Simplified English

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					Simplified English
What Is Simplified English? Simplified English (SE) was developed so that documents written in English could be
understood by people who speak little English. To make the documents easier to understand, Simplified English
uses a limited vocabulary and a set of writing rules. The writer can only use words on the approved list and
technical terms (words common to tile field). Each word on the list has only one approved definition. For
example, “about” is used for “concerned with.” It cannot be used for “around” or “approximately.” Verb tenses
are also restricted. The rules listed below were developed for the AECMA. The principles for simplified English
can be used even if AECMA rules are not strictly followed. Many of the words on the AECMA approved list
would not be needed for Church products. Many words needed for Church products are not on the AECMA
approved list.

Example of Simplified English
Original paragraph:
    Place the water heater in a clean, dry location as near as practical to the area of greatest heated water
   demand. Long uninsulated hot water lines can waste energy and water. Clearance for accessibility to per-
   mit inspection and servicing such as removing heating elements or checking controls must be provided.

Same paragraph in Simplified English:
   Put the water heater in a clean, dry location near the area where you use the most hot water. If the hot
   water lines are long and they do not have insulation, you will use too much energy and water. Make sure
   you have access to the heating elements and the controls for inspection and servicing.

(The above example is from “Learning to Use Simplified English: A Preliminary Study,” by Margaret Thomas,
Gloria Jaffe, J. Peter Kincaid, and Yvette Stees, Technical Communication, First Quarter 1992, pg 70)

AECMA Simplified English Rules
1. Use only approved words.
2. Use approved words only as the part of speech given. (example: close is a verb [and not an adverb].
   Write: Do not go near the landing gear if... NOT: Do not go close to the landing gear if...)
3. Keep the approved meaning; do not add any other meaning. (example: Follow means “to come after.” It
   does not mean “to do what the rules tell you.” Write: Obey the safety instructions. NOT: Follow the
   safety instructions.
Technical Names
4. You can use words that are “Technical Names.” (These words are not part of the attached list of words.)
   A word, symbol, or term is a “technical name” if it is in one of these categories: names of: official parts,
   locations on aircraft, tools or equipment, materials, support facilities, circuits or systems, persons,
   groups, or bodies, technical records, standards, regulations, and the following categories of terms: math-
   ematical, scientific, engineering, navigational and flying, measurement or dial markings, number, parts
   of the body, common personal effects, medical, documents and manuals, names, headings, & topics used
      in specifications, environmental conditions, colors, damage terms. (The categories are from the aero-
      space industry. Another list would be needed for Family History.)
5.    Use a technical name only as a noun or an adjective, not as a verb.
6.    Use the official name (shortened if necessary) as much as possible.
7.    Do not use different technical names for the same thing.
8.    If you have a choice, use the shortest and simplest names.
9. You can use the verb in these tenses: the infinitive, the present tense, the past tense, the simple future
    tense, and the past participle (as an adjective). (example: To adjust; It adjusts; It adjusted; It will adjust. It
    is adjusted.)
10. Do not use forms of the verb not shown in the “Approved Words” (such as verbs in the “-ing”
11. Use the past participle only as an adjective: either with a noun or after the verbs “to be, to become.”
    (example: Connect the disconnected wires again. The wires are disconnected. The wires become discon-
12. participle with a helping verb to make a complex verb. (example: adjusted. NOT:...has
    adjusted. can adjust NOT: can be adjusted. Write: Adjust the... NOT:...must be adjusted)
13. You can use verbs that are “Manufacturing Processes.” A manufacturing process does the following to
    material: removes, adds, attaches. changes the mechanical strength, structure or physical properties,
    changes the surface finish, changes the shape. (The categories are from the aerospace industry. Another
    list would be needed for Family History.)
14. Use the active voice as follows:
     • Procedures: use only the active voice
     • Description and Operation: use the active voice as much as possible; use the passive voice only when
       absolutely necessary.
15. To change a passive construction to the active:
     • Change the subject at the beginning of the sentence.
     • Change an infinitive verb to an active verb.
     • Change the verb to the commanding form.
     • Use the personal pronouns “we, you.”
16. Let the verb show the action. (example: Write: the ohmmeter shows... NOT: The meter gives an indica-
    tion of...) Sometimes it is not possible to follow this advice in SE, because of the limited choice of
    words. For example, in SE you must write: “Do the leak test,” instead of “Test for leaks.” This is because
    “test” is only used as a noun.
17. 17. Do not omit a verb (or nouns) to make your sentences shorter. (example: Write: Set the rotary switch
    to INPUT. NOT: Rotary switch to INPUT.)
18. Repeating words. In SE, you will often have to repeat the same word many times in one text. This is
    because the number of words is limited, and their meanings are strictly defined. This repeating of words
    helps the reader to understand the text. He becomes familiar with patterns of words and their meanings.
    You must not confuse your reader by using different words to describe the same thing. Once you have
    chosen the words to describe something, continue to use these same words.
19. Make your instructions as specific as possible. (example: Write: If you increase the temperature it will
    decrease the curing time. NOT: Different temperatures will change the curing time.)
The Grouping of Words
Remember that your reader may only have a poor knowledge of English. He will read/translate a text bit by
bit, and will not understand a phrase if the relationship between the words is not clear.
20. If it is possible, you must put an “article” (the, a, an) or a “demonstrative adjective” (this, that, these,
     those) before a noun. (examples: Write: Stop the start procedure if... NOT: Stop start procedure if. Write:
  • Hold the main gear doors up.
  • Set the alternate control lever to DOWN.
  • Set the alternate control lever to NORMAL.
Not: Support main gear doors, position alternate control lever fully DOWN and return to NORMAL.)
21. Break up noun clusters that have more than three nouns. Such “noun” clusters are almost impossible to
    read for some non English readers. This is probably because these readers begin with the first noun as
    they do in their own language. But the noun that the reader needs is at the end of the “noun cluster.”
    (example: Write: The temperature of the exhaust gas from the engine. NOT: The engine exhaust gas tem-
If an official technical name is a noun cluster (example: the main gear inboard door retraction winch handle),
there are three ways to help your reader:
22. Use hyphens to show the relationship between the words. (example: The main-gear inboard-door retrac-
    tion-winch handle.)
23. Explain the name. (example: [the handle that is used to operate the winch that retracts the inboard door
    of the main gear
24. Explain to the reader that you will use a shorter name. (example:...retraction-winch-handle In this chap-
    ter. the handle is referred to as the “winch handle.”)
Length of Sentences
25. Keep sentences as short as possible.
26. The maximum length of sentences is 20 words.
27. An average of one sentence in ten can be up to 25 words long.
28. When you count words for sentence length, the colon and the dash count as a full stop (period).
29. When you count words for sentence length, each word in a hyphenated group counts as a separate word
    unless it is a prefix.
30. When you count words for sentence length, text inside parentheses counts as a new sentence.
31. Keep to one topic or one instruction per sentence.
32. Write more than one instruction per sentence only when two actions have to be done at the same time.
    (example: Hold the switch to “TEST” and make sure the light comes on.)
33. Use connecting words to join separate sentences. (Write short sentences that are logically connected by
    connecting words. Connecting words will help to show the relationship between the different topics in
    the separate sentences. Such connecting words are: “Thus, also, so but, and, then, now.” You may start a
    sentence with “but” or “and.” Just make sure that you do not start too many sentences with “and,” as this
    will weaken your text.)
34. Use a tabular layouts (vertical layouts) for complex texts. (example: When the landing gear retracts,
    these movements occur:
  • The door-operating bar on the leg touches and turns the latch.
  • This causes the roller to move out of the slot.
  • The second roller holds the door-operating bar.)
35. In descriptive writing, try to vary sentence lengths and constructions to keep the text interesting.
36. In an instruction, write the verb in the imperative form (as though “must” were written in front of it).
37. In an instruction, the subject of the verb is implied as “you,” but this is not necessarily written into the
    sentence. (example: Remove the bolts = (You must) remove the bolts.)
38. Use paragraphs to show your reader the logic of the text.
39. Each paragraph must have only one topic. The paragraph must deal with that topic in a logical manner
    and must make the relationship between sequences of information clear to the reader. You must not put
    unrelated pieces of information into the same paragraph. If one paragraph is not sufficient for all the nec-
    essary information, divide the subject matter and deal with each separate aspect in its own paragraph.
40. Always start the paragraph with the topic sentence. By reading only the topic sentences, the reader
    should be able to understand the broad outline of your text. If the reader is looking for some specific
    information, the topic sentence should be able to help him decide which paragraph he needs.
41. Use connecting words to make the relationship between sentences and paragraphs clear.
42. The maximum length of a paragraph is 6 sentences.
43. Do not use one-sentence paragraphs more than once in every 10 paragraphs.
44. Present new and complex data slowly.
We use punctuation marks to show how parts of the text are related to each other. They help to make your
text more readable and to make the meaning clear. Punctuation marks must not be scattered according to
45. If you start an instruction with a descriptive statement (dependent clause), you must separate that state-
    ment from the rest of the instruction with a comma. (example: When the light comes on, set the switch to
46. Use hyphens as a joining signal. When we wrote these rules, we kept in mind the main objective: that
    readers should never have to reread a text to work out which words were intended to be read together.)
    Rules for when to use hyphens:
  • Two word terms used together. Low-altitude flight, quick-acting clamp, high-pressure chamber
  • Two word fractions or numbers. forty-seven, one-half
  • Adjectives that consist of three or more words. three-to-one ratio, soap-and-water solution
  • Terms that consist of a capital letter or number and a noun. L-shaped bracket, 3-prong connector
  • Compound verbs that consist of a verb plus a noun. die-cast. arc-weld
  • Terms in which the prefix ends with a vowel and the root word begins with a vowel. de-ice, de-energize,
  • Terms in which two one-syllable words are written together but the first is not a simple modifier of the
    second by-pass, run-on torque
47. Use parentheses to set off text that is not part of the main statement but is important enough to be indi-
    cated or to mark text for which separation by commas is insufficient.
48. Use the colons and dashes only in tabular layouts (vertical layouts) with standard punctuation as follows:
  • Each breakout starts with an upper case letter
  • Do not put a period at the end of each breakout, but only at the end of the last breakout to show the end Of
    the sentence
  • If the sequence of the breakouts is important, number them in agreement with your in-house specifications.

Warnings and Cautions
Warnings and cautions tell a technician that parts of the procedures can be dangerous. A warning tells him
that injury or death is possible if he does not follow the instructions. A caution tells the technician that dam-
age to equipment is possible.
  • Start a warning or a caution with a simple and clear command.
  • Add a brief explanation to a warning or a caution to give a clear idea of the possible risk.

How to make a Simplified English Vocabulary
The information below came from the attached article, “Developing a Simplified English Vocabulary” by
D.A.T. Peterson, Technical Communication, Second Quarter, 1990, pp 130-133.
To create a simplified English vocabulary for his field, D.A.T. Peterson analyzed the text of four technical
manuals and extracted the core vocabulary. The four manuals covered different topics. A word processing
program was used for analysis. The program provided an automatic count of how many times each word was
used in the document.
To develop the core vocabulary, Mr. Peterson did the following:
1. Deleted numerals, abbreviations, and punctuation.
2. Arranged remaining text in alphabetical order.
3. Merged and sorted the four lists.
4. Deleted words for items, actions, conditions, and processes (technical words). The remaining words
   became the initial core vocabulary.
5. Compared the initial core vocabulary to Charles K. Ogden's 850-word Basic English vocabulary and to
   the AECMA Simplified English. This was to ensure that no obviously required words were omitted.
6. Used several standard and technical dictionaries to assign an appropriate definition for each word.
7. Looked for synonyms in a thesaurus. (Generally, when synonyms were found, the shorter word was
8. Checked the core vocabulary for antonyms. When the combination of not and another word would serve,
   the antonym was deleted. If a word could not be replaced or if the alternate construction was too awk-
   ward, the word was retained. (example: use “not complete” instead of “incomplete”)
9. Grouped the words by function. (The groupings he used were: Operations-Definite, Operations-Not Def-
   inite, Things-Definite, Things-Not Definite, Conditions-Definite, Conditions-Not Definite, Location,
   Function Words, Joining Words, Helping Words.)
10. Subdivided each groups into verbs, nouns, prepositions, etc. The words in each subdivision were then put
    in alphabetical order.
11. Used the words deleted from the original list to make a list of not-approved words. Example: “Conclu-
    sion: Use END”
To develop a technical word vocabulary Mr. Peterson did the following:
1. Prepared a complete parts list and a list of required tools and test equipment. Defined these part names
    and added them to the approved vocabulary.
2. Analyzed existing documents to identify the condition, process, and action words.
3. Made a list of words that described a technical process. Defined these words.
4. Made a list of words that described a condition affecting operation or maintenance. Defined these words.
5. Made a list of words that described an action required for operation or maintenance. Defined these
6. Reviewed the words and replaced them with words from the core vocabulary, where possible.
7. Added the words to the approved vocabulary.

ASCMA Simplified English
Words from AECMA Simplified English
  • 156 adjectives
  • 97 adverbs
  • 3 articles
  • l 7 conjunctions
  • 169 nouns
  • 27 prepositions
  • 21 pronouns
  • 138 technical nouns
  • 164 (abt 650 conjugated) verbs

Adjectives (partial list) - accurate, adjustable, alternative, apparent, applicable, approved, approximate,
available, bad, worse, worst, basic, careful, clean, clear, constant, continuous, correct, different, directly,
down, each, easy, easier, easiest, empty, equal, equivalent, expanded, expired, external fast, faster, fastest,
first, forward, free, frequent, front, full, general, good, better, best, high, higher, highest, important, incor-
rect, initial, inner, interchangeable, intermittent, internal irregular, large, larger, largest, last, least, left, less,
lesser, least, local, long, longer, longest, loose, low, lower, lowest, maximum, middle, military, minimum,
moderately, movable, much, more, most, near, nearer, nearest, necessary, new, no, off, on, only, opposite,
optional, other, permanent, positive, possible, regular, related, remaining, right, same, satisfactory, second,
secondary, sensitive, short, shorter, shortest, slow, slower, slowest, small, smaller, smallest, some, special,
specified, straight, strong, stronger, strongest, subsequent, such, sudden, sufficient, sure, temporary, tertiary,
thick, thicker, thickest, thin, thinner, thinnest, third, total, unknown, unsatisfactory, unusual, unwanted, usual
Adverbs (partial list) - accurately, again, almost, also, always, apparently, approximately, away, back,
clearly, constantly, correctly, differently, down, easily, equally, first, forward, fully, here, how, immediately,
incorrectly, initially, locally, moderately, momentarily, not, off, o.k., on, only, out, permanently, positively,
possibly, quickly, regularly, satisfactorily, slowly, smoothly, specially, subsequently, suddenly, sufficiently,
temporarily, then, there, through thus, tightly, together, too, unsatisfactorily, unusually, up, usually, very

Articles - a, an, the

Conjunctions - after, although, and,, because, because of, before, but, if, or, than, that, thus, unless,
until, when, where, while

Prepositions - about, above, across, adjacent, aft of, after, against, along, around, as, at, before, behind,
below, between, by, down, during, for, forward of, from, in, in front of, into, minus, near, of, off, on, oppo-
site, out of, plus, since, through, thru, to, to the rear of, with, without

Pronouns - all, each, it, its, none, other, some, that, these, they, them, their, this, those, we, which, who, you,
AECMA Approved Words

A                                                         always (adv)
                                                          ammunition (n)
a (art)                                                   an (art)
about (pre) - concerned with (for other meanings          analysis (n)
use APPROXIMATELY, AROUND)                                and (con)
above (pre) - a position higher than (for other mean-     apart (adv) - put at a distance from
ings use MORE THAN)                                       apparent (adj)
abrasive (adj)                                            apparently (adv)
accept (v) accepts, accepted, accepted                    applicable (adj)
access (n)                                                apply (v) applies, applied, applied
accident (n)                                              approval (n)
accidental (adj)                                          approved (adj)
accidentally (adv)                                        approximate (adj)
accurate (adj)                                            approximately (adv)
accurately (adv)                                          are (v) see Be
across (pre) - from one side to the other                 area (n)
adapt (v) adapts, adapted, adapted - to change to a       arm (v) arms, armed, armed
new situation                                             armament (n)
add (v) adds, added, added                                around (pre) - on all sides of
adjacent (adj)                                            arrow (n)
adjacent to (pre) - near in space                         as (pre) - to the same quantity, equally (same as)
adjust (v) adjusts, adjusted, adjusted adjustable (adj)   (for other meanings use - because, while)
adjustment (n)                                  
after (pre, con) - follows a specified time, sequence,     assemble (v) assembles, assembled, assembled
etc.                                                      assembly (n)
again (adv)                                               at (pre)
against (pre) - in contact with                           attach (v) attaches, attached, attached
agent (n)                                                 authority (n) - official that gives approval to some-
agree (v) agrees, agreed                                  thing
aid (n) - help that is given                              automatic (adj)
air (n)                                                   automatically (adv)
airborne (adj)                                            auxiliary (adj)
aircraft (n)                                              available (adj)
airflow (n)                                                average (n)
align (v) aligns, aligned, aligned                        away (adv) in or to a different position or direction
all (adj, pn)
allowance (n) - a permitted difference
almost (adv)                                              B
along (pre)                                               back (adv)
also (adv)                                                bad, worse, worst (adj)
alternative (n)                                           badly (adv)
alternatively (adv)                                       balance (v) balances, balanced, balanced
although (con)                                            basic (adj)
be (v) is, was, are, were.- to occur, exist, to equal to   cause (v) causes, caused, caused
have a property (no other forms of this verb)              cause (n) - something that causes a result
because/because of (pre, con) - as a result of             caution (n)
become (v) becomes, became, become                         center (n)
before (pre, con) - “Preceding” in time or sequence        change (v) changes, changed, changed change (n) -
behind (pre) - in a position at rear (for other mean-      that which occurs when something changes
ings use AFTER, SUBSEQUENT)                                charge (v) charges, charged, charged - to add electri-
below (pre) - in a position lower than (for other          cal energy to (use FILL for other meanings)
meanings use LESS THAN)                                    circle (n)
bend (v) bends, bent, bent                                 circular (adj)
bend (n)                                                   class (n)
better, best (adj)                                         clean (v) cleans, cleaned, cleaned
between (pre) - related to something before and            clean (adj)
after in time or place                                     clear (adj) - not blocked, without interference
bleed (v) bleeds, bled, bled                               clearly (adv) - not blocked, without interference
blockage (n)                                               clearance (n) - space between two objects
blocked (adj)                                              clockwise (adv)
blow (v) blows, blew, blown                                close (v) closes, closed, closed
blunt (adj)                                                code (n)
bond (v) bonds, bonded, bonded                             cold, colder, coldest (adj)
bond (n)                                                   collect (v) collects, collected, collected
bottom (n) - the lowest place                              color (n)
break (v) breaks, broke, broken                            come (v) comes, came, come (lights and lamps
breathe (v) breathes, breathed, breathed                   COME ON and GO OFF)
bright/brighter/brightest (adj)                            compare (v) compares, compared, compared
brightly (adv)                                             complete (v) completes, completed, completed
brush (n)                                                  compress (v) compresses, compressed, compressed
bubble (n)                                                 computer (n)
burn (v) burns, burned, burned                             condition (n)
but (con) - on the “contrary”)                             confined (adj)
by (pre) - word used when you divide or multiply           connect (v) connects, connected, connected
                                                           connection (n) - that which connects
                                                           constant (adj)
C                                                          constantly (adv)
calculate (v) calculates, calculated, calculated           contain (v) contains, contained, contained - to have
can (v) can, could - to be able to (no other forms of      in, to hold in
this verb)                                                 container (n)
cancel (v) cancels, canceled, canceled                     contents (n)
careful (adj)                                              continue (v) continues, continued, continued
carefully (adv)                                            continuous (adj)
capacity (n) - the maximum quantity that can be            continuously (adv)
held or made                                               contour (n) - outer shape
catch (v) catches, caught, caught                          control (v) controls, controlled, controlled
control (n) - something that controls                different (adj)
cool (adj)                                           differently (adv)
copy (n) - something made to look the same another   dim, dimmer, dimmest (adj)
item                                                 dimension (n)
corner (n)                                           dimly (adv)
correct (v) corrects, corrected, corrected           direction (n)
correct (adj)                                        directly (adv)
correctly (adv)                                      dirty (adj)
correction (n)                                       disarm (v) disarms, disarmed, disarmed
count (v) counts, counted, counted                   discard (v) discards, discarded, discarded
count (n) - number of items or occurrences counted   display (n)
counterclockwise (adj, adv)                          distance (n)
cover (n)                                            distortion (n)
crack (n)                                            divide (v) divides, divided, divided
curve (n)                                            do (v) does, did, done
cut (v) cuts, cut, cut                               down (adj,adv,prc) - to a lower position
cycle (n)                                            drain (v) drains, drained, drained
                                                     drift (n)
                                                     drink (v) drinks, drank, drunk
D                                                    drop (n)
damage (n)                                           dry (v) dries, dried, dried
damaged (adj)                                        during (pre) - In or for a specified time
dangerous (adj)
dangerously (adv)
data (n)                                             E
date (n)                                             each (adj,pn)
day (n)                                              ear (n)
deceleration (n)                                     easily (adv)
decision (n)                                         east (n)
decrease (v) decreased                               easy, easier, easiest (adj)
defect (n)                                           eat (v) eats, ate, eaten
defective (adj)                                      edge (n)
deflate (v) deflates, deflated, deflated                 effect (n)
dent (n)                                             electrical (adj)
dented (adj)                                         electrically (adv)
depth (n)                                            electricity (n)
detail (n)                                           electronic (adj)
deterioration (n)                                    electronically (adv)
device (n)                                           electronics (n)
diagonal (adj)                                       emergency (n)
diagonally (adv)                                     empty (adj)
diameter (n)                                         end (n)
difference (n)                                       energy (n)
engine (n)                                                 finish (n)
entrance (n)                                               fire (n)
entry (n)                                                  fire (v) fires, fired, fired
equal (adj)                                                first (adj, adv)
equally (adv)                                              fit (n)
equipment (n) equivalent (n, adj)                          flag (n)
erase (v) erases, erased, erased                           flame (n)
error (n)                                                  flat (adj)
estimate                                                   flexible (adj)
(n)                                                        flight (n)
examine (v) examines, examined, examined                   flow (v) flows, flowed, flowed
example (n)                                                flow (n)
exhaust (n)                                                fluid (n)
exit (n)                                                   focus (n)
expanded (adj)                                             fold (v) folds, folded, folded: to double over on
expired (adj)                                              itself
explosion (n)                                              follow (v) follows, followed, followed: to come
explosive (adj)                                            after
exposure (n)                                               for (pre) - word that shows purpose, intent, time,
extend (v) extends, extended, extended: to cause           result or the object of an action (do not use for
something to increase in length, area or range             because
extension (n)                                              force (n)
external (adj)                                             form (n)
externally (adv)                                           forward (add adv): in the direction of the front
eye (n)                                                    forward of (pre) nearer to the front
                                                           free (adj) that can move without limits
                                                           freely (adv) that can move without limits
F                                                          freeze (v) freezes, froze, frozen
face (n)                                                   frequency (n)
fact (n)                                                   friction (n)
failure (n)                                                from (pre) shows a point of departure for move-
fall (v) falls, fell, fallen: to move down by the force    ment, time distance, action, or separation
of gravity                                                 front (adj)
far, farther, farthest (adj): at or to a large distance    front (n)
fast, faster, fastest (adj): at high speed                 fuel (n)
feel (v) feels, felt, felt: to touch to find out            full (adj)
file (n)                                                    fully (adv): at or related to maximum travel, length,
fill (v) fills, filled, filled: to put into a container to a   quantity or detail
known level, pressure or quantity                          function (n)
film (n)
filter (n)
find (v) finds, found, found: to discover, to examine        G
something                                                  gain (n)
gas (n)                                                   hit (v) hits, hit, hit: to touch suddenly and heavily
general (adj) applicable to the whole                     hold (v) holds, held, held: to have or to keep in the
geometry (n)                                              hand or a grip, to keep in a specified place, position
get (v) gets, got (note: no other parts of this verb)     or condition
give (v) gives, gave, given: to transfer to or to pro-    hole (n)
vide                                                      hook (n)
go (v) goes, went, gone - to move to or from, to          horizon (n)
come into a condition (note: lights and lamps             hot, hotter, hottest (adj) at a high temperature
COME ON and GO OFF)                                       how (adv) by which procedure
good, better, best (adj) not bad
graph (n)
gravity (n)
grease (n)                                                ice (n)
grip (n)                                                  identification (n)
groove (n)                                                identify (v) identifies, identified, identified: to sup-
ground (n) - surface of the earth                         ply with identification
ground (v) grounds, grounded, grounded: to make           if (con) - In the event that, on the condition that
an electrical connection to ground or between con-        ignition (n)
ductors                                                   ignore (v) ignores, ignored, ignored: Not to think
group (n)                                                 about something or not to do something about
guard (n)                                                 immediately (adv) without a gap of time or space
guide (n)                                                 important (adj) has a large effect on something
                                                          in (pre) function word that shows location, position,
                                                          condition, time or limits
H                                                         in front of (pre) - ahead of
half (n)                                                  incident (n)
hand (n)                                                  include (v) includes, included, included: to make or
hang (v) hangs, hung, hung: to attach to something        to be part of
above with no support from below                          incorrect (adj) incorrectly (adv) not correct
hard, harder, hardest (adj): Not easy to cut, not easy    increase (v) increases, increased, increased: to make
lo go into or through                                     or to become larger or higher
hardware (n)                                              increment (n)
have (v) has. had, had: to possess as a part of quality   independently (adv)
head (n) - the tope of something                          indication (n)
hear (v) hears, heard, heard                              inhibition (n)
heat (n)                                                  initial (adj)
heavy, heavier, heaviest (adj) heavily (adv) has a        initially (adv) has a relation with the start
large mass, weight or force                               injury (n)
height (n)                                                inner (n)
help (v) helps, helped, helped                            input (n)
here (adv) this position                                  inside (n)
high, higher, highest (adj), highly (adv): More than      inspection (n)
a given value or above                                    instability (n)
install (v) installs, installed, installed: To attach an   large, larger, largest (adj) More than average in
item in or to a second item                                dimension, capacity or quantity
installation (n): the procedure which installs an          last (adj) comes at the end
object, something that is installed for a function         latch (n)
instruction (n)                                            latch (v) latches, latched, latched: To hold in posi-
instrument (n) an item which measures and/or               tion with a latching device
shows                                                      layer (n)
insulation (n)                                             leak (n)
intensity (n)                                              leakage (n)
interchangeable (adj) can replace the other without        least (adj) refer to less
change                                                     left (adj)
interface (n)                                              length (n)
interference (n)                                           less, lesser, least (adj) of smaller dimension, number
intermittent (adj), intermittently (adv): That stops       or quantity
and starts again, not continuous                           let (v) lets, let, let To permit an action to occur
internal (adj) internally (adv) of or on the inner side    letter (n)
into (pre)                                                 level (adj)
irregular (adj) irregularly (adv) not regular              level (n)
is (v) refer to BE                                         life (n)
it (pn)                                                    lift (v) lifts, lifted. lifted: to move to a higher posi-
item (n)                                                   tion
its (pn) that “belongs” to that “thing”                    light, lighter, lightest (adj) lightly (adv): With small
                                                           weight, mass. or force (Note: use Thin, Small for
                                                           other meanings)
J                                                          light (n)
jack (n)                                                   lighting (n)
joint (n)                                                  limit (n)
                                                           line (n)
K                                                          liquid (n)
                                                           listen (v) listens, listened, listened: To try to hear
keep (v) keeps, kept, kept: To continue to have, do        something
or hold                                                    load (n)
kill (v) kills, killed, killed: to cause death             local (adj), locally (adv): applicable to a given place
kink (n)                                                   location (n)
know (v) knows, knew, known: To be sure of data,           lock (v) locks, locked, locked: To attach or hold
to have data ready to use                                  with a locking device
                                                           look (v) looks, looked, looked: use your eyes to see
L                                                          or find out
                                                           long, longer, longest (adj)
label (n)                                                  loop (n)
lamination (n)                                             loose (adj) loosely (adv)
landing (n)
low, lower, lowest (adj): Below a given value lower    much, more most (adj) of large dimension or quan-
(v) lowers, lowered, lowered: move to a lower posi-    tity
tion                                                   multiplication (n)
lubricant (n)                                          must (v) Note: No other forms of this verb) “Help-
lung (11)                                              ing verb that shows obligation”

M                                                      N
machine (n)                                            name (n)
magnet (n)                                             near, nearer, nearest (adj): at or to a short distance
maintenance (n)                                        near (pre) - closeness in time, space, or condition
make (v) makes, made, made: to cause to occur or to    necessary (adj) that must be
become                                                 new (adj)
malfunction (n)                                        no (adj) not any
mandatory (adj)                                        noise (n)
manual (adj) manually (adv): Operated by hand          none (pn)
manual (n) - publication                               north (n)
many, more most (adj) of large number                  nose (n)
mark (n)                                               not (adv)
mass (n)                                               notch (n)
material (n)                                           note (n)
maximum (n)                                            notice (n)
measure (v) measures, measured, measured               number (n)
mechanism (n)
medical (adj)
melt (v) melts, melted, melted: change from solid to
liquid                                                 obey (v) obeys, obeyed, obeyed
metal (n)                                              object (n)
middle (n)                                             occur (v) occurs, occurred, occurred
military (n)                                           of (pre)
minimum (n,adj)                                        off (adj,adv,pre) - away from, not in operation
minus (pre) - subtraction                              oil (n)
mix (v) mixes, mixed, mixed                            O.K. (adv)
mixture (n)                                            on (adj,adv,pre) - shows contact, support, direction;
mode (n)                                               in operation
moderately (adv) between in quality, position, level   one (n)
modification (n)                                        only (adj, adv): Nothing more or different
moist (adj) moderately wet                             open (adj) not closed
momentarily (adv): for a short time                    open (v) opens, opened, opened
more, most: refer to much                              opening (n) an aperture, something that is open
move (v) moves, moved, moved                           operate (v) operates, operated, operated
movement (n)                                           operation (n)
                                                       operator (n)
opposite (adj,pre) opposed to, across from                power (n)
optional (adj): not mandatory or (con) function           pre- (adj) before
word to show an alternative                               precaution (n)
order (n) - give an order (for other meanings, use        precision (n)
sequence)                                                 preparation (n)
other (adj, pn): that which is not the same as that       prepare (v) prepares, prepared, prepared
given before                                              preservation (n)
out (adv)                                                 pressure (n)
out of (pre)                                              pressurize (v) pressurizes, pressurized, pressurized
outer (adj)                                               prevent (v) prevents, prevented, prevented
output (n)                                                primary (adj) most important, first in level
outside (n)                                               problem (n)
overhaul (n)                                              procedure (n)
overlap (n)                                               program (n)
                                                          projection (n)
                                                          property (n)
P                                                         proportion (n)
paint (n)                                                 protection (n)
paint (v) paints, painted, painted                        pull (v) pulls, pulled, pulled
pair (n) - two objects that are almost the same or that   pump (n)
you use together                                          push (v) pushes, pushed, pushed
park (v) parks, parked, parked                            put (v) puts, put, put
part (n) - one piece
particle (n)
patch (n)                                                 Q
performance (n)                                           quality (n)
permanent (adj) permanently (adv) with no limit in        quantity (n)
time                                                      quickly (adv)
permit (v) permits, permitted, permitted
person (n)
piece (n)
pipe (n)                                                  range (n)
placard (n)                                               rate (n)
play (n) free movement                                    read (v) reads, read, read
plus (pre)                                                rear (adj)
point (v) points, pointed, pointed                        rear (n)
point (n)                                                 rearwards (adv)
poisonous (adj)                                           receive (v) receives, received, received
polish (v) polishes, polished, polished                   recess (n) - indentation in a surface
position (n)                                              recommend (v) recommends, recommended, rec-
positive (adj) positively (adv)                           ommended
possible (adj) possibly (adv)                             record (n)
post- (adj) after                                         refer to (v) refers to, referred to, referred to
reflection (n)                                       scratch (n)
refuel (v) refuels, refueled, refueled              screw (n)
regular (adj) regularly (adv)                       seal (v) seals, sealed, sealed
reject (v) rejects, rejected, rejected              seal (n)
related (adj)                                       second (adj)
relation (n)                                        secondary (adj)
release (v) releases, released. released            security (n)
remaining (adj)                                     see (v) sees, saw, seen
removal (n)                                         selection (n)
remove (v) removes, removed, removed                semicircular (adj)
repair (n) repair (v) repairs, repaired, repaired   send (v) sends, sent, sent
replace (v) replaces, replaced, replaced            sensitive (adj)
replacement (n)                                     separation (n)
reply (n)                                           sequence (n)
report (n)                                          serration (n)
resistant (adj)                                     serviceable (adj)
result (n)                                          servicing (n)
retract (v) retract, retracted, retracted           set (n)
retraction (n)                                      set (v) sets, set, set
right (adj)                                         shake (v) shakes, shook, shaken
rigid (adj)                                         shape (n)
risk (n)                                            sharp (adj)
roller (n)                                          sheet (n)
rope (n)                                            shield (n)
rough, rougher, roughest (adj)                      shiny (adj)
rounded (adj)                                       shock (n)
routing (n)                                         short, shorter, shortest (adj)
row (n)                                             show (v) shows, showed, shown
rub (v) rubs, rubbed, rubbed                        side (n)
run (n)                                             sideways (adv)
                                                    sign (n) signal
                                                    (n) since (pre) - (do not use instead of BECAUSE)
S                                                   skid (n)
safe (adj)                                          sling (n)
safety (v) safeties. safeties, safetied             slope (n)
safety (n)                                          slot (n)
satire (adj)                                        slow, slower, slowest (adj) slowly (adv)
sample (n)                                          small, smaller, smallest (adj)
satisfactory (adj)                                  smell (v) smells, smelled, smelled
satisfactorily (adv)                                smoke (v) smokes, smoked, smoked: to breathe
saw (n)                                             “tobacco” smoke
scan (n)                                            smoke (n)
schedule (v) schedules, scheduled, scheduled        smooth, smoother, smoothest (adj) smoothly (adv)
snow (n)                                                  structural (adj)
so (that) (con)                                           structurally (adv)
soak (v) soaks, soaked, soaked                            structure (n)
soap (n)                                                  subsequent (adj)
soft (adj)                                                subsequently (adv)
solid (adj)                                               subtract (v) subtracts, subtracted, subtracted
solid (n)                                                 such (adj)
solution (n) 1. liquid that includes “dissolved” mate-    suction (n)
rial 2. answer to a problem                               sudden (adj)
some (adj,pn)                                             suddenly (adv)
something (n)                                             sum (n)
sound (n)                                                 supply (v) supplies, supplied, supplied
source (n) 1. something that supplies heat or light. 2.   supply (n)
point where something starts. 3. something that sup-      sure (adj)
plies data                                                surface (n)
space (n)                                                 switch (n)
span (n)                                                  symbol (n)
spark (n)                                                 symmetrical (adj) symmetrically (adv)
speak (v) speaks, spoke, spoken                           symmetry (n)
special (adj) specially (adv)                             symptom (n)
specification (n)                                          synchronized (adj)
specified (adj)                                            system (n)
speed (n)                                                 systematically (adv)
sphere (n)
spherical (adj)
splice (n)
spray (n)                                                 tag (n)
stable (adj)                                              tag (v) tags, tagged, tagged
stain (n)                                                 tape (n)
standard (n)                                              task (n)
start (v) starts, started, started                        tear (n)
start (n)                                                 telescopic (adj)
stay (v) stays, stayed, stayed                            tell (v) tells, told, told
stencil (n)                                               temperature (n)
step (n)                                                  temporary (adj)
stop (v) stops, stopped, stopped                          temporarily (adv)
straight (adj)                                            tension (n)
strap (n)                                                 tertiary (adj)
strength (n)                                              test (n)
stressed (adj)                                            than (con)
strip (n)                                                 that (con,pn)
stripe (n)                                                the (art)
strong, stronger, strongest (adj)                         then (adv)
theory (n)                                               tune (v) tunes, tuned, tuned
there (adv)                                              turn (v) turns, turned, turned
these (pn)                                               turn (n)
they, them, their (pn)                                   twist (v) twists, twisted, twisted
thick, thicker, thickest (adj)                           type (n)
thickness (n)
thin, thinner, thinnest (adj)
think (v) thinks, thought, thought
third (adj)                                              unit (n)
this (pn)                                                unknown (adj)
those (pn)                                               unless (con)
thread (n)                                               unsatisfactory (adj)
three (n)                                                unsatisfactorily (adv)
through (adv, pre) - in one side & out the other side,   unserviceable (adj)
from end to end or start to end, by way of               until (con)
thru (pre) - from XXX to XXX inclusive                   unusual (adj)
thus - as a result of                                    unusually (adv)
tight (adj)                                              unwanted (adj)
tightly (adv)                                            up (adv)
tighten (v) tightens, tightened, tightened               upstream (adv)
tightness (n)                                            use (v) uses, used, used
time (n) 1. “period that you can measure and when        usual (adj)
something occurs or is there. 2. repetition of an        usually (adv)
to (prep)                                                V
to the rear of (pre)
together (adv)                                           value (n)
tolerance (n)                                            vertical (adj)
too (adv)                                                vertically (adv)
tool (n)                                                 very (adv)
top (n)                                                  vibration (n)
torque (n)                                               view (n)
torque (v) torques, torqued, torqued                     visual (adj)
total (n, adj)                                           visually (adv)
touch (v) touches, touched, touched                      voice (n)
tow (v) tows, towed, towed                               volume (n) - space that an object occupies
track (n)
transmit (v) transmits, transmitted, transmitted         W
transparent (adj)
                                                         warm (adj)
travel (n)
                                                         warning (n)
trestle (n)
                                                         water (n)
trouble-shooting (n)
                                                         we (pn)
try (v) tries, tried, tried
weak, weaker, weakest (adj)
wear (v) wears, wore, worn
weather (n)
weigh (v) weighs, weighed, weighed
weight (n)
weld (v)
went: refer to go
were: refer to be
west (n)
wet (adj)
wheel (n)
when (con)
where (con)
which (pn)
while (con) - at the same time
who (pn)
width (n)
will (v) (no other parts of this verb)
wind (n)
wind (v) winds, wound, wound
wire (n)
with (pre)
without (pre)
work (n)
worse (adj)
write (v) writes, wrote, written
writing (n)

You, Your (pn)

zero (n)
AECMA Simplified English Not Approved Words
Use: “Use” gives other approved words or constructions that can be used instead of the non-approved key-
word. It is important for you to know that these words or constructions are only SUGGESTIONS to help
you. You can probably think of other alternatives (approved words) yourself. Do NOT Use the alternative
word if this causes you to write nonsense or unidiomatic English. In such a case you will have to rewrite the
whole sentence.
A                                                        aeroplane (n) Use: aircraft
                                                         affect (n) Use: can cause
A abandon (v) Use: Stop                                  affected (adj) Use: dirty, damaged, changed
able (v) Use: can, approved                              afford (v) Use: get, give
abnormal (adj) Use: unusual, incorrect, unsatisfac-      aggravate (v) Use: make worse/stronger
tory                                                     agitate (v) Use: shake
abrupt (adj) Use: sudden                                 aid (v) Use: help
absolutely (adv) Use: fully                              aim (n) Use: to, for, give
acceptable (n, adj) Use: permitted, satisfactory, ser-   aim (v) Use: point, try
viceable                                                 alarm (n) Use: warning
acceptance (n) Use: accept                               alert (v) Use: tell
accessible (adj) Use: get access to                      allocate (v) Use: give
accommodate (v) Use: let                                 allow (v) Use: let, permit
accomplish (v) Use: do or commanding verb con-           allowable (adj) Use: permitted, approved
struction                                                alter (v) Use: change
according to (prep) Use: refer to                        alteration (n) Use: change
account for (v) Use: is, are                             alternate (n) Use: different, applicable, each other
accumulate (v) Use: collect                              XXX
accumulated (adj) Use: collected                         alternate (v) Use: go first to XXX, then to YYY: do
accumulation - (n) Use: quantity, collection             among (prep) Use: in, with, between
accuracy (n) Use: precision                              amount (n) Use: quantity
achieve (v) Use: get                                     analyze (v) Use: make an analysis
acknowledge (v) Use: tell                                another (adj) Use: one more, different, add
act (v) Use: is, are occur                               any (pn, adj) Use: one, if
action (n) Use: effect, step procedure                   anytime (adv) Use: when
activate (v) Use: start, operate                         appear (v) Use: show, come into view, be possible,
activity (n) Use: procedure, step, work                  think
actual (adj) Use: correct                                application (n) Use: apply
addition (n) Use: Use, increase, add                     approach (v) Use: go near
additional (adj) Use: more                               appropriate (adj) Use: applicable
adequate (adj) Use: sufficient, correct                   approve (v) Use: get approval
adhere (v) Use: bond, follow, keep                       arrange (v) Use: put in sequence, tell
adopt (v) Use: Use, follow                               arrive (v) Use: get
advance (n) Use: movement forward, adjust, adjust-       ask (v) Use: tell, speak
ment                                                     assess (v) Use: calculate, make an estimate
advance (v) move/turn forward                            assessment (n) Use: estimate, calculate, find
adverse (adj) Use: bad                                   assign (v) Use: give
advisable (adj) Use: is best, is recommended             assist (v) Use: help
advise (v) Use: tell, must                               assistance (n) Use: aid
associated (adj) Use: their, related, correct          burst (adj) Use: that breaks open
assume (v).Use: think                                  burst (v) Use: break, come open, apart
assure (v) Use: make sure                              bypass (v) Use: go around
asymmetric (adj) Use: not symmetrical at least (adv)
Use: not less than, minimum
atmosphere (n) Use: air
attain (v) Use: show, be                               calculation (n) Use: calculate
attempt (n,v) Use: try                                 call (v) Use: tell
attendance (n) Use: be                                 cannot (v) Use: can not
attention (n) Use: aid, careful, think                 cap (v) Use: seal with a cap
audible (adj) Use: hear                                capability (n) Use: can, operation, function
authorized (adj) Use: approved                         capable (adj) Use: can, approved
avoid (v) Use: prevent                                 care (n) Use: careful, carefully, precaution
aware (adj) Use: know, tell                            carry (v) Use: move
                                                       carry out (v) Use: do or commanding verb construc-
B                                                      case (n) (in case of) Use: if, occur, then
back (adj) Use: rear, aft                              categorize (v) Use: put into groups
back (n) Use: rear, behind                             category (n) Use: group
back of (prep) Use: behind, to the rear of, aft of     caution (v) Use: tell not to
backup (n) Use: alternative, emergency                 cautiously (adv) Use: carefully
backward (adv) Use: rearward(s)                        cavity (n) Use: hole, empty space
beginning (n) Use: start, source                       cease (v) Use: stop
begin (v) Use: start                                   cement (v) Use: bond
beneath (prep) Use: below, lower than                  center (v) Use: adjust, put, in the center
beside (prep) Use: adjacent to                         certain (adj) Use: sure, some, given
beware (v) Use: be careful                             certification (n) Use: approval
beyond (pre) Use: more                                 certify (v) Use: write, get approval, approved
big, bigger, biggest (adj) Use: large, larger/est      chance (n) Use: risk, accidentally
block (v) Use: blocked, cause a blockage               characteristic (n) Use: property, quality
both (adj) Use: the two                                check (v) Use: make sure, do a xxx check, measure,
boundary (n) Use: limit, edge                          examine
branch (v) Use: go in a different direction            choice (n) Use: available, alternative, selection
breadth (n) Use: width                                 choose (v) Use: Use
break (n) Use: stop                                    chosen (adj) Use: applicable, correct, set
breakdown (n) Use: stop, failure                       circle (v) Use: move around, go around
bring (v) Use: cause, move, put                        circulate (v) Use: let flow
briskly (adv) Use: quickly                             class (n) Use: group
broadcast (v) Use: transmit                            classification (n) Use: group
brush (v) Use: Use a brush, apply                      classify (v) Use: put into groups
building (n) Use: structure                            cleanliness (n) Use: clean
build (v) Use: assemble, make                          clear (v) Use: remove, be clear
bump (v) Use: hit                                      clenched (adj) Use: held tightly, attached, closed
clip (v) Use: cut, attach with clips                   consider (v) Use: is/are
clockwise (adj) Use: adverb                            considerable (adj) Use: large, very much, important
close (adj) Use: near                                  consist (v) Use: have
close to (adv) Use: near                               consistent (adj) Use: agree
closely (adv) Use: carefully                           construct (v) Use: assemble, make
code (v) Use: identify                                 contact (n) Use: touch, hear, speak
coincide (v) Use: align                                contact (v) Use: touch, tell
coincident (adj) Use: aligned, together, at the same   contribution (n) Use: aid, add, give
time                                                   conventional (adj) Use: usual
collective (adj) Use: all, together                    conversant (adj) Use: know
combine (v) Use: mix                                   convert (v) Use: change, find
commence (v) Use: start                                coordinate (v) Use: make, do
common (adj) Use: the same, usual                      copious (adj) Use: large quantity
communicate (v) Use: tell                              copy (v) use, write, make a copy
communication (n) Use: speak, tell, hear               correlate (v) Use: agree
comparison (n) Use: compare                            correspond (v) Use: agree with
Compensate (v) Use: make allowance                     corresponding (adj) Use: of, agree with
compile (v) Use: make, write, put together             cover (v) Use: put covers on, give, have
complete (adj) Use: full, completed, all               covered (adj) Use: closed, included, cover
completely (adv): fully                                create (v) Use: make, cause
completion (n) Use: end, complete                      criterion (n) Use: decision, condition, think critical
complicated (adj) Use: not easy                        (adj) Use: very important, careful, necessary
comply (v) Use: obey                                   cross (v) Use: go across
composite (adj) Use: different                         crosswise (ad;) Use: across, horizontally, vertically
comprise (v) Use: is, are                              curve (v) Use: make a curve
compute (v) Use: calculate                             curved (adj) Use: rounded
concern (n) Use: think, problem
conclusion (n) Use: end, result, decision
concurrently (adv) Use: at the same time
conducive (adj) Use: that can cause                    damage (v) Use: cause damage to, damaged
conduct (v) Use: do                                    damp (adj) Use: moist
confer (v) Use: tell                                   danger (n) Use: dangerous
confirm (v) Use: make sure                              decide (v) Use: make a decision
confirmation (n) Use: approval, know, tell              decrease (n)) Use: decrease (v)
conflict (n) Use: not agree                             deem (v) Use: is
conform (v) Use: agree                                 define (v) Use: is/are, calculate
conformity (n) Use: agree                              defined (adj) Use: specified, given, found
confuse (v) Use: make sure, agree                      definitely (adv) Use: sure, make sure
confusion (n) Use: agree, not agree                    delicate (adj) Use: easily damaged
consecutive (adj) Use: one xxx after the other xxx     deliver (v, -y (n) Use: supply
consequence (n) Use: result, because of, effect        demand (n) Use: input, operation, as necessary
consequent (adj) Use: subsequent, caused               denomination (n) Use: group, name
consequently (adv) Use: as a result, thus              denote (v) Use: show
depend (v) Use: if, must agree with               disposal (n) Use: discard, available, have
deplete (v) Use: decrease                         dispose (v) Use: discard, put
depletion (n) Use: decreased, use                 disregard (v) Use: ignore
describe (v) Use: make, give                      distinct (adj) Use: easy to identify, clear, clearly
described (adj) Use: given, specified, identified   distort (v) Use: twist, cause damage, put out of
design (n,v) Use: make                            shape, bend
designate (v) use: identify, set apart, give      distribute (v) Use: apply, give
designated (adj) Use: identified, make known,      distribution (n) Use: apply, divide, give, supply
given, specified                                   disturb (v) Use: move, change
desire (v) Use: be necessary                      division (n) Use: divide
despatch (v) Use: send                            double (adj) Use: two
destroy (v) Use: discard, make unserviceable      doubt (n) Use: not sure, think
destruction (n) Use: discard                      downward (adv) Use: down
detach (v) Use: disconnect, remove, disengage     drag (v) Use: pull, touch
detachable (adj) Use: possible to remove          drape (v) Use: put
detail (v) Use: give, refer to                    draw (v) Use: make a line
detailed (adj) Use: given, careful, full          due to (prep) Use: because of
detect (v) Use: find                               dull (adj) Use: dim, matt, not shiny, not bright
determination (n) Use: find, decision              dump (v) Use: discard, put
determine (v) Use: find, give                      duplicate (n) Use: copy
detrimental (adj) Use: dangerous, cause damage    duration (n) Use: do, end, time, life
develop (v) Use: start, make, cause               duty (n) Use: task, function
deviate (v) Use: must follow
devise (v) Use: make, find
diagnose (v) Use: find
diametrically (adv) Use: opposite                 early/er/est (adj) use; before the usual time
differ (v) Use: is/are different                  earth (n,v) Use: ground
differentiate (v) Use: show, identify             ease (v) Use: move/ remove carefully
difficult (adj) Use: not easy                      effective (adj) Use: has an effect
difficulty (n) Use: problem, not easy              efficient (adj) Use: correct satisfactory
digit (n) Use: number                             efficiently (adv) Use: correctly, satisfactorily
diminish (v) Use: decrease                        effort (n) Use: try, force, input
dip (v) Use: put into momentarily                 either (adj, pn) Use: the two, one of the two
direct (v) Use: turn, point                       elapse (v) Use: time, after
disappear (v) Use: go out of view, move           eliminate (v) Use: remove, stop, prevent, repair
disclose (v) Use: find, is, tell, show             embedded (adj) Use: attached, in, included
discontinue (v) Use: stop                         emitted (adj) Use: given out
discovered (adj) Use: found                       employ (v) Use: use
discrepancy (n) Use: difference                   empty (v) Use: remove
discretion (n) Use: be careful, decision, think   enable (v) Use: let
dislodge (v) Use: remove, clean, loosen           encircle (v) Use: apply, put
dispatch (v) Use: send                            enclose (v) Use: around, in, contain
display (v) Use: show                             enclosed (adj) Use: closed
enclosure (n) Use: contain, include, area                 exceptionally (adv) Use: but, unusually
encounter (v) Use: there is/are, find                      excess (n, adj) Use: too much, more, unwanted
end (v) Use: stop, complete                               excessive (adj) Use: too much, more than the limit
enforce (v) Use: must                                     exchange (v) Use: change
enlarge (v) Use: make larger, increase                    exclude (v) Use: remove
enlarged (adj) Use: made larger, extended, increased      excluding (prep) Use: not, without, does not include
enough (adj) Use: sufficient                               execute (v) Use: do
ensure (v) Use: make sure                                 exempt (adj) Use: does not include, does not show,
entail (v) Use: must                                      has no
enter (v) Use: go into, write                             exercise (v) Use: use, be careful, make sure
entire (adj) Use: full or all                             exert (v) Use: apply
envisage (v) Use: think                                   exhale (v) Use: breathe out
equal (v) Use: be the same as, be equal, have same        exist (v) Use: is/are
value as                                                  exit (v) Use: go out of
equidistant (adj) Use: at the same distance               expand (v) Use: expanded (adj), become
equip (v) Use: have, supply                               larger/longer, extend
equipped (adj) Use: with, have, assembled, com-           expect (v) Use: think
pleted                                                    expedite (v) Use: help, send, do xxx fast
erect (v) Use: put up, move                               expend (v) Use: use
erratic (adj) Use: irregular                              expended (adj) Use: empty, used
escape (v) Use: come out, release/decrease pressure       experience (v) Use: get, have, is
essential (adj) Use: important, necessary                 explain (v) Use: tell, show
establish (v) Use: tell, make                             expose (v) Use: get, be open to
estimate (v) Use: make an estimate                        exposure (n) Use: touch
evacuate (v) Use: remove                                  extent (n) Use: quantity, lengths or level
evacuation (n) Use: remove                                exterior (n) Use: external
evaluate (v) Use: make an analysis                        extra (adj) Use: more
evaluation (n) Use: estimate, calculate, find              extract (v) Use: remove
evaporate (v) Use: become gas, become dry                 extrapolate (v) Use: make an estimate
even (adj) Use: smooth, symmetrical, equal, flat           extreme (adj) Use: very high, more, very bad, at the
event (n) Use: if, result                                 limit of
every (adj) Use: all or each                              extremely (adv) Use: very
evidence (n) Use: sign, find, see, shown                   exude (v) Use: come out
evident (adj) Use: shown, find
exact (adj) Use: correct, accurate, satisfactory
exactness (n) Use: precision, correct, accurate, satis-
factory                                                   fabricate (v) Use: make, assemble
examination (n) Use: examine, find                         face (v) Use: point, turn, is/are
exceed (v) Use: more                                      facilitate (v) Use: help, make easier
exceeding (adj) Use: more than                            facility (n) Use: can (or give the name of the facil-
except (prep) Use: not, without, does not include         ity)
exception (n) Use: include                                false (adj) Use: incorrect
exceptional (adj) Use: unusual, more than average         familiar (adj) Use: know
fasten (v) Use: hold, lock, attach                     gauge (v) Use: measure
fatal (adj) Use: kill                                  generally (adv) Use: usually, frequently
fault (n) Use: failure, defect                         generate (v) Use: give, make, supply
feature (n) Use: shape, property, quality, different   generous (adj) Use: by xxx (quantity)
feature (v) Use: have                                  generously (adv) Use: by a large quantity
feed (v) Use: supply, put                              gentle (adj) Use: carefully, lightly
few (adj) Use: not many or give range, number,         gradual (adj) Use: slow and continuous
quantity                                               grasp (v) Use: hold
figure (v) Use: calculate                               great/er/est (adj) Use: large/er/est
filter (v) Use: put through a filter                     grip (n,v) Use: hold
final (adj) -ly (adv) Use: last                         grow (v) Use: become
finding (n) Use: result, fact                           guarantee (v) Use: make sure
fine (adj) Use: satisfactory, high quality, sharp
finish (v) Use: complete
firm (adj) Use: strong, hard, heavy
firmly (adv) Use: correctly, tightly, satisfactorily    halt (v) Use: stop
fix (v) Use: attach, set, stable, repair, install       halve (v) Use: decrease to half
flagged (adj) Use: has a flag                            hand (v) Use: give
flattened (adj) Use: flat                                handle (v) Use: move, touch, be careful with
flaw (n) Use: defect, failure                           happen (v) Use: occur
flush (adj) Use: in tine with, does not come out,       harmful (adj) Use: dangerous, kill, cause damage
makes a Continuous surface, smooth                     harmless (adj) Use: not dangerous
focus (v) Use: put into focus                          haul (v) Use: move, pull
fold (n) Use: fold (v)                                 hazard (n) Use: dangerous
following (adj) Use: follow, subsequent, this these    head (v) Use: point, move, turn
fore (adj) Use: front                                  help (n) Use: aid, help (v)
forecast (v,adj) Use: think, make an estimate          hoist (v) Use: lift
forget (v) Use: make sure                              hook (v) Use: attach/catch with a hook
form (n) Use: shape form (v) Use: make                 however (adv) Use: but
fragile (adj) Use: easily damaged                      hygiene (n) Use: clean
free (v) Use: release
free from (adj) Use: clean, has no xxx                 I
fresh (adj) Use: clear, new, replacement
fulfil (v) Use: do, operate                             identical (adj) Use: same
function (v) Use: operate; move                        idle (v) Use: operate at minimum power
furnish (v) Use: give, supply                          illegible (adj) Use: can not read
further (adj, adv) Use: more, at a larger distance     immediate (adj) Use: immediately (adv)
                                                       immerse (v) Use: put fully into
                                                       imminent (adj) Use: that can occur in a short time
G                                                      immobilize (v) Use: stop
gain (n) Use: increase                                 impair (v) Use: cause damage, decrease
gain (v) Use: get                                      impart (v) Use: apply, give, cause
gap (n) Use: clearance, distance                       imperative (adj) Use: must, necessary
implement (v) Use: do, make                           integral (adj) Use: is part of
importance (n) Use: important                         intend (v) Use: must
impose (v) Use: put, cause                            interchange (v) Use: change
impossible (adj) Use: can not, not possible           interconnect (v) Use: connect
improper (adj) Use: incorrect                         interfere (v) Use: cause, hit, catch, touch, clearance
improve (v) Use: make better                          interior (n) Use: internal internally
impurity (n) Use: unwanted material, contamination    intermediate (adj) Use: between (give limits)
inactive (adj) Use: off, stopped                      interpret (v) Use: tell, make sure, give
inadvertent (adj) Use: accidental                     interrupt (v) Use: stop
incipient (adj) Use: start                            interruption (n) Use: stop
incline (n) Use: slope                                intersect (v) Use: point, show
including (pre) Use: thru, together with, and, also   intersected (adj) Use: gone through
incomplete (adj) Use: not completed                   interval (n) Use: after, gap, distance
incorporate (v) Use: include, have                    inverted (adj) Use: turned, opposite
increase (n) Use: increase (v)                        investigate (v) Use: inspection, find, examine
incur (v) Use: cause                                  involve (v) Use: include
independent (adj) Use: independently                  inward (adj, adv) Use: in, inner, into
indicate (v) Use: show                                irregularity (n) Use: unusual, defect
indicated (adj) Use: shown                            isolation (n) Use: isolate
individual (adj, n) Use: each, one, person            issue (v) Use: come out of
induce (v) Use: cause
ineffective (adj) Use: does not have an effect
influence (v) Use: cause
inform (v) Use: tell                                  job (n) Use: task, work
information (n) Use: data                             join (v) Use: bond, put, attach, connect
ingest (v) Use: eat, drink, go into                   just (adv) Use: immediately, near
ingress (n) Use: go into, entrance
inhale (v) Use: breathe                               K
inhibit (v) Use: prevent, stop
inhibition (n) Use: prevent                           kind (n) Use: group
initiate (v) Use: start                               knock (v) Use: hit
inject (v) Use: add, put into
injure (v) Use: injury                                L
inoperative (adj) Use: does not operate is off
                                                      label (v) Use: identify with a label
insert (v) Use: put into, be in
                                                      lack (n) Use: not, no
inside (adj,n,prep) Use: inner, in, into
                                                      laid (adj) Use: put down on, applied
insignificant (adj) Use: not important
                                                      lapse (v) Use: after, when
inspect (v) Use: make an inspection, examine, look
                                                      last (v) Use: continue
instability (n) Use: not stable
                                                      later (adj,adv) Use: subsequent, subsequently
instead (adv) Use: alternative
                                                      latest (adj) Use: last
instruct (v) Use: tell, write, give
                                                      latter (n) Use: last
insufficient (adj) Use: not sufficient
                                                      lay (v) Use: put down, on
insure (v) Use: make sure
lead (v) Use: go                                         matter (n) Use: material
leave (v) Use: let stay, keep                            may (v) Use: can, possible, possibly, not always,
left hand (adj) Use: left                                think
legible (adj) Use: read, can read                        measurement (n) Use: dimension, quantity, measure
lengthen (v) Use: make longer, increase the length       medium (adj) Use: moderately
less (prep) Use: without                                 meet (v) Use: is/are in line, engage, touch
liable (adj) Use: that can                               mend (v) Use: repair
liberal (adj) Use: large quantity                        mention (v) Use: give
lie (v) Use: be                                          message (n) Use: tell, speak, data, indication, dis-
light (v) Use: set, come on                              play
light-up (v) Use: start                                  method (n) Use: procedure
limit (v) Use: keep to a limit                           mid (adj) Use: middle
limitation (n) Use: limit                                midway (adv) Use: middle position
limited (adj) Use: limit                                 might (v) Use: possible, possibly, can, always, think
linger (v) Use: stay, be                                 mild (adj) Use: weak, neutral
link (v) Use: connect, attach                            minimize (v) Use: keep to a minimum
list (v) Use: show, give, write                          minor (adj) Use: small, less important
load (v) Use: put a load on, install                     miscellaneous (adj) Use: other
localize (v) Use: find                                    missing (adj) Use: can not find, not there
locate (v) Use: find, install, engage, put                mistake (n) Use: error
located (adj) Use: on, in, found, installed              mix (n) Use: mixture
log (v) Use: write                                       mobile (adj) Use: movable
loop (v) Use: make a loop                                moderate (adj) Use: moderately
lose (v) Use: decrease                                   modification (n) Use: change
loss (n) Use: decrease, leak, find                        modify (v) Use: make a modification, change
lost (adj) Use: decrease, find                            moisten (v) Use: moist
lukewarm (adj) Use: warm                                 momentary (adj) Use: momentarily
                                                         motion (n) Use: movement
magnitude (n) Use: quantity, dimension                   N
main (adj) Use: primary                                  nature (n) type
maintain (v) Use: keep                                   nearly (adv) Use: almost
major (adj) Use: primary, large, most important          necessitate (v) Use: must, be necessary
man (n) Use: person                                      need (v) Use: be necessary
maneuverer (v) Use: move, control                        needed (adj) Use: necessary
manipulate (v) Use: move, adjust                         neither (adj, pn) Use: none
manufacture (v) Use: make                                never (adv) Use: not, no
margin (n) Use: edge, allowance, distance, limit, tol-   nevertheless (con) Use: but
erance                                                   next (adj) Use: subsequent
mark (v) Use: make a mark                                next to (pre) Use: adjacent to
marked (adj) Use: identified                              nomenclature (n) Use: name
match (v) Use: be in line, make, install                 nominally (adv) Use: almost
non- (prefix) Use: that is not xxx                        perfect (adj) Use: satisfactory, correct, serviceable,
nor (con) Use: not... or                                 permitted
normal (adj) Use: usual, satisfactory, correct,          perforated (adj) use; has holes through
serviceable                                              perform (v) Use: do or commanding verb construc-
note (v) Use: write                                      tion
noticeable (adj) Use: feel, see, hear, smell             period (n) Use: time
notify (v) Use: tell                                     periodically (adv) Use: at regular times
notwithstanding (con) Use: although                      permissible (adj) Use: permitted, satisfactory
number (v) Use: give/ have numbers numerically           perpendicular (adj) Use: vertical
(adv) Use. number                                        persist (v) Use: continue
                                                         persistent (adj) Use: constant, regular, continued,
O                                                        many
observe (v) Use: look, monitor. see, obey                personnel (n) use; persons
obstruct (v) Use: cause blockage, prevent, clogged,      personal (adj) Use: persons, you, your
blocked                                                  pick up (v) Use: collect, catch
obstruction (n) Use: blockage                            pierce (v) Use: go through/in, make a hole in
obtain (v) Use: get                                      pinch (v) Use: hold tightly
occasion (n) Use: possibly, possible, if, occur, when    place (n) Use: location, position
occupy (v) Use: is/are                                   place (v) Use: put
occurrence (n) Use: if                                   plan (n) Use: procedure, program, data, schedule
often (adv) Use: frequently, usually                     plan (v) Use: schedule
old (adj) Use: used, remaining                           plot (v) Use: make a graph
omit (v) Use: do not do, ignore, make sure               poor (adj) Use: unsatisfactory, defective, incorrect
once (adv, con) Use: one time, when                      pop (v) Use: come. move, open suddenly
onset (n) Use: start                                     portion (n) Use: piece, part
onto (prep) Use: on                                      position (v) Use: put, set, install
opaque (adj) Use: not transparent                        possibility (n) Use: possible
                                                         postpone (v) Use: do not
                                                         potential (adj) Use: can, possible
P                                                        pour (v) Use: put
package (n) Use: container                               practice (n) Use: procedure
partial (adj) Use: not fully                             precede (v) Use: come/ do before
particular (adj) Use: special, applicable, specially     preceding (adj) Use: before
partly (adv) Use: not fully                              precise (adj) Use: accurate, correct, precision
pass (v) Use: go through, put, be on, more               preferable (adj) Use: better, possible, recommend
passage (n) Use: go through, put through                 preliminary (adj) Use: before, initial
past (prep) Use: around, through                         premature (adj) Use: before the usual time
paste (v) Use: bond                                      preparatory (adj) Use: prepare
pay (v) Use: write, make sure                            prescribe (v) Use: write, give, approved
peel (v) Use: remove                                     presence (n) Use: be
penetrate (v) Use: go into, go through                   present (adj) Use: be
per (prep) Use: for each, for every (for “as per” Use:   present (v) Use: give, show
refer to)
preserve (v) Use: keep from damage, prevent dam-      Q
age to, do the preservation procedure
                                                      qualified (adj) Use: approved
preset (adj, v) Use: set
                                                      questionable (adj) Use: not sure
press (v) Use: push
                                                      quick (adj) Use: fast, quickly
prevail (v) use; is/are, usual
                                                      quote (v) Use: give
previous (adj) Use: again, before
primarily (adv) Use: primary
principal (adj) Use: primary                          R
prior to (prep) Use: before                           raise (v) Use: lift, increase, retract
probe (v) Use: feel, examine                          random (adj) Use: at any time
proceed (v) Use: continue                             rapid (adj) Use: fast
process (v) Use: send, do                             rapidly (adv) Use: quickly
process (n) Use: procedure, step                      rated (adj) Use: given, specified, correct
produce (v) Use: give, cause                          reach (v) Use: have
product (n) Use: material, mixture                    reaction (n) Use: force, effect
program (v) Use: do, schedule, program (n)            reading (n) Use: indication, value, show
progress (n, v) Use: continue, move                   readjust (v) Use: adjust
progressive (adj) Use: continuous, step by step,      ready (v, adj) Use: prepare
increase                                              reappear (v) Use: come into view, show
progressively (adv) Use: in steps, slowly, continu-   reason (n) Use: cause, because
ously                                                 reassemble (v) Use: assemble
prohibit (v) Use: prevent, tell, do not               rebuild (v) Use: assemble, make
project (v) Use: continue, show, make a projection    recede (v) Use: go down
prolonged (adj) Use: long                             recheck (v) Use: do a check
prompt (adj) Use: immediately, fast                   reckon (v) Use: calculate
propagation (n) Use: become larger                    reclaim (v) Use: keep, get back, remove
proper (adj) Use: correct, correctly, approved        re-close (v) Use: close
proportional (adj) Use: in proportion                 recognize (v) Use: find, know
protect (v) Use: prevent, seal                        recommendation (n) Use: instruction
protected (adj) Use: protection                       reconnect (v) Use: connect
protective (adj) Use: prevent                         record (v) Use: write
protrude (v) Use: be above, come out of               recover (v) Use: keep, get back, remove
prove (v) Use: show, make sure                        rectify (v) Use: repair, make correct, adjust
provide (v) Use: give, supply                         recur (v) Use: occur
provided (con) Use: if, when                          reduce (v) Use: decrease
providing (con) Use: if, when                         reduction (n) Use: decrease, small
provision (n) Use: have, be, possible, can            reference (n) Use: refer to
provisional (adj) Use: temporary                      referenced (adj) Use: identified, given, specified
proximity (n) Use: near                               register (v) Use: show, move
purge (v) Use: remove                                 regulate (v) Use: control
purify (v) Use: clean                                 regulation (n) Use: adjustment
purpose (n) Use: cause                                reinforce (v) Use: make stronger
                                                      rejection (n) Use: reject
relate (v) Use: have a relation                          reverse (adj) Use: opposite
relative (adj, -ly (adv) Use: related, their, its        review (n) Use: examine, look
relay (v) Use: tell                                      right-hand (adj) Use: right
relevant (adj) Use: related, their, its                  rim (n) Use: edge, Range
reliable (adj) Use: satisfactory                         rinse (v) Use: remove, flush
relieve (v, adj) Use: release, decrease                  ripped (adj) Use: damaged
remain (v) Use: stay                                     rise (n, v) Use: increase
remedy (n, v) Use: repair, make correct                  roll (v) Use: move, use a roller
remember (v) Use: write                                  rope-off (v) Use: put ropes around
remnant (n) Use: remaining                               rotary (adj) Use: turn
remote (adj) Use: far                                    rotate (v) Use: turn
removable (adj) Use: that you can remove                 rotation (n) Use: turn
render (v) Use: make                                     roughen (v) Use: make rough
renew (v) Use: put, use                                  round (adj) Use: circular
renovate (v) Use: repair, make clean                     routine (adj) Use: regular, usual
repeat (v) Use: do, make, operate                        rule (n) Use: usually
repeated (adj), - ly (adj) Use: again                    run (n, v) Use: operate
replenish (v) Use: refill, add
report (v) Use: tell
reposition (v) Use: put, install
represent (v) Use: show                                  safeguard (v) Use: make sure
request (n, v) Use: tell, write                          salvage (v) Use: keep, collect, repair
require (v) Use: be necessary                            sample (v) Use: get, remove
requirement (n) Use: necessary                           satisfy (v) Use: get, occur
residual (adj) Use: remaining, other                     save (v) Use: keep
residue (n) Use: remaining                               scan (v) Use: make a scan, inspection, examine
resolve (v) Use: find a solution, make a decision         scrap (v) Use: discard
respective (adj) Use: related, their, its, correct       scrape (v) Use: remove
respond (v) Use: operate                                 scratch (v) Use: have/ cause scratches
responsible (adj) Use: approved, must                    screw (v) Use: install, turn, attach with a screw
rest (n, v) Use: remaining, is/are                       scrub (v) Use: clean, remove
restart (v) Use: start                                   scrupulous (adj) Use: fully
restore (v) Use: put back, repair, paint                 sealing (n) Use: seal
restrain (v) Use: hold, limit, prevent                   search (v, n) Use: look for, examine
restrict (v) Use: decrease, limit, held, prevent, only   seat (v) Use: put, install, touch, engaged
result (v) Use: cause resulting (adj) Use: caused        secure (adj) Use: attach, install, safety, connect
resume (v) Use: start                                    seek (v) Use: look for, get
retain (v) Use: keep, safety                             seem (v) Use: look as if
return (n, v) Use: put, send, go                         seized (adj) Use: can not move, can not turn, caught
reusable (adj) Use: can use again                        select (v) Use: set
reuse (v) Use: use                                       separate (adj) Use: disconnected, divided, not
reveal (v) Use: show                                     attached
reverse (v) Use: turn                                    separate (v) Use: move apart, isolate
serious (adj) Use: bad, important, dangerous          soften (v) Use: be/become soft
serve (v) Use: control, do                            softly (adv) Use: with a small amount of force
setting (n) Use: adjustment, position, move, set      soiled (adj) Use: dirty
settle (v) Use: stop, go to the bottom                solidify (v) Use: become solid
sever (v) Use: cut                                    soluble (adj) Use: becomes a liquid in
several (adj) Use: different (give range, quantity,   solve (v) Use: find out
number)                                               sometimes (adv) Use: not always, possible, possibly
severe (adj) Use: bad, dangerous                      sort (v) Use: put into groups
shall, should (v) Use: must                           sort (n) Use: type
shape (v) Use: make in the shape                      space (v) Use: put apart
sharply (adv) Use: quickly, suddenly                  spacing (n) Use: distance
shift (v) Use: move, change                           sparingly (adv) Use: small quantity
shorten (v) Use: make shorter, decrease the length    spark (v) Use: make sparks
should (v) Use: must, if                              specific (adj) Use: special, specified
shrink (v) Use: make/ become smaller                  specify (v) Use: give, show, tell, write
shutdown (n, v) Use: stop, close                      speech (n) Use: voice, speak
sight (n, v) Use: view, see, look, point, examine     spill (v) Use: fall, flow on to, leakage
signal (v) Use: tell, give a signal                   spin (v) Use: turn quickly
significant (adj) Use: important                       splice (v) Use: make a splice, attach
silence (v) Use: operate, stop, hear                  split (v, adj) Use: divide, break, open
similar (adj) Use: almost the same, equivalent        spontaneous (adj) Use: sudden, automatically
simple (adj) Use: easy                                spot (n) Use: mark, stain, point, position, location
simply (adv) Use: easily, only                        spot (v) Use: see, find
simulated (adj) Use: equivalent                       spray (v) Use: apply with a spray gun
simultaneous (adj) Use: at the same time              spread (v) Use: apply
single (adj) Use: one                                 spring (v) Use: move suddenly, move quickly spuri-
sit (v) Use: be on/ against, touch                    ous (adj) Use: unwanted, incorrect
situate (v) Use: location, is/are                     squarely (adv) Use: at 90 degrees to
size (n) Use: dimension                               squeeze (v) Use: move, hold
skilled (adj) Use: approved                           stability (n) Use: stable
slack (adj, n) Use: loose                             stabilize (v) Use: become stable
slacken (v) Use: loosen, release                      stage (n) Use: step, time
slap (v) Use: hit slide (v) Use: move                 stagnate (v) Use: increase, decrease
slight (adj) Use: small, light, lightly, almost       stained (adj) Use: stain, dirty
slip (v) Use: remove, move                            stamp (v) Use: make/have a mark, identify
slotted (adj) Use: has slots                          stand (v) Use: move/stay away
slow down (v) Use: decrease the speed                 standard (adj) Use: usual, approved
smear (v) Use: put apply                              state (n) Use: condition
smooth (v) Use: make smooth                           state (v) Use: tell
snag (n) Use: failure, defect                         static (adj) Use: stopped, stable
snag (v) Use: catch                                   station (v) Use: put
snap (v) Use: move suddenly                           stationary (adj) Use: stopped, stable
sniff (v) Use: smell                                  steady (add) Use: stable, continuously
steep (adj) Use: x degrees                                sweep (v) Use: make a scan
steer (v) Use: move                                       sweep (n) Use: scan
stencil (v) Use: write                                    swing (v) Use: move, calibrate
stick (v) Use: bond, attach                               switch (v) Use: set, turn, push the switch
sticky (adj) Use: tacky                                   synchronize (v) Use: align, adjust, synchronized
stiff (adj) Use: rigid, will not turn/move
stiffness (n) Use: move, turn
still (adj) Use: stay, move, turn, no motion
stimulate (v) Use: increase                               tabulate (v) Use: write
stipulated (adj) Use: given, approved, specified           take (v) Use: move, remove, read, get, follow, do
stir (v) Use: mix                                         talk (v) Use: speak, tell
storage (n) Use: keep                                     tampered (adj) Use: moved, changed, adjusted
store (v) Use: keep, put                                  tape (v) Use: put/use tape
stout (adj) Use: strong, solid                            taped (adj) Use: attached, connected, closed with
stow (v) Use: put, keep                                   tape, written on magnetic tape
straighten (v) Use: make/become straight                  taut (adj) Use: tight
strain (v) Use: put, cause damage                         tear (v) Use: be damaged
stress (v) Use: put force, stressed (adj)                 technique (n) Use: procedure
stretch (v) Use: extend, pull, make larger                tend (v) Use: cause
strike (v) Use: hit                                       tension (v) Use: tighten, cause tension
strip (v) Use: remove                                     terminate (v) Use: stop complete
striped (adj) Use: show/have lines                        test (v) Use: do a test
subject (v) Use: apply, make, cause, do                   themselves (pn) change construction (give the name
submerge (v) Use: put into                                of item)
submit (v) Use: make, send, do                            theoretical (adj) Use: theory
subsequent to (pre) Use: after                            therefore (adv) Use: thus
substance (n) Use: agent, material                        thin (v) Use: add, mix, make thin
substitute (adj, n, v) Use: alternative, replace,         thorough (adj) Use: full, fully
replacement                                               threaten (v) Use: be possible, look as if
subtraction (n) Use: decrease, subtract                   throughout (prep) Use: during
successive (adj) Use: one after the other                 throw (v) Use: fall, hit, discard
suggest (v) Use: tell, talk, recommend                    tie (v) Use: attach, hold
suit (v) Use: agree, be satisfactory for, adapt, adjust   till (con) Use: until
suitable (adj) Use: applicable, correct, correctly        tilt (v) Use: move/put at an angle
sum (v) Use: add, calculate                               time (v) Use: measure the time
superimpose (v) Use: move on top of, align with           tip (v) Use: move, put
support (n, v) Use: hold                                  tip (n) Use: end, point
surplus (adj) Use: too much, not necessary, not used      tone (n) Use: sound
surrounding (adj) Use: adjacent, near, on all sides       torn (adj) Use: damaged
survey (v) Use: make an inspection, examine               touch (n) Use: touch (v)
suspect (adj, v) Use: think, incorrect, unsatisfactory    towards (prep) Use: to
suspend (v) Use: hang, stop                               toxic (adj) Use: dangerous, can kill, poisonous
swallow (v) Use: drink, eat                               trace (n, v) Use: find, sign
track (v) Use: find, monitor                          undue (adj) Use: not necessary, too much, more
trained (adj) Use: approved                          uneven (adj) Use: not smooth, not symmetrical, not
transfer (n) Use: movement, supply                   flat
transfer (v) Use: move, put, give, transmit          unfilled (adj) Use: not filled
transform (v) Use: change                            unfold (v) Use: open
transition (n) Use: change                           uniform (adj) Use: constant, same, equal, correct
transport (v) Use: move                              unimportant (adj) Use: not important
trapped (adj) Use: caught                            unintentional (adj) Use: accidental, accidentally
travel (v) Use: move                                 unlatch (v) Use: release open
traverse (v) Use: move                               unlimited (adj) Use: no limit
treat (v) Use: put, use, apply, prepared             unload (v) Use: remove, release
treatment (n) Use: paint, apply, layer               unloaded (adj) Use: removed, no load on
trigger (v) Use: start, cause                        unlock (v) Use: release, open
trim (v) Use: cut, move, adjust                      unlocked (adj) Use: not locked, open
trip (v) Use: open, go, release                      unnecessary (adj) Use: not necessary
triple (adj) Use: three                              unobstructed (adj) Use: not clogged, free, clear
true (adj) Use: correct                              unpainted (adj) Use: not painted
tuck (v) Use: put                                    unplug (v) Use: remove, disconnect
twice (adj, adv) Use: two times                      unprotected (adj) Use: no protection
typical (adj) Use: usual, example                    unravel (v) Use: wind off
                                                     unreel (v) Use: wind off
                                                     unrestricted (adj) Use: no limit, free
U                                                    unsafe (adj) Use: not safe, dangerous
unable (adj) Use: can not                            unscrew (v) Use: remove, release, loosen
unattached (adj) Use: not attached, loose            unseat (v) Use: remove, open, operate
unauthorized (adj) Use: not approved                 unshielded (adj) Use: has no shield
uncap (v) Use: remove                                unstable (adj) Use: not stable
unclamp (v) Use: remove, loosen. release             unusable (adj) Use: can not be used, not serviceable
unclean (adj) Use: not clean, dirty                  unused (adj) Use: not used, new
unclip (v) Use: remove                               unwind (v) Use: wind off, removed
uncoil (v) Use: wind off                             unworked (adj) Use: not worked
uncontaminated (adj) Use: clean, not dirty           up (adj) Use: up (adv)
uncouple (v) Use: loosen, become loose               up to (prep) Use: until, as far as, as much as, thru
uncovered (adj) Use: without a cover, without pro-   upon (prep) Use: on, when
tection                                              upper (adj) Use: higher, top
underhanded (adj) Use: not necessary, unwanted,      uppermost (adj) Use: highest upright (adj) Use: ver-
caused without input                                 tical
under (prep) Use: below, less than, lower than       upwards (adv) Use: up
underneath (prep) Use: below                         urgent (adj) Use: immediately, important, quickly
underside (n) Use: bottom                            usage (n) Use: use
undertake (v) Use: commanding verb construction      utilization (n) Use: use
undesirable (adj) Use: not necessary, unwanted       utilize (v) Use: use
undo (v) Use: release, loosen                        utmost (adj) Use: much, large
V                                                     wholly (adv) Use; fully
                                                      whose (pn) Use: of which
valid (adj) Use: correct, satisfactory, that can be   wide/er/est (adj) Use: large/er/est
used                                                  wipe (v) Use: make clean, make dry, rub
vaporize (v) Use: make into gas, become gas           wire (v) Use: connect
variable (adj) Use: change, adjust                    withdraw (v) Use: remove
varied (adj) Use: different, changed                  within (prep) Use; in, in less than, in... or less
various (adj) Use: different, more than one, all      withstand (v) Use: go through satisfactorily, be
vary (v) Use: change, adjust                          resistant to
ventilate (v) Use: be open to the air                 work (v) Use: do
ventilation (n) Use: air                              would (v) Use: will
verbal (adj) Use: tell, hear                          wrap (v) Use: wind
verify (v) Use: make sure                             wrapped (adj) Use: wound
via (prep) Use: through                               wrong (adj) Use: incorrect, unsatisfactory
vibrate (v) Use: shake
vice versa (adv) Use: opposite, sequence changed
vicinity (n) Use: near                                Y
view (v) Use: see                                     yet (con) Use: but
vigorous (adj) Use: fast, heavy, strong, with much
visible (adj) Use: see, look                          Z
vital (adj) Use: important, necessary                 zero (v) Use: adjust to zero, be at zero

wait (v) Use: stop
walking (adj) Use: slow, slowly (give speed)
want (v) Use: be necessary
warm (v) Use: become warm
warn (v) Use: tell
wash (v) Use: remove, clean
waste (adj) Use: used, of no value, not necessary
waste (n) Use: unwanted/discarded material
watch (v) Use: monitor; look
watertight (adj) Use: sealed
way (n) Use: procedure, cause
weakness (n) Use: weak
well (adv) Use: good, satisfactorily, correctly
whenever (con) Use: when
whether (con) Use: if
whichever (pn) Use: which
whilst (con) Use: while, although
whoever (pn) Use: who
whole (adj) Use: all, full