by Philip Hudson There are several areas within the Royal Forests by dfsiopmhy6


    OId Mills, Gritstone Quarries and Millstone     along with the advent of settled agriculture
         Making in the Forest of Lancaster
                                                    and the expansion of corn growing on various
                  by Philip   Hudson                scales, and examples are to be found in
                                                    prehistoric and recorded communitles all over
                                                    the world.
    There are several areas within the Royal         It is thought that the bee-hive types were
    Forests and Chases of Lancaster where the        developed and proliferated within the
    geology contains a millstone grit type rock      expanding Roman Empire, and must be placed in
    which is most suitable for the production of     the introduced categoryr €ls are the flat
    millstones.                                      Anglo-Norse guernstones found in association
    This rock, one of the Upper Carboniferous        with 9th and 1 Oth century steadings,
    series sandstones, often referred to as          shielings and settlements. (2)
    Gritstone, occurs in many areas of northern      The types within the Anglo-Norse domain do
    England but only certain types are suitable      include some very small water powered
    for miltstone This Gri.tstone has       examples. It must, however, be stated that
    been a valuable resource to manr and as such     the Roman period also saw the development and
    has been very extensively quarried and mined     use of waterwheel driven larger stones,
    to provide the material which can be              (Vitruvian Mills).(3) This method which was
    fashioned into a quite sophisticated and         developed and in general use for corn
    useful tool, the millstone or grJ-ndstone.       grinding, and some industrial processes, in
    There is also a history of the continulng        the western worl-d until well into the
    development of the technology attached to the    Industrial Revolution periodr dnd is
    working of this rock, whlch appears to be at     incidentally a method which is being used
    a vernacular level, at least within this area    more and more today in order to help meet the
    of the study.                                    current demand for more natural high-fibre
    Different kinds of ccftn grinding stones have    flours. Not all of the above cases used a
    been in use, dating back-to pre-Roman times"     millstone grit type rock to produce the
    In chronological classification the earliest     grLndstones, as there are many other suitable
    types are the crude saddle-quern type, the       rock choices available depending on the
    bee-hive type guerns of the Roman period, the    geography and geology of the working site,
                                                    'the flour fineness required, and the trading
    flatter and larger hand worked type querns of    opportunities of nations able to import
    the Anglo-Norse period, and by the medieval      grindstones if this is a reguirement. Stone
    period a series of much larger stones which      of different roughness and quality was in
    are worked by water and wind driven mills.       use, and the way the stone was furrowed (cut
    It is pcssihle that all of these types are       and grooved), enabled usage for different
    represented within the study areaT being         types of work, grinding different types of
    fashioned from the "gritstt, though specimens    crops or industrial materials. Some changes
    made from imported stonel for example            are seen ln the 1 8th century when demand for
    Andernach lava, and French Burr and Cologne      better guality flours caused many English
    Blues have been recorded.      (1   )            millers to import the segmented French Burrs,
    The saddle type   has been developed and used    a vesicular flint from a guarry near Epernont
                                                     or stones made in sections from chalcedonic
    hornstones. (4) Flour stones were also
    manufactured from Shap Granite, Ennerdale
    Granophyte and Penrith Sandstone, millers                         Map 1.
    often keeping a pair of gritstones for the
    coarser grinding of oats (for oatmeals),
    beans and fodders. (5) Evidence has been
    gained from these main categories;
    guernstones and millstones for archaeological
    sites which are well documented and in
    museums and known collectionsr querns and
    millst,ones located ln private hands most of
    which are random, millstones which are still
    in situ on mill sites, (many of 'which are
    still in use or intact) r partly worked
    millstones which are still to be found in
    situ on the quarry and stone mine sites
    located during the fieldwork, and finally'
    the primary and secondary documents available
    for study which have indicated some tentatLve
    dates to support the fieldwork findings.
    For the purpose of this study, the work has
    concentrated on the field evidence with a
    view to adding to, and supporting, the
    already documented sources.
    Within the Lancaster Forest there is evidence
    to suggest that the gritstone ltas worked as
    daystone (random unquarried stone), and also
    quarriedr or minedl for general use as
    millstone, for many centuries and this aspect
    witt now be discussed in some detail.
    The main areas in which the work is being
    carried out are outlined in Map 1. In this
    general area are to be found some very early                                  D.D E lloo
    date water-powered corn mill sites, some of                                   tSoO e tSoo
    which are recorded in Domesday in 1086.                                       tsoo - tToo
                                                                                  tY oo   - Iioo
    Domesday ls not complete or very detailed for
    NW Lancs, and many mllls         must predate
    William's great survey, but these cannot all
    be supported by documentary evidence which
    gives the exact locatlon or working details
    of these sites. However, it is suspected        Distribution of corn grinding mills in         N W Lancs.
                            37                                             3B
that most of the vills in the general area of                                                                                                  " 0 os to
the study had a manorial corn mill of some                                                                                                      ,-
type by the 11th century. It must be stated                                                                                                    g_;5s
that Domesday records some 5'500 mills in the                                                                                                  iiert

kingdom and it ls thought that this number is                                                                                                  isEFs
on the low side, nor does it take into
account the hand quern types which could have
been in more general use in areas where the
"mulcture" was not rigidly enforced. There
are over 70 water powered corn mi}l sites
that have been recorded withln the general       I                      *rfl
area of NW Lancs and known to be operating
between the Domesday and the 1 gth century.                           ,ibs'Y*
(see Appx.   1)                                                       \= s  bi
Hand guern finds made of gritstone of
beehive, saddle and flat typesr dr€ recorded
amongst others on the sites of Rushy Lee, Irow
Pleasant, Hutton Roof, Farleton, Quernmore            aa
Old HaII, Melling, Claughton and Abbeystead.         g.Ot{                     uso3   O
There are also a number of horse "gin" type          dE
mills recorded in the area, at Narr Lodget                                                                  Nt'
Quernmore, Low Botton Farm, Tatham, and                 o
                                                        ,        G\
Lancaster Town, and several windmilLs, at               cx       lJ                   \a
Farleton, Heysham, Lancaster, etc.                          tr   (L                   \"'
                                                           .rl   c                     \
one area where there is ample evidence of                  o      \)
early working of the grits to manufacture                  o
                                                           +,                         \i
                                                                                      t=            *o                lo
millstones is Baings Cragg (sD 543618) in                  .Fl
                                                           a                     0                         Iu                   ,i,
present day Littledaler nolt in the parish of                                    .R                                         i t
Caton, but once withln the boundary of                     blt
                                                                                                      i"igt            :o! '.          I
Quernmore Forest. From the road the rock
Iooks natural, but on closer examination it
is evident that it is a very old quarry wlth
                                                                                                                fo!   c]              a\

signs of millstone manufacture. There are a                 d                                                                         /\l
lot of remains, mostly partly worked blankst                9
                                                                                                                       i.'O           L,
knapping sitesr some very weather lrorn chisel              rd                                                                             I
marks in the rocks and several stone pits                   E
(delves).(Map 2) There are vari.ous qualities              o
of gritstone on this crag' but only two which              o                            s
appear to be preferred ln the making of the                +J
                                                           o                            \io.         -\
mlllstones. one type is slightly finer, le.                Fl                                  .
                                                                                               !o* -(rot                   l€r                             *
less grttty, with finer quartz particles and               Fl
a stronger matrix cement. Thls type has been               E
                                                                                                                     io' l+'
used to manufacture the smaller models of                                                                                                                  J
millstone. The smaller type millstone is
only some 36 inches in diameter and not as
thick as the larger type whlch can measure up
to 70 inches across by 12 inches thick.
Neither type of grit used is the quartz
breccia type which has been extensively
worked for millstones in          Wales and
Derbyshire. (6)                                  ?
                                                                  Stage       One

The suitable rock has been levered out of the    t
crag face, chiselled off the top of the Cragg
where there is the finer type of rock, or dug
out of small pits, and then knapped into a
rough shape, in situ. Some of the blanks are
propped up on stone supports where they have
been made ready for working, and have a
central mark which is elther one or three pin
punch marks.
                                                                SLage   Two
Some have been worked on one side and are
tooled flat, with the circular centre hole
chiselled out to about half depth, and then
they have been turned over. (Ftg I) It is
possible to deduce from this that the
stoneworkers first put the holes through and
roughly shaped the rock, then trimmed them
into a more refined shape and the required
thickness afterwards. , The millstone nas then                  SLage Three
moved down the Cragg to the road below. This
seems  to be the method used, as the better
worked examples, which   are almost finished,
are to be found nearer the road. The only
reason they appear to have been abandoned
after so much time and effort has been
expended on them, is because they are
slightly damaged; Just a small chip or crack
appears to be enough to make them unusable.      .l              SLage Four          fl\"
It Ls possible to deduce from these remains       i
that the art of selecting the rough stone for     j
workihg vras posslbly a bit hit and miss, and
sor perhaps, were the millstone rock cutterrs
craft skilIs and transporting methods.
                                                      Fig. I.     Method of working from a
None of       these early      examples were          rough blank to a flnished millstone.
                      4l                                                        42
-t-   manufactured in sections as \"ere many later
                                                         gritstone and remove the stones. ff this is
                                                         sor then the time and effort put into the
      types found in Britain and elsewhere in            manufacture would enhance the total cost,
      nurope (eg. French Burrs). The average size        and in the medieval period finding, cutting
      of the larger model blanks and partly worked       and carting millstones was often customary
      specimens is over 60 lnches across and these       duty(l0;. The cost of these goods in the
      aie estimated to weigh about three-quarters        late 1 6th century is known. Hornby Castle
      of a ton. (see Appx. 2) On Baines Cragg            Estates pald 26s 8d for a pair bought at
      there are 23 bl-anks in various states of          Ingleton in 1582r(11) and in the 1850s a pair
      working, (Map 21, and over 40 have been            of millstones cost E7 ex guarry in
      recorded within the Quernmore area. (see Map       Derbyshire. (1 2) The Forest of Quernmore
      3) Millstones of the conical types have not        accounts c.1 345 show another reference to
      been found ln the Quernmore workingsr as is        mlllstone working; the herbage of the park
      the case in the Derbyshlre and lfelsh              and the woods, turbary, dead brushwood,
      millstone working sites, a type which is           fallen wood, iron ore in trlyresdale, Bleasdale
      given an early date by some wrLtersr but this      and Quernmore, and the millstones, produced
      !yp" of stone can be found in situ on some of      an annual income of 823.1s.2d.(13)
      tne local corn mit-l sltes r e9, Conder l{illt
      Quernmore.                                         Rent of assizet 1441; From the account of
                                                         Thomas Urswyk, master forester in Quernmore
      Just how ancient these sites are is not            from Michlemas   1   440/ 1 441 i
      known, but there are some early references                 tOf Quernmore of mines and millstones
      which could well be connected. The 12th and
      13th century Pipe RoIIs for l,ancaster(7) and              nil; of a mine of sclatston (stone
      the monastic records(8) have many references               slates or flags) at Spatongill nil;
      to rents for mills, and rights to mills. In                fromI a mine of sclatston at Quernmore
      the Quernmore and Lancaster Forest Records            -    nil.
      are entries which show evidence of millstone
      workings from the, early 1 4th century, fox        This is evidence that these had been worked
      example:                                           and accoun.ted for previously, but why there
                                                         is a lull in the working at this date needs
      Agistment rents for   the Quernmore Forest   as    to be lnvestigated. The possible site for
      returned by the keeper William of Hornby'          the mlllstone working is Balnes Cragg and the
      1 31 3-1 4. (9) ...Forest agistment winter 1 8s-   slates could be from Birk Bank or Black FelI,
      5d; summer 1.18.2d; lesser park of Quernmore       as both sites are thought to be outside the
      winter 6s Bd; summer 1.10.0d; herbage of the       earlrs parks but within the Jurisdiction of
      meadow (for mowing) in summer 5s.0di the old       the Kingr s Forester.
      or larger park of Quernmore winter agistment
      was 2.0.Odi summer agistment nil; miII stones      Fines at the Swanimote of 1478-80.
      sold there 6s 0d. (It is not clear if the
      millstones l,rere from the old park or from the             Wyresdale 6s.8d for keeping illegal
      other forest lands).                                        taverns, three offenders; 5s.4d for
                                                                  taking molaria (millstones), and a
      The sum of 5s for millstone sales might not                 mLller is fined for obstructlng a
      seem a great deal, but it could represent                  water course (14).
      fees for the right to work the suitable
                                                 purchase of grit type stones as it lies on
Henry Parker, tord Morley and Mounteagle,        the limesLone which is not a suitable rock
Master forester of Quernmore and Wyresdale in    type. This site $ras still oper.rting as a
1 635 entered a     bilf of complaint against    mill tn 1 573 when it was bought from the de
several inhabitants of Lancaster for entering    Claphams by the fnglebys; there are however
the forest, depasturing horsesr oxen and         no remains of this mtlI today. Another site,
cattle without right, and to the injury of       again on the limestone, is the Anley Mill at
those who had right of common. They also, he     Settle, also recorded in Domesday, as are
alleged, broke into plnfolds, driving away       several others in the limestone areas which
cattle impounded there and strays belonging      would have to obtain their millstones from
by right to his maJesty, and taking away many    some   dlstance.(171
hundreds of cartloads of coal, freestone,
slate etc., and spoiling the grounds by           It must, however, be pointed out that there
digging great holes and pits eLc. (1 5)           are supplies of suitable grlt type rocks from
evidence that stone working and quarrying         the nearby Ingleton Fell and possibly from
were taking place on an ever increaslng scale     Whernside. It should also be remembered that
in the Quernmore area and the field evidence      the Hornby CastIe Estates were obtaining
shows that many of the millstones l^tere taken    their mlllstone's from Ingleton in the late
out of pits.                                      16th century. It appears odd however that
                                                 .they should travel to Ingleton to make this
From the 1641, rent of assize;                    purchase when there are suitable outcrops of
         | 5s from the farm      of millstones    grits on the lands they held in Caton and
         within the forest of Quernmore, with     Littledale. Perhaps the' nearer sltes had
                                                  been worked out by the 1580s.
         free egress and ingress for their
         carts, granted to James Marton and      To return to the more local sLtes, we may
         Giles Whiter.                            take the case of 811e1; here there is an
This reference liOked to the 1 3th century        early corn mill whlch must have required a
ones gives something Iike 400 years of            supply of the right type of "grit"
exploitation and use of the grit,s, prlor to     millstones. The miII vras osrned by Herbert of
any 1 8th and 1 9th century workings.            Ellal, c.1200, and the Cockersands Chartulary
                                                 records a gift of mulcture of the corn mill
rt is evidgnt that there are some very early     of Ellal in 1240 to the canons of the abbey,
quarrying activities and manufacturlng of        a gift from Walter de 811a1.(16) The Bolton
millstones in the study area and therefore it    le Sands mill is mentioned before 12O0i
should be possible to show some evidence of      records show a payment of 9 shillings for the
local/regional demand and use. The sites of      mill at Bolton. The Pipe Rolls show an
the known Domesday date mills are just           increase in the rent to half a mark In 1201,
outside the forest area, but some are worth      and to 20 shillings in 1226.
mentioning as examples. Clapdale HaIl MiIl
at Clapham is an early mill site recorded in
Domesday as a corn mill,      (there is also a
record of a fulling mill on the site), and
held in the 1 2th century by Adam de Stave1ey.
The mill is a possible candidate for the
                     45                                                 46
                                                     one (see Fig. 21. There are mentions of corn
     Later in the 1 3th century the evldence for     mills, but it is not yet known how many of
     corn milling is more readily avatilable, due    these abandoned sites or the recorded water
     to the surviving monastic an'd manorial         powered mill sites were fulling mills, and
     records. Recorded water-powered corn mtll       how many were mills of other sorts used for
     sites including Hornby, Cockerham, Ke1let,      crushing, rolling, pulping etc.
     Newton, Tarnacre, Holme, Gressinghamt
     Dolphinlee, Fishwick' Gt. gtalnforth,           Evidence of stone quarrying and working for
     Gresgarth in Caton, Bolton le Sands, Halton,    mlllstones which could have met this local
     Leck, Lune Mill in tancaster, tupton and        demand has been found at a number of sites.
     Thurland, are well documented. In the 1 4th     These are the most extensive ones; Baines
     and 1 sth centuries the list includes           iragg, North East End of Birk Bank, Black
     Stainforth, Sandholme, Skerton, a second Lune   FelI, Clougha east of the Pike, Clougha Scar,
     Mill, Cleveley, Bradford, Conderr Green Ayret   the Kellet Moor Grits, Windy Clough, Cragg
     Slaidburn, Wedaker, Whitbeck, It'llddletont     Wood and Trough Brook.(Map 3) TheBaines
     Myerscough, and Grindleton.                     Cragg site has already been discussed above.
     In the 16th and 17th century, Broadraine,       On the Black FelL area only etght partly
     Caw, Arkholme, Lordhouse Bridge, Mearsbeck,     worked mlllstones have been recorded, but
     Quernmore, Conder, Over Kellet, Scotforth,
                                                     there are extensive stone workings on thls
     Brock and Sell-et are recorded. In the 19th     felI and in places the rock type is of the
     century there are a number of new miIls butlt   right klnd for millstone making. Further
     on new sites (see appendix). AIso within the    evidence is seen in the names used in the
     study area are found several deserted sites     area. t'tillstone Rake is the main trackway up
     where the extant remains are those in keeplng   onto a section of the workings which is named
     with water mill layouts, which appear to have   Ivlillstone Rake Stead. On the north-east end
     been used to harness the waters of various      of Birk Bank which has been extensively
     becksr and could well have been temporary       worked for its flagstone there is an outcrop
     water mill sites.                               of suitable gritstone, and a small area
                        ,                            exhibits the remains of millstone cutting.
     These deserted sites usually take the form of   There are two fragments of a blank, one
     ponded gitls with some crude water channels,    almost completed millstoner a propped slab of
     or streams which have banks and race type       stone with six large chisel marks on it' and
     features to divert the natural water flows,     one confirmed working or dressing area. In
     (these are found at Berrys Plantation, the      the valley between Great and tittle Windy
     GiIl behind Mound Vernon Farm, land below       Cloughs are to be found several worked stones
     FeIl End Farm, Potts Wood, Crag Farm and Deep   of the smaller typer oD€ fine specimen being
     Clough). Some of these sites could have been    only some 24 inches in diameter. Here again
     in use for quite long periods of time, whilst   in places the rock type is of the finer grain
     others could be sites where temporary mills     and only odd sections of it have been worked-
     of the Norse type could well have worked.       In the quarry to the south of the access
     This smaller mill, the Norse type, is driven    track there is a 70 lnch diameter blank and
     rather like a turbine, the water hitting the    other partly worked stone. In the woodland
     blades and turning the shaft driving the        to the south-east of Trough Brook and below
     small milLstone above. This could be set up     FelI End in Quernmore there are two sma1l
     on any beck and every farmer could have had
                                                                                                            partly worked stones of the small type, and
                                                                                                            some evidence of the working sites.   There is
                                                                                                            unfortunatelyr no firm documentary evidence
                                                                                                            which gives any reliable date for any of
                                                                                                            these workings, except the medieval
                                              Map 3.                                                        references to millstones already given above,
                                                                                                           and the 1641 document. There are two 1 Bth
                                                                                                            century documents whlch relate to quarrying
                                                                                                            in the general area, ( 1 B ) nut it is noi
                                                                                                            thought that these are connected with
                                                                                                           millstone workings, most of which appear to
                                                                                                           be of a much earlier period. The firil was a
                                                                                        cnAG      ..l'     lease of 15 years dated 1714/15, at a rent of
                                                                                           tti"            €3.15s, and was granted by the lord of the
                                                                                 nooo                      manor of Caton, Edward Riddell, to Charles
                                                                                                           f,eahto win or Lea) of euernmore, allowing
                                                                                                           him           slates on Black FeIl in Caton.
                                                                                                           The second is an indenture dated 1 739 between
                                                                                                           the Mayor, Bailiffs and Commonalty of
                                                                                                           Lancaster, and Robert parker, John Caton, and
                          -""9                                                                             Jas. Leigh of Quernmore, husbandman, for a
                                                                                                           seven year lease of a slate delf. This lease
                                                                                                           gave the right to dig slate or flags from the
                                                              NAKE SIEAI'
         QUERNI|OOR ClOlllrON
                                                                        ta                                 bottom of Birk Bank Scar all above the sear
                                                                            BT ACX                         to the top of Clougha, within the Liberties
                                              . Btllx.
                                                                                                           of Lancaster. But again this is not a
                                                                            -i                             refefence to a rlght to take millstone
                                                                                                          guality rock, even though it          is quite
                                                                                        oLD toHlt         possible that there was still a local demand
                                                                                        QUIRtES            for this commodity for the corn grinding
                                                                                                          waler miIIs, glns, industrial water-powered
                                                                                                          milIs and windmills. However, these leases
                                                                                          at'             do cover some of the areas in which is found
                                .'.t   FELL
                                                                                                          evidence of millstone manufacture.
                                                                                                    $1"   Another earlier reference c1 580 found in the
                                                                                                          Hornby Castle Estate Survey Accounts, ( 1 S I
                                                                        I{ILLST{INES rrto
                                                                                                          records a quarry of cole and another of slate
                                                                                                          in Caton. Again there is no reference to
                                                                                                          millstones, even though the Hornby n"t"t""
                                                                                                          had two corn grinding mills at, Hornby and
                                                                                                          held the moiety of several other mills in
     Millstone working sites on Baines Crag,                                             Quernmore.       north Lancashire. The Estates appear at this
                                                                                                          time to have obtained their millstclnes from
                                                                                                          the Ingleton district.     For example at the
      refurblshment of the Hornby Estates Corn MilI                  tt.
                                                                       . capiant  in perpetuum     lapides
      tn   1   582                                                   (petras) molares. ." l22l .
                     ..."paid to Thos. Marshe for one pair   Thls is ample evidence, that the rlghts to
                     of millstone bought at Ingleton         the grltstone guarries for millstones were
                     26s.Bd, and the cost of carriage from   very valuable indeed. Unfortunately, field
                     Ingleton FelI to Hornby 13s.4d... and   work ln this general area of Kellet where the
                     for expenses and charges for the said   bands of suitable grits outcrop has shown
                     Thos. Marshe and two with him riding     little  evidence of the workings. This is
                     to Ingleton FeII to buy the two         partly due to the fact that these areas have
                     stones 1 5d. "                          been extensively quarriedr up to this
                                                             century, for all the types of gritstone-
      This reference is very useful as it gives              sandstone, and some of the sl_tes have been
      some idea of the cost of this local                    filled with rubbish and converted to other
      commodity. The total cost without any labour           uses. We do, however, find fragments of the
      for fitting. is E2.1s.3d. a pair.                      right klnd of stone built into the walls of
                                                             some of the earller bulldings in the area,
      In the medieval period there are in the                and there are several fine specimens of old
      Kellet area some good references for the               used millstones ln various gardens in the
      rights to the working of the millsLone grit            distrlct, where they are used for decoration.
      outcrops found in the parish.
                                                             For lnformation regarding the early mill
      Documents survive for the grants given to              sltes in the forest, there is plenty of
      tnonastic houses by the local landowners in            documentary evidence whlch confirms use, but
      the 13th century, evidence whlch is a good             much of it is less useful when we try to use
      indication of the use of the resouree not     find or confirm sites.
      only in the main manorial mills, but also in
      the small private milIs whlch the monks                Stubbs(23) on Hovendenfs interpretation of
      controlled (whether to? their own use or for           the Woodstock Assize states that it was
      the local populace is not stated). The                 permitted withln the boundarles of the forest
      Furness Coucher Charters record the foll.owing         to make dltches ln place of hedges, sureties
      in '[210 -30; Gilbert de Ke]let grants the             could be taken for offences of venision and
      monks of Furness deadwood and all the                  vert etc. There are also referenees to
      millstones they want from his lands                    industrlal activity being allowed to take
                                                             place within the forests, and fines for
                "petras molares quantum et quando            moving sheepfolds, mills,       watercourses,
                     opus habuerint. ." (20)   .             houses and a scale of fines for arable erops
                                                             grown on ne$r and old assarts. So it would be
      For the same period similar grants from other          posslble for all types of industrial activlty
      men of the Kellet area. Adarn son of Orm of            to take place wlthin the forest areas of
      KeIlet (1210-201 i (21 I Thomas of Coupmanwra          Quernmore and Lancaster in splte of the
      (1260-80); William of Kellet (1235-45). Sir            forest laws.
      Ranulf Dacre grants in 12BS right to
      millstones in his Kellet lands...                      For the forest of Quernmore there is a wealth
                                                             of documentary evidence connected wlth the
                                      51                                       52
use of corn mills within its boundaries.         From   the 1287 Eyre records;
Below are a few extracts, to demonstrate this              Also presented, Vlilliam the mlller of
point, taken from the Forest Eyre proceedlngs              Caton, presented a Thomas of
and the Forestersr returns during the                      Routonbrecke, a man who lives very
medieval period.                                           near to an old water mill site, fined
In 1252 the Abbot of Furness held 1 I acres in
the vill of Halton with two water corn mills     From   the later Forest Eyre recordsl
worth 40s yearly, and one fulling mill. He                 In '1291 Adam mlller of Burgh was
also had a water corn mill in Leck worth 1 5st             fined for deer poaching. Rlchard of
a mill in Lhe vill of Burgh(Burrow) worth 6s.              Dolfineleye (Dolphinlee l-n Newton) '
and a mlll in Fishwick worth 30s. (241.                    the miller, attached for forest
                                                           crimes in 1 307. 1 307 Rlchard of
In 1314 William of Hornby, keeper of the                   Dolfineleye (Dolphlnlee in Newton),
forest of Lonsdale and Amounderness, felled                the .miller, cut down alders in the
39 oaks in his balliwick. Much stricter                    forest of Quernmore and destroyed a
eontrol was exercised at this time and good                sparrovr-hawks eyry. ( 26 )
accounts were kept. Of these 39 oaks slx         At the   Swanimote Court of Tlharmore in 1478i
were from Fulwood, one from the Old Park of               A Christopher Petchet holds of the
Quernmore was given to William of Slyne, and              miller of Conder one pyche in the
flve oaks felled between the New Park of                  water there and it obstructs the
Quernmore and the water of the Lune vtere                 water course and disturbs the
delivered for works on the Lords watermill on             fishing, ordered to remove tt 2d.
the Lune . (251                                           fine. Richard Mylner (miller) of
                                                          Wedaker (near Garstang) broke soil
Ralph of Ypres had a lease of five years at          .    and took a!'tay 4 molarr great stones
g5 .1 0. 4d rent in 1 397; this   was for the             for grind'stones, fine 5s.4d.
herbage of the parlls of Quernmore and
scalelhwaite     (Scirtfwaite?),    and the      Swanymote of Wharmore 1480.
watercourse by Quernmore called the Frlth                 Christopher Petchett again fined for
Brook and the site of the Lune m.i11. This                perquisites of the produce of three
refers to the enclosures of Quernmore Parkst              mills without licence.         r

old and new, and the enclosure of Scarthwalte
 (some 40 acres) near Caton, all within the      In 1 533 another complaint before the Duchy of
Forest of Quernmore. Sir Ralph had re-           Lancaster named the Curwen familY of Caton
erected the mill of Lune at his own expenset     and men of Lower Wyresdale nanied Parkl-nsont
but was given four oaks out of Quernmore Park    Garner and Webster along with one Oliver Kemp
by order of the Duke of Lancaster to repalr      of Dloghton MilI, all accused of hunding in
the water mill. The Lune mill ln 1440 was        the park at Quernmore.
farmed by Sir AIex Radcliffe. He was             Estate of Edmund de tacy, Lord of the Chase
permit.ted to take wood from the surrounding
forest to make repairs. His brother-in-lawt      of Bowland' c.1258.,
Thomas Harrington, was parker of Quernmore                Grindleton !,1i11 worth €6. West
and hj-s uncle, Sir Wllliam Harrington, \^ras             Bradford, 5 cotters and a mill.
Master Forester.

                                                        networks, and the workings in Wales and
              Slaidburn, Iord has a mill worth          Derbyshire were at their peak and possibly
              E4. (271                                  much more accessible and cheaper than any in
      1273 Bolton Ie Sands MitI adjoins a meadow,
      qiven bv charter to Thomas of Capenwray by
      Simon s6n of Elias of Thorenbrandshead.           Below are    a few examples:
      In c.1200 John gave the master and brethren
      of St. Leonards Hospital, Lancaster a             In 1798, Mr. Fenton-Cawthorne, who owned
      messuage and a water mill ln Lancaster, a         Tarnbrook, stated that he intended to improve
      ploughland in Skerton, a vaccary in               his other holdings in the same manner. At
      wyreidale, to sustain nine poor men and a         Dunkinshaw he erected new farm buildings and
      chaplain.                                                                             the parlsh.
                                                        'Galgate mill for the use of from c.1760.
                                                        a corn
                                                                  water corn mlIl dates
      In 1285r the demesne lands of Hornby              Cravens Milt, at Wennington, still has French
      contained 260 acres of arable land worth Is       Burrs and breccia grlt millstones on site.
      per acre. In 1 31 9 this had been reduced to      The new m111 at Bolton le Sands also has burr
      2O0 acres and valued at 6d Per acret              type stones on the site. After the enclosure
      (possibly as a result of the Scots invasion       awards of 1 81 5 the new Castle Mill was built
      of 1315). There were three parks in Hornby        in Quernmore; other new mills ttere built at
      in 1285, worth 84, but in 1319 only two worth     Nether Burrow, Claughton, Burton and Caton,
      81.3s.4d. The meadow land in 1285 was 2s per      but to date there is no document'.ry evidence
      acres, in 1319 reduced to 25 acres value 10d      of these mills obtainlng supplies of
      the acre. This downward trend in the              mlllstones localIy.
      agricultural values is reflected in the
      mitts. The corn milI 1 285 was worth              In conclusion the field evidence supports the
      813.6s.8d, in 1319 only 85. The fulllng mill      view that working the gritstone to provide
      worth 20s.6d, in 1]85, at the time of Sir         millstones, to meet a local need, has been
      Geoffreys death, but onty 6s.8d. at the 1319      carried out wherever the right type of stone
      assessment.                                       has     been locatedr          r€gardless of
                                                        accesslbility. The manufactured mlllstones
      In 1 41 6 the herbage of the parks of Quernmore   were also used locally and, possibly'
      'rrere let through the chiefthestewardmill  Sir   transported " many mlles to eguip water corn
      William   Harrington, including      water        mills all over the north west.
      of the Lune.
                                                        This short piece of work isr so to speak, tta
      New water powered corn miII         sites vtere   state of the arttt reportr eis the work is
      established in the late 1 8th and early 1 gth     continuing. It is possible that a lot more
      centuries and many'of the older mills were         information will come to light which will
      extended or rebuilt in order to meet the new      help in a more accurate dating and
      demand for their services. It is at this          understanding of the millstone working and
      time that the import of grindsLones became         Ilnks with the corn mills in the area. The
      common. Movement of large heavy obJects,          author would, however, welcome any comments
       such as millstonesr was more easily effected     or further information which wlll assist the
      due to the improved road and waterway             research.

      Notes                                                    11.
                                                                        W.H,C. Chippendall, A Survey of the
                                                                        Hornby Castle Estates' Chetham Society
      1.                                                                voI.       1   04.
            J. Russel-l, tMillstones ln Wind and Water
            llills. t Trans Newcomen Soc, 24. 1943,            12.
                                                                        D. Tuckerr op. cit. l 57.
      2.                                                       13.
            A.     King,     EarlY Pennine Settlement.                  R. Cunliffe-Shaw, The Royal Forest of
            Dalesman, 1970, 68.                                         Lancashire,1955r 186.
      3.                                                       14.
            C. Singer, (ed. ) History of Technology,                    ibid,          p.1 87-202.
            vol.4 O.U.P. ' 1957.                               15.
      4.                                                                Duchy of Lancaster Pleadings'               81 345,
            J. Russellr oP. clt.       45.                              1   63s.

      5.                                                       16.
            D. Tucker, rl'{illstone Making in the Peak                  Cockersand               Chartulary, 678.
            District of Derbyshire: The Quarries and
            the Technology, I Industrlal Archaeology           17.
                                                                        T. Brayshaw & R.M. Robinson, A History of
            1 986 , 43.
                                                                        the Ancient Parish of Giggleswick' 206-
      6.                                                                215.
            ibid, 42-3.                                        18.
      7.                        '                                       R. Bellis & G. Shackleton, 'slate Delfes
            W.    Farrer,   Lancashire Pipe Rolls.    1902.             in Quarmorr, Contrebis, 8, 1980, 53-56.
      B.                                                       19.
            The Chartulary of Cockersand Abbey; and                     Chippendallr op. clt.,               102.
            The Furness Coucher Book.                Chetham
                                                                        F'urness Coucher Book, 119.
            Lancs Inquests, Record Soc.l 54, ii,        22.    21   .
                                                                        ibid,          11   9.
            J.K.      St. JosePh & 14.W- Beresf ord,           22.
              Medieval England, 1979, 254.                              ibtd,          128.
                                                                        Stubbs, Select Charters, 186i 245.
                                                               Appendlx I
24.                                                            SIze list of stones found on Baines          Cragg
      W.O. Roper, Ivtaterials        for    a     History of
      Lancaster Church, 275.
                                                               Nol     73    x 16 approx   roughed out,.
25.                                                            No2     65    x12 II        haLf hole, 7 x 4, propped, worked flat'.
                                                               No3     32    x 10 I        irregular shape, hole, stood on side.
      CunIiffe-Shaw, op. cLt.    1    66.                      No4     60    x12 ll        part shaped' proPPed.
                                                               No5     60    x12           part shaped.
26.                                                            No6     70    x 15 II       large and rough, flat underslde, propped.
      ibid,   p.1 37 .                                         No7     52    x 10 lt       well shaped with hole.
                                                               NoB     40    x 11 r        small, propped.
                                                               No9     52    x12 il        one side broken, tooLed fLat.
27.                                                            No 10   52    x9            propped' underslde flat.
      ibid,   p.253.                                           No 11   60    x12 I         broken one edge.
                                                                                           propped, well shaPed.
                                                               No 12   5{    x12 ll'l
                                                               No 13   48    x8            snall, shaped, toolad flat both sldes.
                                                               No 14   52    xl     il
                                                                                           hole underneath, undereide flat.
                                                               No 15   50    x 11 illl     hole cut and well rounded, ProPPed.
                                                               No 16   55    x 10          hole cut, 6 ins dia.
                                                               No 17   54    x'l 1 Iil     some toolingr grooved and propped.
                                                               No 18   52    x 11 il       broken.
                                                               No 19   5'l   x12           tool marks, ln a Pit.
                                                               No 20   50    x 19 llI      corner damagedr rough.
                                                               No 21   38    xB            still ln block, wlth chlsel marks.
                                                               No 22   58    x12 I         rough, ln hollow.
                                                               No 23   54    x12 'l         rough.
                                                               Thts ltst should read ln conJunctlon wlth            UaP Tso.

                                                               Appendix II
                                                               Medieval Mllls

                                                               name                                    date
                                                               Altnarsh ulll' Altcar                   1   238.
                                                               Anley MtIl                              11th.
                                                               Applethwatte MilI                       1272.
                                                               Bethun (Beetham)                        1254.
                                                               Bolton Ie Sands M111        (1 )        1200i 127Oi 1 8th.
                                                               Bolton le lloors                        1288.
                                                               Bolton le Sands Mlll        (21         1200i c.1779.
                                                               BowLand   Mills                         1258,1404.
                                                               Briers !!lll, Lathon.                   1229i 18th c.
              Fiq.2.     The Norse-type         mill.          Brockolhurst Mill, Accrington           1243
                                                               Brow llllls, KirkbY Lonsdale            1200; 17th; 18th.
                                                               Brynlng !1111                           1249.
                                                               Burscough Mlll                          1235.
                                                               Cantsfield Mlll                         1212.
                                                               Casterton MiII                          1272.

                                                                             Stackhouse Ml11                               194.
    Castle Mills, Kendal                        1247r 1272,1806.             Stodday Mill                                  201,   1301.
    Caton Fulling     Mill                      1251 | '1256i 1582.          Strlckland, (Stlrklandl                     283.
    Calon Mlll                                  1230, 1400, 1582, 1590.      Swinehurst Mill                             257.
    CatteraLl Iron l{orks                       't2'16.                      Tems Beck Mill' Glggleswlck               1 250.
    Chatburn Mill                               1258, 1 556.                 Ulverston Mills                           1 234, Med. 18th' 19th.
    Chorley Mill                            12s7.                            t{alton Mlll' ?farton                     1 254,1716.
    Clapdale Hall MlII                      l1th c,       DD.                Wedaker !,t11L, Barnacre                  1 212t 1478.
    Claughton MilI                          1255t 19th.                      t{eeton Mlll                              1 249.
    Clitheroe Ml1I                          1258,1524.                       Vlhasset (Quasheved)                      1 254.
    Cockerham Mill                          1155, 14th c.                    Whlttlngton Mills                         1 296.
    Coppull Mlll                            1238.
    Cowhill Mill                            1258.
    Dalton Mlll                             1255.                            Appendlx           III
    Derby Mtll                              1298.
    Dolphinlee !l1ll, Lancaster             1290.                            1   300   to   1   500
    Ellel Fulllng tllll                     1200,1715.
    Eltel Mlll                              1240, 1582, 1715.
    Flasby MilI, Sklpton                    1 1 55-65.                       name                                      date
    Garston Mlll                            1265.
    Glggleswick MllI (1 I                   1200.                            Barton Millr Barton, Preston              l,led, 1 8th.
    Grassnere MlLl                          1283-                            Bradford ti'ti11                          1   423.
    Grindleton Dtlll                        1    258, 1421.                  Bulk M111, Lancaster                      1816.
    Hale & !{alton                          1    235-85.                     Castle lilllls, Kendal                    !red', 1806.
    Halton Foundry, Furnace                     1296, t8th.                  Conder Mlllr QuerruRore                   147',i cl800.
    Harllngton M111                             l1th c,   DD.                Green Ayre MilI                           1469; cl540.
    HeronMlll                               1220.                            Greenrldge Mlll, Underbarrow              Med, 19th.
    Hest Mill                               1 280.
                                                                             Grindleton l,llll                         1 423.
    Hlgh Corn llill, Sklpton                11th c, DD.                      Lathebote MlIl, t{hlttlngton              Med.
    Hornby Corn Mlll                        1285, 1519, 1582.                Middleton M111                            1461.
    Hornby Fulltng Mill                     1285,1519.                       Mllton Mlll' Preston Rlchard              1   7th.
    Hoton Mill, Hutton                      1272, 1400.                      Myerscough               HalI Mlll        17th,      1637.
    Huyton Mill                             1245.                            Newby  tillll, CLaPhan                    1 537.
    Ightenhlll MlIL, (Itucnhul)             1 258.
                                                                             Over Kellet M111                          1 582.
    Klrkby Kendal Mllls, (Kendal)           1272.                            Overmill, DeePdale                        15th c.
    Klrkby Mill                             1254.                            Prlest ttutton Mlll                       1547, 1582.
    Knowsley   Mlll                   .     1229.                            Samlesbury Bottoms l't111                 Med,1784.
    Lancaster Mill                          1226.                            Samlesbury Corn Mlll                      15th c.
    Langcllffe Ml1l                         c.1200; 1221.                    Sandholme Mlll                            14th c, 1317.
    Layton Mill                             c.1277                           Sedbergh Corn Mlll                        1   537.
    Lee (Lea) tttlll                            1288                         Sellet Mtll                               ti[ed, 17th c, 1664.
    Llverpool                                   1266, 1257.                  Slaidburn litlll                          1   423.
    Lune M111                                   1297' 13th c; 1,lth, 1397.   Tathan M111                               1537   r   1   846.
    Manchester (Mamecestre)                 1282.                            l{aterhouse PaPer [lill                   1   6th.
    Midhopp t'tllls                         1254.                            Wedaker UilL, Garstang                    1   475.
    Newton Mill {neuton)        ln                                           l{est Hall Mill, tfhlttlngton             14th c.
     Makerfield                             1    200.                        Wharf MilI, ChiPPtng                      Med, 19th"
    North Lonsdale Mllls                    1195.                            l|hitbeck MlLl                            1582.
    Ormskirk Mllls                          1228.
    Over Kellet    Mllls     & Mlllstone                              12',t   O-1285.
    Patt,en Mlll                                1247 .
    Patterdale Mill                         1246.
    Rispeton Mlll                           't272.
    Skerton Mlll                                1246,1314,1345.

                                                           flartle MlIl, Quernnore              181   8.
Appendix Iv                                                tltaughton Mlll                      1  9th.
                                                           tlrndor Green Mill                    18th c.
1   500   to   1   700                                     (lrwan Brldge M111                    1 9th.
                                                           l)an House Mill, Wharfe              18th c.
nane                                    date                tlrrklp trllll                      1 9th.
                                                           Lirifr€rr Mlll, Chipping             't 9th.
                                                           Ncther Burrow MiLl                   1 9rh.
Arkholne MllI                           I 582.             Rothfall Mtll, Quernnore             1825.
Ashton wtth Stodday MllI                1 7rh.             Hltherslack MttI                         9rh.
Botton MiIl, Wray                       1 8rh.
                                                           llolfen HaIl ltill, ,Chipplng
Capernwray             llill            1 8rh.

Caw    Mlll                             17th,      1601.
CLitheroe Ml1l                          1524.
Corless Ml1l                            1 8th.
Cravens l,l11l, Wennlngton              18th c.
Crookbeck  MlIl, Newby                  18th c.
Crossgill Mill                          1 8th.
Dent Mllls                              16th c, 18th c.
Dolphinholme Mill                       1 7th.
Dunald MllI, Nether Kellet              1 7th.
Dunklnshaw ltlll                        1   622.
Farleton MiIl                           1 8th.
Galgate Sllk l,tlIl                     1 8rh.
Gawthorpe Uill, Barbon                  18th c.
Goosnargh !1111                         1 8th.
Heysham        l{lnd      l'1111        1   584.
Kaker   tllll, Preston Patrlck          1   8th.
Klrkland M111                           1   8th.
Littledale llalI.
Lordhouse Brldge M111                   c.1 7th.
Low Mill, Galgate                       1   8th.
Lowglll Bobbtn Mlll                     lSth;19th.
Lupton Towers I't111                    1   8rh?
llarsh l{lndmlll, Lancagter             18th c.
Mearsbeck MiIl                          1   584.
Mewith Mill, Bentham           .        18th c.
l.tlllhouse Mlll, Ptl11n9               1 8th.
oakenclough Mlll                        18th c, 1775.
Old Uill, Rowton, Quernnore             c.17th.
Rash M111, Dent                         17th c.
Sclatee Horse D{iIl                     1522.
Scotforth lllll                         1   7th.

Appendix           V

1   700   to   1   900

nane                                    date
Barnacre Corn MtIl                      1   8th.
Brock Mll1, Bleasdale                   1   8rh.
Burton Corn MilI                        1   9rh.

                                   63                                                      64

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