APPENDIX 'A17' East Herts Council East Herts Parking Pay on Foot

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					               APPENDIX ‘A17’

       East Herts Council
       East Herts Parking
       Pay on Foot / Exit




17.9
                                                                 East Herts Council
                                                                 East Herts Parking
                                                                 Pay on Foot / Exit

                                                                 A review of feasibility and
                                                                 cost in Bircherley Green,
                                                                 Gascoyne Way and
                                                                 Kibes Lane car parks

                                                                 February 2007




                                                                   This report takes into account the
                                                                   particular instructions and requirements
                                                                   of our client.
                                                                   It is not intended for and should not be
                                                                   relied upon by any third party and no
                                                                   responsibility is undertaken to any third
Ove Arup & Partners Ltd                                            party
4 Pierhead Street, Capital Waterside, Cardiff CF10 4QP
Tel +44 (0)29 2047 3727 Fax +44 (0)29 2047 2277
www.arup.com                                                       Job number         121402-20




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                                                                                               121402-20

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Revision       Date       Filename        0001Report Pay on Foot Draft 1.doc
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                          Name            Steven Arthur           Hannah Budnitz             Susan Thomas

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Issue          26/02/07   Filename        0002Report Pay on Foot Issue .doc
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                          Name            Steven Arthur           Hannah Budnitz             Susan Thomas

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                                                                                                     Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                                                                    Issue 26 February 2007

                                                        17.11
East Herts Council                                                                     East Herts Parking
                                                                                        Pay on Foot / Exit



       Contents
                                                                                                    Page
       1        Introduction                                                                          13
                1.1      Background                                                                     13
                1.2      Structure of Report                                                            13
       2        Payment Operating Systems                                                               14
                2.1      Pay and Display                                                                14
                2.2      Pay on Foot                                                                    14
                2.3      Pay on Exit                                                                    15
                2.4      All Systems                                    Error! Bookmark not defined.
       3        Bircherley Green                                                                        17
                3.1      Existing Car Park Description                                                  17
                3.2      Existing Car Park Circulation                                                  17
                3.3      Existing Car Park Usage                                                        17
                3.4      Implementation of Pay on Foot / Pay on Exit                                    17
       4        Gascoyne Way                                                                            19
                4.1      Existing Car Park Description                                                  19
                4.2      Existing Car Park Circulation                                                  19
                4.3      Existing Car Park Usage                                                        19
                4.4      Implementation of Pay on Foot / Pay on Exit                                    20
       5        Kibes Lane                                                                              21
                5.1      Existing Car Park Description                                                  21
                5.2      Existing Car Park Circulation                                                  21
                5.3      Existing Car Park Usage                                                        21
                5.4      Implementation of Pay on Foot / Pay on Exit                                    21
       6        Cost Estimates                                                                          23
                6.1      General Costs                                                                  23
                6.2      Capital Cost per Car Park                                                      23
                6.3      Operation and Maintenance Costs per Car Park                                   24
       7        Conclusion                                                                              25




                                                                                       Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                                                      Issue 26 February 2007

                                                   17.12
East Herts Council                                                                              East Herts Parking
                                                                                                 Pay on Foot / Exit



       1        Introduction
                1.1        Background

                Arup was commissioned to undertake a feasibility study into changing the payment
                mechanism in three public car parks from pay and display to pay on foot or pay on exit. The
                three car parks to be assessed were:
                •     Bircherley Green Multi-Storey Car Park, Hertford;
                •     Gascoyne Way Multi-Storey Car Park, Hertford; and
                •     Kibes Lane Car ParK, Ware.
                The assessment was to cover the following topics:
                •     assessment of the layout and traffic / pedestrian flows within the car parks and whether
                      the layout could be modified to accommodate a pay on foot or pay on exit system;
                •     feasibility of the engineering works and other modifications needed to implement a pay
                      on foot or pay on exit system;
                •     conceptual design layouts of the car parks to accommodate the new payment system,
                      altered vehicle and pedestrian flows to show clearly how the amount and use of space
                      changes;
                •     capital, operation and maintenance costs associated with the new system (and
                      removing the old system);
                •     staffing and enforcement requirements; and
                •     implications for car park revenue.

                1.2        Structure of Report

                This Report is structured as follows:
                •     Section 2 describes the three payment operating systems and their general advantages
                      and disadvantages;
                •     Section 3 reviews the existing layout at Bircherley Green and how this would need to
                      change to accommodate a new payment mechanism;
                •     Section 4 reviews the existing layout at Gascoyne Way and how this would need to
                      change to accommodate a new payment mechanism;
                •     Section 5 reviews the existing layout at Kibes Lane and how this would need to change
                      to accommodate a new payment mechanism;
                •     Section 6 estimates the costs of installing, operating and maintaining a new payment
                      system for each car park, including likely changes in staffing and enforcement
                      requirements; and
                •     Section 7 concludes with the potential implications for balancing the costs and revenues
                      from each of these car parks.




                                                                                                Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                     17.13                                     Issue 26 February 2007
East Herts Council                                                                                East Herts Parking
                                                                                                   Pay on Foot / Exit



       2        Payment Operating Systems
                2.1        Pay and Display

                Description
                Pay & Display requires the driver to initially locate a space and then purchase a ticket from a
                machine within the car park. The ticket is displayed in the vehicle. It is a tried and tested
                system which the public understand and are familiar with.
                Advantages
                •     the system eliminates the requirement for entry/exit barriers and so eliminates delays at
                      entrances and exits to the car park. A single entry lane can admit up to 15 vehicles per
                      minute;
                •     in the terms of the equipment that is required, there are no barriers needed, but at least
                      one Pay & Display machine is required on each floor;
                •     the use of enforcement to ensure short stay can increase turnover, as users are wary of
                      receiving a penalty charge notice; and
                •     the presence of parking attendants can act as a deterrent to crime
                Disadvantages
                •     the system requires regular monitoring or enforcement by staff to ensure that users
                      firstly have a ticket and secondly do not exceed their length of stay;
                •     in cases where parking is permitted for more than one fixed period, the driver must
                      decide how much time to purchase before leaving the vehicle;
                •     with the risk of a penalty charge most users will tend to err on the side of caution and
                      pay to stay for longer than they actually need to, which can increase revenue and so is
                      perceived as unfair; and
                •     there are safety concerns, as display of ticket indicates the length of time the owner is
                      likely to be away from the vehicle.

                2.2        Pay on Foot

                Description
                Pay on Foot is a common system now in operation throughout many car parks in the UK
                and is generally understood and well liked by customers.
                Drivers take a ticket (or token/chip coin) on entry at a barrier system (e.g. gate, lifting arm
                barrier, rising step barrier) before locating a space. The ticket or token is then kept in their
                possession for the duration over which the vehicle is parked. On returning to the car park,
                the driver pays for their parking stay at a centrally located payment machine before
                returning to their car and exiting via a barrier system within a grace period (e.g. 10-15
                minutes) using their validated ticket or token. A flat rate can apply, therefore eliminating the
                need to take a ticket on entry or to have an entry barrier.
                Advantages
                •     the system is considered effective in that payment is made for actual parking stay,
                      rather than based on a predicted stay as with Pay & Display;
                •     the system can be fully automated and dispenses with the need for manned booths at
                      entry/exit points;




                                                                                                  Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                      17.14                                      Issue 26 February 2007
East Herts Council                                                                                 East Herts Parking
                                                                                                    Pay on Foot / Exit


                •     duplicating machines (in parallel or series) can provide backup in the case of
                      mechanical failure;
                •     a charging system can be used to designate the length of stay; and
                •     the system is seen as a deterrent to thieves as a ticket is required for exit.
                Disadvantages
                •     equipment and maintenance costs are relatively high and technical support is required;
                •     introducing a ticket dispenser and barrier system to an entry/exit lane can reduce
                      throughput to 6-8 vehicles per minute (on average). This can be further reduced
                      depending on local conditions;
                •     it is essential that prior to arriving at the exit point drivers have made the payment or
                      they will not be able to get through the barrier and will cause delay;
                •     a contingency plan is necessary in the event of equipment malfunction. Mechanical
                      failure to barriers and payment machines can cause delay and congestion and loss of
                      revenue is a problem if barrier or ticketing machines are out of order;
                •     although Pay on Foot can be operated with a single entry and exit barrier, two entry
                      lanes and two exit lanes are recommended with an optional ‘spare’ 5th lane that can be
                      used for either entry or exit. This provides greater flexibility to deal with peak demand
                      and barrier malfunction / maintenance; and
                •     two entry lanes are not required if a flat rate applies, but plates or barriers would need to
                      be placed on the entry lanes to stop drivers exiting illegally.

                2.3        Pay on Exit

                Description
                The Pay on Exit system was based on having a staffed car park and is still common in the
                UK, particularly in large car parks where it is useful to have staff on-site.
                With Pay on Exit, a ticket is usually issued on entry and then when exiting a payment is
                made to a cashier or automatic machine, according to the scale of charges and the time
                spent in the car park. Alternatively, a flat rate can apply, therefore eliminating the need to
                take a ticket on entry.
                Advantages
                •     Pay on Exit systems can be fully automated or fully staffed;
                •     fully staffed systems can provide security and customer relations benefits;
                •     there is no requirement for a payment machine on each floor of the car park, but only at
                      the exit barrier; and
                •     duplicating machines (in parallel or series) can provide backup in the case of
                      mechanical failure.
                Disadvantages
                •     if fully automated the failure of a driver to have the correct change or a mechanical
                      breakdown could result in congestion or loss of revenue;
                •     introducing a ticket dispenser and barrier system to an entry lane can reduce throughput
                      to 6-8 vehicles per minute (on average). Payment at a staffed exit can reduce vehicle
                      throughput to 3-5 vehicles per minute. This can be further reduced depending on local
                      conditions;
                •     if permanently staffed an attendant would be required at each exit barrier;


                                                                                                    Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                       17.15                                       Issue 26 February 2007
East Herts Council                                                                                 East Herts Parking
                                                                                                    Pay on Foot / Exit


                •     as with Pay on Foot, Pay on Exit can operate with single entry and exit lanes. However,
                      it recommended there should be at least two exit lanes and also two entry lanes; and
                •     two entry lanes are not required if a flat rate applies, but plates or barriers would need to
                      be placed on the entry lanes to stop drivers exiting illegally.

                2.4        Costs and Benefits for All Systems

                Information
                Pay & Display, Pay on Foot or Pay on Exit systems can all provide detailed occupancy
                information and hours of use. The data can be used to analyse and develop
                pricing/operating strategies to optimise revenues.
                User’s Value for Money
                Pay on Foot is often perceived as a fairer system, charging for the actual time of stay. In
                reality the tariff is often broken down into time bands (as they would be in a Pay & Display
                system). The user has to pay for the entirety of the band, even if they only stayed for a
                minute within that band (e.g. the user pays for two hours if the system is set in hourly bands
                even if he or she only stayed for one hour and one minute). Also the user starts to pay for
                ‘parked’ time as soon as they have taken a ticket on entry, even whilst searching for and
                occupying a space which is not the case with Pay & Display. There is then a time pressure
                to exit the car park (a grace period) after paying the charge. On the other hand, users do
                not face a steep penalty charge if they misjudge how long they will be away for their vehicle,
                as they do in a Pay and Display system.
                Enforcement
                Pay and Display does have higher enforcement costs, but all systems still require some
                enforcement of contraventions such as parking in a disabled bay without a Blue Badge or
                parking outside the marked bays in the car park. In terms of enforcing length of stay in a
                Pay on Foot car park, this is usually built into the charging system so that for example, those
                who stay over 4 hours in a short stay car park might be charged £10 or £20 at the machines
                when they go to validate their tickets. Without a validated ticket or token, they will not be
                able to exit the car park. Therefore, the charges can be used to enforce a length of stay
                designation. Although the majority of revenue from penalty charges would be lost in a Pay
                on Foot car park, this is balanced by the reduced enforcement needs, and therefore the
                systems have relatively neutral enforcement cost/revenue implications.
                Staffing
                In terms of other staffing requirements, both systems require monitoring, the emptying and
                replenishing of the machines (including change for change-giving machines), IT connections
                and maintenance. Besides staffed Pay on Exit, therefore, no system requires staff to
                constantly be on location. However, as Pay on Foot / Exit involves more machinery (e.g.
                ticket machines separate from payment machines, barriers, etc), there is a higher staff cost
                for call-out to any malfunctions, vandalism, etc.
                Revenue
                With comparable maintenance /operational costs it is difficult to say which system (Pay on
                Foot, Pay & Display or Pay on Exit) will collect higher revenue and this would vary
                depending on a number of conditions (e.g. size, complexity, level of use) from one car park
                to the next and depending whether there were economies of scale. Although many users
                over pay in a Pay and Display system because they have over estimated their length of
                stay, this often only offsets those who under pay or do not pay at all and manage to escape
                a penalty charge. A Pay on Foot system means users always pay the correct amount for
                their parking.




                                                                                                   Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                      17.16                                       Issue 26 February 2007
East Herts Council                                                                                East Herts Parking
                                                                                                   Pay on Foot / Exit



       3        Bircherley Green, Hertford
                3.1       Existing Car Park Description

                The Pay & Display multi-storey car park is part of the Bircherley Green Shopping Mall
                building. Parking consists of six split levels above the shopping facilities, with a total of 184
                spaces.
                Each level is similar in layout and connected by an internal ramp system. Access to the car
                park is from a mini roundabout, via a one-way ramp to the south of the building, the exit
                ramp is to the north of the building leading directly into a mini roundabout.
                A bus station operates outside the shopping mall and shares the same external route to the
                highway network as the vehicles exiting from the car park. Service access roads are located
                at either side of the building (north and south); these are barrier controlled.
                With the current operating system and level of use, the local road network can cope with
                resulting flows and in general access is reasonably direct and congestion free.
                The car park is served by a core stair well and lift shaft located in the centre of the building.
                Pedestrian access is at ground level inside the mall via the stairwell and lifts.
                There is no pedestrian routing within the car park and pedestrians share the traffic lanes to
                access the lifts and stairs. General traffic flow through the car park is good. Disabled and
                family bay parking is provided. Signage is adequate for a car park of its size/simplicity and
                current usage.
                Spaces are marked with white edge lines. The surfacing material on each covered level is
                the same in the isle and parking areas. The Roof levels have a green finish (a
                waterproofing/protection surface). The size of spaces is generally adequate.
                The signage system for each level is based on showing legends; A, B, C, D, E and F (E and
                F both at roof level). This is a simple, obvious system that works.

                3.2       Existing Car Park Circulation

                Circulation Routes
                Circulation through the car park is generally good and a quick ‘out’ path is provided. There
                is minimal conflict between ‘searching’ and ‘exiting’ traffic.
                Signage
                External and internal vehicle signage is adequate. The car park contains a number of
                different signs in size and style. There is minimal pedestrian signage/information.
                Road Markings

                The quality of road markings is adequate. The layout of arrow markings is simple and clear
                to drivers, although in places the markings have become worn.

                3.3       Existing Car Park Usage

                The car park is located in the centre of Hertford close to the main shopping district. It is a
                short stay car park and is used predominately by shoppers accessing Bircherley Green
                Shopping Mall and the surrounding local amenities. Currently all levels are in regular use
                with an average occupancy of 65% in October 2006, although this can near 100% some
                days/times of the day.

                3.4       Implementation of Pay on Foot / Pay on Exit

                The size, location and general layout of Bircherley Green MSCP is suited to a Pay on Foot
                system and its layout does allow for some vehicle queuing. However it has limited lane


                                                                                                   Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                     17.17                                        Issue 26 February 2007
East Herts Council                                                                               East Herts Parking
                                                                                                  Pay on Foot / Exit


                capacity at entry and exit. Operating a Pay on Foot system would be problematic for the
                following reasons:
                Entry Layout
                The existing layout consists of only one entry lane (a ramped access). When introducing
                barrier/ticket equipment, two entry lanes are desirable. By reconfiguring the layout of Level
                A it could be possible to achieve a small section where two entry lanes in parallel could be
                accommodated. In doing so, 9 parking spaces on level ‘A’ would be lost (a detailed survey
                and full structural analysis would need to be undertaken to confirm this). Entry barriers and
                ticket dispensers would need to be located on Level A.
                Introducing a barrier and ticket mechanism on entry will add a delay to entering traffic.
                During peak periods if the arrival rate of vehicles exceeds the entrance barrier capacity
                (and/or the dynamic capacity of other parts of the car park) queuing will occur. In the
                extreme this would mean vehicles queuing on the entry ramp and beyond onto the local
                road network, causing congestion and also disruption to the local bus station.
                The entry ramp provides queuing for between 6-8 vehicles. At peak times (assuming a
                worst case scenario of 100% turnover in an hour) the arrival rate would be just over 3
                vehicles per minute. This is within the maximum capacity of a barrier operated entry lane.
                However, if only one entry lane is provided, equipment malfunction, mechanical failure and
                user error could result in severe delay and congestion. A manual override system (or
                duplicate barrier equipment in series – if the problem was specific to one machine and not
                the entire system) could solve this problem but could result in loss of revenue until the
                problem was sorted.
                Exit Layout
                As with the existing entry layout the exit layout consists of only one lane. An initial review of
                the exit layout shows it would not be possible to achieve the desired two lane exit. The
                exiting ramp is not wide enough to accommodate to exit lanes in parallel.
                A barrier system will delay exiting traffic. As with entry, heavy traffic during peak times
                could lead to queuing – and that is assuming that all drivers operate the system effectively.
                The exit ramp and route does provide a small reservoir to accommodate potential queuing
                (10-12 vehicles). However, at busiest periods (or due to equipment failure) the queue could
                back up into the car park causing congestion problems and blocking circulating/entering
                traffic.




                                                                                                  Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                     17.18                                       Issue 26 February 2007
East Herts Council                                                                               East Herts Parking
                                                                                                  Pay on Foot / Exit



       4        Gascoyne Way, Hertford
                4.1       Existing Car Park Description

                Gascoyne Way is a Pay & Display multi-storey car park and has a total of 366 spaces over
                four levels (Ground, 1st, 2nd and Roof).
                The levels are identical in layout and are connected by two external spiral ramps. Access to
                and from the car park is left in/left out via Gascoyne Way to the south east. The access
                locations are at either end of the car park; entry to the west and exit to the east.
                A single lane (one-way) road runs around the back of the car park acting as an
                access/service road to various buildings and private parking areas. With the current
                operating system and level of use, the local road network can cope with resulting flows and
                in general access is reasonably direct and congestion free.
                The car park is served by a core stair well and two lifts located to the north west of the
                building. Pedestrian access from street level is via this stairwell. There is also a secondary
                stairwell on the north east side of the car park.
                There is no pedestrian routing within the car park and pedestrians share the traffic lanes to
                access the lifts and stairs. General traffic flow through the car park is via a figure of eight
                system that depends on low levels of traffic to operate without congestion. Disabled and
                family bay parking is provided. Signage is poor yet adequate for a car park of its
                size/simplicity and current use.
                Spaces are marked with white edge lines. The surfacing material on each level is the same
                in the aisle and parking areas, that is, there is no differentiation between parking spaces and
                areas for driving. The size of spaces is generally adequate.
                The signage system for each level is based on showing legends; Level A for ground floor,
                Level B for second floor, Level C for third floor and Level D for the roof. This is a simple,
                obvious system that works.

                4.2       Existing Car Park Circulation

                Circulation Routes
                Although there is no ‘quick out’ the circulation route through the car park is generally good
                (one way - figure of eight - system). ‘Exiting’ and ‘searching’ traffic do conflict, using the
                same route on approach to upward and downward ramps, although with the current
                payment/operating system in place this causes limited congestion.
                Signage
                External and internal vehicle signage is adequate. The car park contains a number of
                different signs which are not always clear, consistent in size, style and positioning. There is
                no signage at ceiling level. There is minimal pedestrian signage/information.
                Road Markings

                The quality of road markings is adequate. The layout of arrow markings is simple and clear
                to drivers, although in places the markings have become worn.

                4.3       Existing Car Park Usage

                The car park is located in the centre of Hertford close to the main shopping district. The car
                park is used by both short stay drivers (shoppers), accessing local amenities (124 spaces),
                and by long stay drivers (commuters) who work in the surrounding area (237 spaces).
                Currently all levels are in regular use with an average occupancy rate of 62% in October
                2006 for short stay use and 67% for long stay use.



                                                                                                 Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                    17.19                                       Issue 26 February 2007
East Herts Council                                                                                 East Herts Parking
                                                                                                    Pay on Foot / Exit


                4.4       Implementation of Pay on Foot / Pay on Exit

                Entry/exit layout and traffic circulation is crucial to the successful operation of a Pay on Foot
                car park. Although a Pay on Foot system could be implemented in Gascoyne Way MSCP it
                would be problematic for the following reasons:
                Entry Layout
                The existing layout consists of only one entry lane. When introducing barrier/ticket
                equipment, as a minimum, two entry lanes would be recommended for reasons discussed
                above. A minimum width of 7 meters would be required to achieve two lane entry. Existing
                plans indicate this could just be achieved. A detailed survey and full structural analysis
                would need to be undertaken to confirm. To accommodate the entry layout, 4 spaces would
                be lost.
                Introducing a barrier and ticket mechanism on entry (even with the desired two lanes) will
                add a delay to entering traffic. During peak periods if the arrival rate of vehicles exceeds the
                entrance barrier capacity (and/or the dynamic capacity of other parts of the car park)
                queuing will occur. In the extreme this could extend onto Gascoyne Way, a major through
                road for traffic in Hertford.
                The entry lane provides queuing for approximately 5-6 vehicles. At peak times (assuming a
                worst case scenario of 100% turnover in an hour) the arrival rate would be just over 6
                vehicles per minute. This is in line with the maximum capacity of a barrier operated entry
                lane. With limitations to possible entry layouts and fluctuations in traffic it is conceivable that
                queuing would occur during peak times. Added to equipment malfunction, mechanical
                failure and user error, delay and congestion (or revenue loss if the system is out of
                operation) is likely to occur on a regular basis.
                Exit Layout
                As with the existing entry layout the exit layout consists of only one lane. An initial review of
                the exit layout shows it would not be possible to achieve the desired two lane exit, due to
                width restrictions at the point of exit determined by the car parks structure.
                A barrier system will delay exiting traffic. As with entry, equipment failure or heavy traffic
                during peak times could lead to delays. Queuing for only 2-3 vehicles could be achieved on
                exit and in severe instances traffic would back up into the car park causing congestion and
                blocking circulating and entering traffic.




                                                                                                   Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                     17.20                                        Issue 26 February 2007
East Herts Council                                                                              East Herts Parking
                                                                                                 Pay on Foot / Exit



       5        Kibes Lane, Ware
                5.1       Existing Car Park Description

                Kibes Lane car park is an outdoor Pay & Display surface car park located in the centre of
                Ware. Parking is on ground level and is divided into two main areas (long stay and short
                stay) either side of a through road (Kibes Lane). It has total of 115 spaces.
                Access is via the through road (Kibes Lane). Kibes Lane operates two-way with a priority T-
                junctions to the east (New Road) and west (Bowling Road).
                With the current operating system and level of use the local road network can cope with
                resulting flows and in general access is reasonably direct and congestion free. Immediately
                north of the junction access (along New Road) a signalised pedestrian crossing is in
                operation and queuing is apparent.
                The car park is served by pedestrian footways on either side of Kibes Lane. There is no
                pedestrian routing within the car park and pedestrians share the traffic lanes to access the
                footways. General traffic flow through the car park is poor, but adequate for a car park of its
                size and nature. Disabled but not family bay parking is provided. Signage is limited, but
                adequate for a car park of its size/simplicity and current usage.
                Spaces are marked with white edge lines. The surfacing material is the same in the isle and
                parking areas. The size of spaces is generally adequate.

                5.2       Existing Car Park Circulation

                Circulation Routes
                Circulation through the car park is poor but adequate for a car park of its size and use.
                There is no real circulation path. A number of entry/exit points lead off Kibes Lane
                accessing three small areas of long stay parking (south of Kibes Lane) and one larger area
                of short stay parking (north of Kibes Lane). ‘Exiting’, ‘searching’ and ‘through’ traffic all
                conflict. Although untidy, with the current payment/operating system in place there is limited
                congestion.
                Signage
                Vehicle and pedestrian signage is adequate.
                Road Markings

                The quality of road markings is adequate. The layout of arrow markings is simple and clear
                to drivers, although limited and in places the markings have become worn.

                5.3       Existing Car Park Usage

                The car park is located in the centre of Ware close to the main shopping district. The car
                park is used by both short stay drivers (shoppers), accessing local amenities (59 spaces)
                and by long stay drivers (commuters) who work in the surrounding area (50 spaces).
                Currently the car park is in regular use with an average occupancy rate in October 2006 of
                64% short stay and over 100% (due to turnover) of long stay spaces.

                5.4       Implementation of Pay on Foot / Pay on Exit

                It is uncommon for an outdoor car park of such a small size to operate a Pay on Foot
                system due to the relatively high installation costs and the likelihood that parking spaces
                would be lost in order to accommodate the entry/exit lanes. It is preferred to keep Pay on
                Foot equipment in doors, or covered and not exposed to outdoor weather conditions.
                With Kibes Lane car park at ground level, it could be totally reconfigured and a layout
                achieved to suit the recommended entry and exit lane requirements to implement a Pay on


                                                                                                 Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                    17.21                                       Issue 26 February 2007
East Herts Council                                                                               East Herts Parking
                                                                                                  Pay on Foot / Exit


                Foot system. However this would result in the loss of all the limited waiting spaces on Kibes
                Lane itself (parking for approximately 10 vehicles) and the closure of Kibes Lane as a public
                highway.
                Entry/exit barriers could be incorporated into the existing layout, but circulation through the
                car park would be difficult.
                Even with a complete re-design of the car park a Pay on Foot system would be problematic
                for the following reasons:
                Entry Layout
                Assuming the desired entry layout could be achieved the main access to and from the car
                park would still be from New Road or Bowling Road. It is unlikely a sufficient queuing
                reservoir could be achieved to protect against traffic queuing out onto these roads, causing
                congestion and delay to both entering and through traffic.
                Kibes Lane is a small car park and assuming a worst case scenario of 100% turnover in an
                hour the arrival rate at peak time would still only be about 2 vehicles per minute. This is
                within the maximum capacity of a barrier operated entry lane. However, with limited space
                for queuing and entry directly from a busy highway, equipment malfunction, mechanical
                failure and user error could result in severe delay and congestion.




                                                                                                 Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                    17.22                                       Issue 26 February 2007
East Herts Council                                                                                               East Herts Parking
                                                                                                                  Pay on Foot / Exit




       6        Cost Estimates
                6.1            General Costs

                There are numerous suppliers of parking management systems and equipment on the
                market, responsible for sales, project management and installation. The type of service and
                quality of equipment available can vary considerably between suppliers and the level of
                parking system required. A parking system can be tailored to suit the individual car park
                and its needs, from the very basic to a high-tech, state of the art system.
                Table 6.1 provides a breakdown of the key equipment and general costings associated with
                a Pay on Foot system. The range of costs detailed below depends on the manufacturer and
                the complexity of the equipment. For example, the machinery that uses tokens rather than
                tickets tends to be at the higher end of the cost range, although it can be more reliable and
                cost less in operation.
                Table 6.1: Equipment Purchase Costs

                               MACHINE / EQUIPMENT                                    PURCHASE COST

                     Entry / Exit Barrier                                        £1,000 - £3,000 (per barrier)

                     Entry Ticket Dispenser                                    £3,000 - £6,000 (per dispenser)

                     Exit Ticket Reader                                          £3,000 - £5,000 (per reader)

                     Pay on Foot Machine                                      £10,000 - £20,000 (per machine)

                     Operating/Control System & Connection                            £75,000 - £150,000

                Note: These costs are estimated from a review of tenders for the installation of a Pay on Foot system in 2005.

                In terms of comparison, the Pay & Display machines in East Herts car parks cost £3, 345 at
                present.

                6.2            Capital Cost per Car Park

                The tables below indicate the equipment required and subsequent capital costs associated
                with installing a Pay on Foot parking system for each car park. Site set-up/preparation costs
                are not included and would vary between car parks, depending on car park size, removal of
                existing equipment, structural works, entry/exit layout reconfiguration, existing ducts, cabling
                etc. This could easily double the capital costs. Furthermore, as the Pay and Display
                machines are only about 2 years old, it could also be considered that there is an opportunity
                costs of replacing them before replacement is needed.
                Table 6.2: Bircherley Green MSCP

                             Level                  MACHINE / EQUIPMENT                        PURCHASE COST

                        Shopping Mall         2 x Pay on Foot Machine                    £20,000 - £40,000

                            Level A           2 x Entry Barrier                          £2,000 - £6,000

                                              2 x Entry Ticket Dispenser                 £6,000 - £12,000

                                              1 x Exit Barrier                           £1,000 - £3,000

                                              1 x Exit Ticket Reader                     £3,000 - £5,000

                                              1 x Pay on Foot Machine                    £10,000 - £20,000

                            Level B           n/a




                                                                                                                 Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                            17.23                                               Issue 26 February 2007
East Herts Council                                                                              East Herts Parking
                                                                                                 Pay on Foot / Exit


                        Level C        1 x Pay on Foot Machine             £10,000 - £20,000

                        Level D        n/a

                        Level E        1 x Pay on Foot Machine             £10,000 - £20,000

                        Level F        n/a

                          n/a          Operating/Control System &          £75,000 - £150,000
                                       Connection

                        TOTAL                                              £137,000 – £276,000

                Table 6.3: Gascoyne Way MSCP

                         Level               MACHINE / EQUIPMENT               PURCHASE COST

                        Level A        1 x Entry Barrier                   £1,000 - £3,000

                                       1 x Entry Ticket Dispenser          £3,000 - £6,000

                                       1 x Exit Barrier                    £1,000 - £3,000

                                       1 x Exit Ticket Reader              £3,000 - £5,000

                                       2 x Pay on Foot Machine             £20,000 - £40,000

                        Level B        n/a

                        Level C        2 x Pay on Foot Machine             £20,000 - £40,000

                        Level D        n/a

                          n/a          Operating / Control System          £75,000 - £150,000

                        TOTAL                                              £123,000 - £247,000

                Table 6.4: Kibes Lane

                         Level               MACHINE / EQUIPMENT               PURCHASE COST

                      Ground Level     2 x Entry Barrier                   £2,000 - £6,000

                                       2 x Entry Ticket Dispenser          £6,000 - £12,000

                                       2 x Exit Barrier                    £2,000 - £6,000

                                       2 x Exit Ticket Reader              £6,000 - £10,000

                                       2 x Pay on Foot Machine             £20,000 - £40,000

                          n/a          Operating/Control System &          £75,000 - £150,000
                                       Connection

                        TOTAL                                              £121,000 – £224,000



                6.3       Operation and Maintenance Costs per Car Park

                Equipment costs will be higher for Pay on Foot than for Pay & Display and personnel needs
                do vary. Overall, it is generally considered that Pay & Display is more appropriate for
                smaller, less busy car parks and Pay on Foot suits the bigger, busier car parks.
                Equipment costs for Pay on Foot / Pay on Exit are not only higher in terms of initial
                purchase, but also in terms of maintenance. Actual payment machine maintenance costs
                are relatively similar between Pay on Foot or Exit and Pay & Display, but the introduction of
                ‘moving part’ machines i.e. barriers and ticket readers/dispensers means machines in a Pay



                                                                                                 Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                     17.24                                      Issue 26 February 2007
East Herts Council                                                                              East Herts Parking
                                                                                                 Pay on Foot / Exit


                on Foot system can require frequent servicing and repair. A staffed exit barrier in a Pay on
                Exit system would mean fewer machines and lower maintenance costs of that nature in
                such a system.
                In terms of staff, a Pay & Display system requires a high level of patrolling, particularly when
                parking activity is high, but requires little else in the way of staffing. In comparison, Pay on
                Foot systems require minimal staffing when the system is operational except in the case of
                malfunction or misuse. The likelihood and frequency of malfunction and misuse increases
                with car park size and activity levels. Naturally, all car parks would require some staff to
                monitor the equipment and react quickly to a malfunction. Pay on Exit would have the
                highest staffing costs as permanent staff would be required at each exit barrier unless fully
                automated, but fully automated Pay on Exit systems cause the most queuing and delay
                which would be particularly undesirable in the car parks assessed due to the limitations on
                entry and exit layout.
                Tariffs can have an effect on the operation of a payment system and its demand for parking
                operational staff. A ‘change friendly’ tariff may need to be utilised in order to cut down on
                the need to replenish change hoppers. Also, change giving equipment is complex and
                expensive. High tariffs will mean most users will pay by note or cashless means and will
                require note/card readers and the ability to give change, which a Pay on Foot system
                provides. Low tariffs often allows for the parking charge to be achieved exactly, with coins
                alone, which favours Pay & Display.

                6.4       Car Park Charges & Revenue

                Gascoyne Way and Kibes Lane provide short and long stay parking. Bircherley Green is
                short stay only. The charging structure is the same for each car park and is shown in the
                table below:
                Table 6.5: Existing Parking Charges

                                          Short Stay
                          Up to 1 Hour                       60p
                          Up to 2 Hours                     £1.10
                          Up to 3 Hours                     £1.70
                       Up to 4 Hours (max)                  £2.30


                           Long Stay                     £3 per day
                Although these may cover the operational costs of a new payment system, they would have
                to be increased significantly to recoup capital costs.




                                                                                                 Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                    17.25                                       Issue 26 February 2007
East Herts Council                                                                             East Herts Parking
                                                                                                Pay on Foot / Exit



       7        Conclusion
                7.1        Payment System Conclusions

                Pay on Foot has been around for more than twenty years and the current market offers up
                to date, sophisticated technology, capable of being introduced and tailored to suit almost
                any parking environment. Pay & Display has been in operation in car parks for even longer
                than Pay on Foot. Both systems are consistently developing with note readers,
                credit/debit/smart card readers, change givers, ticket-less systems, chip coins and tokens,
                complete system control, improved management information. Recent developments even
                allow users to pay and enter/exit car parks using mobile phone and the internet technology.
                In theory, reliable Pay on Foot systems are fully automated and can operate without (or with
                minimal) staffing. However rapid human intervention is often necessary due to equipment
                failure/malfunction, or where the system can not cope with incorrect actions. For example;
                      •   presenting an unpaid ticket at exit,
                      •   insufficient funds to pay for a ticket,
                      •   mutilated, lost, or defected tickets/tokens.
                Without rapid intervention, such actions or malfunctions can cause delay and congestion.
                Even if there is an override system to lift the barriers, significant revenue loss is often the
                result. Therefore, although maintenance and operational costs can be comparable with Pay
                and Display (excluding enforcement costs which are close to cancelled out by penalty
                charge revenue), much depends on how the system is managed and monitored, and how
                robust it is. The necessity for a more robust and more complex system is the main reason
                that general installation and capital costs for Pay on Foot are much higher than for Pay &
                Display.
                The design and operation of the entry/exit layout to a Pay on Foot car park can be crucial.
                Two lanes (in parallel) for both entry and exit are desirable and are often necessary to meet
                peak demand without undesirable delay. Where queuing capacity is limited then busy peak
                conditions or equipment malfunction can cause severe delay and congestion, not only
                internally, but to the external road network.
                Therefore, Pay on Foot will operate best where the benefits are considered equal to the
                capital costs, where rapid intervention in cases of malfunction is possible and where the
                design and operation of the entry/exit layout can be optimised.

                7.2        Car Park Conclusions

                All three car parks are small to medium in size. Gascoyne Way is a dated car park with
                conflicting circulation routes that do not suit a Pay on Foot system. Internal and external
                queuing is limited to a small number of cars and structurally it would be difficult to
                reconfigure the entry/exit layouts.
                Kibes Lane is a small out door surface car park, its layout is not suited to a Pay on Foot
                system and it has no real circulation route for vehicles. Operation would be difficult during
                busy periods. If barriers were introduced on entry/exit (keeping the existing layout) they
                would need to be positioned towards the centre of the car park, thus allowing queuing
                capacity for vehicles entering off New Road or Bowling Road. This would reduce the room
                for circulation and spaces on Kibes Lane would be lost. Also, as the smallest car park, the
                capital costs will not present good value for money and as an open-air car park,
                maintenance costs could be higher due to vandalism.
                Bircherley Green is the car park most suited to a Pay on Foot system in its style and
                location. The car park is short stay only, situated above a shopping centre. Entrance to the



                                                                                                Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                       17.26                                   Issue 26 February 2007
East Herts Council                                                                              East Herts Parking
                                                                                                 Pay on Foot / Exit


                car park is via the shopping centre and payment machines could be confined centrally for all
                users. Entry and exit ramps can accommodate queuing traffic and so limit the risk of severe
                delay or congestion at peak times to those circulating inside the car park or to traffic
                movements externally. Delay and congestion on entry and exit would still be greater than
                the existing situation. Also, the entry layout at level A would need to be reconfigured and
                this would mean a loss of 9 spaces. Therefore, there are drawbacks to changing the
                existing payment systems, but Bircherley Green is more suited than the other two studied.
                Overall, the greatest obstacle is capital cost. Naturally, if a site were chosen and a car park
                built and laid out for Pay on Foot, the problems created by existing structures and layouts
                would not arise. However, the capital cost is high to change the payment system even
                without the structural costs. The operational costs are much less of an issue. Therefore,
                the value for money of a Pay on Foot system should be considered in terms of these costs
                for car parks in East Herts.




                                                                                                 Ove Arup & Partners Ltd
                                                    17.27                                       Issue 26 February 2007

				
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