rsc_brochure_20100910 by pengtt


									Global Broadcasting
September 2010

Message from the Chairman                                   2
Introduction                                                3
Coverage Maps                                               5
Countries Information                                       7
Other countries using DAB, DAB+ and DMB                    29
Potential building blocks for legislators and regulators   35
Product Overview                                           37

Message from the Chairman
The world of digital radio broadcasting is evolving. Digital radio has always offered the listener increased choice; now
it also provides interactivity, data, images and exciting multimedia content. The Eureka 147 family of standards, DAB,
DAB+ and DMB, is the only truly multimedia digital broadcasting standard to deliver both digital radio and mobile TV.
In many parts of the world where the availability of spectrum is an issue, Eureka 147 technology solves the problem
by providing a wealth of content on just one frequency. This has made it a popular choice of technology in Europe,
South East Asia and Australasia.

Governments, regulators, broadcasters and manufacturers understand that today's listener is looking for more than
just the classic radio experience and DAB and DAB+ are able to deliver this. Each market is different with specific
needs, but Eureka 147 is adaptable and can support this diversity. Some countries, such as the UK, Denmark and
Norway use DAB. Australia and Malta have successfully launched DAB+. The French have opted for DMB Audio. Other
countries, like Switzerland, have a combination of DAB and DAB+ services on air. And yet other countries have left
the choice of DAB, DAB+ or DMB open to broadcasters.

This diversity is supported by the availability of a wide selection of products around the world including basic radios,
high end audio systems, in-car devices, mobile phones, PMPs and much more. Multi-standard chips are being
developed that will allow devices to work anywhere, irrespective of whether a broadcast is in DAB, DAB+ or DMB.
This is especially important for areas like Europe with its highly transient population and large radio markets.
WorldDMB has been working closely with European broadcasters and manufacturing groups to make certain that
multi-standard receivers are available across Europe, thus ensuring economies of scale in evolving sectors such as
the car market. New applications such as data services, the use of WiFi and bluetooth, slideshow and interactivity
all present the industry with opportunities to deepen the listener/station connection, grow brand loyalty and increase

This Global Update gives the latest information on DAB, DAB+ and DMB from around the world. It shows which
countries currently have commercial digital radio and mobile TV services in operation and gives information on
markets which are currently testing or trialling the standard with a view to rolling out. Within this analysis there is
information on regulation, services on-air, population coverage, receiver penetration, devices currently available and
other general information. This Update is accessible to decision makers and the digital radio industry and gives a clear
overview of the success of DAB/DAB+ digital radio and DMB mobile TV.

The information contained in this document can be found on the WorldDMB website which is updated on a regular
basis. Further information on standards, industry news, events and details on membership of WorldDMB can also
be found on the website

Chairman of the Regulatory Spectrum Committee

What is WorldDMB?

The WorldDMB Forum is responsible for defining the standards of the Eureka-147 family which includes DAB and
DAB+ for digital radio and DMB for radio and mobile TV.

Based in Geneva and headquartered in London, WorldDMB aims to promote the awareness, adoption and
implementation of the Eureka 147 family of standards around the world. Working with sound and data broadcasters,
network providers, manufacturers, governments and official bodies, WorldDMB encourages international
co-operation and a smooth, coordinated roll-out of services.

WorldDMB is funded by members from over 80 companies and organisations around the world which have a stake
in seeing digital radio grow to an international mass market medium. They include public and private broadcasters,
receiver and electronic equipment manufacturers, car manufacturers, data providers, transmission providers,
regulators and government bodies.

Why radio needs to be digital

The world of broadcasting is very different today than it was just ten years ago. Digital television, digital phones and
digital radio bring more diversity and communication power than ever before in human history. In the age of Twitter,
social networking, Internet radio, YouTube, iPhone and mobile applications, radio needs to stay relevant. Digital radio
can greatly improve the listener's experience, at the same time delivering added revenue streams, brand extension
and station loyalty to the broadcasters.

What are the Eureka 147 standards?

WorldDMB and its members work together to ensure its family of standards, including DAB, DAB+ and DMB, remain
at the sharp edge of digital audio broadcasting, shaping the future of digital radio and mobile TV around the world.

DAB: When DAB was first developed it was based on MPEG Audio Layer II coding, which was then state of the art
and remains a widely used coding technology in radio today. The original DAB standard is used in the UK, the world's
biggest digital radio market.

DAB+: The digital world is fluid, ever changing, always pushing the boundaries of what it can achieve, and this very
flexibility presents its own challenges. Following MPEG-2 came MPEG-3 and MPEG-4 (AAC). Rising to the challenge,
DAB+ was developed. An advanced version of DAB, DAB+ allows for even more efficiency at lower bitrates lower
per-station transmission costs and offer listeners an even greater choice of services. New receivers, which include
both types of audio codecs, will work in any country. DAB+ is the technology of choice for many countries newly
entering the world of digital radio. DAB+ is used in Australia, Singapore and Malta, and many other countries are
making the transition from DAB to DAB+ services.

DMB: Another important innovation is the addition of video/multimedia capabilities to allow DAB to become a digital
mobile television platform as well as a multimedia digital radio platform. While handheld devices are proving to be
an attractive market for mobile telecom operators, the cost of using 3G networks to deliver video streaming to
mobiles is prohibitive. A broadcast technology is far more cost effectrive and DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting)
fulfils this advancement. The range of products receiving video and multimedia services via DMB such as mobile
phones, PC, in-car, PDA-like devices is now well over 150 with many manufacturers producing cutting-edge designs
at affordable prices. DMB is the technology of choice in France, and trials are currently running in many other countries
across Europe.

All three technologies, DAB, DAB+ and DMB, can be used alongside each other on the same multiplex, using the
same infrastructure, resulting in a wide range of possible multiplex scenarios.

Where is the technology broadcasting

More than half a billion people around the world can receive DAB services from over 1,000 radio stations. Regular
services using one or more of the Eureka 147 standards are available across Europe, the Far East and Australia. Trials
continue in countries as diverse as Israel, South Africa, Ghana, Lithuania, Kuwait and Sweden. Every year, more and
more countries are bringing listeners the added choice, clarity and data services digital radio provides.

Common Regulation: The digitalisation of radio and multimedia services continues to progress rapidly across the
world. Over 500 million people can now receive more than 1,000 DAB based multimedia services and these numbers
are increasing rapidly as more licences are awarded and more countries adopt the Eureka 147 Family of Standards.
Outside Europe, the key areas of development are seen in China, Korea and the majority of the Asia Pacific Region,
including Australia.

New media tends to progress rapidly while governments traditionally move more slowly. This means that in many
cases regulation has not yet caught up with the technology. Thus, where DAB based services have been introduced,
existing radio broadcasting legislation and regulation has been generally applied whilst further consideration is given
to what regulation will best allow these services to achieve their full potential.

It is impossible and potentially dangerous to attempt to impose common regulation, or to suggest that one country's
regulatory regime would work in any other. However, it does make sense that within any collection of separate
regulatory regimes there should be some common threads. This publication attempts to identify those common
threads, and to illustrate the "best practice" experiences of countries with an established DAB based network. We
will also look at how countries without specific DAB based legislation can still roll out services. And, finally, we look
at countries taking their first steps into DAB Digital Radio and DMB Multimedia broadcasting.

The Regional Radio Conference in Geneva in 2006 paved the way for the structured development of terrestrial
broadcasting towards an all-digital future. Frequency plans that allow full exploitation of the benefits of digital
transmission were established for T-DAB and DVB-T in Band III and DVB-T in Bands IV and V with a transition period
from 2006 to 2015.

The digital dividend is currently influencing countries thoughts on the future use of spectrum. The Geneva 2006
(GE06) conference specified that each country should establish the scale of its own digital dividend. The digital
dividend is; the spectrum made available over and above that required to accommodate the existing analogue
television services in a digital form, in VHF (Band III: 174-230 MHz) and UHF bands (bands IV and V: 470-862 MHz).
The 'Envelope' concept, identified and evolved during GE06, has been widely accepted and facilitates the introduction
and harmonisation of alternative technologies without destabilising the GE06 agreement and frequency plans
adopted by all countries in the area covered by European Conference for Postal & Telecommunications (CEPT). The
European Commission has mandated the CEPT find the best way to explore the digital dividend. Among other things,
the task is to try to find a harmonised frequency in the UHF band for Europe.

                                                                         Countries with DAB and DAB+

                   DAB Launched and   DAB Launched and
    DAB Launched                                         DAB+ Launched
                   DAB+ Trial         DAB+ Launched

                                      DAB Trial and
    DAB Trial      DAB+ Trial                            DMB Audio
                                      DAB+ Trial

                               Countries with DMB

    DMB Launched   DMB Trial

Population: 20.6 million                                                 Coverage:                               60%
Current situation
A year after launching DAB+ services in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide, Commercial Radio Australia
reported more than half-a-million people listening to digital radio in an average week and three times the predicted
number of digital radio sets in the market at nearly 150,000. Each market boasts up to 20 new, digital only stations
on air.
The Australian Government passed legislation on 10th May 2007 to enable the launch of digital radio in Australia. The
legislation enables incumbent commercial, national and wide-coverage community radio broadcasters to provide
digital radio services on DAB+.
While the Australian radio industry has implemented digital radio using the DAB+ standard, this may be supplemented
by the use of DRM in rural and regional areas in the future. The Australian commercial radio industry has pledged to
invest up to $400 million over the coming years to roll out digital radio across the country. To date, broadcasters have
invested more than $50 million dollars on the DAB+ infrastructure and in excess of $24m in on air promotion. Australia
is also working with other Asia Pacific countries to encourage the take up of DAB+.

Australia's DAB+ broadcasts currently cover its major state capital cities with all commercial and national public radio
stations and their associated multi-channels in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth on air.
Coverage is currently at 60% of the population, or around 12 million people.
A DAB+ trial is underway in Canberra where 10 stations are on air. A trial in Darwin launched in August 2010.
Planning is based on achieving robust indoor coverage using VHF Band III spectrum.

Services on Air
In this country there are 9 Regular and 6 Trial Regional multiplexes                Simulcast    Exclusive     Total
on air.
                                                                             DAB       2            14          16
CRA reports 65 stations broadcasting on DAB+ in Australia, with 16
                                                                            DAB+       3            2            5
being DAB+ only. There are currently 14 regional multiplexes and
two trial muxes on air broadcasting nearly 170 services between            Total       5            16          21

them, with each multiplex delivering up to 15 services.
Some stations in Australia are using slideshow and EPG, and all deliver dynamic scrolling text.

Receiver Market
A wide range of DAB+ radios is available in Australia. In 2010 there are
approximately 60 models in the market from 20 different manufacturers. The latest
DAB+ radios include a large colour screen, EPG, Slideshow and interactivity via an
internet connection.

Details of Trials
The first DAB+ trials started in Australia on 1st July 2007. Prior to this, Australian
broadcasters had conducted DAB trials in Sydney on L-band since 1998 and on
VHF Band III since 2003. A single high-powered Band III transmission, and two
L-band cells to the west and north of Sydney, provided around 80% population coverage.
Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney have already launched commercial services. Trials are currently
underway in Canberra and Darwin.
There have, in the past, also been DMB trials in Australia but at the present time there is no clear view on where the
mobile TV market will go.

The Australian Communications and Media Authority is the regulatory and licensing authority. There are currently no
regulations on coverage requirements, but there is a quota for Australian music and video services are prohibited.
Other key points of the digital radio legislation in Australia are that there is no cost for the spectrum for incumbent
commercial broadcasters and no new entrants are allowed for six years from the start date. First right of refusal is
given to commercial radio broadcaster consortiums to operate multiplexes. There is an entitlement to a minimum
of 128kbit/s (1/9 multiplex) and a maximum of 256kbit/s (1/5 multiplex).The legislation covering digital radio requires

a review by 2011 to consider issues such as the availability and price of receivers, the coverage characteristics of
various digital radio technologies and whether any adjustment to the regulatory framework is necessary, including
the specification of subsequent start dates for digital radio in further markets. The Government has indicated that
it will reserve spectrum for digital radio regionally after analogue television switch-off by 2013.

Further information

Population: 10.5 million                                               Coverage:                              100%
Current situation
De Vlaamse Radio - en Televisieomroep (VRT), the public broadcaster in the Flemish community, introduced DAB
in Belgium in 1997. VRT has one multiplex in operation with nine audio programmes (five simulcast and four DAB only).
RTBF, the public broadcaster for the French community, also has a multiplex in operation with six audio programmes
(all simulcasts).
The promotion undertaken by VRT and its development of DAB-only programmes, is helping to increase DAB
household penetration. A major increase is expected when commercial DAB stations start broadcasting. There is
space reserved on the RTBF multiplex for commercial broadcasters. In Flanders where there are more programmes
they plan to launch a new multiplex. DAB is on-air but no information is available on numbers of receivers sold.

Both in the Flemish and the French region, DAB
coverage reaches 100% of the population. Also,
all motorways and main roads are covered.

Services on Air
In this country there are 1 Regular and 1 Trial
Regional multiplexes on air.
- Flemish-speaking part of the country: nine
audio programmes (four of which DAB only) by
the public broadcaster VRT
- French-speaking part of the country: six audio
programmes (simulcast) by the public
broadcaster RTBF
         Simulcast    Exclusive    Total

  DAB       11           4           15

Receiver Market
The availability of DAB receivers in Belgium
continues to grow with a range of devices now
on the market, including kitchen radios, handheld and tuners. As more DAB services launch, with marketing
campaigns to support them, sales are expected to grow significantly.

Broadcasting legislation in Belgium differs between the Flemish, French and German speaking communities. Licences
will be granted to programme providers only in the French community, licences in the Flemish community will, most
likely, be granted to the multiplex operator and may have restrictions. Simulcasting is permitted within both French
and Flemish communities and there are no specific rules or conditions governing this. There is also no legislation
governing advertising, sponsorship and marketing on DAB digital radio broadcasting. No information is available on
plans for FM switch off or over at the present time.

Further information

Population: 33.2 million                                                Coverage:                              30%
Current situation
DAB services have been on air in Canada's major cities - Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ontario and Ottawa for
around 10 years with coverage reaching about 35% of the population.
While the rest of the world has embraced DAB or DAB+ using Band III, Canada's digital output is restricted to L-Band.
This has resulted in a lack of receivers in the market, high prices and slow consumer uptake. Combined with the fact
that the US, Canada's powerful neighbour to the south, has opted for a different system of broadcast, this has led
to a complete re-think by the regulator, CRTC, and broadcasters on the future direction of digital broadcasting in
The situation is complicated by the need for spectrum, currently occupied by dormant DAB transmitters, for new
digital TV and broadband roll out.
The CRTC has discarded its 1996 plan for DAB replacement of all AM and FM radio. Instead it proposes keeping these
stations on analogue and using L-Band for new digital multi-media services. However, stakeholders are considering
how L-Band is used in other countries before deciding how to reallocate the spectrum.
As a result, while exisitng DAB multipexes are slowly being dismantled, there is no firm plan for replacing them and
delivering digital radio services to Canada's population of 32 million potential listeners. Canada's broadcasters are
expected to lobby for a portion of the L-Band spectrum to be retained for broadcasting services.

DAB stations operating in the five main cities Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver and Ottawa have provided services to
some 11 million potential listeners or more than 35% of the population. In the short term, these numbers will reduce
as multiplexes are closed and L-Band spectrum is reallocated. Once there is a settled digital broadcasting landscape
in Canada, it is expected that some of the spectrum will be used for a revised digital radio system, possibly using

Services on Air
In this country there are 4 Regular and 12 Trial Regional multiplexes              Simulcast   Exclusive     Total
on air.
                                                                           DAB        45          53          98
There are currently a total of 73 licensed Digital Audio Broadcast
                                                                           Data       0           3            3
DAB stations in Canada.
                                                                          Total       45          56          101
- 15 stations in Ottawa (11 commercial and 4 public)
- 25 in Toronto (21 commercial and 4 public)
- 15 in Vancouver (11 commercial and 4 public)
- 12 in Montreal (8 commercial and 4 public)
- 6 in Windsor (2 commercial and 4 public)

Details of Trials
Radio-Canada (CBC) and Communications Research Centre Canada have been carrying out demonstrations of
DMB in Montreal, Toronto and in Ottawa to raise the awareness of these DAB-based technologies among
broadcasters, regulators and Telecom (Mobile) industry.
Also, there are seven DAB stations (four commercial and three public) field-testing in Halifax, Nova Scotia. A service
was also on-air in Windsor in 2000 however this has now ceased.

In its 1995 transitional policy, the CRTC allowed a maximum of five programmes per multiplex, which prevented
broadcasters from offering an attractive choice of programmes on DAB. In 2006 in response to requests from
broadcasters the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) agreed to change
Canada's 1995 transitional policy to allow more freedom to provide DAB only programmes to attract more consumer
interest (i.e. more services per multiplex, use of L-Band, multimedia, subscription). There is no news on the future
of regulation in this market.

Further information

Population: 1.32 billion                                                  Coverage:                            8%
Current situation
The Chinese regulator, SARFT, chose DAB for the industrial standard in May 2006.
DMB/DAB is now on air in 11 cities across the country. After the Guangzhou launch
of commercial services in 2007, the Ministry of Industry and Information (MII)
decided to issue licences for DMB in mobile phones.
Beijing Jolon, the main public broadcaster in Beijing, was a key industrial driver for
the quick roll out of DAB/DMB in China as it prepared for broadcasting the Olympic
Games. DMB/DAB was successfully broadcast during the Games (pictured).
Photo of Mavis Ma, University of Hong

Coverage is currently available in the following provinces: Guangzhou, Beijing (approximate coverage: 12 million
people), Shanghai (expected coverage: 15 million people), Dalian (expected coverage: 5.4 million people), Henan,
Hangzhou, Shengyang, Jiangsu, Shenzhen, Changsha and Kunming.

Services on Air
- Beijing: 20 radio services (16 of which are simulcast), four video services, two data services by Beijing Jolon
(commercial broadcaster) on Band III.
- Dalian: Dalian Tiantu Cable Television Network received a licence for digital radio and mobile TV via DAB/DMB and
plans to launch four radio services and one video service

Receiver Market
There are various retailers in Beijing, Shanghai & Guangzhou.
Lenevo was the first Chinese manufacturer to develop a DMB mobile phone for the Chinese market (Lenovo
ET980T). Products are also now available from Aigo, Longcheer, BBEF and SIM. DMB devices are also now available
in Beijing for affordable prices, around RMB2500 (250 Euro). To date over 80,000 such devices have been sold in
Beijing alone.

Details of Trials
Guangdong Province has had an ongoing Band III trial in the Pearl River Delta area, broadcasting eight video and four
radio services. Commercial services are currently available from the Guangdong Mobile TV Media.
Shanghai has had L-band trials of DAB based services with four video, four radio and three data services since 2005.
Trials of DAB/DMB based services are expected to begin shortly in other locations across China. One key driver for
DAB/DMB rollout was the deadline of the Beijing Olympics in 2008.

China's State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television (SARFT) manage licences and standards in China. It was
recently announced by SARFT that no trials of digital broadcasting were permitted without a licence. Currently, Eureka
147 based services are the only European digital broadcasting technology that has been granted licences in China.
In 2007 four operators were granted trial licences and, following recent SARFT approval, there are likely to be more
DAB and mobile TV licences in the near future.

Further information

Czech Republic
Population: 10.3 million                                                  Coverage:                            50%
Current situation
The public broadcaster, Czech Radio and the TELEKO Company have run regular trials of DAB and DAB+
transmissions in cities such as Prague, Pribram, Plzen and Brno. The infrastructure is therefore in place to reach
around 50% of the population when full roll out occurs.
The Czech Republic faces a similar issue as some other countries in that the ideal spectrum in Band III is currently

used by terrestrial television. As a result, in 2009 the government advertised L-band frequencies but, ultimately, no
licences ere awarded.
It is likely that digital radio broadcasts in the Czech Republic will use DAB+ in both L band and Band III.

Infrastructure is in place to provide coverage across the main cities within the Czech Republic. Trial services have
cover over half of the population in the past.

Details of Trials
In August 2007 a trial was launch by the TELEKO Company in co-operation with the public broadcaster Zesky Rozhlas
with three DAB programmes and two programmes in DAB+. This trial used both Band III and L-Band and covered
almost 130,000 people.
A further trial began in June 2008, again as a joint project between the TELEKO Company in cooperation with the
public broadcaster Czech Radio. A 2.5Kw transmitter provided coverage of the capital city, Prague, to a population
of around 1.3 million. The goal of this non-commercial trial was the promotion of digital radio to the Czech public and
Government administrators. In early 2009 a further trial was launched in the second largest city Bruno covering
approximately 0.5 million people. Further trials have also been held in other cities around the Czech Republic
In the past there have been DMB trials in the Czech Republic, however, the industry is waiting for the government
to make regulatory decisions on mobile TV in the country as there are issues with lack of spectrum.

In April 2006 the Czech Parliament adopted a version of the media law focused on digital broadcasting. The
Telecommunications Office has also declared that their office will be technology neutral with regard to the DAB audio
codec (DAB or DAB+).
In November 2009 the Czech Telecommunication Office started the DAB+/DMB tender process for digital radio and
mobile TV within the Czech Republic. The network operators are waiting to for the licensing process for L-band
regional broadcasting around the country to be completed.

Further information

Population: 5.5 million                                                 Coverage:                               90%
Current situation
Denmark is one of the most successful DAB markets in the world. With 33% of the population accessing digital
services, Denmark has the highest number of DAB users per capita in the world.
Outdoor coverage in Denmark is more than 90% and indoor coverage will rise to 95% by the end of 2010.
The public broadcaster, Danish Radio (DR) has been an enthusiastic supporter of digital radio since it began trials
in 1995. Regular services have been available since 2002.
Two multiplexes deliver 20 stations, all from DR, many of which are unique to DAB.
The Danish market is now looking to the government about a decision on the futue of digital radio and a possible
FM switch off.
Over one third of the 2.5M Danish households has one or more DAB radios and around 8% of all radio listening is
to a DAB set. Cumulative set sales in 2010 are around 1.5 million.
The two multipexes which reach 90% of the country are operated by state broadcaster Danish Radio (DR) and
between them deliver 20 services, all of which are broadcast by DR. Stations include pop, country, jazz, classical,
children's and culture. DR has announced it will launch four new presenter led stations in 2011.
In 2009, the Danish government agreed that commercia radiol stations would be offered the opportunity, through
a beauty contest, to broadcast on the second multiplex. This is an ongoing process with stations expected to lauch
in 2010 or 2011. A third multiplex is planned for regional and local stations.

The Government is spending EURO 1.5M on a national information campaign on digital radio during 2010. Meanwhile,
industry body, DAB Digital Radio Denmark, will focus on marketing, promotion and communications launch a series
of nationwide marketing campaigns during 2010. The DDRD's campaigns will use radio, TV, magazines, newspapers
and websites to deliver its message.

Coverage in Denmark is about 90% outdoor
and 95% indoor

Services on Air
In this country there are 2 Regular National
multiplexes on air.
There are 14 public and three commercial DAB
radio services on air, all of which are broadcast
nationwide. A second multiplex is also on-air for
commercial broadcasters.
         Simulcast    Exclusive     Total

  DAB        11           7           18

Receiver Market
There are currently 1.5 million DAB receivers in
the market.
Approximately 300 specialised electrical retail
stores currently sell DAB radios; supermarket and food chains are also significant players with frequent product

Details of Trials
In 2006 a successful trial was carried out of DMB video.

DAB regulation is set by three different bodies in Denmark; The Ministry of Culture legislates for media politics and
licences, the Ministry of Science sets the political framework for frequency applications and the National IT and
Telecoms Agency maintains technical management of the frequency spectrum. Public broadcaster Denmark Radio
(DR) runs one national multiplex, and two regional multiplexes are run as one national multiplex by the commercial
broadcasters, however no commercial DAB services are currently on air.
In 2009 the Danish government confirmed it would not be renewing the FM network, saying that Denmark's radio
future is digital. There are currently no firm digital migration plans however both public and commercial broadcasts
are keen for switchover to progress.
The Danish government is full supportive of a digital radio future for the country. While the current standard used is
DAB, it is likely that Denmark will launch DAB+ services at some point in the future. A new media law, which will be
in force for four years, is due in January 2011 and it is expected to outline a wholly digital future with all stations
broadcasting in DAB, DAB+ or via the Internet.

Further information

Population: 63 million                                                   Coverage:                               20%
Current situation
The launch of DMB digital radio services in France is expected in December 2010.
Over the years, France has experimented with all formats in the Eureka 147 family of standards, DAB, DAB+ and DMB,
comparing one to the other. In Paris, Marseille and other major towns, some of these trial multiplexes remain on air.
At the end of 2007, France's regulator, the Conseil suprieur de l'audiovisuel (CSA) announced that the official standard

for digital radio in France would be DMB-A, to be marketed as Radio Numrique Terrestre. (It is worth noting that
DMB-A differs from the DMB in use in Korea because the audio codecs are different.)
Some broadcasters in France advocate the use of DAB+ alongside DMB, but it is clear that, in general, French
broadasters support the swift deployment of digital radio across the country.
In March 2008, the CSA published a call for tenders for terrestrial digital radio licences. It received an enthusiastic
response with approximately 300 plus applications and in 2009 the licences were allocated in three main towns: Paris,
Marseille-Aix and Nice-Cannes.
In January 2009 a law was passed which sets out a three step programme of integration of digital radio into all
receivers including those in cars. It states that on the 1st September 2013 all radio receivers must be digital enabled,
including those in cars.

The current deployment of digital radio is planned for December 2010 in Paris, Nice and Marseille. An appropriate
plan for coverage and roll out of digital radio across the remaining areas in France will then be put in place.

Services on Air
In this country there are 1 Trial National multiplex, 30 Trial Regional              Simulcast    Exclusive     Total
multiplexes and 2 Trial Local multiplexes on air.
                                                                              DAB       63           51           114

Receiver Market                                                               DAB+       11           0           11
Although the market is waiting for the official roll out plan for digital
radio to be released by the CSA, radio sets capable of receiving              DMB        2            1           3

DMB, DAB and DAB+ stations are already available.                             Data       4           31           35

Details of Trials                                                          Total       80          83           163
In 2007, the CSA, the French regulatory body, created a working
group on digital radio and authorised eight trials to take place in France for a duration of six months; six in T-DMB,
one in DMB and DAB+.
Following a decree by the French Ministry of Industry, the Digital Radio Association, at the end of July 2007 a trial took
place in Nantes to compare DAB+ and DMB radio. These trials demonstrated the capacity of both standards for radio
services and data applications.

Digital radio licences will be issued in France with a duration of 10 to 15 years and any broadcasters going digital will
get a five year extension of their analogue licences. Simulcasting, associated data and audiovisual communication
services will be permitted. Analogue and digital licences are both issued free of charge. There is a quota for French
music and new artists and the current analogue rules which govern advertising and sponsorship will apply to digital
The French Law on digital radio released in March 2009 can be found in the Useful Links section (French version).

Further information

Population: 83 million                                                      Coverage:                              70%
Current situation
Since the mid-1990's, Germany has tested and trialled all of the flavours of the DAB family of standards and there
is currently a DAB network on air serving around 70% of the population.
Now, however, Germany is working towards a re-launch of digital radio using DAB+ and, to that end, the German
Commission of broadcasting policies (Rundfunkkommission), has approved a nationwide multiplex which can transmit
between 10 and 15 radio programmes.
The national digital channels will be supplemented by two or three multiplexes in each of the 16 regions to provide
regional and local radio from public service ARD stations and private broadcasters.

Digital radio listeners in Germany will therefore be able to receive between 30 and 40 services (a mix of national,
regional and local) wherever they are in the country.
Germany's public service financing committee, the KEF is to provide funding to facilitate the roll out of national DAB+
digital radio in Germany. The funds, which allow public broadcaster Deutschland Radio, to build out a national digital
radio network using DAB+ technology, will be available providing the industry meets a tight timetable set out by the
KEF. Space on the network however will be shared between public and commercial broadcasters giving the whole
industry the opportunity to secure future development of radio. Conditions require commercial and public
broadcasters to sign contracts with Media Broadcast GmbH by the end of September. Funding will also be made
available to ARD for programmes which will continue to be broadcast the federal states.
Germany's commercial radio broadcasters and network operator, Media Broadcast, have agreed to work together
to facilitate national digital radio.

DAB radio reaches about 70% of the Germany population.

Services on Air
In this country there are 16 Regular Regional multiplexes and 4                      Simulcast    Exclusive    Total
Regular and 3 Trial Local multiplexes on air.
                                                                             DAB        83           59         142
There are now more than 60 DAB radio stations in Germany (both
                                                                            DAB+        8            3           11
public and commercial). There are up to 15 stations per site, split
into a variety of regional and local multiplexes. Most are simulcasts        DMB         1           0            1

of FM stations, but there are an increasing number of DAB-only               Data       29           6           35
channels. Data services broadcasting news and travel information
are also available in many areas.                                           Total      121           68         189

As Germany's re-launch of DAB using DAB+ rolls out, the number
of stations on air will fluctuate but should eventually provide each listener with between 30 and 40 services.

Receiver Market
There has been no official market research on the number of DAB receivers sold.
There are more than 1,000 DAB retailers in Germany listed by the website. Users can search
by postal code, map or name of retailer. There is also a list of online traders.

Details of Trials
Between 2005 and 2008, the European DMB-project MI FRIENDS, was operated by the Bayerische Landeszentrale
fr Neue Medien (BLM) as a pilot project aimed at enabling mobile and interactive usage of new and existing media
applications in receivers. This multi-standard trial allowed services to be broadcast on all digital multimedia standards
DAB, DMB, DVB-H, TPEG and GPRS/UMTS using a single device.

Germany has a two-tier government, federal and state, which is reflected in the country's broadcasting legislation.
The federal government issues telecommunications licences to network operators and regulates frequency and
spectrum issues. Broadcast programme providers are regulated by the states, each of which has its own regulatory
framework. The federal government assigns frequencies, but content distribution is licensed by State Media
Authorities. Network operators are granted frequency allocation for 15 years and state licences run for between four
and eight years and holders must promote DAB digital radio. It is a requirement that within three years of a licence
being issued there is 80% population coverage. There are also no defined rules relating to data capacity use, up to
20% multiplex capacity is normal. Analogue switch off is targeted for after 2015.

Further information

Hong Kong
Population: 6.9 million
Current situation
The latest in a series of trials is currently on air in Hong Kong from Wave Media Ltd, a commercial radio broadcaster.
Seven services, including a range of music stations such as opera, classical, oldies and easy listening, are available
to 50% of Hong Kong's 6.9 million population covering the main urban areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula
and Shatin. The broadcasts include text and visual slides alongside the audio.
Stations on the multiplex are broadcast in a mix of DAB and DAB+, and the trial is due to run until November 2010.
Wave Media, which also broadcasts analogue stations, is committed to a digital radio future for Hong Kong. Company
boss, Albert Cheng, says he would like to run up to ten digital channels, but admits that depends on government
approval. He says: "Since the beginning, what we actually aimed for is digital audio broadcasting."
Meanwhile, two other companies, Metro Broadcast Corp and Phoenix Radio have also applied for digital broadcast
Due to the nature of its topography, it is difficult to broadcast FM services on the island of Hong Kong and, as a result,
the diverse community that makes up the population is underserved in terms of station choice. DAB and DAB+ are
seen as the best way to increase that choice using the restricted spectrum available.

Services on Air
In this country there is 1 Trial National multiplex on air.                          Simulcast    Exclusive     Total

                                                                           DAB       0           7           7
Details of Trials
The public broadcaster, RTHK has conducted serveral trials using
DAB. The first was a three year trial using L-Band that ran from to 1998 to 2001. The was followed by a Band III trial
between 2004 and 2006. These trials included audio, data such as traffic, weather and financial information, and an
element of visual media using DMB.

Any DAB/DMB licensing development will be party to a review process by the Hong Kong regulator. Currently the
regulation in Hong Kong is divided between three different bodies: OFTA (telecommunications authority - spectrum
allocation), HKBA (broadcasting authority) and TELA (entertainment content licensing authority). The merger of these
various bodies, to form one broader regulatory authority, is ongoing.

Population: 10.1 million                                                  Coverage:                                30%
Current situation
Hungary has chosen DAB+ for its digital radio standard, and there is currently a test multiplex on air broadcasting 13
stations to the Budapest area. The multiplex is operated by Antenna Hungaria, which also runs national TV and radio
stations in Hungary.
Coverage is currently at 30% of the population, but this is expected to reach 94%by the end of 2014 as Antenna
Hungaria rolls out more transmitters and services.

Coverage is currently 30% of the population in Budapest and the surrounding area.
Coverage plans suggest there will be an estimated population coverage of 94% by the end of 2014. National
coverage will gradually increase up until 2011, which is the deadline for analogue TV switch off.

Services on Air
In this country there is 1 Trial National multiplex on air.
          Simulcast    Exclusive      Total

  DAB         3            1            4

Receiver Market
DAB+ receivers are already available in Hungary from specialist audio visual and online stores. With a full commercial
launch, the number and type of available receivers will increase and a marketing campaign will support the sector.

Details of Trials
The first DAB trial was launched in 1995 by Antenna Hungria and Hungarian Radio. It ran until 2008 and covered
almost 30% of the population centred around the Budapest area.
In 2008, when the National Communications Authority called for tenders to run digital TV and radio multiplexes,
Antenna Hungaria was the successful bidder. The company then closed its long running DAB trial and began testing
DAB+ in the same area early in 2009.
In the past, Antenna Hungaria has also carried out DMB trials and mixed multiplex trials enabling direct comparison
of DAB, DAB+ and DMB.

The government strategy for the implementation of digital broadcasting (both radio and television) was approved
in March 2007. The Act on the rules of broadcasting and digital switchover was published in June 2007. It gives the
legal background on the introduction of digital radio services, but specifies that more detailed regulation will be
needed on local digital radio and issues regarding switchover. Although the statutes say that the switch from
analogue to digtial should begin in 2014 this will only happen if, by then, 94% of the population and 75% of people
have a digital radio receiver.
In line with the provisions of this Act, in March 2008 the National Communications Authority (NCAH) published an
invitation to tender for a national multiplex. The winner was Antenna Hungaria which subsequently announced its
decision to broadcast in DAB+.

Further information

Population: 240 million
Current situation
Indonesia is the largest country in south-east Asia with a population of around 240 million. DMB trials have been
running in the capital, Jakarta, since 2006. There are currently four services on air. The trial is operated by the
regulator and MNC, the largest media company in Indonesia.
In 2007 the PST Indonesian electronics company, PT Agis, IPTV systems integrator, Broadband Network Systems
and Toshiba joined together to build a nationwide DMB network in Indonesia. The benefit of using DMB in Indonesia
is that a single frequency could be used to cover the whole of the country.
A Ministerial Decree in 2009 confirmed that the DAB family will be the offical standard for digital radio broadcasting
in Indonesia. Meanwhile, further tests are planned for Bandung, Medan and Surabaya.
A commercial launch of DMB and DVB-H in Indonesia is expected in 2010 or 2011. PT Media and Nasantara Citra
(MNC) and DMB Nusantara have won the license to provide mobile TV in Jakarta and this is likely to be offered on
a subscription basis.

Population: 4 million                                                     Coverage:                                56%
Current situation
The Republic of Ireland currently enjoys             around    56%     population   coverage     of   DAB    broadcasts.
In Cork, Limerick and the North East (including Dublin) RTE, the public broadcaster, operates a multiplex broadcasting
11 audio services and an EPG data channel. Some of these stations are exclusive to DAB and all are RTE channels.
In 2010 a trial multiplex was launched by Total Broadcast Consultants (Total DAB) in the south east of Ireland around
the Waterford area. It has been licensed by Comreg for a year. This multiplex broadcasts a mix of commercial stations
in DAB and DAB+. Ten audio services are on air plus slideshow data.

As can be seen from the map, coverage is mainly focussed on the East coast, and
nearby areas. There are two transmitters: Three Rock which covers the capital,
Dublin; and Clermont Cam which provides coverage around Dundalk.

Services on Air
In this country there are 1 Regular National multiplex and 1 Trial Regional multiplex on
          Simulcast    Exclusive     Total

  DAB        18            1          19

 DAB+        2             1           3

 Total       20           2           22

Receiver Market
DAB sets from a range of manufacturers are widely available in electrical retail stores
in the ROI.
Ireland has seen a steady increase in the sales of DAB radios. Industry monitor GfK reports 40% volume growth in
2009 (vs 2008) with 14% of all audio home systems including DAB.

In March 2007 the Broadcast (Amendment) Act was passed into law. This makes provision for the licensing of sound
broadcast multiplexes to RT and to the commercial sector. In June, the 2008 Broadcast Bill was published. It
proposes the establishment of a single regulator for both public and commercial broadcasters, the B.A.I.
(Broadcasting Authority of Ireland).
With respect to DAB, the Bill allows the regulator to determine DAB multiplex coverage areas and makes provision
for the migration of existing broadcasters in those coverage areas to migrate to DAB through the concept of "relevant
incumbent". The multiplex operator is then obliged to carry these services. Once an existing broadcaster begins
transmission on DAB there is a provision for an extension of their FM licence for up to four years.

Further information

Population: 59 million                                                    Coverage:                                75%
Current situation
After several years of test and trials, digital radio development in Italy is now happening very fast. Late in 2009, the
Council for the Authority of Communications approved regulation setting out steps for the future roll out of digital radio
across Italy. Broadcasters can opt for either DAB, DAB+ or DMB and the regulation allows for the migration of services
from analogue to digital. It provides clear regulation on coverage, networks for national services, spectrum allocation
for services, local coverage and rules on simulcasting and new content.

There will be one national network for the public broadcaster, RAI, and two national networks for commercial radio.
Space will be available for local radio stations and the network operator will be given additional capacity to provide
data services.
Around 75% of Italy's population can currently receive digital radio broadcasts via several trial multiplexes currently
on air. A joint project between the commercial and public radio stations Club DAB Italia, EuroDAB and Raiway plans
the launch of pilot services covering Rome, Torino, Naples and Cagliari in late 2010. The project will be extended to
cover 50% of the population by 2012 following the switch off of analogue TV and focus on major urban areas and
There are currently 13 multiplexes on air in Italy with a mix of national and regional coverage. Between them, they
deliver more than 100 services, with around half being digital only.

Coverage of the trial broadcasts is estimated to be around 75% of the Italian population (i.e. people in reach of
DAB/DMB transmissions for outdoor coverage).

Services on Air
In this country there are 3 Trial National multiplexes and 2 Regular                 Simulcast    Exclusive    Total
and 8 Trial Regional multiplexes on air.
                                                                             DAB        22           52          74

Details of Trials                                                           DAB+        17           0           17
Trials in Italy have included:
                                                                             DMB         1           0            1
- July 2007 - Club DAB Italia launched the first DAB+ trials in Italy,
                                                                             Data       0            10          10
broadcasting five audio channels.
                                                                            Total       40           62         102
- June 2007 - Vatican Radio carried out a DAB trial in the Pope's
- 2007 - A DMB trial by public broadcaster RAIway
- 2005 - RTL 102.5 became the first European radio station to broadcast using DMB technology.

The Italian Media Authority has approved official regulations for Eureka 147 digital radio, bringing an experimental
phase to an end and paving the way for the creation of a successful digital radio market. Licences and authorisations
will be issued initially to existing FM licence holders, with remaining spectrum available for new entrants. National and
local multiplexes must carry at least five radio stations each, offering a wide choice of programmes and services. The
licence period for content providers is 12 years and for network operators 20 years.

Further information

Population: 24 million
Current situation
In June 2010, Malaysia's regulator, the MCMC awarded three blocks of L-Band spectrum to Asia Media, a
broadcasting, advertising and digital media company. A sia Media will use the spectrum to broadcast up to twelve
T-DMB channels, including radio and data services, as well as mobile TV.
Malayasia's public broadcaster, RTM, launched a DAB+ trial in Kuala Lumpur in 2010. This multiplex carries 15 audio
services, all of which are simulcasts of existing FM stations.
A DMB trial multiplex from Malaysia DMB is also on air broadcasting two TV channels and one audio station.

Services on Air
In this country there is 1 Trial Local multiplex on air.

         Simulcast    Exclusive     Total

 DAB+       15           0            15

Details of Trials
Malaysia ran a DMB trial between January and mid-March 2008. It was a technical trial, organized with support from
the regulator: the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC). The trial involved one transmitter
on the Kuala Lumpur Tower plus a filler at the MCMC head office in Cyberjaya. It was broadcast on Band III, Channel
11B and carried two radio services and two TV channels.

The first edition of the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission's Spectrum Plan was released on
1 January 2002. Two Digital Sound Broadcasting (DSB) systems were identified in the Spectrum Plan, Eureka 147
(DAB) and DRM, and there is spectrum allocation for both.
The Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) is the regulator for the converging
communications and multimedia industry. There are two main broadcast groups under MCMC, Digital Sound
Broadcast (DSB) and Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTT). Both DSB and DTTT have completed their standard
submission for DAB and DVB respectively and the standards are now under public scrutiny. DSB proposed DAB &
DMB as the DSB standard to MCMC. Due to the current development of DAB+, DSB is proposing DAB+ to the MCMC
as an attachment to the previous document. The recent DMB trial results and findings will be used to support the
preparation the mobile TV standard by the Mobile TV Working Group.

Population: 0.4 million                                                  Coverage:                               100%
Current situation
Malta was the first European country to roll out a DAB+ network and services were on-air in October 2008. There
are over 25 services on the multiplex which include unique digital only stations, MOT, EPG and DLS applications.
The multiplex is operated by Digi B Network and covers 100% of the population. By the middle of 2010, 12.2% of
Maltese listeners were tuning in via DAB+.
Malta boasts a vibrant and growing DAB+ community of services. The regulator, the Malta Broadcasting Authority,
has embraced digital radio and multi-media broadcasting and its enthusiasm has transferred to the Maltese
Digi B Network, which operates the island country's national mux, hopes to increase available services to around
40 channels. Among the stations already on air is an international mix including channels in Italian, French and German,
plus the BBC World Service and Voice of America. And there is plenty of choice among local stations too with genres
such as opera, pop, classical, news, religion, sport and jazz.
Digi B Network also designs and manufacturers DAB+ radios and has brought out the first DAB+ enabled car stereo
for both domestic use and export.

Coverage has now reach 100% in Malta.

Receiver Market
A range of DAB+ radios from manufacturers such as PURE and Revo are available in Malta. The Digi B Network has
launched the first DAB+ in-car receiver which is currently available in Malta or online.

Details of Trials
Digi B is committed to bringing increased listening choice to its digital audience and will cotinued to run test
broadcasts of new services.

In early 2006, the Malta Communications Authority awarded the country's four terrestrial DAB frequencies. The
licence runs for eight years, subject to review after six. The Broadcasting Authority in 2008 approved the
rebroadcasting of 36 foreign digital radio stations, the simulcasting of 12 nationwide analogue radio stations and of
one community radio.

Further information

Population: 16 million                                                    Coverage:                                 70%
Current situation
Digital radio in The Netherlands has had ups and downs over the years and, until now, has failed to find traction with
commercial broadcasters. This is due in part to the added costs involved in dual transmission.
In 2009 the Ministry agreed that, when analogue licences expire in 2011, instead of auctioning them off to the highest
bidder, it would reissue them to the incumbent broadcaster if it in turn agreed to go digital. Commercial broadcasters
have until September 2010 to take advantage of this offer however there remains an issue over the cost of these
The issue is further complicated by a recent change of government.
Also in 2009, the Ministry auctioned two broadcast licences, one in Band III and one in L-band. Broadcasters can
opt to transmit in DAB, DAB+ or DMB and it is likely that DAB+ will be the standard of choice for most.
For those broadcasting in L-band, it therefore becomes necessary that radio sets receiving DAB+ broadcasts in
L-band are available.
The National Public Broadcaster, PO, broadcasts audio nine stations and three data channels on a national multiplex
operated by NOS. The services are all simulcasts of existing PO stations, including pop, classical, oldies, current affairs
and news. Coverage of this multiplex is about 70% of the population.
Licences have also been issued in Band III to MTVNL which is currently testing DMB transmissions in The Hague, and
in L-band to CallMax which plans testing in the Eindhoven area.
A national Band III multiplex licence will be issued to commercial radio in late 2010 or early 2011. A regional Band III
multiplex for combined public and commercial services will be issued in late 2010 or early 2011.
There is no FM switch off date, but FM licences will be extended for 6 years until the end of 2017. Formal policy is
that ultimately 1-2 year before the end of the FM licences, there will be a full review regarding FM switch off.

There is currently 70% population coverage with sites including Arnhem, Den Haag, East Amsterdam, Hilversum,
Haarlem, Lelystad, Loon op Zand, Lopik, Mierlo, Rotterdam.

Services on Air
In this country there is 1 Trial National multiplex on air.                           Simulcast    Exclusive     Total

This carries nine audio services (simulcast) and three data services           DAB        0            9           9
(DAB only) and is broadcast by the public broadcaster NOS.
                                                                              Data        0            3           3

Receiver Market                                                              Total        0           12           12
There is a small number of specialist retailers selling DAB digital

Details of Trials
MTVNL is currently testing DMB transmissions in The Hague area.
A test of DAB+ in L-band by CallMax is scheduled for the Eindhoven area in 2010.

The Dutch government issues DAB licences and determines the terms and conditions that apply to the use of DAB
in the Netherlands. It was announced that Band III and L-band should be used for DAB based services. Broadcasters
may choose to use DAB, DAB+ or DMB. The majority of interested parties are likely to choose DAB+.

Further information

Population: 4.8 million                                                 Coverage:                               80%
Current situation
Norway began test transmissions of DAB digital radio very early, in the mid-90s. In fact, NRK Alltid Klassiskwhich
launched in 1995, was the world's first 24-hour digital station.
Coverage stands at around 80% of the population, and Norway intends to achieve 100% coverage by 2014. The
Government says FM broadcasting will be switched off once 50% of the population has a digital radio. Penetration
is currently at 17%.
In Norway, there are two national DAB multiplexes on air, one of which is split into seven regional muxes. There are
nine audio and one data services on the national multiplex. These are a mix of stations from the public broadcaster
NRK and commercial radio operators. The seven regional multiplexes broadcast local services from NRK as well as
some niche programming such as classical and folk music. All major FM radio channels in Norway are also available
via DAB
Coverage is at 80% of the population, with around 300,000 DAB sets sold.
Norway's three leading broadcasters, NRK, TV2 and MTG, have jointly set up a new company to launch mobile TV
services via DMB. MiniTV trials began in the Oslo area in 2009 with six live TV channels, on demand content and other
related services. These trials, which reach 30% of the Norwegian population, will continue on air until 2011.

National and regional multiplexes cover about 80% of the population.

Services on Air
In this country there are 1 Regular National multiplex and 1 Regular               Simulcast    Exclusive     Total
and 3 Trial Regional multiplexes on air.
                                                                            DAB        7           19          26
NRK has a total number of about 20 programmes on DAB.
                                                                            DMB        6           0            6
Depending on the region there are between 11 -13 NRK services
on-air, as well as two commercial services.                                 Data       1           0            1

                                                                          Total       14           19          33
Receiver Market
DAB receivers are available in Norway from a range of

Details of Trials
The DMB trial of MiniTV continues in the area around Oslo until 2011
Nova Radio, an established FM Student radio services, has been licensed to run
a test DAB+ service in the Oslo area. This trial will last until July 2011.

Broadcasting in Norway is regulated according to the Broadcasting Act/Law.
According to this Act, NRK has the right to broadcast nationally. Licences for the commercial broadcasters have been
issued up to 2014.

Further information

Population: 38.5 million                                                Coverage:                               5%
Current situation
There are currently two trials running in Poland delivering a mix of DAB+ and DMB services.
In May 2009, public broadcaster Radio Wroclaw and infrastructure provider Emitel launched a DAB+ and DMB trial
multiplex in the Wroclaw area. This is the biggest city in south west Poland with a population of around 640,000. Eight
audio channels broadcasting both public and commercial stations in DAB+ and one mobile TV channel in DMB are
available in this region.
In the capital, Warsaw, Emitel operates a multiplex broadcasting 12 audio services using DAB+ and one mobile TV

service using DMB. It reaches 2.5 million people and airs a combination of public and commercial stations. This trial
multiplex launched in November 2009.

Services on Air
In this country there is 1 Trial Local multiplex on air.                             Simulcast    Exclusive    Total

A DAB transmitter is operated in Warsaw in Block 10B. There are 5           DAB+        12           0           12
programmes on air:
                                                                             DMB         1           0            1
- 4 public radio's national services: Program One ("Jedynka",
                                                                            Total       13           0           13
general programme), Program Two ("Dwojka", serious music,
drama), Programme Three ("Trojka", youth channel), Radio BIS
(education, sciences)
- 1 local service by the local public radio broadcaster "Radio dla Ciebie" ("Radio for you")
No auxiliary data services are transmitted at present.

There are two regulators for broadcasting media in Poland. The National Broadcasting Council manages and issues
licences, while the Office of Electronic Communications governs the frequency spectrum. The two bodies work
closely together.

Population: 4.5 million                                                  Coverage:                                99%
Current situation
Singapore has enjoyed DAB transmissions since 1999 and was the first country in the world to reach 100% coverage.
MediaCorp Radio, the national public broadcaster, is a keen supporter of digital radio. The commercial operator,
Rediffusion, launched commercial DAB+ services on a subscription basis in 2008.
There is also an on-going DMB multimedia data service trial showing the local traffic road conditions and a trial Traffic
News DAB channel based on automated text-to-speech conversion. Various operators in Singapore have announced
their plans for commercial mobile TV services.
MediaCorp Radio launched DAB services in 1999. Since then, the company has lauched a second national multiplex
(2002). The two muxes deliver a total of 14 audio services and four data channels. Data on offer includes EPG, BWS
and TPEG traffic services.
In 2008, the commercial broadcaster Rediffusion, launched a subscription based multiplex using DAB+. It delivers
a mix of 15 audio services on a subscription basis, including stations from around the world, and commercial-free
Singapore is a very car-orientated country with around 800,000 vehicles (approximately one for every five people).
In-car applications using DAB or DAB+ are seen as key to further developing the market.

MediaCorp Digital Radio & Rediffusion both have 99% outdoor coverage.

Services on Air
In this country there are 3 Regular National multiplexes on air.                     Simulcast    Exclusive    Total

- 14 commercial audio and data services, free-to-air                         DAB        12           5           17

- seven commercial audio services, subscription                             DAB+        0            15          15

Receiver Market                                                          Total      12               20          32
Retailers selling DAB receivers in Singapore include consumer
electronics stores, car audio retailers and Rediffusion's sales offices. Rediffusion has
sponsored a number of radios for use by the eldery (pictured).

Details of Trials
MediaCorp is evaluating the feasibility of introducing DMB & DAB+ services and is working towards conducting several
data application trial services that include DMB TPEG, eBillboard and Public Warning System (PWS).

Broadcasting in Singapore is regulated by the Media Development Authority (MDA). For DAB Digital Radio, there are
three different licences for three different categories; there is a DAB Multiplex Licence (eight years) where operators
are required to carry at least five audio services on each multiplex but can allocate 35% of the multiplex to data
services. The second category is a DAB Broadcaster Service Licence (five years) for content providers, which
incorporates programme and advertising guidelines issued in the analogue world. Finally, there is the Class Licence
(no stipulated licence period), which covers a range of data and multimedia services supported by DAB. The MDA
has adopted a self-regulatory approach, and there is no need for service operators to approach the MDA for approval
to start a data service.

Further information

South Korea
Population: 59 million                                                  Coverage:                               75%
Current situation
As the first country to commercially launch mobile TV, South Korea is the most successful DMB market in the world.
More than 23 million DMB enabled devices have been sold, of which the most popular are mobile phones. This
number is expected to rise even more with an increase in coverage; services already cover over 75% of the country
There are six major broadcasters providing a variety of services to the South Korean market including mobile TV
services. New data applications such as BIFS have been introduced and broadcasters are anticipating an increase
in revenue as these will be subscription only.. TPEG services are also available giving the consumer traffic and travel
Hundreds of DMB devices are available in this market and usage of mobile TV increases year on year. Interactive
services are also growing in popularity adding value to broadcasting services. The Korean government has set up
a digital audio project to recommend a digital audio broadcasting standard for Korea
More and more Korean companies are seeing the global potential of DMB (including DAB and DAB+) and are starting
to widen their focus to include the European markets and non-domestic Asian markets.
Korea's latest innovation is an interactive mobile TV service, or DMB 2.0, launched by SK Telecom in April 2010. with
six terrestrial-DMB operators (TDMB). With DMB 2.0, mobile TV viewers are able to search the internet, receive news
or stock information updates, and even enjoy mobile shopping while watching television.

DMB services cover approximately 75% of the country (almost all residential areas).

Services on Air
In this country there are 3 Regular National multiplexes on air.                   Simulcast    Exclusive     Total

There are seven video services, 13 audio services and eight data            DAB        5           0            5
services on air, five of them public and 23 commercial.
                                                                            DMB        3           2            5

Receiver Market                                                             Data       2           4            6
There are a large number of retailers in Korea selling DMB devices,
and there are over a hundred different models by over thirty              Total       10           6           16

different manufacturers on the market. The most popular are DMB
mobile phones and GPS devices.
Sales have sky-rocketed since the initial launch of DMB services.

The Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC) and the Korean Broadcasting Commission (KBC) govern
broadcasting. The MIC is responsible for the development of broadcasting technology, spectrum management, and

the licensing of stations. The KBC is responsible for regulation of content and advertising, as well as authorising and
recommending licences. Only one licence is awarded to the multiplex operator, who can then either provide their
own programmes or can lease capacity to other programme providers. The government divided the country into
six regional broadcasting areas and 13 new nationwide broadcast licences have been granted for DMB services.

Further information

Population: 45 million                                                   Coverage:                               52%
Current situation
Spain first began broadcasting digital radio in April 1998 covering Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia. There have also
been trial services in the Basque country and Catalunya.
The Spanish DAB Association (Asociacin Foro de la Radio Digital), comprising both national private and public
broadcasters, is responsible for DAB in Spain. While there has been little progress in DAB expansion in Spain, three
multiplexes remain on air broadcasting a mix of stations to 60% of the population.
A statement from the AERC, the Spanish Commercial Radio Association, in 2010 noted the broadcasters'
commitment to a digital radio future for the country, but said it must be "carried out properly, respecting the rights
and concessions of analogue radio."
The Spanish government is due to pass a broadcasting Act before the end of 2011, It is hoped the Act will set out
a plan for digital terrestrial radio broadcasting which will allow the industry to move forward.

Currently about 60% of the population have access to DAB services. Coverage is expected to rise to 80% by 2011.

Services on Air
In this country there are 3 Regular National multiplexes and 2                      Simulcast    Exclusive     Total
Regular and 1 Trial Regional multiplexes on air.
                                                                             DAB       29           0           29
A total of 29 DAB audio services are on air.
                                                                            Data       5            0            5

Receiver Market                                                        Total           34           0           34
There are a small number of electrical retailers selling DAB digital
radios in Spain, but until more services are availalbe and especially
unique DAB only stations, this market is not expected to grow significantly.

Details of Trials
There were various trials of DMB in Barcelona in 2007 and 2008 for the 3GSM exhibition and show. Future plans for
further trials are ongoing.

National station licences are issued by the central government, while local and regional licences are the responsibility
of the regional government. Licences are valid for ten years with an automatic renewal for a further ten years and
operators must commit to the promotion of DAB Digital Radio. Advertising and sponsorship are permitted under the
same rules which exist for analogue radio, and data is permitted on up to 20% of multiplex capacity.

Further information

Population: 9.1 million                                                Coverage:                              35%
Current situation
Following lengthy trials by the public broadcaster, Sveriges Radio, DAB radio in Sweden is moving to DAB+.
Sveriges Radio, has been operating a DAB multipex since the mid 1990s, covering about 35% of the population but
in 2005 the Swedish government halted digital radio investment due to low consumer takeup. The radio industry,
however, remained committed to a digital future for Sweden and blamed the lack of consumer response on the fact
that commercial radio operators were denied by law the opportunity to broadcast on DAB, thus limiting consumer
choice. Both public and private broadcasters continued to lobby the government for a change of heart.
A new Radio and TV Act came into effect in August 2010 which, for the first time, allows commerical radio companies
to apply for digital licences. This paves the way for a radio industry united behind DAB+, something for which both
public and commercial services have been lobbying for some time.
In 2009, network operator Teracom began conducting tests of DAB, DAB+ and T-DMB which included programming
from commercial, community and public service broadcasters, reaching two million people around Stockholm,
Uppsala and Gavle.
The existing DAB multiplex remains on air, but with the country turning to DAB+ for future launches, it remains to be
seen if Sveriges Radio with switch this mux to DAB+.

DAB coverage from the the Public Service broadcaster, Sveriges Radio, currently reaches about 35% of the
Teracom's trial of DAB, DAB+ and T-DMB services reaches around 22% of the population.
Network operator, Teracom AB, continues work to improve network coverage to take advantage of the relaxations
allowed by the Geneva-06 international frequency plan.

Services on Air
In this country there are 1 Regular National multiplex and 1 Trial                Simulcast   Exclusive     Total
Regional multiplex on air.
                                                                           DAB        1          6            7
Digital radio in Sweden has switched its focus from coverage to
                                                                        DAB+       9          0            9
content. Swedish Radio, the public broadcaster, offers eight
services on its DAB multiplex, including six unique services on digital  Data      0          2            2

radio: Radio Knattekanal (children's programming), SR Klassiskt         Total     10          8           18
(classical music), P3 Star (aimed at young people), Sisuradio (for the
Finnish spoken audience), SR Minnen (content from the archives)
and SR Atlas (World music and multi-lingual programmes). These sit alongside SR P1 and SR P4 simulcasts from FM.
In addition to the audio services there are also a few data services available which include: SR Plus, a BWS service
which contains a condensed version of the SR web and SR EPG, a trial version for testing electronic programme
guides and SR TPEG, which is a test service for future TPEG streams.
The DAB+ Terracom test multipex delivers nine audio services from a combination of public and commercial

Details of Trials
Alongside the regular programmes from Swedish Radio, there have been various test broadcasts. These include
trials of DAB, DAB+ and DMB as well as test broadcasts of eight Danish digital radio programmes across the
Stockholm area.

Further information

Population: 7.5 million                                                  Coverage:                            93%
Current situation
Switzerland first launched DAB digital radio services in 1999 when the public broadcaster, SRG SSR idee suisse went
on air.
Today there are five regional multiplexes covering the German, French and Italian speaking areas of the country, with
a mix of public and commercial services.
There is also a mix of standards broadcasting in Switzerland with multiplexes transmitting both DAB and DAB+
services. Swiss digital radio on DAB or DAB+ now covers over 90% of the population.
Half a million receivers had been sold by mid-2010 and internal forecasts expect accumulated sales to rise to 700'000
by early 2011. Currently, over 10% of all households have access to a digital radio.
There are currently 72 DAB or DAB+ services on air (incorporating 30 different brands on five multiplexes).
The original four multiplexes are run by the public broadcaster SRG SSR ide suisse, and the first commercial DAB+
multiplex which was launched on October 13th 2009 now broadcasts 11 commercial digital-only and 4 public radio
stations in the German-speaking part of Switzerland.

Digital radio on DAB or DAB+ in Switzerland reaches over 90% of the
population. The Swiss public broadcaster, SRG SSR idee suisse, has now
started filling the last white spots on the DAB coverage map, most of which
are in remote or sparsely populated areas. The most recent region to
receive DAB reception is the Grisons in the East of Switzerland.

Services on Air
In this country there are 5 Regular Regional multiplexes on air.
There are 19 different brands on air, all of them by the public broadcaster
SRG SSR idee suisse (one in cooperation with the BBC).
- 12 programmes on DAB in the German-speaking part of                               Simulcast   Exclusive   Total
Switzerland (6 DAB only, 1 AM simulcast and 5 FM simulcast)
                                                                              DAB      10          20        30
- 11 programmes on DAB in the French-speaking part of Switzerland
                                                                            DAB+       10          32        42
(5 DAB only, 1 AM simulcast and 5 FM simulcast)
                                                                           Total       20          52        72
- 10 programmes on DAB in the Italian-speaking part of Switzerland
(7 DAB only, 3 FM simulcast)
- 13 programmes on DAB+ and 2 on DAB in the Romansh-speaking part of Switzerland

Receiver Market
All specialist radio and TV retailers as well as the major chains now sell DAB+ receivers
in Switzerland, and there is a huge choice of different receivers in the market. A survey
regularly conducted by the Swiss research company Mediapulse suggests that by
early 2010, a total of 450,000 receivers have been sold.
By mid 2010, the accumulated sales have risen to about half a million, and internal
forecasts expect a total of 700'000 receivers in the market by early 2011.

Details of Trials
DAB+ local trials took place in Berne and Zurich in November and December 2007.
A DMB trial has also been on-air through the MIFRIENDS project.

The SRG licence includes the operation of a DAB multiplex and transmission network in Band III. The transmitter sites
are operated by Swisscom Broadcast, but SRG is responsible for the planning of the network, signal generating and
Commercial radio and media companies in the German part of Switzerland were granted 8 licences in summer 2007.
SwissMediaCast AG was granted a licence to broadcast on Channel 7D by Swiss Ofcom (the regulator). SMC AG
is now running the first commercial DAB+ multiplex in German-speaking Switzerland.

The Swiss Ofcom has also opened a call for tender for eight commercial programme licences in the French-speaking
part of Switzerland.

Further information

Population: 24 million
Current situation
The Broadcasting Corporation of China (BCC), a private network with nationwide coverage, operates three FM and
three AM channels as well as a digital audio broadcasting system.
In July 2010, the Government of Taiwan announced plans for digital convergence by 2015. During the first stage of
the program, from 2010 through 2012, a number of bills will be formulated and sent to the legislature for passage,
including a radio and TV broadcast law.
Taiwan has been a supporter of DAB and DAB+ broadcasting and planned for a full implementation of digital
broadcasting (both TV and radio) by 2010. Lack of marketing, promotion and consumer awareness has slowed this
digital expansion. The new laws currently being developed should set a firm timeline in place for digital conversion
of all media and telecoms.

Previous trials undertaken by BCC (formerly the public broadcaster, now the commercial broadcaster) had a network
of transmitters to cover 90% of the population, whilst the commercial operators have, so far, mainly concentrated
on Taipei city only.

Services on Air
In this country there are 1 Regular and 1 Trial National multiplexes on                Simulcast    Exclusive     Total
                                                                               DAB        11           0            11

                                                                               Data       2            0            2
Further information                                                        Total       13           0            13

United Kingdom
Population: 60.6 million                                                   Coverage:                                85%
Current situation
On Thursday 8 April 2010 a new law, The Digital Economy Act, was passed which will ensure the smooth transition
from analogue to digital radio. The Act includes six sections relating to radio which will allow a date for switchover
to be set, grant licence renewals to local and national analogue stations also broadcasting on digital to facilitate
investment in digital radio, gives Government the power to withdraw those renewals, gives greater operational
freedom for local Commercial Radio stations, gives Ofcom, the UK regulator, the flexibility to re-plan local multiplex
licences and extend the coverage area of Digital One, the national commercial multiplex and allows a new piece of
(secondary) legislation to be brought forward to extend multiplex licences. The Act gives broadcasters, manufacturers
and listeners a clear roadmap for the future of digital radio in the UK.
20 million people now tune in to digital radio each week, an increase of two million from last year, according to the
latest RAJAR figures released. Weekly reach has increased by 11% year on year from 18 million to 20 million, and now
43% of all radio listeners are listening to digital every week. DAB listening now accounts for 15.8% of all radio listening,
an increase of 20% year on year (up from 13.1% of all listening from last year and up from 15.1% in the last quarter).
The proportion of adults claiming to own a DAB set at home has increased by 7.6% year on year, with over one third
of the population or 18.2 million adults (aged 15+) now claiming to live in a household with a DAB receiver.

About 90% of the population now live within the coverage area of DAB services.

Services on Air
In this country there are 2 Regular National multiplexes, 10 Regular                  Simulcast    Exclusive     Total
Regional multiplexes and 37 Regular Local multiplexes on air.
                                                                               DAB      233          220          453
There are 43 public services and 126 commercial services available
                                                                              Data        3           16           19
on DAB.
                                                                             Total      236          236          472
Receiver Market
There are hundreds of DAB products on the market in the UK being
sold through a large number of high street and online retailers as well as most of
the big electrical chains. The cheapest receivers are sold at no more than GBP20.

Details of Trials
Slide show trials via DAB are currently on-going in the London area.

A Royal Charter and Agreement govern the public broadcaster; the BBC, with new
stations subject to Government approval and the Office of Communications (Ofcom) regulate the commercial sector.
Multiplex licences are currently awarded on a beauty contest formula rather than auctioned. Regulation controls such
things as minimum bit-rate for music stations, mandatory must carry' obligations, maintenance of service providers
stations commitments and the amount of data content. An Ofcom consultation document entitled 'The Future of
Radio requested comments from the industry on changes to the current regulation system (total% of data permissible
etc), there were around 160 responses to this document and Ofcom issued its final report at the end of 2007.
Analogue commercial broadcasters who receive a DAB licence have their existing analogue licences extended for
an additional eight years. Digital One (the national commercial multiplex operator) is required to carry the three existing
commercial analogue national radio stations, and local and regional commercial operators must carry local and
regional BBC (public radio) stations. DAB licences are awarded for 12 years. Commercial and public operators may
carry broadcast data services. The national commercial operator must invest in promoting and marketing DAB. As
part of the bid for the second multiplex DAB it was stipulated that DAB+ could not be used for radio stations though
it could be used for data services such as podcasts.
The UK Government published its final Digital Britain report on 16th June. This follows on from the governments Digital
Radio Working Group report which published its own recommendations for the digital future of radio in the UK. The
Digital Radio Working Group suggested that these criteria could be met between 2015 and 2020 and therefore a
switchover could occur as early as 2017.
The Digital Britain Report set out a five point plan for DAB to be in all new cars by 2013 is proposed and the report
called on the European Commission to lead a common Europe-wide approach to digital radio. The Digital Britain
report by Lord Carter, the British Minister for Communications, is the culmination of work by the Department of
Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (DIS).The report can be
found in full at
Details of the Digital Economy Act which sets out details of plans for migration of analogue to digital radio can be
found at

Further information

Other countries using DAB, DAB+ and DMB
Current situation
There are currently no digital radio broadcasts in Austria following the completion of two pilot projects in Vienna and
Tyrol early in 2009. Austria, however, is committed to a digital radio future and a report to the regulator, the RTR, at
the end of 2009 recommended DAB+ as the way forward.
Austria continues to prepare for digital radio with a Working Group to consider the country's digital future. Meanwhile,
authorities are watching neighbours Germany and Switzerland as they re-launch services in DAB+.

During the trial in 2008 it was estimated 19% of Austria's population was covered by the DAB Digital Radio signal.

Details of Trials
The trial held in 2008 included three transmitters in Vienna on Channel 12B. The multiplex featured classical music,
Radio Wien (local station), pop music and FM4 pop music.
The Austrian public broadcaster ORF, was awarded a DAB Digital Radio trial licence for the Federal States of Tyrol.
ORF set up two DAB Digital Radio transmitters in Tyrol, covering the Inn valley between Kufstein and the Brenner
Mountain (Channel 12C). 1, 3, FM4 and the regional station Radio Tyrol, wre available on the multiplex. This meant
that there was continuous DAB coverage between South Germany and Northern Italy.
All trials were completed by the end of 2008 and there are currently no DAB broadcasts in Austria.

Brunei Darussalam
Current situation
In 2007 RTB (Radio Television Brunei, the public and main broadcaster) began a DAB trial, which will last for five years
and will include simulcast services. Five RTB stations currently broadcast on DAB in Brunei.
A task force has been set up within RTB, which is working closely with AITI (Authority for Info-communications
Technology Industry of Brunei) on the plans for a commercial launch.

Current situation
Trials using DAB were were launched by Croatian Radio Television (HRT), the biggest Croatian public broadcaster,
in 1997. Centred around Zagreb, the HRT multiplex broadast simulcasts of its three national radio services.
This trial has now been completed.

DAB coverage exists in northern Croatia around the capital city of Zagreb and its suburbs. The network can potentially
reach 1.2 million people, or around 20% of the Croatian population.

Current situation
Estonia has been carrying out experimental DAB broadcasts since 2000. There were four DAB programmes available
on the multiplex of the Eesti Rahvusringhling (ERR) the Estonian Public Broadcaster though no information is currently
available on whether these services remain on trial.

Current situation
On 14th May 2008 FonTV, Africa's first mobile phone enabled television content service, was launched via DMB. The
network is operated by Black Star TV in collaboration with OneTouch and VDL. This launch followed on from a
successful trial that ran in Accra during 2007.
FonTV is a subscription based service costing around 2 Euros a month. Currently operating three mobile TV services,
including the BBC World News, Black Star ultimately hopes to provide up to six TV channels and four digital radio
services. While coverage is currently limited to the areas around Accra and Kumasi, the operator has plans to roll
out FonTV across the country.

At the moment coverage is limited to the two cities of Accra and Kumasi, but this will be extended in due course.

Current situation
There is currently interest in the Eureka 147 platform in Greece and, although no services are on air, DAB radios are
available in many shops.
Frequency planning has allocated a national multiplex and one for each of Greece's nine regions. It is likely that when
Greece does progress its digial radio roll out it will use DAB+.

Details of Trials
There are reports of occasional DAB tests in the Athens and Thessaloniki areas.

Current situation
The vast country of India with its population of over one billion people, has considered several variations of digital radio
over the past decade. All India Radio (AIR), the public broadcaster, started trial DAB broadcasts in New Delhi in late
1997, but was unable to progress to permanent broadcasts due to regulatory issues.
In 2010, the Indian government approved an AIR plan to move its entire network to DRM by 2013, with a possible
FM switch off by 2015.
India has tested mobile TV broadcasts using T-DMB and S-DMB.
The challenge for India is to ensure that any new digital technologies have receiver prices at a realistic level for the
price-sensitive Indian consumer.

Current situation
DAB+ has been adopted as the official digital radio standard in Israel.
The Israeli Ministry of Communication offered a permanent DAB+ country-wide licence for tender in 2008. The licence
is for a period of 14 years and the winning bidder is expected to make provision for 36 channels and achieve a
coverage area of 80%, rising to between 90% and 98%, depending on location. There has been no response to the
Ministry's initial call for bids, and it may be that a multi-platform landscape, including DAB+, would better suit the
country's needs.

The infrastructure is currently in place for DAB services to reach about 85% of the population.

Current situation
Following a DAB trial that has been ongoing in Kuwait City since March 2007, preparations are now under way for
the second phase of the trail. This may include either DAB+ or DMB. The current trial is led by Kuwait Radio and
broadcasts eight audio programmes from Liberation Tower on Band III, covering almost the whole country. A decision
regarding commercial roll out is expected once all the trials have been completed.

DAB trials cover about 90% of the population.

Current situation
In June 2001, SC LRTC (SC Lithuania Radio and Television Centre) started DAB test transmissions with 2 public radio
programmes. In 2003 four commercial services were added to the multiplex. About 20% of the population in the
Vilnius area are covered with DAB services. There is currently no information on whether these services remain on-air.

A 500W transmitter is installed in Vilnius and covers an area of approximately 30km (about 20% of the population).

Current situation
In recent years, Mexico has tested several digital radio platforms, including DAB, DRM and HD radio. While there is
support for digital radio via the Eureka 147 standard among some Mexican broadcasters, a Cofetel official says "The
primary problem for Eureka in Mexico is that here the L-band is used for maritime transmissions and space
In 2010, the country's broadcast regulator, Cofetel, decided on IBOC as Mexico's primary digital radio platform, in
line with its neighbour to the north, the USA.

Current situation
The Principality of Monaco has been broadcasting DAB digital radio services to 100% of its population of 32,000
people since 2005. There are five stations on air, MFM, Radio Classique, Radio Monaco, Riviera Radio and RMC. All
are simulcasts of existing FM services.

Due to Monaco's status as a constitutional monarchy the Government decides media policy under royal authority.

Current situation
The Namibia Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) held a conference in early March 2002 to look into digital broadcasting
for radio and television. As a result of the conference, greater and on-going co-operation between SABA (Southern
Africa Broadcasting Association) and SADIBA (Southern African Digital Broadcasting Association) has been planned.
While the immediate emphasis has been on Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT), which was launched in Namibia in
February 2005, broadcasters are equally interested in DAB Digital Radio. A number of digital radio test broadcasts
have been conducted in South Africa.

New Zealand
Current situation
New Zealand's government owned broadast and telecoms company, Kordiia, has been operating a DAB test service
in Auckland and Wellington since October 2006. The multiplex currently delivers a mix of DAB and DAB+ services,
including nine audio channels, slideshow and EPG.
Originally, New Zealand's digital radio allocation was in the L-Band, but the majority of broadcasters prefer spectrum
in Band III. Band III, however, is currently being used for terrestrial telelvision, so it is unlikely that a full roll out of services
will happen much before 2012 by which time TV will be digital in New Zealand.
Digital radio services in New Zealand are expected to be broadcast in DAB+.

Details of Trials
Kordia's test transmissions in Auckland and Wellington are ongoing using a mix of DAB and DAB+ broadcasts.

Current situation
RDP, Portugal's public broadcaster, has been on air with DAB since January 1998. Six stations broadcast to 75% of
the population. Transmitters are located in mainland Portugal, the Azores and Madeira and cover the district capitals,
the coastline of the country, the main routes and part of the Madeira and the Azores.
Expansion of the network awaits a decision by the Portuguese government. It is likely that future roll out will use DAB+
or DMB.

There are 42 transmitters in use, 27 in the mainland, nine in Azores and six in Madeira, covering more than 75% of
the population.

Russian Federation
Current situation
In 2005 and 2006 DAB was demonstrated at CSTB, Russia's largest broadcasting event. However, plans to launch
services have been delayed due to a lack of available spectrum.

Current situation
Slovakia currently has no digital radio broadcasts of any kind, nor are any trials known to be on air.
In 2002 a report entitled "Strategy and Technical Criteria for Implementation of Terrestrial Digital Audio Broadcating
in T-DAB System" was submitted to the government for approval.
The original intention was to start regular DAB transmissions in L-band in the western part of Slovakia in 2006, and
to later start DAB transmissions in VHF. There has been no recent update from Slovakia and therefore details of the
latest situation are unknown.

Current situation
Slovenia's public broadcaster, RTV Slovenia, broadcasts four DAB services on a trial multiplex covering the capital
city of Ljubljana and central Slovenia. About half a million people, or 22.5% of the population, are potentially able to
receive DAB transmissions.

South Africa
Current situation
South Africa is not yet running a commercial DAB/DMB/DAB+ system, but has been running a DAB pilot under a test
license for some time. This trial multiplex is operated by Sentech and broadcasts to the Johannesburg aread.
Migration to digital terrestrial television is scheduled for November 2011. Due to the intensive usage of Band III
spectrum by television there is currently no scope for DAB/DMB transmissions in South Africa. Once Band III is cleared
of analogue TV transmissions, it is envisaged that licensing of digital radio will begin.

Coverage of the ongoing DAB trial reaches approximately 18% of the South African population.

Details of Trials
By late 1997, test transmissions started in both Band III and L-Band covering Johannesburg with a DAB signal. This
established the first pilot trials in Africa. In November 1999 the demonstration audio services were replaced with seven
live audio programme simulcasts of licensed FM and AM services currently on air in Gauteng. Included are commercial
and public service broadcasters providing a mix of Talk Radio, Pop, Kwaito and Classical Music. Experimental PAD
slide-show and dynamic label services were included on one audio service in May 2000. A two-transmitter Band III
Single Frequency Network established in 2001 provides DAB coverage to approximately 18% of the South African
Apart from the ongoing DAB trial, some DMB trials have also been undertaken.

The regulatory framework for digital radio in South Africa has yet to be established. The Digital Broadcasting Advisory
Body (DBAB) established by the Minister of Communications completed its research into Digital Radio and Digital
Terrestrial Television. The recommendations made to the Minister are available via the website of SADIBA, the
Southern African Digital Broadcasting Association that actively supported the above processes, lobbied stakeholders
and shared information on systems and standards implemented world-wide.
In 2005 the Minister of Communications established a Digital Broadcasting Migration Working Group, comprising
representatives from the broadcasting industry, Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA),
government, civil society, organised labour and consumer groups. Its aim was to develop recommendations and
contribute towards the development of a national strategy for migrating from analogue to digital broadcasting. The
final report of the Working Group was presented to the Minister in November 2006 and is available at

Current situation
TRT, the Turkish Broadcasting Corporation, has aired DAB test transmissions broadcasting four simulcast services
in Band III and covering the capital, Ankara. A second transmitter was also planned for Istanbul. In 2010, neither
transmitter was broadcasting and it is assumed these trials are now complete.

Details of Trials
As well as the trials mentioned above, TRT had plans to broadcast MPEG-4 video over DAB.

Current situation
In March 2010, Vietnam's Ministry of Information and Communications published a draft plan for digital radio and
television broadcasting.
Broadtech SC, a subsidiary of VTV has had a DMB trial on-air in Hanoi since September 2008. Vietnam is also trialing
HD radio.

Potential building blocks for legislators and regulators
It is impossible and potentially dangerous to attempt to impose common regulation, or to suggest that one country's
regulatory regime would work in any other. However, it does make sense that within any collection of separate
regulator regimes, there should be some common threads.

Licence Period
DAB based services require new transmitter networks. This is an expensive exercise requiring considerable capital
investment. However, this allows for a cost effective investment if one is interested in using one network for both
Digital Radio (DAB/DAB+) and Multimedia Services (DMB for mobile TV, Data Services, etc).

In a dynamic radio/multimedia market, any new venture will take between five and seven years to achieve a
break-even point. Clearly, if the multiplex licence period is shorter than this, or if renewal of shorter duration licences
is not possible, it makes little commercial sense for potential operators to launch DAB based services.

The same applies to a lesser extent, to the broadcasters (if their licences are separate from those of the multiplex
operator). What incentive is there to invest in new facilities or programming if the licence duration is restricted? Time
is also required to build up a listener base for a new service, and for commercial broadcasters this often means little
or no advertising revenue for an extended period.

Programme Content
DAB based services enable the delivery of new digital radio stations or simulcast of existing radio programmes; audio,
data and multimedia are also possible. The data services can be either "stand-alone" or related to audio content,
providing the potential for multimedia listening.

The laws regarding delivery of data services vary substantially from country to country, being completely unregulated
in some parts of the world and restricted or denied in others.

Multimedia and mobile TV broadcast services using Eureka 147 based technology are already commercially available
in Korea, Germany, China, and trials have been held or are currently being held in: France, Italy, the Netherlands,
Norway, Switzerland, the UK, Luxembourg, Sweden, Denmark, Spain, Malta, the Czech Republic and Portugal. In
Asia and the rest of the world, DMB has also been trialled or there are plans for trials in Malaysia, Singapore, Australia,
New Zealand, South Africa, Kuwait and Ghana. Broadcasters are eager to exploit DAB's capabilities in the area of
broadcast content delivery and this will have an impact on how content is regulated in different countries.

Bit-rate of Audio Services
The technology of the Eureka 147 Family of Standards packages a finite number of kilobits into audio and data
services on a multiplex. It is possible to broadcast as many as 12 audio stations on one multiplex using traditional DAB
and around 28 audio stations with DAB+. These figures may vary depending on each country's regulation.

Across the world, there are differing views as to how many kilobits per second are required to broadcast music
effectively. In some countries, the level is 256 kbit/s for traditional DAB, but if this is applied across the multiplex, then
a maximum of only four audio stations can be carried. This may not leave room for new stations, and denies DAB
Digital Radio listeners the increased choice they should expect when they invest in new receivers. DAB+, which uses
a more efficient audio codec AAC+, provides the same perceived audio quality as DAB at about one third of the
sub-channel bit rate needed by DAB.

In other countries, such as the UK, stereo music is currently broadcast using 128 kbit/s, with an acceptable result.
This was confirmed by the Ofcom ICM poll, which showed that "81% of all respondents rated sound quality as either
excellent or good, with a further 14% rating it as average. Only 3% rated it as poor or very poor, with 2% who said
they didn't know." As digital technology has progressed, new audio coding algorithms have been developed which

can deliver the same spectrum audio quality at a reduced bit-rate. As a result, regulators could look at a system of
co-regulation in which minimum bit-rates are abolished, but licensees are required to establish and apply appropriate
criteria and practices for securing quality.

With the introduction of DAB+, broadcasters now have the opportunity to reduce the cost of each audio service.
Governments and Regulators have better spectrum efficiency and consumers have a larger choice of stations.
WorldDMB has successfully standardised the inclusion of this new audio coding algorithm, which can easily be added
to any DAB multiplex (ETSI TS 102 563 V1.1.1).

Analogue Switch Off
It is intended that conventional analogue FM broadcasting will eventually be replaced by digital radio, with Eureka
147 at its core. Therefore, one of the factors for the success of digital radio is the closure, at least for mainstream
broadcasting, of existing analogue stations.

It is unreasonable to expect this closure to happen overnight, but there is little incentive for broadcasters and receiver
manufacturers to take Eureka 147 Digital Radio seriously if governments continue to ignore analogue shut down in
their various legislative proposals.

To this end, governments should endeavour to make digital broadcasting available to every analogue broadcaster,
no matter how small. This means ensuring there is adequate spectrum available to accommodate all existing
analogue broadcasters; it could mean creating a plan to help smaller broadcasters to meet the cost of going digital.

Some countries have already suggested analogue switch off dates. In Germany, the goal is to phase out analogue
radio between 2010 and 2015, while the Norwegian public broadcaster, NRK, has set 2014 as a switch off date. The
Netherlands is aiming for 2019 and the UK has recently begun discussing possible dates between 2015 and 2020.

Spectrum Scarcity
Another key factor for success is the availability of frequencies for DAB based services. The spectrum demand was
studied by the World DAB Forum in 2000, and it was clearly demonstrated that an appropriate amount of spectrum
is needed during the migration from analogue to digital in order to accommodate all existing analogue broadcasters.

An international regional planning conference for the VHF and UHF broadcasting bands in Europe, Africa, Middle East
and the Islamic Republic of Iran held its final session in Geneva from May to June 2006 and resulted in increased
spectrum for T-DAB and DVB-T in Band III (VHF) and for DVB-T in Bands IV and V (UHF).

The increased spectrum for T-DAB is partially available now and after a transition period it will become fully available
in 2015 (except for a few countries when this will not happen until 2020). This positive result will contribute to a
structured development of digital radio.

Product Overview
Long gone are the days when digital radio manufacturing was limited to a handful of products from a small number
of receiver manufacturers. Today, in the markets where DAB, DAB+ and/or DMB has been adopted and is promoted,
you'll find a product range that is impressive, diverse and affordable.

Different markets have different needs and product availability reflects this. The success of DMB in Korea leads to
a high proportion of multimedia devices in Asian countries. Whereas in Europe, audio remains the priority and so
traditional radio products are most popular. Throughout these markets, new product launches occur on a regular
basis and keeping up with them is quite a challenge. This brochure can therefore only give a brief overview of the
most popular types.

In-home receivers
This category encompasses traditional radio devices: kitchen radios, tuner
separates, mini/midi hifi systems, clock radios and boom boxes. Overall these
products are sold at competitive prices and consequently are rapidly gaining
market share. Whilst they focus mainly on audio, new features such as
rewind/pause, timer record, and the availability of an EPG (Electronic Programme
Guide) mean that consumers find their radio listening enriched and improved in
ways they could previously only imagine.

In-car receivers
The Eureka 147 family of technologies was designed to improve radio reception
on the move, and this forms a natural alliance with the in-car radio market.
Although developments in this area have been slower than in others, the in-car
market is now firmly back on the agenda. In December 2007, PURE Digital
launched an adaptor product which converts an existing FM car stereo to enable
it to receive DAB digital radio. This product has been well received and is currently
selling very strongly in the UK. Additionally, in August 2008 UK car manufacturer
Ford announced the introduction of DAB digital radio into three of its car ranges,
with more vehicles getting it as an optional extra in the near future. Other car manufacturers with similar audio
offerings include Vauxhall/Opel, Audi and Mitsubishi.

Multimedia devices
Dominated by Korean and Chinese manufacturers making products for their
domestic markets, this category includes mobile phones, MP4 players, portable
media players and pocket TVs. In China, the market was boosted by special
content being offered for the Summer 2008 Olympics. Manufacturing is led by
Longcheer, Aigo and BBEF. Some of the key Korean manufacturers include LG,
iRiver, Samsung and Ontimetec.

Handheld devices
In addition to multimedia devices, audio based handheld products are also widely
available. As silicon technology has developed, these products have become ever
smaller in size and with longer lasting batteries, ensuring that they are ideal for
listening on the move. The rise of the iPod has also led to the introduction of DAB
enabled docking devices.

All information is correct to the best of our knowledge at the time of document creation 10 September 2010.
WorldDMB cannot take responsibility for any mistakes or incorrect data.
WorldDMB Forum Project Office
The RadioCentre
77 Shaftesbury Avenue
London, W1D 5DU
United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 20 7306 2531
Fax: +44 20 7306 2539

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