Jigsaw In Listening by DarmanDevils1

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									                   RESEARCH PROPOSAL


THE EFFECTIFENESS OF USING JIGSAW TECHNIQUE IN TEACHING LISTENING
                         COMPREHENSION

                          DARMAN
                          075 204 076




               ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
      FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES
          STATE UNIVERSITY OF MAKASSAR
                       2010
                                   CHAPTER I


                                INTRODUCTION


       The chapter deals with background, problem statement, objective of the

research significance of the research and scope of the research.

A. Background

        English as an international language is used for communication in most

activities and field in the world. English has become a global language, used in

communication, education, technical and scientific information and technology. In

Indonesia, English is taught to the students of elementary, junior, and senior high

school, and even to university students as one of their subject. English instruction at

the university level is usually the intensive procedure, which implies close study of

short passages, including syntactic, semantic, and lexical analyses and translation into

the Ll to study meaning. Chaudron (2004).

       In English language, there are integrated skills to be mastered such as:

speaking, listening, reading, and writing. As Haycraft states (1978:8) that there are

various skills in mastering of language: receptive skills, listening (understanding the

spoken language), reading (understanding the written language), and productive

skills-speaking and writing.In modern era, with the progress and advance of science

and technology many people learn English to support their understanding about the
documents, literatures, written information, written science, and technology, culture,

etc. English has an important tool of international communication in Indonesia.

       Listening as one of the four language skills is one of oral and receptive skills.

Listening is the language skill which learners usually find the most difficult. This is a

very essential component in communication because we cannot catch someone's idea

that is transmitted to us if we don’t have a good listening skill. According to Rivers in

Sulmiati (2002:1) that we have to spend much of our time through listening activities,

he estimates that the time adult spends in communication activities is 45 percent for

listening, 30 percent for speaking, 16 percent to reading , and only 9 percent to

writing skills. Listening not only giving passive attention to what is said but also

more than we have to be more active to get the meaning of the spoken language.

       Listening may be called the pivot of speaking skills since people cannot

respond to a speaker unless they understand what they have heard. Many languages

teaching experts (Chastarn 1976. Rivers 1997) say in recognize as follows: They need

to reinforce students listening skills, because it is evident, that many student with

good speaking ability are deficient in listening comprehension.

       How the students perceive and interact with one another is a neglected aspect

of instruction. Much training time is devoted to helping teachers arrange appropriate

interactions between students and materials (i.e., textbooks, curriculum programs,

etc.), some time is spent on how teachers should interact with students, but how

students should interact with one another is relatively ignored. It shouldn't be. How
teachers structure student-student interaction patterns will have a lot to say about how

well the students learn, how they feel about school and the teacher or professor, how

they feel about each other, and their self-esteem.

       There are three basic ways students can interact with each other as they learn.

They can compete to see who is "best"; they can work individualistically on their own

toward a goal without paying attention to other students; or they can work

cooperatively with a vested interest in each other's learning as well as their own.

       Of the three interaction patterns, competition is presently the most dominant.

The research indicates that a vast majority of students in this country view school as a

competitive enterprise where you try to do better than the other students. This

competitive expectation is already fairly widespread when students enter school and

grows stronger as they progress through school.

       In the last 15 years, the individualistic interaction pattern has been the most

talked about but has never really caught on. Cooperation among students where they

celebrate each other's successes, encourage each other to do homework, and learn to

work together regardless of ethnic backgrounds, male or female, bright or struggling,

handicapped or not, is rare.

       Even though these three interaction patterns are not equally effective in

helping students learn concepts and skills, it is important that students learn to

interact effectively in each of these patterns. Students will face situations where all

three interaction patterns are operating, and they will need to be able to be effective in
each situation. They also should be able to select an appropriate interaction pattern

suited to the situation.

        A cooperative learning method is believed as being able to give chance for

student to be involved in discussion, has courage and critical thinking and is willing

to take responsibility of his/her own learning. Although it considers as an active role

of students as more important, does not mean that teacher in the classroom is not

participating. In the learning process, teacher has roles as designer, facilitator and

guide in the learning process.

        A cooperative learning method has several types, namely write-pair-share,

group investigation, Students Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD), Teams-Games-

Tournament (TGT), Team Assisted Individualized (TAI) and Jigsaw. One of its

interesting types is jigsaw. The jigsaw classroom is very simple to apply. Jigsaw is a

strategy of the learning method which demands the students to learn on group with 4-

6 members’ students who have heterogeneous ability. Each home group members

meet in expert groups to study the material assigned to each group member. After

discussion, they go back into their group members and explain their discussion to

his/her group members. . In fact children like to interact with the others, so jigsaw is

the right method to increase their language ability. As we know in jigsaw method the

children can explore speaking ability while interact with their friends.

        Jigsaw is one of cooperative learning technique that reduces racial conflict

among school children, promotes better learning, improves student motivation, and

increases enjoyment of the learning experience. The jigsaw technique was first
developed in the early 1970s by Elliot Aronson and his students at the University of

Texas and the University of California. Since then, hundreds of schools have used the

jigsaw classroom with great success. The jigsaw approach is considered to be a

particularly valuable tool in averting tragic events such as the Columbine massacre.

B. Problem Statement

          Based on the background above, the writer formulates research question as

follow:

          Is the use of jigsaw technique effective in teaching listening comprehension?

C. Objective of the Research

          Based on the problem statement above this research aims to find out the

effectiveness of using jigsaw technique in teaching listening comprehension.

D. Significance of this Research

          The finding of this research will expected to be a piece of useful information

for teaching of English listening comprehension by using jigsaw technique with a

hope that using Jigsaw Technique can improving the listening comprehension skill of

the students.

E. Scope of the Research

          The problem of this research is limited to the effectiveness of using jigsaw

technique in teaching listening comprehension. In this research, the researcher use

story as the material in listening subject. With the hope that students will be more

encourage to learn English.
                                     CHAPTER II


                 REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

        This chapter presents the literature review, which deals with the previous

related research findings and some pertinent ideas.

A. Previous Related Research Findings

        Many researchers have been conducting studies related to this research, there

are as follow:

1. Nappu, (1995:38) that teaching listening by using tape recorder is more effective
     either through native speaker recording or non native speaker recording than

     direct presentation with non native speaker.

2. Gusrianti, (1996:31) found that teaching listening class by using native speaker
     voice recorded material is very helpful.

3.   Aronson (1976) reported that jigsaw technique promote better learning, improve

     students’ motivation and allows greater amount of content to be studied and

     share by students in a group.

4.   Kawamura (2004) reported that Jigsaw technique gives a good opportunity to

     work alone and with others in group: to be independent, and also responsible.

       Based on those findings above, researcher conclude that the teacher should

find out the various and suitable teaching strategies. Jigsaw technique is one of the
the solution to break some difficulties in teaching and learning foreign language

especially in teaching listening comprehension.

B. Some Concepts of Listening

1. What is Listening?

       According to Howatt and Dakin (1974), listening is the ability to identify and

understand what others are saying. This process involves understanding a speaker's

accent or pronunciation, the speaker’s grammar and vocabulary, and comprehension

of meaning. An able listener is capable of doing these four things simultaneously.

       Thomlison's (1984) definition of listening includes "active listening," which

goes beyond comprehending as understanding the message content, to comprehension

as an act of empathetic understanding of the speaker. Furthermore, Gordon (1985)

argues that empathy is essential to listening and contends that it is more than a polite

attempt to identify a speaker's perspectives. Rather more importantly, empathetic

understanding expands to "egocentric prosocial behavior". Thus, the listener

altruistically acknowledges concern for the speaker's welfare and interests.

       Ronald and Roskelly (1985) define listening as an active process requiring the

same skills of prediction, hypothesizing, checking, revising, and generalizing that

writing and reading demand; and these authors present specific exercises to make

students active listeners who are aware of the "inner voice" one hears when writing.

       According to Bulletin (1952), listening is the fundamental language skill. It is

the medium through which people gain a large portion of their education, their

information, their understanding of the world and of human affairs, their ideals, sense
of values, and their appreciation. In this day of mass communication, much of it oral,

it is of vital importance that students are taught to listen effectively and critically.

        According to second language acquisition theory, language input is the most

essential condition of language acquisition. As an input skill, listening plays a crucial

role in students’ language development. Krashen (1985) argues that people acquire

language by understanding the linguistic information they hear. Thus language

acquisition is achieved mainly through receiving understandable input and listening

ability is the critical component in achieving understandable language input. Given

the importance of listening in language learning and teaching, it is essential for

language teachers to help students become effective listeners. In the communicative

approach to language teaching, this means modeling listening strategies and

providing listening practice in authentic situations: precisely those that learners are

likely to encounter when they use the language outside the classroom. Therefore, we

in this country should establish “listening-first” as fundamental in foreign language

teaching.

2. The Nature of Listening Comprehension

        Since listening is, according to Wang Shouyuan (2003), the most important

component in the five aspects of overall English competence he suggests as listening,

speaking, reading, writing and translation, it deserves particular attention. Educators

must actively explore the nature and process of listening comprehension and study

the theory and methodology of listening comprehension in order to improve listening
teaching outcomes and make students recognize that listening comprehension is the

crucial aspect of English learning.

       From the point of view of constructivist linguistics, foreign language teaching

should focus on language form and structure, thus, listening teaching is undertaken in

each of the four aspects of language form. When students are taught to understand a

passage of text, teachers first let them discriminate between the pronunciation of

vowels and consonants, then understand vocabulary, sentences and discourses. The

goals of this listening teaching model from the “bottom-up” is to help students

understand the meaning of vocabulary by discriminating sounds, to understand

sentence meaning, and to monitor and control the meaning of discourses by

understanding sentence meaning.

       Since the 1970s, with the development of functional language theory, there

has been an emphasis on the research of language function in society. Functional

linguistic experts recognise language as a communicative tool, but not an isolated

structure system. Consequently the teaching of listening is not simply intended to

make students hear a sound, a word or a sentence, rather, the goal is to cultivate

students’ abilities to understand speakers’ intentions accurately and communicate

with each other effectively.

       Listening is really active process in which in daily communication the

listeners play a very active role in receiving the overall messages from the speakers.

Rasyid (1997) writes forward the nature of listening, as follow:
       a. Listening is receptive

            It means that receiving message from someone else by direct or face

            communication.

       b. Listening is oral

            It refers to incoming message what we usually produced

Abot et al (1981) state that there are some purposes and nature of listening

comprehension:

       1. Giving experience to the learners in listening to a wide variety of

            language, and different text types.

       2. Giving training to the learners to listen flexibility.

       3. Providing a stimulus for other activities.

       4.   Giving opportunities to the learners to interact while listening.

3. The Process of Listening Comprehension

       With a greater understanding of language quality and the development of

teaching theory, there has been a recognition of the process of listening

comprehension as needing greater emphasis.

       Listening is an invisible mental process, making it difficult to describe.

However, it is recognised by Wipf (1984) that listeners must discriminate between

sounds, understand vocabulary and grammatical structures, interpret stress and

intonation, understand intention and retain and interpret this within the immediate as
well as the larger socio-cultural context of the utterance. Rost (2002) defines

listening, in its broadest sense, as a process of receiving what the speaker actually

says (receptive orientation); constructing and representing meaning (constructive

orientation); negotiating meaning with the speaker and responding (collaborative

orientation); and, creating meaning through involvement, imagination and empathy

(transformative orientation). Listening, then, is a complex, active processes of

interpretation in which listeners match what they hear with what they already know.

4. Strategies of Listening Comprehension

       Listening strategies are techniques or activities that contribute directly to the

comprehension and recall of listening input. Listening strategies can be classified by

how the listener processes the input.

       Top-down strategies are listener based; the listener taps into background

knowledge of the topic, the situation or context, the type of text, and the language.

This background knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to

interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next. Top-down strategies

include:

• listening for the main idea

• predicting

• drawing inferences

• summarizing
        Bottom-up strategies are text based in which the listener relies on the

language in the message, that is, the combination of sounds, words, and grammar that

creates meaning. Bottom-up strategies include:



• listening for specific details

• recognizing cognates

• recognizing word-order patterns

        Listening comprehension tends to be an interactive, interpretive process in

which listeners use prior knowledge and linguistic knowledge in understanding

messages. Listeners use metacognitive, cognitive and socio-affective strategies to

facilitate comprehension and to make their learning more effective. Metacognitive

strategies are important because they regulate and direct the language learning

process. Research shows that skilled listeners use more metacognitive strategies than

their less-skilled counterparts (O'Malley & Chamot, 1990, Vandergrift, 1997a). The

use of cognitive strategies helps students to manipulate learning materials and apply

specific techniques to a listening task. Socio-affective strategies describe the

techniques listeners use to collaborate with others, to verify understanding or to lower

anxiety.

C. The Concept of Jigsaw Technique

1. The History of Jigsaw

        The jigsaw teaching technique was invented and named in 1971 in Austin,

Texas by a graduate professor named Elliot Aronson. Recent desegregation had
forced a racial mix on the students of Austin, and many teachers were unable to cope

with the turmoil and hostility of the situation (Aronson, 2007).

       After studying the problem at the request of the school superintendent,

Aronson decided that inter-school competition was leading students to study too

much on their own, and was interfering with the idea of a cooperative classroom.

       By arranging the students in culturally and racially diverse groups, Aronson

and his team of graduate students were able to reduce the divisions between students.

In fact, when one Hispanic boy named Carlos was tormented by his peers for his

difficulty with the language, the bullying students were not admonished for their

behavior. Instead, they were reminded that the exam was in fifteen minutes, and their

sole source of information on the subject was Carlos, the boy they had been

harassing. Behavior improved notably and immediately.

       Elliot Aronson and his graduate students invented the technique in order to

defuse an explosive situation created by the desegregation of the city schools. Due to

desegregation, African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic students were placed in

the same classroom for the first time. In just a short time, there was an atmosphere of

turmoil and hostility brought on by long-standing suspicion, distrust, and fear

between groups (Aronson, 2008). The superintendent of schools called Aronson and

asked for his help. Aronson agreed only if he was allowed to look at the entire

problem and give long-range solutions and not just temporary solutions that acted as

a band-aid. Time was of the essence so it was difficult to follow standard research

protocol that relied on extensive literature reviews. Systematic observations were
done (Aronson, 1990). Observations of the classrooms indicated that inter-group

hostility was being fueled by the competitive environment of the classroom (Aronson,

2008). It was speculated that competition for teacher attention was important because

for students in elementary school the teacher is one of the most important people in

their life. Because of this, it was important for students to be called on so the teacher

could see they knew the right answer. Students may harbor hope that their classmates

would fail so they could have an opportunity to show that they were smarter than

their classmate. If the classmate was successful, the student would feel disappointed.

For students that were deemed “losers” they would grow feelings of envy and

jealousy towards students that were successful and in term ridicule successful

students. Successful students may then in term deem the “loser” students as

unintelligent and uninteresting (Aronson, 1990). It was decided a shift needed to take

place from classrooms that fostered competition to classrooms that fostered

cooperation (Aronson, 2008). The first step was to change the structure of the

classroom. A shift needed to be made from a competitive situation to a situation that

fostered trust, empathy, and understanding (Aronson, 1990).

       The success of the jigsaw classroom technique was obvious to Aronson and

his colleagues after a few weeks. Teachers were spontaneously stating they were

greatly satisfied with the technique and that the atmosphere in their classroom was

transforming. Other significant individuals in the school such as support staff also

indicated a change in the atmosphere. The jigsaw classroom technique held up to

experimental procedures. The jigsaw technique was randomly introduced into some
classrooms and not introduced into other classrooms. This allowed for comparisons

between students in jigsaw classes and those not in jigsaw classes. Students in the

jigsaw classes expressed significantly less prejudice and negative stereotyping, more

self-confident, and liked school better when tested objectively. Behavioral data

supported these self-report measures. Students in jigsaw classes were absent less

frequently, they intermingled more in the cafeteria and in the school yard, and they

performed better on objective exams of curricular material this was especially true for

minority students (Aronson, 1990).

2. The Definition of Jigsaw

      1. Elliot Aronson (1971) said that the jigsaw technique is so named because

         each student in jigsaw classroom has to become an expert on singletopic that

         is crucial part of a larger academic puzzle.

      2. Aronson (1991) state that jigsaw simple to use in cooperative strategies work

         in listening classroom.

      3. Benneth (1991) said that jigsaw is a cooperative learning structure that

         promotes the sharing and the understanding of ideas or texts.

      4. As it name implies the basic mechanism underlying this activity is that

         information needed to complete task.

3. The Main Concept of Jigsaw in Listening

       Jigsaw listening is the term popularized by “Marion Geddes” and “Gill

Sturtridge” to describe an activity in which different student get different information

from different listening passages which they then have to share in order to perform
some kind of task. In other words three students may each listen to tape conversation.

The conversation they listen to is different in each case this giving each student a

different piece of the “Jigsaw”. The students’ then join together to use their “piece” to

put jigsaw together. In many ways the idea is similar to the using video. In this way,

we let half the class watch without sound and the rest hear without a picture. They

can compare notes and build a complete picture of what happened before watching

the video with both picture and sound.

       A varian of this for half the students to sit with their backs to the screen while

the other half tells them what is happening while is being shown. When the first half

then watches the video they can see how accurately it has been described to them.

4. The Implementation of Jigsaw

       According to Aronson (2008) there are ten steps considered important in the

implementation of the jigsaw classroom:

       1. Students are divided into a 5 or 6 person jigsaw group. The group should

           be diverse in terms of ethnicity, gender, ability, and race.

       2. One student should be appointed as the group leader. This person should

           initially be the most mature student in the group.

       3. The day’s lesson is divided into 5-6 segments (one for each member)

       4. Each student is assigned one segment to learn. Each tudent should only

           have direct access to their own segment.

       5. Students should be given time to read over their segment at least twice to

           become familiar with it. Students do not need to memorize it.
       6. Temporary experts groups should be formed in which one student from

           each jigsaw group joins other students assigned to the same segment.

           Students in this expert group should be given time to discuss the main

           points of their segment and rehearse the presentation they are going to

           make to their jigsaw group.

       7. Students come back to their jigsaw group.

       8. Students present his or her segment to the group. Other members are

           encouraged to ask question for clarification.

       9. The teacher needs to float from group to group in order to observe the

           process. Intervene if any group is having trouble such as a member being

           dominating or disruptive. There will come a point that the group leader

           should handle this task. Teachers can whisper to the group leader as to

           how to intervene until the group leader can effectively do it themselves.

       10. A quiz on the material should be given at the end so students realize that

           the sessions are not just for fun and games, but that they really count.


The following list of Jigsaw steps explains the process in more detail:

   1. Teacher identifies a range of materials related to the topics addressed in the

       lessons. Consider the students who will be involved in this exercise, and, if

       necessary, try to identify selections of varying text difficulty and

       sophistication.
2. Teacher divides students into four to six jigsaw groups, known as the home

   group, and appoints one student as a leader. The group size should be

   dependent upon the number of selections to be assigned. The teacher divides

   the lesson into four to six segments. Each group member receives the task of

   reading one of the targeted selections. Depending on the nature of the group,

   the teacher may allocate the specific readings to each person, or the group

   itself may decide who will tackle which selection.

3. Students read the selections independently. If the materials are photocopied,

   encourage students to underline important information they will need to share

   with their group. "Sticky notes" are an option for materials that cannot be

   written upon. Students may also jot down notes, or follow a graphic note-

   taking outline provided by the teacher as a means for extracting important

   concepts from their passage. Students should only have access and knowledge

   of the text related to their specific reading or assignment.

4. All of the students in the home group are now "experts" on the assigned

   reading. They meet with their home group and discuss the concepts,

   highlights, and other information they feel is most important. This group also

   might also create a summary of key points, a concept map, a graphic outline,

   or highlighted notes which will be shared with other groups.

5. Members of the home group leave and meet with new, secondary groups.

   Each member of the new group has key information that no one else in the

   new, secondary group has. The new groups teach each other what the home
         group felt to be the most important and relevant information. This is where the

         jigsaw starts to come together. Members from the separate groups have come

         together to teach each other their assigned reading. Students are encouraged to

         "test" one another and ask questions for further clarification.

      6. The final piece to the Jigsaw activity involves a return meeting of the original

         group. During this time, individual group members share in turn the pertinent

         information they learned from participating the second groups. All the

         information comes together. The rest of the group is accountable for learning

         this new information, which will be assessed during the evaluation of this unit

         of study.

         According to Penny Ur (1984), in jigsaw listening different but connected

passages, each of which supplies some part of what they need to know. Then they

come together to exchange and pools their information and are thereby enable

reconstruct a complete picture a situation or perform a task. In other words, the

listening functions as basis for various other linguistic, Benneth B (1991) jigsaw class

is:

1. Organize the class into cooperative home groups of, say, three and hand out three

different sets of information which relate to particular topic for example, rules for

language usage, structure of a novel (page one, two, and three).

2. Organize the class into cooperative expert groups by teaming up students with like

materials. For example, all page one students in the class together, page two, and so
on. This group reads the materials and discusses the best method of sharing their

acquired knowledge and understanding with their cooperative home group.

3. Organize the expert group to return to their home groups. Each student presents

their understanding of their part of the topic and the home group must then

demonstrate understanding of the whole topic. For example, how the convention of a

cavital letter, a full stop, and comma are used in sentence or how the setting, plot, and

characters, work together in the structure of a novel. The demonstration of that

understanding may a written or oral activity.

4. The Benefit of Jigsaw

   1.   Teacher is not the sole provider of knowledge

   2.   Efficient way to learn

   3.   Students take ownership in the work and achievement

   4.   Students are held accountable among their peers

   5.   Learning revolves around interaction with peers

   6.   Students are active participants in the learning process

   7.   Builds interpersonal and interactive skills



5. The Problem With Jigsaw Method

a. The Problem of the Dominant learner

        Many jigsaw teachers find it useful to appoint one of the learners to be the

discussion leader for each session, on a rotating basis. It is the leader's job to call on

learners in a fair manner and try to spread participation evenly. In addition, learners
quickly realize that the group runs more effectively if each student is allowed to

present her or his material before question and comments are taken. The self-interest

of the group eventually reduces the problem of dominance.

b. The Problem of the slow learner

       Teachers must make sure that learner with poor study skills do not present an

inferior report to the jigsaw group. If this were to happen, the jigsaw experience

might backfire (the situation would be akin to the untalented baseball player dropping

a routine fly ball with the bases loaded, earning the wrath of teammates). To deal with

this problem, the jigsaw technique relies on "expert" groups. Before presenting a

report to their jigsaw groups, each learner enters an expert group consisting of other

learners who have prepared a report on the same topic. In the expert group, learners

have a chance to discuss their report and modify it based on the suggestions of other

members of their expert group. This system works very well. In the early stages,

teachers may want to monitor the expert groups carefully, just to make sure that each

learner ends with an accurate report to bring to her or his jigsaw group. Most teachers

find that once the expert groups get the hang of it, close monitoring becomes

unnecessary.

c. The Problem of Bright learners Becoming Bored

       Boredom can be a problem in any classroom, regardless of the learning

technique being used. Research suggests, however, that there is less boredom in

jigsaw classrooms than in traditional classrooms. Youngsters in jigsaw classes report

liking school better, and this is true for the bright learners as well as the slower
learners. After all, being in the position of a teacher can be an exciting change of pace

for all learners. If bright learners are encouraged to develop the mind set of "teacher,"

the learning experience can be transformed from a boring task into an exciting

challenge. Not only does such a challenge produce psychological benefits, but the

learning is frequently more thorough.

d. The Problem of Students Who Have Been Trained to Compete

       Research suggests that jigsaw has its strongest effect if introduced in

elementary school. When children have been exposed to jigsaw in their early years,

little more than a "booster shot" (one hour per day) of jigsaw in middle school and

high school is required to maintain the benefits of cooperative learning.

        What if jigsaw has not been used in elementary school? Admittedly, it is an

uphill battle to introduce cooperative learning to 16-year olds who have never before

experienced it. Old habits are not easy to break. But they can be broken, and it is

never too late to begin. Experience has shown that although it generally takes a bit

longer, most high school learners participating in jigsaw for the first time display a

remarkable ability to benefit from the cooperative structure (http://www.jigsaw.org)



D. Theoretical Framework



          INPUT                            PROCESS                           OUTPUT

         Listening                      The teaching and                    The students
       comprhension                     learning listening                  achievement
         materials                         comprhension
                                          through jigsaw
                                             technique
    In this design, there are three elements, namely:

     1. INPUT refers to the materials that research gave.

     2. PROCESS refers to the teaching and learning listening through jigsaw

       technique.

     3. OUTPUT refers to the students’ achievement.

E. Hypothesis

1. Null Hypothesis (H0) : There is no significance difference between the result of the

  pre-test and post-test of the student’s listening comprehension achievement

  through jigsaw technique.

2. Alternative Hypothesis (H1) : There is a significance difference between the result

  of the pre-test and post-test of the student’s listening comprehension achievement

  through jigsaw technique.




                                  CHAPTER III


                      RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
          This part deals with description of Research design, Variables, Population and

Sample, instrument of the research, and data collecting procedure, data collection

procedure, and technique of data analysis.

A. Research Design

          The design of this research is one group pretest and posttest design. Treatment

(X) is given between pretest (T1) and posttest (T2). The design is described as

follow:

           O1 ------------- X ------------- O2
          Where:
                   O1     : Pre-test
                   X      : Treatment
                   O2     : Post-test
                                                 (Gay, 1981:282)


B. Research Variables

  a.      Independent variable is the use of jigsaw technique in teaching listening in the

          classroom.

  b.      Dependent variables is the student’s achievement in listening comprehension.




C. Population and Sample

  a.      Population.
                  The writer in this case decides that the population of the research is the

         second year students of SMK 1 Sinjai consist of 130 students from XI A

         accountancy, XI B accountancy, XI C accountancy, and XI D accountancy.

   b.    Sample

                  In this research, the researcher will use the cluster-random sampling

         technique; that is carried out by choosing one class of eight classes. The total

         sample size were 40 student.



D. Instrument of the Research

         The data ccollected by using English story administred in pre-test and post-

test. Pre-test is intended to find out the prior level of the student’s listening ability,

while the post-test is intended to find out the effectiveness of the treatment.



E. Data Collection Procedure

        In collecting the data, the researcher used some procedures as follows:

   a. Pretest

             It is previously mentioned that the pretest before the treatment.




   b. Treatment
             After give pretest, the researcher gives treatment to the students by

        teaching listening through jigsaw technique.
  a. Posttest

         The posttest is undertaken after treatment. The purpose is to measure

whether the technique can or not significantly improving students listening

comprehension skill. The procedures are the same as done in the pretest.



F. Procedure of Treatment

    The first day of the treatment:

  1.   After gave pretest, the writer will teach the students by using jigsaw

       technique, but before teach them the writer explain to them what the jigsaw

       technique is, and procedures of jigsaw technique in listening process.

  2.   Then the writer divide students into five members jigsaw group.

  3.   The writer will divede the material into three segments, one for one group.

  4.   After that the writer assign each group to listen one segment of some one

       famous biography.

  5.   Then each group make conclusion what they listen after that each group will

       present their conclusion.

  6.   Finally, the writer give some questions based on the materials.

    The second day of the treatment:

  1. The writer divide into five members jigsaw group.

  2. The writer divide the material into five segment for one group.

  3. After that the writer assign each group to listen one segment for one story.

  4. Then each group make conclusion what they listen.
       The third and forth day of the treatment same with the treatment on the first day,

but the the writer give segment of one famous song and one famous fable.

G. Technique of Data Analysis

    The data collect from the tests and analysis as follows:

  1.     Scoring the students’ answer of listening comprehension both in pre-test and

         post-test by using the following criteria:

                                         Student correct action score
                 Student score =                                             X 10
                                        The total number of command



  2.     Classifying the score of the student into the following measurement score:

                 9.6 to 10 is the classified as execellent
                 8.6 to 9.5 is the classified as very good
                 7.6 to 8.5 is the classified as good
                 6.6 to 7.5 is the classified as fairly good
                 5.6 to 6.5 is the classified as fair
                 3.6 to 5.5 is the classified as poor
                 0.0 to 3.5 is the classified as very poor
                                                         (Kanwil DepDikBud, 1985)




  3.     Computing the frequency of the rate pecentage of the students’ score:

                        n
                 % =        X 100
                       N
                Where:
                                  n : frequency

                                  N : total number of students


4.    Finding out the mean score of the pre-test and post-test by using the following

      formula:


                X=
                     X
                     N


                                                                       (Gay:1981)
                Where:
                                  X       : mean score
                                  X      : total score of test

                                  N       : the number of students

5. Finding out the significant difference between pretest and post-test by

     calculating them of the t-test for non-independent simple.



      t =
                             D
                                                           D 
                                                                  D
                                 ( D )   2                       40
                D 
                         2

                              N
                     N ( N  1)

       Where:



        t                = Test of significance

       D                 = the difference between pre-test and post-test

       D                 = The mean of the different score
D        = The sum of D score

( D) 2   = The square of   D
N         = the number of subject

                              (Gay, L. R. in Hafsa, 2007: 331)

								
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