   Dakota State University
                                                                                                                   researchers are exploring the rea-
                                                                                                                   sons for their decline. To help
                                                                                                                   find the answers, eight prong-
                                                                                                                   horn were fitted with radio col-
                                                                                                                   lars last winter so researchers can
                                                                           Keeping them in enclosures was          track and study them.
                                                                           like serving them up as a meal.
                                                                              Chambers summarized his              LOOKING TO THE FUTURE
  I   magine heading west on a
      wagon trail and crossing 900
miles of prairie. Feel the wind in
                                      serve included some park land.
                                         The reintroduction of the
                                      wildlife began the following year
                                                                           experience saying, "The propa-
                                                                           gation of the (pronghorn) ante-
                                                                                                                      Over the years, each manager
                                                                                                                   did the best he or she could with
your face, smell the grasses, hear    when fourteen bison were             lope is difficult …the only way         the information available. When
the haunting bugle of elk, and        shipped to the park from the         this can be accomplished is by          A.P. Chambers started raising
behold the bison.                     New York Zoological Society.         setting aside large tracts of land...   pronghorn, nothing like it had
   These views, smells, and nois-                                          They will not thrive in confine-        ever been done. The experience
es welcome visitors today as they                                          ment."
                                      PROTECTING PRONGHORN                                                         he gained helped future mangers.
drive through Wind Cave                                                                                               Other ideas about park man-
National Park. However, when             In 1914, twenty-one elk arrived   “Pronghorn... will not                  agement have also changed. Fire
Wind Cave was established as the      from Yellowstone National Park       survive in confinement.”                was thought to be the park's
seventh national park in 1903,        and fourteen pronghorn came                                                  worst enemy; predators were
                                                                                                 A.P. Chambers
there were no bison, elk, or          from Alberta, Canada. The elk                                                persecuted. As times change and
pronghorn roaming the plains;         and bison thrived. The prong-           In 1935, when the game pre-          knowledge is gained, ideas
they had been hunted to near          horn did not. A.P. Chambers, the     serve became part of Wind Cave          evolve. Today we use fire as a
extinction in the late 1800's.        first warden of the game pre-        National Park, the Civilian             tool and coyotes, bobcats, and
What happened to change that?         serve, fed the captive pronghorn     Conservation Corps tore down            even mountain lions have as
   The return of the wildlife to      ground corn and alfalfa. The         the interior fences creating a          important a role as bison, elk,
Wind Cave National Park mirrors       food disagreed with them; that       large range for all the animals.        and pronghorn.
the many changes our country          winter three died of indigestion     Additional land was acquired in            Who knows what bit of
has gone through. As our ideas        and the rest were eating each        the 1940's and by 1960, the park        knowledge may cause ideas to
of what is important change, the      other's hair!                        was more than 28,000 acres and          change? There is always room
emphasis of our national parks                                             300 pronghorn lived here.               for new ideas. Wind Cave
also changes.                                                                                                      National Park has been managed
   When Wind Cave was estab-                                               CHANGING IDEAS                          for almost 100 years. Thriving
lished as a park, all the emphasis                                                                                 prairie plant and animal commu-
                                                                              Beginning in the 1950's, the
was on the cave. Its under-                                                                                        nities are preserved and protect-
                                                                           emphasis of the National Park
ground scenery rivaled that of                                                                                     ed. Bison and pronghorn roam
                                                                           Service changed from simply
surface wonders like Mt. Rainier.                                                                                  freely. Parks are the special
                                                                           protecting game animals and
At that time the reason for creat-                                                                                 places where ideas evolve, impor-
                                                                           scenery to understanding the ani-
ing national parks wasn’t to pro-                                                                                  tant concepts are developed, and
                                                                           mals and the ecosystems sup-
tect ecosystems. The 11,000 acres                                                                                  we can all enjoy the results.
                                                                           porting them. Learning about
of prairie above the cave was the
                                          Chambers also had trouble        their habits and habitat is impor-
domain of ranchers and farmers.
                                      from predators. In 1918, two coy-    tant in protecting any animal.
                                      otes became such nuisances that      The pronghorn survive best
CREATING A GAME                       a federal trapper was brought in.    when they have lots of space.
PRESERVE                              It took him 5 weeks to catch the     They prefer to eat broad-
                                      coyotes. In the meantime, they       leafed plants called forbs.
                         At the
                                      killed 13 more pronghorn!            Park managers began to look
                      beginning of
                                      During the winter of 1922, bob-      at the importance of main-
                      the twentieth
                                      cats or coyotes killed twenty        taining native prairie plants
                      century, the
                                      more. By 1924, the herd was          needed to support the ani-
                      debate over
                                      down to six does.                    mals.
                      the demise
                                          You can imagine the anti-           Today the pronghorn is
                      of the bison
                                      predator sentiment at this time.     again a species of concern.
                      raged across
                                      So much effort was put into these    Their numbers have dropped
                      our nation.
                      Why were        animals only for them to become
                      these majes-    dinner for predators. Between               BRINGING THE BISON TO WIND CAVE
tic animals being killed and what     1912 and 1921, trappers killed 598
were we willing to do about it?
   The newly created American
                                      predators. They did not discrim-
                                      inate. Not only were bobcats and
                                      coyotes destroyed, but porcu-
                                                                              F    red Dille, of the U.S.
                                                                                   Biological Survey, was in
                                                                           charge of getting the bison from
                                                                                                                   There was only one problem. The
                                                                                                                   bison had no idea how to back out
                                                                                                                   of a crate! This frustrating experi-
Bison Society wanted to reestab-
lish herds of bison throughout        pines, raccoons, skunks, magpies,    the New York city Zoo to their          ence is summarized in the words
the country. Wind Cave National       and even black-footed ferrets        new home at Wind Cave. They             of Dille, "To suggest to a buffalo
Park was a perfect place for that.    were targeted.                       put the bison in special crates and     that he must back out of the crate
Within the park's mixture of              Eventually, Chambers realized    loaded them onto an express train.      by poking him in the head, will
wide-open prairie and small-          that the problem was not totally        The 2000-mile journey took 2         work with an elk but not a bison.
forested areas, a variety of habi-    the fault of predators. Pronghorn    1/2 days. When the train reached        Your actions are but a challenge to
tats exist. In 1912, Congress         are the fastest North American       Hot Springs, every available truck      him and he does not propose to
established the 4,000-acre Wind       land mammal and they need            and cart was pressed into service       give ground." The final operation
Cave Game Preserve. This pre-         space to escape predators.           to get the animals the remaining        was more like removing the crates
                                                                           eleven miles to the preserve. This      from the animals than the animals
                                                                           journey alone took ten hours!           from the crate. At last, however,
"To suggest to a buffalo that he must back out of the                         By the time the bison reached        the bison were released and they
crate by poking him in the head... a challenge to him                      the preserve, quite a crowd had         wandered off into the sunset to
and he does not propose to give ground.” Fred Dille, 1913                  gathered to see them released.          begin their new life on the prairie.
Ranger Programs                                                                                                                         6
EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES                                                    WALKS AND TALKS
                                          This year, students will be        DISCOVERY ACTIVITY
W      ind Cave offers a variety of
       wonderful opportunities to
learn about the natural resources
                                       able to photograph their activities
                                       in the park. These photos will be
                                                                                Daily, during the summer,
                                                                             ranger talks or demonstrations
of the park. Ranger guided hikes,      transfered to a CD that the chil-     take place at the visitor center.
cave tours, or campfire pro-           dren can take home. This way          These programs explain some
grams provide interesting infor-       the students can share their          facet of the park. Topics may         advised. Check at the visitor
mation about many different            experiences with their families.      include local wildlife, plants,       center for details.
aspects of the park. Exploring         This program was made possible        geology, area history, and cave
                                       in part by a grant from the           surveying. Check at the visitor       CAMPFIRE PROGRAM
the visitor center, participating in
                                       National Park Foundation              center for meeting place and             Become better acquainted
the Junior Ranger Program, or
                                       through the generous support of       topic.                                with Wind Cave National Park.
hiking park trails are also great
                                       Kodak, a Proud Partner of                                                   Evening campfire talks are pre-
ways to discover what is special
                                                                             PRAIRIE HIKE                          sented nightly during the sum-
about this national park.              America’s National Parks.
                                                                                Explore the park's habitats        mer at the Elk Mountain
   Teachers wanting an opportu-            The park also has a teaching
                                                                             with a ranger. This 2-hour activi-    Campground amphitheater.
nity for their students can partici-   trunk and a website titled Water
                                                                             ty begins at the visitor center.      Topics may include wildlife,
pat in the park’s Connections pro-     in the Environment. The envi-
                                                                             The group will then drive to a        plants, geology, park manage-
gram. This Parks as Classroom          ronmental education programs
                                                                             nearby trailhead. Hiking boots        ment, and history. The programs
program allows students to             and the trunk are free. For more
                                                                             or sturdy shoes and water are         last about 45 minutes.
explore the park with a ranger.        information call the park at 605-
The program is offered in May.         745-4600.
                                                                             JUNIOR RANGERS
                                                                               T     he Junior Ranger Program
                                                                                     is an exciting opportunity
                                                                             for children and their families to
                                                                             learn about the park. Becoming a
                                                                             Junior Ranger helps youngsters
                                                                             understand the park's ecosys-
                                                                             tems, the cave, and the animals.
                                                                             It also helps them learn how they
                                                                             can help protect all parts of our
                                                                             environment. Junior Ranger
                                                                             booklets are available for $1.00 at
                                                                             the bookstore. There are activi-
                                                                             ties for children up to age 12.       be taking photographs of the
                                                                                 This year through a special       accomplishments of our Junior
LEARNING ABOUT THE CAVE                                                      grant made possible in part by        Rangers. These youngsters will
                                                                             the National Park Foundation          then be able to share their pic-
CAVE TOUR INFORMATION                  NATURAL                               and the generous support of           tures and their adventures with
   All tours are ranger guided         ENTRANCE TOUR                         Kodak, a Proud Partner of             their families and friends.
and leave from the visitor center.        This tour                          America’s National Parks, we will
Tickets are sold on a first-come,      includes a visit
first-served basis at the park visi-   to the natural
tor center. Tickets must be pur-       entrance of                           SPECIALTY TOURS
chased at least five minutes           Wind Cave
before tour times. The cave tem-                                             CANDLELIGHT TOUR                      the tour.
                                       where visitors can see where the
perature is 53°F (11°C) year                                                    Experience the cave by can-        Clothing worn
                                       cave was discovered and learn
round. A jacket or sweater and                                               dlelight. This tour takes place in    on the Jewel
                                       how it got its name. Participants
good walking shoes are recom-                                                a less developed, unlighted part      Cave Wild Cave
                                       enter the cave through a man-
mended.                                                                      of the cave. Each participant will    Tour are not per-
                                       made entrance and journey
                                                                             carry a candle bucket. Shoes          mitted in Wind
                                       through the middle level of the
GARDEN OF EDEN TOUR                                                          with non-slip soles are required.     Cave. This tour
                                       cave. Wind Cave's famous box-
   This 1-hour tour is our least                                             No sandals! This tour is limited      is limited to 10 people and the
                                       work is abundant throughout this
strenuous tour. It is a wonderful                                            to 10 people and the minimum          minimum age is 16. We require a
                                       trip. Most of the 300 stairs along
sample of Wind Cave. Small                                                   age is 8. This more strenuous         signed consent form for partici-
                                       this route are down. This moder-
amounts of all of the beautiful                                              tour covers 1 mile of rugged trail    pants 17 years and under.
                                       ately strenuous tour lasts 1¼-hour
cave formations - boxwork, pop-                                              and lasts 2 hours. Reservations       Reservations are required for this
                                       and exits the cave by elevator.
corn, and flowstone - are seen                                               are strongly recommended. We          tour. We begin taking reserva-
along the ¼-mile trail. The tour is                                          begin taking reservations one         tions one month before the tour.
designed for people with limited       FAIRGROUNDS TOUR                      month before the tour. Please         Please call the park (605) 745-
time or abilities. It enters and           This 1½-hour tour explores        call the park (605) 745-4600 for      4600 for more information.
exits the cave by elevator and has     both the upper and middle levels      more information.
150 stairs.                                                                                                        TOURS FOR VISITORS WITH
                                       of Wind Cave. Boxwork is abun-
                                                                             WILD CAVE TOUR                        SPECIAL NEEDS
                                       dant along the trail in the middle
                                                                                Explore the cave away from            The visitor center and the cave
                                       level of the cave. In the upper
                                                                             the developed trails. On this 4-      are accessible to people with lim-
                                       level of the cave, the trail winds
                                                                             hour tour visitors will be intro-     ited mobility. Please call ahead to
                                       through the larger rooms where
                                                                             duced to basic, safe caving. Wear     make special arrangements or ask
                                       nice samples of popcorn and
                                                                             old clothes and gloves, as much       at the information desk for a spe-
                                       frostwork can be seen. This is
                                                                             of the trip will include crawling.    cial tour. Limited areas of the
                                       our most strenuous walking tour.
                                                                             Long pants, long sleeved shirts,      cave are accessible to wheel-
                                       The tour enters and exits the
                                                                             and sturdy, lace up boots or          chairs. There are fees charged for
                                       cave by elevator and there are 450
                                                                             shoes with non-slip soles are         these services. Please call the
                                       stairs along the route with one
                                                                             required. The park provides           park (605) 745-4600 for more
                                       flight of 90 steps up.
                                                                             hard hats, lights, and kneepads.      information. The park has a TTY
                                                                             Please do not bring jewelry,          for the hearing impaired.
                                                                             watches, or other valuables on
Program and Tour Information                                                                                                          7
CAVE SAFETY INFORMATION                                                     PROGRAM SCHEDULES
  A     ll tours are ranger-guided
        and leave from the visitor
center. Tickets are sold on a
                                                                            January 2002 - April 6, 2002
                                                                            Visitor Center Open daily 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.
                                                                            Garden of Eden Tour 10:00, 1:00, and 3:00
first-come, first-served basis,
except for the Candlelight and
                                                                            April 7 - May 4, 2002
Wild Cave Tours. During peak
                                                                            Visitor Center Open daily 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
summer visitation, long waits for
                                                                            Garden of Eden Tour 9:30, 11:30, 1:30, and 3:30
tours may be encountered. To
avoid waits, the best time to visit
                                                                            May 5 - 24, 2002
the cave is during the early hours
                                                                            Visitor Center 8:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m.
of the day. During the summer,
                                                                            Natural Entrance Tour 9:00, 10:30, 12:30, 1:30, 2:30, 3:30, and 4:30
weekends are good times to visit;
Tuesdays and Wednesdays are
                                                                            May 25 - 27, 2002, Memorial Day Weekend
the busiest days. Reservations
                                                                            Visitor Center 8:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m.
for organized groups are avail-
                                                                            Garden of Eden Tour 11:00, 1:00, 3:00, and 5:00
able. For more information             drinking, chewing tobacco or
                                                                            Natural Entrance Tour 8:40, 9:20, 10:30, 11:30, 12:30, 1:30, 2:30, 3:30,
please call (605) 745-4600.            gum while in the cave. Please do
                                                                            and 4:30
   A light jacket or sweater is rec-   not step off the trail.
                                                                            Fairgrounds Tour 10:00, 12:00, 2:00, and 4:00
ommended for all cave tours, as        Photography is permitted, but
                                                                            Campfire Program 8:30 p.m. Saturday and Sunday
Wind Cave is 53°F (11°C)               please no tripods. Pets are not
throughout the year. Wear low-         allowed in the cave. There are no
                                                                            May 28 - June 1, 2002
heeled shoes with non-slip soles.      restrooms in the cave.
                                                                            Visitor Center 8:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m.
Cave trails are dimly lighted and         Cave tours are moderately
                                                                            Garden of Eden Tour 12:30, 1:30, 2:30, and 3:30
trail surfaces may be uneven, wet,     strenuous. Persons with claus-
                                                                            Natural Entrance Tour 9:00, 10:00, 11:00, 12:00, 1:00, 2:00, 3:00, 4:00,
and slippery. Do not wear san-         trophobia, heart or respiratory
                                                                            and 5:00
dals. Ceilings along the tour          conditions, or other physical lim-
route are low, requiring some          itations should reconsider. A
                                                                            June 2 - August 17, 2002
bending.                               tour is available, by request, for
                                                                            Visitor Center 8:00 a.m. - 7:00 p.m.
   For the protection of the cave,     visitors with special needs.
                                                                            Garden of Eden Tour 10:40, 12:40, 2:40, 4:40, and 5:30
please do not touch or remove          Please call 605-745-4600 or ask at
                                                                            Natural Entrance Tour 8:40, 9:00, 10:00, 11:00, 12:00, 1:00, 2:00, 3:00,
rocks or formations. No eating,        the information desk.
                                                                            4:00, 5:00, and 6:00.
                                                                            Fairgrounds Tour 9:30, 10:20, 11:40, 12:20, 1:40, 2:20, 3:40, and 4:20
RESERVATIONS                                                                Candlelight Tour 10:30 a.m. and 1:30 p.m.
                                                                            Wild Cave Tour 1:00 p.m.
  M      ost cave tours are first-
         come, first-served, how-
ever reservations are either
                                       Wild Cave Tours. Reservations
                                       may be made by calling the park
                                       at 605-745-4600. We begin tak-
                                                                            Ranger led Hike 9:00 a.m.
                                                                            Campfire Program 9:00 p.m.
strongly recommended or                ing reservations one month           August 18 - September 2, 2002
required for the Candlelight and       before the tour.                     Visitor Center 8:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m.
                                                                            Garden of Eden Tour 10:30, 1:40, 3:40, and 4:30
                                                                            Natural Entrance Tour 9:00, 10:00, 11:00, 12:00, 1:00, 2:00, 3:00, 4:00,
                                                                            and 5:00
                                                                            Fairgrounds Tour 9:30, 11:20, 12:20, 1:20, and 3:20
                                                                            Candlelight Tour 1:30 p.m.
                                                                            Wild Cave Tour 1:00 p.m. Weekends Only Aug. 18, 24, 25, 31 and
                                                                            Sept. 1
                                                                            Campfire Program 8:00 p.m.

                                                                            September 3 - September 21, 2002
                                                                            Visitor Center 8:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m.
                                                                            Natural Entrance Tour 9:00, 10:30, 12:30, 1:30, 2:30, 3:30, and 4:30
                                                                            Evening Program 7:00 p.m. Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday begin-
                                                                            ning September 5.

                                                                            September 22 - October 5, 2002
                                                                            Visitor Center 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.
                                                                            Garden of Eden Tour 9:30, 11:30, 1:30, and 3:30

                                                                            October 6 - Spring 2003
                                                                            Visitor Center 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. except: Thanksgiving
                                                                            and Christmas
                                                                            Garden of Eden Tour 10:00, 1:00, and 3:00
Tickets must be purchased at least 5 minutes before tour time.
                                                                            Tour schedules are subject to change.
              Garden     Natural Fairgrounds Candlelight Wild Cave
              of Eden    Entrance

  Age 17-61      $6.00    $8.00        $8.00      $9.00   ****$20.00
  Golden Age**   $3.00    $4.00        $4.00      $4.50       $10.00
  Age 6-16       $3.00    $4.00        $4.00   ***$4.50    Not Permitted
  Under 6         Free    Free         Free Not Permitted Not Permitted       IN CASE OF AN EMERGENCY:
* Holders of a Golden Access Card receive a 50% discount on tours.            Contact any park ranger or call the visitor
** Person must possess a Golden Age Passport to receive the discount.
*** Minimum age for Candlelight Tour is 8.
                                                                              center at 745-4600. After hours call 911.
****Minimum age for the Wild Cave Tour is 16. The fee is $20.00.
                                                      The Park Bookstore

  T     he Black Hills Parks &
        Forests Association sells
books, maps, and other park
                                       books and materials about these
                                       park and forest areas.
                                          Cooperating associations are
                                                                              educational, interpretive, and
                                                                              research activities of these agen-
                                                                                                                       caiton web site,
                                                                                                                          Membership in the Black Hills
related publications in visitor cen-   non-profit, tax exempt organiza-          Some of the books that can be         Parks and Forests Assocation sup-
ters at Wind Cave National Park,       tions authorized by congress to        purchased in the Wind Cave               ports the organization and enti-
Jewel Cave National Monument,          aid and promote “educational           National Park bookstore are              tles members to a 15% discount
Custer State Park, and the Black       and scientific” activities within      shown below. There are many              on all purchases. The member-
Hills National Forest. The associ-     national parks. As such, all profits   more titles available at the store,      ship is $15.00 per year. For more
aton also publishes interpretive       from association sales support the     by mail order, or from the asso-         information call 605-745-7020.

Wind Cave: An Ancient World                                                                                  Jewel Cave: A Gift From the Past -
Beneath the Hills - In this wonderful,                                                                       Jewel Cave’s geological history is traced
easy to read book, Art Palmer explains                                                                       by Art Palmer in this book about Jewel
the geology of Wind Cave and how it is                                                                       Cave National Monument. As in the
related to the Black Hills. The charts                                                                       Wind Cave book, Palmer uses charts and
and graphs help make the topic easily                                                                        graphs to make the topic easily under-
understood to people unfamiliar with                                                                         stood to people unfamiliar with geologi-
geology. The pictures alone of the                                                                           cal terms and ideas. The color photos
unusual Wind Cave boxwork, make this                                                                         illustrate Jewel Cave well and make this
book well worth the investment. $6.95                                                                        an ideal gift or souvenir.         $6.95

                             Wind Cave, The Story Behind the                  Jewel Cave, The Story Behind the
                             Scenery - If you are interested in learning      Scenery - This book by Karen Rosga is also
                             more about the ecosystems, wildlife, and         part of the Story Behind the Scenery series.
                             history of Wind Cave National Park, this         It is well illustrated and describes the natu-
                             book by Ron Terry is an excellent choice. It     ral, geological, and human history of Jewel
                             contains outstanding photographs and             Cave National Monument. The book con-
                             information about the cave and its unusual       tains remarkable photographs of the cave,
                             boxwork formation. This book goes                its unusual features, and the surrounding
                             beyond the cave, including photos and            landscape. The relationships of the cave,
                             insights about the park’s incredible prairie.    the landscape, and the plants and animals
                             This book is part of a series that explore       are skillfully presented in this interesting
                             the natural, geological, and cultural history    story of Jewel Cave National Monument.
                             of the national parks.                 $7.95     $7.95

Trails Illustrated Map, Black Hills Southeast - If                                                    Hiking South Dakota’s Black Hills Country -
you are interested in hiking in Wind Cave National                                                    This hiking book by Bert and Jane Gildard helps
Park or Custer State Park, this is the trail map to have.                                             visitors explore the hiking trails of the Black
This tear-proof, waterproof map details the hiking                                                    Hills. The book includes nearly all the trails in
trails, campsites, roads, elevations, and many other                                                  the area from Wind Cave, north to Devils
standard features of a topographic map. Wind Cave                                                     Tower, and east to the Badlands. Detailed
National Park is illustrated on one side and Custer                                                   descriptions and maps help hikers get to the
State Park and the Black Elk Wilderness are on the                                                    trailheads and describe what to expect on the
other side. The map is part of a series of National                                                   trails. The guide also includes tips on safety, ele-
Geographic Trails Illustrated Maps.                $9.95                                              vation charts, and tips about hiking with chil-
                                                                                                      dren.                                       $14.95

       Name                                                                   Mail to:      Black Hills Parks & Forests Association
       Address                                                                              RR 1 Box 190
       Phone                                                                                Hot Springs, SD 57747
       Quantity                              Title                 Price             I have enclosed my check payable to:
                                                                                     Black Hills Parks & Forests Assn.
                                                                                     I would like to charge the order to my:
                                                                                     ___Visa ___ Discover ___ Mastercard

                                       Member Discount
                                                                                                           Expiration Date
                                       SD orders add 5%
                                                                                                                    Postage and Handling Charges (Valid in U.S. only)
                                           Membership                                                               Up to $3.00                 $2.50
                                                                                                                    $3.01 to $10.00             $3.00
                                                   Total                                                            $10.01 to $25.00            $4.00
                                                                                                                    $25.01 to $50.00            $5.00
                                                                                                                    $50.01 to $75.00            $5.75
                                                                                                                    Over $75.00                 $7.25
                                                                                                                    Mail tube (cave maps)       $3.50