WELLCOME HISTORY 18 - no pics by dfsiopmhy6


									                                                                       ISSUE NO. 18
                                                                     NOVEMBER 2001


A new institute with HOM links            2
                                               New institute at Nottingham
Processes and practices in hospital design 3
‘Hippocrates in Context’                   4

Food and medicine as propaganda           4

Introducing History of Medicine Online    6

Wellcome Witnesses: new volumes           7

Wellcome Library catalogue
reaches 50 000                            8
Current Work updates online               8
The Wellcome ‘digital library’            9
CRC archive catalogued                   10
‘On talks’ paper online                  10
An ethical career in science
and technology                           10

Talking psychiatry                       11

HOM LIBRARY EXHIBITIONS                  12

HOM AND THE PUBLIC                       13
Engaging the public in HOM

New grants scheme awards
£300 000 to archives                     13

JOB OPPORTUNITIES                        14

LETTER                                   15

HISTORY OF MEDICINE                      15

UNIT NEWS AND UPDATES                    16

ERRATUM                                  16

NEW STAFF                                16
HOM AT NOTTINGHAM                                                                                                                                    Patrick Wallis

Institute for the Study of Genetics, Biorisks
and Society, University of Nottingham
                                                          Patrick Wallis’s research   How far are policy measures carried by governments from one epidemic
                                                          at the new institute
                                                                                      disease to another? In what ways do governments use whatever is
                                                          looks at epidemics
                                                          and infectious disease      considered to be expertise at a particular period? And can one talk of
                                                          from the 16th to            a popular culture of understanding that is deeply embedded and highly
                                                          19th centuries.
                                                                                      resistant to change?
                                                          Left: Wood engraving
                                                          of an imaginary scene
                                                          in London, c. 1665,         Another familiar face, Dr Peter Bartlett, who is well known for his work
                                                          during the Great
                                                                                      on the history of law and madness in the nineteenth century, is working
                                                          Plague, by J Jellicoe and
                                                          H Raillon, 19th century.    with Ezra Hasson, the law lecturer at the Institute.Together, they are
                                                          Below right: ‘A court for   looking at the changes in public perceptions and social policy relating to
                                                          King Cholera’, Punch
                                                                                      the insane and people with mental disabilities since the late nineteenth-
                                                          cartoon 1852.
                                                                                      century reorganization of local government.The project is intended as
                                                                                      a history of risk perceptions and explanations of insanity and other
                                                                                      disabilities perceived as mental over the century, and will be giving
                                                                                      particular attention to assumptions about heredity – whether explicitly
                                                                                      genetic or not – and environmental causes.

                                                                                      Several other projects based at the Institute, including work on
                                                                                      the regulation of biotechnology companies and on the clinical and
                                                                                      commercial development of pharmacogenetics, are funded through
                                                                                      the Wellcome Trust’s Medicine in Society Programme
                                                                                      (www.wellcome.ac.uk/mis). It is this overlap of approaches and disci-
                                                                                      plines which makes the Institute a particularly exciting and unusual centre.

                                                                                      Patrick WALLIS
Health, agriculture, even society are being rapidly changed by                        Institute for the Study of Genetics, Biorisks and Society (IGBiS)
innovations in clinical and biological science and technology.                        Law and Social Sciences Building
Examining the social, legal, ethical and cultural implications                        The University of Nottingham
of these developments is the core purpose of the new                                  Nottingham NG7 2RD
Institute for the Study of Genetics, Biorisks and Society                             Tel: +44 (0)115 846 7038
at the University of Nottingham (IGBiS), which opened in                              Fax +44 (0)115 846 6349
April this year.                                                                      E-mail: Patrick.Wallis@nottingham.ac.uk

Established by a major grant from the Leverhulme Trust, the Institute is
home to a range of projects on responses to developments in food,
agriculture, epidemic and insidious diseases, and environment. Its staff
are drawn from a number of disciplines: sociology, psychology, philosophy,
law, politics and English, as well as history. While the Institute is
interdisciplinary, a significant part of the work is being carried out
in the history of medicine, and a number of the other projects have
historical dimensions.

The Institute and its staff have close links to the Wellcome History of
Medicine Programme. Before moving to Nottingham, Patrick Wallis,
the history lecturer at the Institute, was working at the Wellcome
Unit in Oxford on a thesis on early-modern apothecaries, funded by a
Wellcome doctoral studentship. His research at the Institute is a study
of epidemics and infectious disease in England, focusing on continuities
and discontinuities in public health measures and popular understanding
of these diseases from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century.Taking
a comparative approach, the work is structured around a number
of questions:To what extent does popular scepticism about
government ‘health’ initiatives represent a comparable phenomenon?

                                                                                                                   Wellcome History Issue 18 November 2001
FORTHCOMING CONFERENCES                                                                                                    Roger Cooter

Creating Hospitals: Architecture
in historical context, 1700–2000
Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts,
University of East Anglia,
Norwich, 8–9 November 2002

                                                                  Call for papers                                     Above: Netley Military
                                                                  All papers should represent original research.      Hospital, 1920.
                                                                                                                      Left: Plan of Norfolk and
                                                                  Papers are invited from historians of art,
                                                                                                                      Norwich Hospital, 1893.
                                                                  architecture and medicine as well as from           Below: Interior of
                                                                  architects. Submissions from younger scholars       Devonshire Hospital
                                                                  will be particularly welcomed. Enquiries and        and patients, n.d.
                                                                  abstracts should be directed to:

                                                                  Professor Roger COOTER
                                                                  Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine,
                                                                  School of History
Histories of hospitals commonly refer to the architects           University of East Anglia
who designed them, but rarely to the processes and practices      Norwich NR4 7TJ
within which hospital design was embedded.This conference,        E-mail: wellcome@uea.ac.uk
run by the Wellcome Unit, and the School of World Art and
Museology at UEA, aims to explore the different constituen-       When submitting abstracts please also provide
cies involved in hospital design from the 18th to the 21st        your name, preferred mailing address, work and
centuries.What constitutes creativity in this sphere? And how     home telephone numbers, present institutional
should it be discussed? How might we conceive the intersec-       affiliation, and academic degrees. Abstracts must
tion of civic, military and commercial values and interests, or   be received by 31 January 2002.
medical, moral, and aesthetic ones, in the imaging
and design of hospitals in different local and nation-
al contexts? What were the possibilities for, and the
constraints upon, hospital architecture – profession-
al, material and intellectual? How, in particular, did
different patient populations (rich or poor, secular
or sectarian, native or ethnic) influence the styles
of hospitals, general and specialist? And how does
the past compare with the architectural present?

Conference Organizing Committee: Professor Roger
Cooter, Professor Ludmilla Jordanova,
Dr Stefan Muthesius, Dr Jeremy Taylor. Wellcome Unit for
the History of Medicine and The School of World Art and
Museology, UEA

Wellcome History Issue 18 November 2001
FORTHCOMING CONFERENCES                                                                                                                     Philip van der Eijk

Hippocrates in Context
11th International Hippocrates Colloquium, University
of Newcastle upon Tyne, 28–30 August 2002
                                           The purpose of this confer-       The conference is meant to assist in opening up Hippocratic studies to
                                           ence is to encourage research     scholars who are not specialists in the field but whose research touches
                                           into the Hippocratic writings     on ancient medicine. Ancient
                                           from the point of view of their   historians, archaeologists, historians
                                           relationship with the histori-    of philosophy and science, social
                                           cal context in which they         historians of medicine, medical
                                           were written, and the impact      anthropologists, specialists in Near Eastern and Egyptian medicine,
                                           they had on ancient society,      and students of Greek language and literature to whose research
                                           culture, mentality and morali-    the Hippocratic writings are relevant,
                                           ty, language, literature and      are all encouraged to participate.
                                           thought. ‘Context’ here is not
                                           restricted to the Greek world,    The conference will take place at the University of
                                           but also includes the medical     Newcastle upon Tyne on 28–30 August 2002.                 Above: Line engraving of
                                                                                                                                     Plato by L Vorsterman, n.d.
                                           thought and practice of other     Further details will be published nearer the time on
                                           civilizations in the              the Newcastle University website
                                           Mediterranean, such as            (www.ncl.ac.uk/classics/) and in the electronic Ancient Medicine
Title page of a 1588 Venetian edition of   Babylonian, Egyptian, Persian     Newsletter (www.bium.univ-paris5.fr/amn).
Opera Quae extant...graece et latine       and Indian medicine.
by Hippocrates.                                                              For further information please contact:
A further point of interest will be the relations between the Hippocratic    Philip J van der Eijk
writings and non-Hippocratic medical authors of the fifth and fourth         Professor of Greek
centuries BC, such as Diocles of Carystus, Praxagoras of Cos, Philistion,    Department of Classics
Alcmaeon, Euryphon, Herodicus, Mnesitheus and Dieuche, as well as            University of Newcastle upon Tyne
the relevant works of Plato, Aristotle and Theophrastus.                     Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU
                                                                             Tel: +44 (0)191 222 8262
Furthermore, the conference wishes to encourage research into some           Fax: +44 (0)191 222 5432
of the more neglected works in the Hippocratic Corpus, such as Internal      E-mail: philip.van-der-eijk@ncl.ac.uk
Affections, Decorum (and other deontological works different from the
Oath), Coan Prognoses and Sevens.

BOOK REVIEW                                                                                                                               Samiksha Sehrawat

The Eastern Front of the Second World
War: Food and medicine as propaganda
As the blurb claims, Sanjoy Bhattacharya’s book fills a long-                opened other ‘fronts’ – the contests in the colony (India) with
standing gap in the historiography of South Asia which in its                the Axis powers (Japan) and with the colonized (the INA out-
preoccupation with the Quit India movement, the Bengal                       side and the Nationalist struggle within). In such a context, the
famine of 1943–44, and the transfer of power has neglected the               state’s policies regarding propaganda and control of informa-
impact of the Second World War on the social, economic and                   tion took an especially important role.
political patterns of the region.The author needs to be con-
gratulated for making this addition to our knowledge of the                  The author explores various facets of the main theme in five chapters –
twilight years of the British Empire by focusing on the theme                a review of the challenges faced by the state in the context of the
of information and propaganda used by the state as a ‘weapon                 Second World War ranging from the challenge of the enemy to
of war’.The interest in a work of this kind is enhanced by the               economic shortages; the various forms that propaganda took (which
uniqueness of the Second World War in the UK’s history – even                comprehends cinema and radio along with print media); the uses of
as it stood embattled in the metropolis with Germany, there                  censorship (beyond proscribing information to gathering intelligence);

                                                                                                            Wellcome History Issue 18 November 2001

the emphasis on anti-Congress propaganda themes; and                                          bumper harvests in areas affected by the Bengal famine
the preoccupation with the needs of the army through all                                      had the ‘antipathetic effect’ of strengthening the notion that
this. Interestingly, the author extends the use of the term                                   the army had caused the food shortages.The irony speaks
‘propaganda’ to include material aid and ‘developmental’                                      loudly of the hiatus between the interests of the colonizers
policies.The use of medical aid and food distributed by                                       and the colonized.
the state during the shortages induced by the War are
portrayed as important ‘weapons’ in the state’s armoury                                      That the army and its needs were the main priority of the
for winning over a population that was disillusioned with,                                   Government followed the simple logic of the War – that
if not hostile to, the alien colonial state.                                                 the troops may be in their best health to kill most effective-
                                                                                             ly and often, futilely, die.That this was understandably not
One of the merits of this well-researched book is that                                       the priority of the soldiers is brought out by the fact that
although it does not deal extensively with the history of                                    though well-provided-for themselves, the troops were
medicine, it manages to integrate seamlessly issues arising from the use      assailed by worries of their families facing food shortages and were often
of medical and nutritional aid during the severe famine with the main         found giving away their food rations to the starving civilian population.
focus, thereby avoiding a deplorable tendency to ‘ghettoize’ the study        Be it food or medicine, the army was the highest priority of the
of either. Bhattacharya makes some very interesting observations that         Government for propaganda purposes. As a result, the pandemics, result-
scholars of the history of medicine might be interested in. He rightly        ing from lowered resistance to disease in a period of endemic food
points out that “[t]he supply of material benefits by the government,         shortages, were worsened by the paucity of vaccines (most of which
always an important means of mollifying discontent during disturbed           were being supplied to the army) in eastern India.
economic times, took on an unprecedented significance during the
shortages of essential goods, that accompanied the war against Japan”         On the other hand, the shortage of medical practitioners for the military
(p.83).The economic crises and shortages were often exacerbated by            also led to the relaxing of conditions that had kept women out. At the
government policies such as the ‘free trade’ policy, the peculiar logic of    same time, accounts of the ‘incidents’ of the troops with the civilian popu-
which extended greatly the area affected by the shortages.                    lation, including the rape of women, call for a deeper questioning of wars
                                                                              in general and the ‘masculine’ valences associated with it, considering its
In a context where the nutritional health of this area’s population was       being an almost entirely male enterprise and considering that access to
very severely compromised, the distribution of the aid offered by the         the use of ‘wine and women’ was accepted as an almost legitimate right
Government followed some remarkable principles.The most pressing con-         of the soldiers. Along similar lines, one may point to the need for enquir-
cern for the Government was to maintain the army and its administration       ing into the psychological ‘pathology’ of ‘war rapes’.
which ensured its survival.This led to attempts to ‘prioritize’ to decide
who could be allowed to go hungry and diseased.The running of factories       In a specifically South Asian context, perhaps works such as this one may
being a ‘priority’, the government was reduced to taking paradoxical posi-    find it useful to look at the way caste affected the famine – knowing that
tions as it sought to reconcile its championing of the ‘productive’ section   the lower castes are also the poorest and most vulnerable in crises like
of the population – the workers – with its support for industrialists.        famines.The author, I feel, may have analysed the role of ‘neutrals’ like
For instance, even as it restricted the movement of labour, it forced         caste-based political parties that opposed the Congress and supported
the employers to introduce special welfare provisions for their workers.      the British war effort.
However, even as the productivity of industrial workers was appreciated,
agricultural labourers did not enjoy any of the privileges reserved for the   In an otherwise sensitive account, it was jarring to find the repeated use
former, though it was remarked that they were worse off.                      of phrases like ‘disturbances’, ‘troubled localities’, ‘disquiet’, ‘civil unrest’ to
                                                                              convey the protest of the people (e.g. pp. 37, 43, 77, 82, 135, 141, 156,
Bhattacharya perceptively points out that the policy of feeding the cities    159) and the repeated use of ‘manpower’ when it could have been easily
at the expense of villages meant that localized famines in ‘nonstrategic’     substituted by workforce (e.g. pp.13, 89).
rural areas and severe epidemics due to a fall in general health
standards that went unmitigated by aid, weakened the hold of the              To conclude, this is an interesting book, though the readability could have
Government over rural administration fatally. If this heightened rural        been greatly enhanced without compromising on the purpose by elabo-
activism, the results were still very different from those in China.          rating on the effectuality (or the lack of it) of these policies on their sub-
                                                                              jects and by giving some indication of the way in which the people may
While the Allied powers fought the war in the name of grandiose ideals,       have sprung up their own information network.The book would be use-
that the very people who they were supposedly protecting and fighting         ful for people working in this area and may be perused with profit by a
for were not a priority when it came to saving them from hunger and           layperson interested in the in the Second World War or eastern India.
disease, brings home the truth of the intense futility of all wars where
governments are more obsessed with ‘strategic’ territory than they are        Sanjoy Bhattacharya (2001) Propaganda and Information in Eastern India
concerned with the people who inhabit it.Thus, it was only the ‘potential     1939–45. A necessary weapon of war. Curzon Press.
strategic and public health risks’ of refugees migrating from areas unim-
portant to the Government to cities that finally made famine relief           Samiksha SEHRAWAT
measures significant for the Government (p.89).                               Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine
                                                                              University of Oxford, 45–47 Banbury Road
Bhattacharya relates that the use of films meant for European audiences       Oxford OX2 6PE
which highlighted the successes of the Allied war effort with images of       E-mail: sam565@indya.com

Wellcome History 18 November 2001
PUBLICATON OUTLET                                                                                                                                     Richard Hankins

Introducing History of Medicine Online
The role of publishing
academic material and
the social relations of
this activity have changed
enormously over time.
Journals, some of which
were introduced historically
to facilitate the dissemina-
tion of knowledge have
become sources of legitima-
tion for authors.The ‘brand-
ing’ associated with titles
such as the Lancet, JAMA,
BMJ and Nature is a central
component to the system
of prestige that governs
careers within medical
research and practice.                    Above: Home page of History of Medicine Online.
They are also central to
the marketing activities of
pharmaceutical companies.                                                                   Maximum access is supported by free Internet access to all. This will be
                                                                                            of great value to students and those working on the history of medicine
Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has acknowledged                              from home or in universities with poorer library facilities. It will also
the irony that periodicals publishers are effectively preventing the flow                   provide access to groups around the world who do not have
of medical information into the World’s poorer countries.The jealous                        the privilege of access to inter-library loans.
protection of copyright and subscription prices that have increased well
above inflation ensure that many medical scientists and practitioners                       Medical History Online is published by Priory Lodge Education Ltd,
across Latin America, Africa and Asia are prevented from accessing sci-                     a company that has been producing Internet journals since 1994.
entific publications.Those trusted with dissemination have unintentionally                  As well as increased access, Internet publishing offers other advantages.
become obstructive to the flow of medical and academic knowledge.                           Papers can be released as soon as they have been accepted for publica-
Under the auspices of the WHO major publishers, including Wolters                           tion. Many traditional titles in our field have an extensive backlog of
Kluwer and Elsevier, have now acted to reduce this obstacle.                                articles awaiting publication. Such pagination issues are not relevant
                                                                                            to the Internet publisher. Priory Lodge claim to have introduced a
The prestige system which is so central to medical careers applies also                     ‘unique online peer-review process’ which will allow submissions to
within the history of medicine. Indeed, it was institutionalized within the                 be responded to within a month. However, it is not yet clear if the
research assessment exercise and the concept of ‘branding’ covertly                         publisher can achieve that in practice.
found its place within this most reflective of disciplines. In part, it is as a
result of this status system that academics have been slow to assimilate                    In summary, this new title introduces a new platform and potential
newer and more effective forms of publishing into their work.The                            audience for medical history.The future of publishing on the Internet lies
Internet, so hyped as the future of information dissemination, has been                     both with the introduction of the electronic versions of existing brands
little used by those paid to create and convey historical knowledge.                        and with a new breed of electronic publishers.The advantages are
                                                                                            numerous:The Internet provides a faster, more accessible, more interac-
History of Medicine Online provides a new and effective platform for                        tive vehicle.Titles such as Medical History Online have a bright future
the legitimation and publication of writing from across our discipline.                     as long as we have the faith and foresight to invest our work in this
The Editor, Dale Stirling, chooses not to define a focus for the title but                  maturing technology.
to allow it to develop organically from the contributions provided:
                                                                                            Visit History of Medicine Online at www.priory.co.uk.
     “In the coming months, the history of medicine section will mature and its
     focus will become better defined. It is my hope that this Internet gathering           Richard HANKINS
     place will be a virtual forum for those interested in the history of medi-             69 Oaklands
     cine. It should be educational, informative, perhaps controversial and, most           Guilden Sutton
     importantly, valid.This editor envisions the section to become the de facto            Chester CH3 7HG
     standard for the online community of medical history.Your assistance in                Tel: +44 (0)1244 300629
     accomplishing this vision is heartily encouraged!”                                     E-mail: vanlem@dialstart.com
     (www.priory.co.uk/homol.htm, 17/9/01)

                                                                                                                        Wellcome History Issue 18 November 2001

Wellcome Witnesses
Enormous advances have been made in 20th-
century medicine but how do we trace those
developments? Where are they recorded
and how do the pioneers – or wit-
nesses – feel about their achieve-
ments today?

Two recent publications
from the Wellcome Trust
Centre’s History of Twentieth
Century Medicine Group
Witness Seminar programme
reveal fascinating insights into
events that have revolutionized

‘Origins of Neonatal Intensive Care in the
UK’ reviews the development and changes
in care of the newborn in the UK over the
past 50 years. Included in a range of thought-
provoking contributions is a look at the advances
in techniques, such as mechanical ventilation, total
parental nutrition and continuous monitoring of vital signs, to care for ill
or vulnerable newborn infants.
                                                                               For further details of these titles in this fascinating series visit
‘British Contributions to Medical Research and Education in Africa after       www.ucl.ac.uk/histmed.To order a copy contact
the Second World War’ examines differences in health services, research        t.tillotson@wellcome.ac.uk.
and medical education between British East and West Africa over the
postwar period and includes contributions from many distinguished              Each volume costs just £5.00. Special set price: Order all ten volumes in
figures in this field.                                                         the series at the special price of £40. For a 20 per cent discount, order
                                                                               four or more volumes.
Witness Seminar volumes
Volume 1      Technology Transfer in Britain:The case of monoclonal            Forthcoming volumes
              antibodies; Self and Non-Self: A history of autoimmunity;        Volume 11      Childhood Asthma and Beyond (November 2001)
              Endogenous Opiates;The Committee on Safety of Drugs              Volume 12      Maternal Care (November 2001)
Volume 2      Making the Human Body Transparent:The impact of                  Volume 13      The MRC Epidemiology Unit (South Wales)
              nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance                               (summer 2002)
              imaging; Research in General Practice; Drugs in Psychiatric      Volume 14      Peptic Ulcer: Rise and fall (summer 2002)
              Practice;The MRC Common Cold Unit
Volume 3      Early Heart Transplant Surgery in the UK                         For further details of the Wellcome Trust Centre’s History of Twentieth
Volume 4      Haemophilia: Recent history of clinical management               Century Medicine Group and its activities, please contact: Mrs Wendy
Volume 5      Looking at the Unborn: Historical aspects of obstetric           Kutner, Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL,
              ultrasound                                                       Euston House, 24 Eversholt Street, London NW1 1AD
Volume   6    Post Penicillin Antibiotics: From acceptance to resistance?      Tel: +44 (0)20 7679 8106; 4; Fax: +44 (0)20 7679 8193
Volume   7    Clinical Research in Britain, 1950–1980                          E-mail: w.kutner@ucl.ac.uk; Web: www.ucl.ac.uk/histmed
Volume   8    Intestinal Absorption
Volume   9    Origins of Neonatal Intensive Care in the UK                     Details of the Witness Seminar volumes on maternal care and child-
Volume   10   British Contributions to Medical Research and Education          hood asthma will be in the next issue of Wellcome History.
              in Africa after the Second World War

Wellcome History Issue 18 November 2001

Wellcome Library catalogue reaches 50 000
On 16 August 2001, a 1930 photograph of the New York health                    The international collection of pictures was assembled by American-born
and beauty guru Marguerite Agniel demonstrating exercises                      Henry S Wellcome from about 1880 to his death in 1936, and is regularly
to strengthen the abdominal muscles became the 50 000th                        updated with new acquisitions. After several years of planning and prepa-
picture to be recorded in the Wellcome Library catalogue.                      ration, computer cataloguing of the pictures started in April 1992, and
                                                                               scarcely a working day has gone by since then without a record being
                                                                               added to the catalogue.The Wellcome Library catalogue is available on
                                                                               the web at http://library.wellcome.ac.uk, and it now receives between
                                                                               1200 and 2500 hits a day from researchers worldwide.

                                                                               NB To ensure that characters such as accents can be viewed, your
                                                                               browser setting will need to be adjusted to ‘Unicode UTF8’.To do this
                                                                               go to the View menu of your web browser. Select ‘Encoding’ (or, on
                                                                               some browsers, ‘Fonts’ or ‘Character set’) and choose the ‘Unicode
                                                                               UTF8’ or ‘Universal alphabet UTF8’ option.

                                                                               Progress with the catalogue continues, and one of the next steps will
                                                                               be the addition of more reproductions of the pictures.

                                                                               William SCHUPBACH
                                                                               Wellcome Library
                                                                               Wellcome Trust
                                                                               183 Euston Road
                                                                               London NW1 2BE
                                                                               E-mail: w.schupbach@wellcome.ac.uk
                                                                               Left: Marguerite Agniel demonstrating
                                                                               exercises – the 50 000th picture recorded
                                                                               in the Wellcome Library catalogue.

Current Work in the History
of Medicine works
Readers may be interested to know that monthly updates to Current
Work in the History of Medicine (the Wellcome Library’s international
bibliography of the history of medicine and allied sciences) are now
available to view/print/download in a variety of formats via the web.
Simply go to the Wellcome Library catalogue’s front page
(http://library.wellcome.ac.uk) and click onwards within ‘Monthly lists’ for
the most recent issue of Current Work. Readers might also be interested
to know that there is now an archive of monthly issues available from
www.wellcome.ac.uk/homlibrary.These date back to early 2000, thus
enabling a continuation, albeit locally, of print copy.

Compiler, Current Work in
the History of Medicine
Wellcome Library
Wellcome Trust
183 Euston Road
London NW1 2BE                                                                 Above: Current Work can be accessed from the Wellcome Library online catalogue under the
                                                                               ‘Search the entire catalogue and bibliography’ column.
Fax.: +44 (0)20 7611 8703
E-mail: c.doggrell@wellcome.ac.uk

                                                                                                                   Wellcome History Issue 18 November 2001
RESEARCH RESOURCE                                                                                                                                             David Pearson

Developing the Wellcome ‘digital library’
Making best use of new technology to open up access to the                      be glad to hear from Library users with ideas about desirable future
great riches of the Wellcome Library, and to develop its role                   developments, or with comments about existing automated services.
as a leading centre for history of medicine researchers, has
been on the agenda for some time.The Innopac system,                            David PEARSON
which was introduced in 1999 and made the catalogue                             Librarian
available over the web, is now well established and a new                       Wellcome Library
system (CALM2000) to deal with the special cataloguing                          183 Euston Road
requirements of archives and manuscripts has just been                          London NW1 2BE
purchased to sit alongside it.These will be complemented                        Tel: +44 (0)20 7611 7244
by the image digitization system (see page 8) currently                         Fax: +44 (0)20 7611 8703
under development, which will make over 100 000 historical                      E-mail: d.pearson@wellcome.ac.uk
images from the Library freely accessible over the web –
we hope to see this on stream to the public by the beginning                    Help shape our digital future
of 2002.We are fast getting to a point at which most of the                     The Wellcome Library is committed to creating a critical mass of digital
Library’s diverse collections have good-quality catalogue                       surrogates based on its print holdings.To ensure that our digitization
descriptions on web-based platforms.                                            decisions are based on clear, demonstrable user needs, we asked Library
                                                                                users to fill in a questionnaire. Responses are now being assessed and
                                                                                the results will be announced in the next issue of Wellcome History.
To move on from there, a series of projects has been developed within
the umbrella of the Wellcome Trust’s Information Management Strategy,
which recognizes the need for the Library to move in this direction if it       The Wellcome Library hopes to make best use of technology to improve access to its collections.

is to maintain its mission. Work is starting this summer on a number of
projects which will, we hope, bring benefits for Wellcome History readers:

• Further digitization work: the Higher Education Digitisation Service
  will be helping the Library in a requirements study to identify where
  effort will be best placed in developing further digitized resources,
  based on the Library’s collections. We are thinking here of full-text
  digital surrogates of important research material, to facilitate access,
  with the intention of moving on from this initial study to the actual
  digitization work.
• A history of medicine gateway: as the quantity of information on the
  Internet relating to medical history grows, the need for good signposts
  grows with it.There have been other sites offering simple links to HOM
  resources but this project will for the first time develop a proper gate-
  way directing users to classified and evaluated sites. It will be developed
  by the Library, but hosted by BIOME as part of the Higher Education
  Resource Discovery Network, to ensure ready visibility to users.
• Retroconversion of manual catalogues: although most of the Library’s
  printed books are described on Innopac, archives and manuscripts are
  mostly accessed only through printed catalogues or typed handlists.
  Much work needs to be done to populate the new CALM system
  with catalogue data and a special project will be mounted to do the
  conversion work. It will then be possible to carry out detailed search-
  ing of the archive and manuscript collections via a modern web-based
  automated catalogue.
• Further development of Innopac: to complete this round of activity,
  we will also be recruiting a temporary systems officer to facilitate
  more functionality on the Innopac system, including an automated
  book-ordering system (no more filling in of order slips for material
  not on the open shelves).This will also allow us to transfer the film
  collection database into Innopac.

We hope that these plans will bring real benefits to users. Robert Kiley,
the Library’s Head of Systems Strategy (r.kiley@wellcome.ac.uk) will always

Wellcome History Issue 18 November 2001

Cancer research
The archive of the Cancer Research                                                                                   It is thus an important primary resource for
Campaign (CRC) is now fully cata-                                                                                    the study of the history of cancer research
logued and available to researchers at                                                                               and cancer charities, and also illustrates
the Wellcome Library for the History                                                                                 changing public awareness and understand-
and Understanding of Medicine.                                                                                       ing of cancer in the UK, from 1923 to 1981.
Founded as the British Empire Cancer                                                                                 Any queries should be directed to: Archives
Campaign in 1923,“to attack and                                                                                      and Manuscripts,The Wellcome Library for
defeat the disease of cancer in all its                                                                              the History and Understanding of Medicine,
forms, to investigate its causes, distri-                                                                            The Wellcome Trust, 183 Euston Road,
bution, symptoms, pathology and                                                                                      London NW1 2BE.
treatment and to promote its cure”,                                                                                  E-mail: arch+mss@wellcome.ac.uk. Details of
it was renamed in 1970.This important                                                                                the Wellcome Library opening hours, regis-
collection (comprising 120 boxes)                                                                                    tration procedures, etc., are available online
includes records of the CRC’s adminis-                                                                               at: www.wellcome.ac.uk/library.
trative and scientific committees,
 and material relating to its origins                                                                                Amanda ENGINEER
and organization, founding members,                                                                                  Assistant Archivist
senior office holders and committee                                                                                  Archives and Manuscripts
members, local branches, relations                                                                                   Wellcome Library
with other UK and overseas cancer                                                                                    The Wellcome Trust
organizations, fund-raising appeals,                                                                                 183 Euston Road
research equipment and chemicals,                                                                                    London NW1 2BE
cancer causes and ‘cures’, cancer                                                                                    Tel: 020 7611 7339
education, publicity and enquiries                                                                                   Fax: 020 7611 8703
from the general public.                         Above: British Empire Cancer Campaign publicity leaflet, c. 1931.   E-mail: a.engineer@wellcome.ac.uk

On talks
In 1997 a short article by Dr Irvine Loudon ‘On talks’ was published in                  historical conferences and suggested some changes.This paper
the journal Medical History (vol. 41, pp. 1–5) under the rubric ‘Debating                is now available on the web at www.codart.nl/loudon_on_talks.html
point’.The paper noted some features of papers given at medical

An ethical career in science and technology
Scientists for Global Responsibility (SGR) has launched its                              climate change, arms, militarization of space, animal experiments, cleaner
new booklet ‘An Ethical Career in Science and Technology?’                               technology, information technology, sustainability, and science funding.
in time for Science Year. SGR points out that not all of UK                              It also provides views and comments given in a number of interviews
science and technology, dominated by commerce, is consis-                                with scientists who have encountered moral dilemmas in their work.
tent with goals of social justice and environmental sustain-                             You can download the booklet from www.sgr.org.uk/ethics. Printed
ability. Examples are the arms trade, overuse of fossil fuels                            copies are available from the SGR office. Write to:
and intensive agriculture.
                                                                                         E-mail: sgr@gn.apc.org
Contributors to the booklet arguing for a shift towards more ethical                     or to
science include Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate,                SGR
Dr Tim Berners-Lee, major architect of the World Wide Web, Dr Mae                        PO Box 473
Wan Ho, Director of the Institute of Science in Society, I-SIS.                          Folkestone CT20 1GS
The booklet discusses wider ethical concerns of employment and how
to deal with dilemmas that may arise, as well as issues such as genetics,                It is free to students and SGR members, and £5 (+ £1 p&p) to others.

                                                                                                                     Wellcome History Issue 18 November 2001
VIGNETTE                                                                                                                                                        Ann Dally

Talking psychiatry
                                                      The Wellcome Trust Centre              garden is a tip. Or vice versa. But you need some obsessionality to be
                                                      abounds in historians of               competent in anything and you need rather more to be a good scholar.
                                                      psychiatry. Few of them have           There are many gross obsessionals among scholars as well as among
                                                      practised as psychiatrists,            psychiatric patients.There are many excellent scholars who have total
                                                      which may or may not be                control over subject and papers but are chaotic in appearance, private
                                                      an advantage.Those who are             life or knowledge of the world outside academe. Note the absent-
                                                      not themselves psychiatrists           minded professor.
                                                      may be interested to learn
                                                      a few obiter dicta that                The late Dr Donald Winnicott was once asked how he could tell when
                                                      have been used in training             a person needed psychiatric help. “If a person comes and talks to you,”
                                                      students and young doctors             he said, “and, listening to him you feel he is boring you, then he is sick
                                                      in psychiatry.                         and needs psychiatric treatment. But if he sustains your interest, no
                                                                                             matter how grave his distress or conflict, then you can help him all right.”
                                                      The first comes from observers         Winnicott’s answer, like many of the things he said, was a double wham-
                                                      rather than practitioners and          my. I suspect that what he was saying was “If the patient bores you, he is
                                                      many will know it already. In a        an obsessional and you probably won’t be able to help him. Either he will
                                                      way it shows what it’s all about:      defeat you outright or you will give up with a yawn long before there is
Above: ‘Melancholia’ by Albrecht Dürer, 1514.         “The neurotic builds castles in the    any change. So, if possible, choose the patient who holds your attention.”
                                                      air.The psychotic lives in them.
                                                      The psychiatrist collects the rent.”   These are just what comes to mind. Doubtless there are many more.
                                                                                             Any suggestions?
                                                      I have found the following useful
                                                      when trying to sort out                Ann DALLY
                                                      symptoms and signs in madness:         Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL
                                                      “A hallucination is a sensory per-     Euston House
                                                      ception without a sensory stimu-       24 Eversholt Street
                                                      lus. An illusion is an erroneous       London NW1 1AD
                                                      interpretation of a sensory stimu-
                                                      lus. A delusion is an erroneous                                                                      Left: Engraving of
                                                                                                                                                           an insane patient
                                                      belief impervious to reason.”                                                                        in a strait-jacket
                                                                                                                                                           by A Tardieu,
                                                      To help his students in diagnosis, a                                                                 1838.

                                                      robust consultant psychiatrist used
                                                      to teach:
                                                      “If the patient makes you wonder
                                                      whether he’s mad or you’re mad,
Above: An image of ‘Attitudes passionelles, extase’   then he’s mad. If he makes you
1878 published in Invention de l’hysterie, char-      feel you want to cry, then he’s
cotet l’iconographique de la Salpetrière by G
                                                      depressed. If he makes you want
Didi Huberman, published in 1982.
                                                      to kick him in the pants, he’s a

An incomplete but useful description of hysteria is:
“Over-reaction with a purpose.”

This can also be useful in ordinary life. Over-reaction with a purpose,
both conscious and unconscious, is common. In practical psychiatry
hysteria can be construed as an illness, a personality type, a mode of
behaviour or a single action. A modern variation of ‘over-reaction’ is
often ‘hidden agenda’.

Another truism is:
“Obsessionality is total control over a limited environment.”
An example is the person who is fanatically tidy in the house but whose

Wellcome History Issue 18 November 2001

Reading room: ‘Britannia on the Nile: England’s encounter
with Egypt and the Sudan in the nineteenth century’
24 September – 16 November 2001
Few parts of the world became as integral to Britain’s sense
of its status as a great power in the 19th and 20th centuries
as the north-eastern corner of Africa. British political
involvement in the region developed as a consequence of
Egypt’s strategic position on the Red Sea route to India.
Intervention in the Sudan in the later 19th century grew
directly out of concern for the security of Egypt.

In the wake of political involvement came commerce, philanthropy,
archaeology, ethnography, bibliology, medical science and tourism.
Egypt became the linchpin of Empire, familiar to generations of
colonial officials, travellers, soldiers and seamen. Meanwhile, the
physical remains of the ancient civilizations of the Nile Valley, and
the region’s biblical resonances, held special appeal for archaeologists
and antiquaries, explorers and missionaries, as well as mere tourists.

South of this land of ancient legend, the Sudan provided the setting for    Above:The Viceroy of Egypt in conversation with British officials. Coloured lithograph by Louis
the birth of the most potent of Victorian myths.The death of Gordon         Haghe after David Roberts, 1849.Technically Egypt was subject to the Ottoman Porte, and ruled
                                                                            by a viceroy (later known as the Khedive). In fact it was independent of Constantinople but increas-
inspired a generation of self-conscious imperial service in that country,   ingly influenced by the concerns and policies of Great Britain as the 19th century progressed.
exemplified by Henry Wellcome’s philanthropic activities before the         The ships anchored in the bay in the background hint at the ultimate source of British influence.
First World War.
Exhibition curated by Richard ASPIN.

Modern medicine reading room: ‘Shampoo:
Advertising from the 19th and 20th centuries’
2 October – 21 December 2001
                            Looking into the personal hygiene               The display includes several colourful and decoratively designed shampoo
                              area of the Wellcome Library’s                bottle labels and sachet packets, and concludes with a selection of leaflets
                                printed medical ephemera                    and magazine inserts from The Chemist and Druggist.
                                  collection we present a variety
                                    of shampoo and haircare                 Stephen LOWTHER
                                     product advertising and                Assistant Librarian (Cataloguing) – Collection Management
                                       packaging starting with
                                         the Clifford Hair Restorer         Wellcome Library opening hours
                                          in the 1880s (left) and           Monday, Wednesday, Friday: 9.45 a.m. – 5.15 p.m.
                                           coming right up to date
                                                                            Tuesday,Thursday: 9.45 a.m. – 7.15 p.m.
                                            with Circ shampoo,
                                             launched earlier this          Saturday: 9.45 a.m. – 1.00 p.m.
                                             year – effectively a           Free and open to the public.
                                             21st-century hair
                                             restorer.                      For more information on exhibitions:
                                                                            E-mail: exhibitions@wellcome.ac.uk
                                                                            Web: www.wellcome.ac.uk/exhibitions

                                                                                                                  Wellcome History Issue 18 November 2001
HOM AND THE PUBLIC                                                                                                                                 Anthony Woods

                                                                                 • to provide greater contributions to general
History of medicine and                                                            history coverage and the promotion of his-
                                                                                   tory of medicine, or
public engagement                                                                • to promote historical research in a manner
                                                                                   that stimulates an informed dialogue
As many readers will recall, the Policy Unit of the Trust pub-                     between researchers, policy makers and
lished Evaluation of the History of Medicine Programme (right)                     the wider public with the aim of raising
in April of last year. A strong theme that emerged in inter-                       awareness and understanding of
views with historians of medicine was the belief that there                        biomedical science.
was great potential for the history of medicine to make fur-
ther advances in reaching wider audiences such as schools,                       Projects involving links between historians of
the public and the media. Indeed, many of those interviewed                      medicine and biomedical scientists/clinicians that address current health
thought that historians of medicine could contribute enor-                       and research issues would be particularly encouraged, for example ani-
mously to public engagement with science and the policy                          mal experimentation, genetics, cloning and stem-cell research.
agenda in medical research.
                                                                                 This scheme is still under discussion and further details will be published
Public engagement has been highlighted as one of the Trust’s four key            on the Trust’s website in the coming months, but in the meantime inter-
aims in its recent Corporate Plan and the Trust has a unique opportuni-          ested parties should write to the History of Medicine Programme at
ty, in terms of its reputation and resources, to further such activity in the    the Wellcome Trust.
history of medicine.
                                                                                 Anthony WOODS (History of Medicine Programme)
The History of Medicine Programme has recently set aside £250 000                Catherine COOPER (Policy Unit)
p.a. to fund public engagement projects.The Trust does not wish to be            The Wellcome Trust
prescriptive with this scheme, with all approaches considered.                   183 Euston Road
Applications may involve, for example, television, radio, exhibitions, the-      London NW1 2BE
atre, websites, educational resources, lecture and debate series, so long        E-mail: hom@wellcome.ac.uk
as the overriding principle is either:                                           Web: www.wellcome.ac.uk/hom

GRANTS NEWS                                                                                                                                           Anna Grundy

New grants scheme awards £300 000 to archives
The Wellcome Trust and the British Library have awarded                          funding available, but we hope
just over £300 000 to archival projects under the Research                       nevertheless to be able to fund
Resources in Medical History scheme.                                             some good new work to open
                                                                                 up important new resources
Launched in January 2001, Research Resources in Medical History is               for medical historians.
providing £1 million over two years (2001/02) to support projects to
open up access to important documentary resources in medical history,            For full details of the successful
or to help conserve them.                                                        projects go to
The awarding panel has now met twice and in July was able to announce            grants0701.html
funding for the first group of successful applications. Grants will go to
a number of institutions, including London Metropolitan Archives, to com-        For further information about    Above: Forecourt of the British Library, London.
plete the cataloguing of a range of hospital archives; the Borthwick Institute   the scheme, including details of
in York, to preserve the York NHS Trust Archives; Dundee University, to cat-     how to apply, please see www.bl.uk/concord/medical-about.html
alogue and conserve a range of important sets of papers relating to medi-
cine; and Exeter University, to catalogue the papers of the Royal Western        Anna GRUNDY
Counties Institution at Starcross, a psychiatric hospital.The various projects   The Administrator
will open up access to documents as diverse as the records of the Court          Research Resources in Medical History
of Arches, relating to the prosecution of a midwife for practising without a     The British Library
licence in 1665, and Emma Durham’s diary of 1879 as a nurse in the Zulu          Co-operation and Partnership Programme (Floor 4, Zone 6)
War.The first round of grants has focused entirely on archives but a num-        96 Euston Road
ber of printed book projects are under consideration for the next round.         London NW1 2DB
                                                                                 Tel: +44 (0)20 7412 7052
There has been an overwhelming interest in the fund; over 80 prelimi-            Fax: +44 (0)20 7412 7155
nary applications have been made to the scheme, worth about                      E-mail: medical-history@bl.uk
£5 million in all.The number of worthwhile projects far exceeds the              Web: www.bl.uk/concord/medicalabout-html

    Wellcome History Issue 18 November 2001                                                                                                                          13

Reynolds Associates Research Fellowships in                                    The position is available from 1 July 2002 (with a possibility that it may
the History of the Health Sciences for 2002                                    be available from 15 February 2002) and will be a continuing position
The Reynolds Associates, in conjunction with the Historical Collections        subject to a period of probation. Membership in a university-approved
Unit of Lister Hill Library, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA,         superannuation fund is a condition of employment for new appointees.
are pleased to announce the availability of short-term grants of up to         Closing date for submission of applications is 31 October 2001,
US$1000 to those engaged in research projects for the 2002 calendar            with possible extension to 30 November 2001. For further information
year relating to one or more aspects of the history of the health sciences.    contact Dr Rachel A Ankeny (E-mail: r.ankeny@scifac.usyd.edu.au)
                                                                               or visit our website at www.usyd.edu.au/hps.
Applicants should submit an outline of the proposed project along with
an abstract (not to exceed 250 words) stating its general scope and            Four copies of applications quoting reference number A36/001949,
purpose. All proposals must be accompanied by a budget listing travel          including a CV, list of publications and contact details of three
and other attendant expenses, length of anticipated visit, brief CV, and       confidential referees should be sent to:
two letters of recommendation (preferably from individuals familiar with       The Personnel Officer
the nature of the applicant’s research and scholarly interests). All materi-   College of Sciences and Technology
als must be submitted by 31 December 2001 to receive consideration.            Carslaw Building (F07)
Awards will be announced by 28 February 2002. Successful applicants            University of Sydney
will be expected to deposit a copy of the finished, manuscript, thesis,        NSW 2006, Australia.
dissertation or published work with the Historical Collections Unit.
                                                                               Graduate Fellowships: Science, Medicine, and
For further information see Wellcome History, issue 15, 2000, p. 16            Technology in Culture, Pennsylvania State
(available as a downloadable PDF from www.wellcome.ac.uk/                      University – University Park
publications). Prospective applicants are invited to visit the Historical      The Science, Medicine and Technology in Culture initiative (SMTC)
Collections website at www.uab.edu/historical/. Also, for examples             at Penn State University has been awarded a US$300 000 National
of what current fellows are doing, please visit the fellows web page           Science Foundation grant for graduate training. We will be offering six
at www.uab.edu/reynolds/fellows.htm.                                           graduate fellowships for studies beginning in the fall of 2002.The initia-
                                                                               tive is co-directed by Londa Schiebinger, Edwin E Sparks Professor of
Please send applications to:                                                   History of Science, and Robert N Proctor, Distinguished Professor of
Katie OOMENS,                                                                  the History of Science.
UAB Lister Hill Library
LHL 301                                                                        SMTC spans the departments of History, English, Philosophy,
1530 3rd Ave S                                                                 Anthropology, Women’s Studies and several of PSU’s leading depart-
Birmingham                                                                     ments of life, social, and physical sciences. Core faculty include:
AL 35294-0013, USA
                                                                               Londa Schiebinger (colonial science, gender and science, voyages of
Lecturer, History and Philosophy of Science,                                   discovery, race and natural history)
University of Sydney                                                           Robert N Proctor (human origins, Darwin, agates, health history, Nazis,
The Unit for History and Philosophy of Science (HPS), University of            the social construction of ignorance)
Sydney, is located in the Faculty of Science, an arrangement unique in         Richard Doyle (rhetoric, virtuality, extraterrestrials, nanotechnology,
Australia and one which offers a number of advantages to the disci-            cryonics, sci-fi)
pline.The Unit teaches majors in the degrees of Bachelor of Science,           Guido Ruggiero (Renaissance science, sex and gender, Italy)
Bachelor of Arts, and Bachelor of Liberal Studies, and has strong links        Susan M Squier (literature, reproductive technology, aging,
with the Departments of Philosophy, History, and Gender Studies in the         science fiction)
Faculty of Arts.The Unit currently has three full-time staff, active hon-      Nancy Tuana (feminist philosophy, sexuality, science ethics).
ours and postgraduate programmes and a strong research profile.
                                                                               Associated faculty include:
Applications are invited for the position of Lecturer, Level B.The suc-        Alan Derickson (US public health)
cessful candidate will have: a completed PhD and a strong research             Greg Eghigian (medicine and psychiatry, modern Germany)
record with potential to recruit postgraduate students and attract             David McBride (health and medicine of African-American and non-
external funding; disciplinary knowledge in history of post-18th-century       Western populations)
medicine as well as sociology of biomedical sciences/practice or sociolo-      Adam Rome (US environmental history)
gy of scientific knowledge; demonstrated teaching ability in the history       Jack Selzer (rhetoric of science and technology)
of medicine; and teaching and research experience in at least two of           Judi Wakhungu (women in science, global energy policy)
the fields mentioned above in the disciplinary context of HPS. Expertise       Kenneth M Weiss (biological anthropology, bioethics, genetics).
in philosophy of science/medicine or history of the physical sciences is       Please visit our SMTC website for more information:
also desirable, as is the ability to teach an introduction to the history of   http://faculty.la.psu.edu/ssps/smtc.html.
science (e.g. the scientific revolution) and teaching experience in other
areas of HPS not specified above. Preference will be given to applicants       Interested students should apply directly to a department for admission.
with a background in more than one of the constituent disciplines of           Fellowships will be awarded on a case-by-case basis. For the
this interdisciplinary field.

                                                                                                            Wellcome History Issue 18 November 2001

Department of History, please contact Professor Carol Reardon                 Applicants should send:
(E-mail: car9@psu.edu). For the Department of English, please contact         (1) cover letter and full CV;
Jack Selzer (E-mail: jls25@psu.edu). Students are also encouraged             (2) four-page fellowship proposal;
to affiliate with any of the 100-odd other PSU science strengths              (3) writing sample consisting of either a dissertation chapter or
(e.g. astrobiology, molecular anthropology, environmental studies,                published paper; and
cultural geography). Closing date for applications is                         (4) graduate school transcripts.
15 January 2002.
                                                                              Please also arrange to have three letters of recommendation, at least
Northwestern University’s Science in                                          one commenting on teaching qualifications, sent directly to Ms Phyllis
Human Culture Program (SHC)                                                   Siegel at the address below.
SHC invites applications for two-year postdoctoral fellowships in
the contextual study of science, technology and medicine, to start            The closing date for all materials is 15 January 2002.The SHC website
September 2002. We seek applicants in the history of science, the             is www2.mmlc.nwu.edu/shc. Contact Ms Siegel (E-mail: p-siegel@north-
philosophy of science, and the sociology/anthropology of science,             western.edu for queries on administrative matters), and for queries
who will thrive in an interdisciplinary programme. Probably two               about the content and goals of the programme contact Ken Alder,
fellows will be appointed.They will be affiliated with both the SHC           programme director (E-mail: k-alder@northwestern.edu). Applications
and an appropriate disciplinary department (history, philosophy,              from women and minorities are especially encouraged.
sociology, etc.).They will pursue a programme of independent
scholarship and, by arrangement with the programme director and               Ms Phyllis SIEGEL
chair of the fellow’s department, teach two one-quarter courses a             Program in Science in Human Culture, 20
year, a seminar and a lecture course.They will help organize the              University Hall
SHC weekly faculty seminar series, and give one seminar a year.               Northwestern University
The annual stipend is US$33 300.                                              Evanston, IL 60208-2245, USA


As a scientist who also researches the history of the germ theory and         discover what I do not presently know exists! Please, librarians, let
discovery of antibiotics, I am becoming increasingly concerned and            me browse your collections: who knows what jewels I might find.
frustrated by the official policy of most of our libraries. It seems that
modern librarians, presumably because they are educated only in the           Dr Milton WAINWRIGHT
complexities of IT, do not understand the concept ‘to browse’.They            Senior Lecturer in Microbiology
are stewards of large collections which they seem to do their best to         Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
obstruct me from browsing. I have heard all kinds of excuses (fire            University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN
regulations, insurance policy, staff shortages) used to prevent me            E-mail: M.Wainwright@sheffield.ac.uk
from looking through old journals. Librarians are happy to bring me
a requested journal, but seem not to understand that I would like to          Send letters to the Editor preferably by e-mail (wer@soton.ac.uk).


University Award                                                              Dr Jutta Schickore
Dr Penelope M Gouk                                                            Department of History and Philosophy of Science,
Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, University of Manchester           University of Cambridge
Doctors, music and human nature from Renaissance to Enlightenment             Vision dissected, eyes displayed – transforming microscopical practice in
                                                                              Britain and Germany, 1820–1890
HOM Fellowships
Dr Luc Berlivet                                                               HOM Fellowship for Clinicians and Scientists
Deparment of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and           Dr Sangeeta Patel*
Tropical Medicine                                                             Department of General Practice, St George’s Hospital Medical
British epidemiology in the postwar era.The rise of a ‘relative risk’ style   School, London.
of thought (1947–1976)                                                        Patterns and narrative of distress in the Ayurvedic and Vedic texts

Ms Helen J Blackman,                                                          HOM project grants
Department of History and Philosophy of Science,                              Dr Patrick N R Zutshi
University of Cambridge                                                       Library, University of Cambridge
The Balfour School of Embryology: zoology and medical education in            Edition of the correspondence of Charles Darwin
Britain, 1875–1919
                                                                              *A short report on Dr Sangeeta Patel’s project can be found on the Trust’s website at

Wellcome History Issue 18 November 2001

Wellcome Trust Centre, London                                                                      London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Dr Pamela Gilbert (University of Florida, Gainesville) returned in July                            Dr Lara Marks has joined the history group as Hon. Senior Lecturer.
to continue work on 19th-century sanitary and cholera maps.                                        Lara’s book on the contraceptive pill has recently been widely reviewed.
                                                                                                   The history group is located in the Health Promotion Research Unit
Dr Shang-Jen Li (Academia Sinica,Taipei,Taiwan) returned in July to
continue his work on Thomas Spencer Cobbold.                                                       and has also set up as an offshoot a drug and alcohol research seminar
                                                                                                   and group, with two historians, Sarah Mars and Virginia Berridge, play-
Adam Libow (Weill Medical College, Cornell) arrived in July to work                                ing a leading role. Sarah is ESRC funded for a study of the public–private
on the history of neuroscience and issues of mind/brain.                                           relationship in addiction treatment since the 1970s. She is a member of
                                                                                                   the history group.
Dr Mridula Ramanna (University of Bombay) returned in July to work
on colonial medical policy and Indian responses to Western medicine
in Bombay, 1896–1947.                                                                              All new MSc students this year have a historical introduction to the
                                                                                                   MSc teaching entitled ‘LSHTM: why hygiene?’.The history group is also
David Romand (Paris VII University) arrived in July to work on the                                 involved with environmental epidemiologists in the School who are
development of cognitive science in the late 19th century.
                                                                                                   running a conference next year to coincide with the 50th anniversary
Clair Scrine (Macquarie University) returned in July to continue working                           of the Great Fog of 1952. Ideas and suggestions for a possible ‘witness
on her PhD thesis, on the conception and treatment of nymphomania                                  seminar’ on this would be welcome.
within English gynaecology from the late 18th to early 20th centuries.
                                                                                                   If your unit or department has any news or updates for publication,
                                                                                                   please e-mail details to the Editor (wer@soton.ac.uk).
     The editor regrets that the captions to the two illustrations in the
     article by Maehle, Halliwell and Pruell, ‘Receptors in Historical
     Perspective’ (Wellcome History issue 17, 2001, p. 3) have unfortu-
     nately been transposed. Figure 1 was supposed to show ‘Ehrlich’s
     receptor in 1900’ and figure 2 the ‘GABA receptor’.


                             Henriette Bruun (left) joined the History of                          of Medicine in London doing research for her MA thesis on the
                             Medicine office in February as Programme                              Hippocratic treatise ‘De morbo sacro.’ After her final exams she worked
                             Assistant. She studied Classics at Aarhus                             three years as Junior Researcher with teaching and research responsibili-
                             University, Denmark, where she combined her                           ties at her Danish university. In 1998 she went back to London to carry
                             studies with administrative work. She spent six                       out research for her PhD thesis on the medical theories on apoplexy
                             months at the Wellcome Institute for the History                      from the Hippocratic Corpus to Galen.


     The next issue of Wellcome History is due out in March                                       Dr Waltraud ERNST
     2001. Please send your submissions to Waltraud Ernst at                                      Department of History
     the address shown. Preferably, contributions should be                                       University of Southampton
                                                                                                  Southampton SO17 1BJ
     pasted into an e-mail and sent to the Editor
                                                                                                  Tel: +44 (0)23 8059 6648
     (wer@soton.ac.uk). Alternatively, send the Editor a disk                                     Fax: +44 (0)23 8059 3458
     with a paper copy of the article. For more detailed                                          E-mail: wer@soton.ac.uk
     instructions, visit Wellcome History’s web pages at:


     The views and opinions expressed by writers within Wellcome History do not necessarily reflect those of the Wellcome Trust or Editor. No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for
     any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or
     ideas contained in the material herein. All images are from the Wellcome Trust Collections, unless otherwise indicated. Designed and produced by the Wellcome Trust Publishing
     Department. Web: www.wellcome.ac.uk The Wellcome Trust is a registered charity, no. 210183              WI02-2463/2.5k/10-2001/JW

                                                                                                                                     Wellcome History Issue 18 November 2001

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