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					In this issue: Canada and the rule of law                        4
                             RLOAD in debate spotlight           7
                             Basel III: new banking rules        8
                             Regional federations: missing tier 10

P   U B L I S H E D   I N    C   A N A D A   B Y   T H E   W   O R L D   F   E D E R A L I S T S                         D   E C E M B E R   2010

Idea of ‘world government’ back in the spotlight
                              More than a half-century ago,
                            support for the idea of world gov-
                                                                         national and local levels – come      bership of 34,000 in the U.S. In

                            ernment was brought to a halt by
                                                                         together to solve problems in the     Canada, a group of labour and

                            the Cold War. After entertaining
                                                                         absence of centralized govern-        social activists in Toronto found-

                            the notion of global governance
                                                                         ment-like authority.” Since the       ed the World Government Associ-

                            for some time, some academics                                                      Dilse’s The World Federalists of
                                                                         1990s, this concept has gained        ation as early as 1945 (See Paul

                            are returning to the idea that                                                     Canada: Their Contribution to
                                                                         currency. It describes a situation

                            world government is necessary to                                                   Social Thought and Change; The
        “…growing                                                        in international relations where

                            deal with multiple world crises.                                                   early years, 1945-1962).
          economic                                                       there is no government as such,

                            This article explains the compet-
               inter-                                                    but many other actors, including

                            ing concepts of world government
                                                                         non-governmental organizations          However, the trade-offs made
                            and global governance, and the
                                                                         (NGOs) and corporations. The          to secure a final agreement on
          and rapid
                            rise, fall and return of the idea of
                                                                         term ‘global’ was brought in to       the United Nations also had the
                            world government.
                                                                         replace ‘international’ thus signi-   effect of undermining the possi-
           advances                                                      fying we are dealing with new         bility of a world government. A
            fostered                by John E. Trent                     collective phenomena that go          veto had to be given to the great
    recognition of                                                       beyond relations between states.      powers. An international police
                            The Concepts                                 ‘Governance’ signifies the search     force was sacrificed to the U.S.
    problems that
                            masterful essay in the Stanford
                              World government. In her                   for forms of global authority that    military, American Firsters and
    cross national
                            Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
                                                                         can cope with universal problems.     Soviet fears. Few sovereign
      frontiers and                                                        Weiss has been one of the lead-     nations seemed to be interested
    defy solutions          Catherine Lu defines world gov-              ing lights in a network known as      in a real world parliament. Per-
         by a single        ernment as the bringing together             the Academic Council on the           fection had to give way to practi-
           state….”         of humanity under a “common                  United Nations System. More           cality. A review conference,
                            political authority.” Campbell               recently, his 2009 Presidential       mandated in the UN Charter,
                            Craig’s article earlier this year            Address to the International          has never been convened.

                            Government,” originally in Ethics
                            (“The Resurgent Idea of World                Studies Association discusses           For several decades, the Cold

                            and International Affairs, 2008)
                                                                         both global governance and            War divided the world and tem-
                                                                         world government.                     porarily made the notion of
                            offers a very similar definition of                                                ‘world government’ untenable.
                                                                         Rise and Fall of Movement             However, growing economic
                            world government as a school of
                                                                         for World Government                  interdependence and rapid tech-
                            thought that supports the cre-
                            ation of international authority               After the Second World War,         nological advances fostered rec-
                            (or authorities) that can tackle             there was a great deal of interest    ognition of problems that cross
                            global problems.                             in the idea of world government.      national frontiers and defy solu-
                              Global Governance. Tom                     In the U.S., leading thinkers         tions by a single state. Further-
                            Weiss describes global gover-                advocated a world state to avoid      more, there was the sheer
                            nance as “the various patterns in            another world war. In 1948, the       growth in numbers and impor-
                            which actors – public and pri-               newly born United World Feder-
                                                                         alist Movement boasted a mem-         Continued on page 2
                            vate, and at the global, regional,
2 mondial       DECEMBER 2010

Collective action needed for global challenges
Continued from page 1 _________        tical dream. The impracticality       asks, community for what and
tance of non-state actors such as      argument disregards the histori-      for whom? Will a new world gov-
NGOs, transnational corpora-           cal experience of state formation     ernment serve the interests of
tions, religions and even terror-      when previously warring groups        the bottom half of humanity?
ists and mafias. In these              with different ideologies and cul-    Even if there is a world state
circumstances, it was thought          tures have come together under a      with authoritative powers, Lu
that global governance could be        larger entity. A more formidable      notes, it will not automatically
seen as a halfway house between        objection is that world govern-       lead to the elimination of orga-
anarchy and a world state.             ment is unnecessary or even           nized violence, poverty and envi-
                                       undesirable. For example, at one      ronmental degradation. For
Return of World Government             point, some thought a “Pax            instance, even such a fine world
  Campbell Craig, Catherine Lu,        Americana” might be preferable        organization as the International     “It is… time
and Thomas Weiss have recently         – until the Bush regime and the       Criminal Court is dedicated to        to reaffirm a
written articles on world govern-      Iraq invasion.                        criminal justice, not distributive    seemingly out-
ment. According to Craig, the            The well-known international        justice, to punishment rather         of-date belief
reason for the current interest is     relations theorist Alexander          than development. If world feder-
                                                                                                                   in the ability of
                                       Inevitable,” European Journal of
a recognition of the need for col-     Wendt (“Why a World State is          alism is to be a step forward, it
                                                                                                                   human beings
                                       International Relations, 2003)
lective action to surmount global                                            must include a strong moral com-
challenges (climate change, ter-                                             ponent of distributive justice.       to create
rorism and humanitarian inter-         holds that an end to great-power         When it comes to political real-   powerful inter-
vention) and a belief that world       domination can only be achieved       ities rather than liberal pipe        governmental
government is the entity that can      when a new sovereign political        dreams, we can say there has          institutions
solve such problems.                   entity is established with consti-    been progress on democratic par-
                                                                                                                   and solve
  Thomas Weiss is more complex.        tutional authority over all states.   ticipation, federal dispersal of
Although he says that “currently       Such a new entity need not be         powers, republican checks and
a world federal government or          centralized or hierarchical or        balances, and the balancing of
even elements of one is not only       threaten national identities or       majoritarianism with human
old-fashioned, it is commonly          collectivize culture, economy or      rights. Nevertheless, we still
thought to be the preserve of          local politics. It would require a    endure, especially at the interna-
lunatics,” elsewhere he states         procedure to make binding choic-      tional level, authoritative (if not
that “by abandoning a utopian          es about threats but need not         authoritarian) decision-making,

                                         Daniel Deudney’s book Bound-
vision of world government, we         require a unitary body or leader.     executive committee foreign poli-

                                       ing Power provides the fullest
should ask ourselves whether we                                              cies, ever-widening inequalities,
are throwing out the baby with                                               and government by elites.
the bath water. At a minimum,          vision of formal world govern-           And so we return to the origi-
without such a vision, we risk         ment. He is optimistic that a         nal question: how do we define
accepting and strengthening the        world government can avoid war        the sort of world government
contours of the current unaccept-      and that it can be small, decen-      that should be our vision? Sure-
able international system includ-      tralized and liberal. He makes        ly, the answer must be in trans-
ing the feeble United Nations.”        the case for establishing a world     ferring to the global level the
And he concludes, “Realizing           republic “based upon the same         best of what we have learned
that the epithet ‘Pollyanna-ish’       premise of restraining and diffus-    about national politics in order to
will come my way, it is nonethe-       ing power that motivated the          avoid the worst. The sort of
less time to reaffirm a seemingly      founders of the American republic     world government to which we
out-of-date belief in the ability of   in the late eighteenth century.”      aspire should be decentralized,
human beings to create powerful          However, Catherine Lu, points       federal, and directed by the ide-
intergovernmental institutions         out that almost all the world gov-    als of subsidiarity, checks and
and solve problems.”                   ernment reformers concentrate         balances, human and minority
  Campbell Craig addresses the         their proposals on how to orga-       rights, liberty, distributive jus-
question of whether world gov-         nize political structures, institu-   tice, government under law and
ernment is possible or an imprac-      tions and community. But, she         limited power.
                                                                                                  DECEMBER 2010     mondial 3

                                                        No peace for the weary in Mideast
                                                          In the last issue of Mondial, I
                                                             by Simon Rosenblum                freeze may bring these talks to a
                                                                                               screeching halt. The Americans
                                                        reviewed the process among Pal-        may or may not be able to get
                                                        estinian and Israeli moderates         the Israeli government to recon-
  Published by the World Federalist Foundation          that led to the completion of a        sider in exchange for a package
(WFF) and the World Federalist Movement – Can-          blueprint for a Middle East            of incentives including stealth
ada (WFMC). The World Federalist Foundation is a        peace. From afar, there is no          aircraft. But it really is the talks
Revenue Canada registered charitable organization       shortage of organizations and          themselves that are stealth.
(reg. #:123998957RR0001). The World Federalist          individuals who profess to know          To say, as the Americans now
Movement – Canada is a national non-profit mem-         how this conflict should be            admit, that a deal is unlikely
bership organization that advocates more just and       resolved. This by no means             within a year’s deadline is a
                                                        excludes those on the extremes         gross understatement. Both the
effective global governance through the application
                                                        of the debate who take no back-        Israeli government of Binyamin
of the principles of democratic federalism to world
                                                        seat in their professed commit-        Netanyahu and the Palestinian
affairs. The WFMC President is the Hon. Warren
                                                        ment to peace. The problem, of         Authority under the leadership
Allmand. WFMC is a member organization of the
                                                        course, is that it is a ‘peace’ on     of Mahmoud Abbas are heavily
international World Federalist Movement (WFM),          their terms. Nor is there a lack       constrained by their own ideo-
which includes world federalist organizations in 24     of nations who would like to           logical positions and at least as
countries around the world.                             facilitate a Middle East peace.        equally so by the political envi-
  Articles that are the responsibility of the World     At times, they can even be help-       ronment in which they operate.
Federalist Foundation are denoted by an          con-   ful as convenors and peacekeep-        Netanyahu and Abbas may refer

                                                        there must be a bona fide search
cluding the article. These include, “Idea of ‘world     ers. But for a lasting peace,          to each other as “partners in
government’ back in spotlight,” “No peace for the                                              peace” but, even in the highly
weary in Mideast,” “U.S. policy shift reducing          for common ground between the          unlikely event that they were
nuclear role?” “RLOAD carries the day in collegiate     actual participants in the conflict.   willing, neither has the political
                                                          The contours of a two-state          room to make the necessary con-
debate,” “Basel III – New rules for the banking sec-
                                                        solution were given better defi-       cessions to reach a settlement.
tor,” “Regional federations are the missing tier,”
                                                        nition through the Geneva Ini-           It is easy to be deeply pessi-
and “Linking UNEPS to responsibility to protect.”
                                                        tiative as it tidied up loose ends     mistic about prospects of an

come. Il nous fera plaisir de publier les articles
Material is not copyrighted. Submissions are wel-
                                                        remaining from the so-called           Israeli-Palestinian peace in the

présentés en français.
                                                        Clinton parameters: an adjusted        present period. Recently, I was
                                                        1967 border with Israel keeping        asked by a colleague whether
                                                        a few of the larger settlements        the Israel/Palestinian glass was
Mondial’s editorial working group:
ISSN number: 1488-612X
                                                        near that border while Palestine       half-full or half-empty. I replied
    Leonard Angel                                       would get equal swaps of land;         that the glass in question is
    David Blackwell                                     Arab East Jerusalem becoming           severely cracked. The Israel dip-
    Karen Hamilton                                      the capital of the new Palestin-       lomat Abba Eban many years
    Dieter Heinrich                                     ian state with special provisions      ago astutely observed that
    Donna Lindenberg                                    for Jerusalem’s holy places; and       nations often behave wisely once
    Simon Rosenblum                                     an acknowledgement that, with          they have exhausted all the
    Elizabeth Snell                                     the exception of some small scale      other alternatives. The ending of
    Fergus Watt
                                                        family reunifications, Palestinian     the ‘troubles’ in Northern Ire-
    Publications mail agreement No. 40011403
                                                        refugees will not be able to return    land is a wonderful and hopeful
   Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to:          to what became Israel in 1948.         example of this and there is no
      World Federalist Movement – Canada                  Is there much of a chance that       reason to believe otherwise
           Suite 207, 145 Spruce Street                 the current peace talks could          when it comes to Israel and Pal-
              Ottawa, ON K1R 6P1                        successfully reach such a conclu-      estine. That time, one must
               E-mail:                    sion? As I write at the beginning      painfully acknowledge, however,
        Web site:            of December, Israel’s stubborn         is highly unlikely to be in the
                                                        refusal to extend its settlement       near future.
4 mondial       DECEMBER 2010

Canada and the rule of law: not a pretty picture
  This article reviews Canada’s       reached the level of jus cogens -
lack of respect for international
                                                                             These departures from the

law in the areas of human rights,
                                      a peremptory international           rule of law by the lead player in

the Middle East, and climate
                                      norm which means “it can never       the ‘war against terror’ had a

change. It also examines the con-                                          ing to Ahmed Rashid in Descent
                                      be legally justified.” He also       disturbing ripple effect. Accord-

sequences and the roles of govern-                                         into Chaos, for the “greatest
                                      quoted from the Secretary-Gen-

ment and NGOs in protecting the
                                      eral of the United Nations: “let

rule of law.
                                      us be clear: torture can never be    power on earth to wage its war

                                      torture is an instrument of ter-
                                      an instrument to fight terror for    on terrorism by rejecting the
                                                                           very rules of war it is signatory    Bill Pearce is
        by Bill Pearce                ror” (my emphasis).                  to… and then pressuring its          a member of
                                                                                                                WMFC Council.
                                        Omar Khadr is a Canadian           allies to do the same, set in
Human Rights
                                      citizen born in Ottawa in 1986.      motion a devastating denial of
  The events of September 11,         At the age of 15, he was taken       civilized instincts. America’s
2001 became the catalyst for a        prisoner while serving in a mili-    example had the most impact in
significant increase in the sys-      tary unit of Al-Qaeda following a    Afghanistan, where no legal sys-
tematic disregard of established      firefight with U.S. armed forces     tem existed.” Rashid also said
international rules on human          in 2002. He was held at the          “with the United States leading
rights, the treatment of combat-      notorious Bagram Air Base            the way in the abuse of prison-
ant prisoners, and the use of         where he was tortured and mis-       ers and flouting the Geneva
military force around the world.      treated, and transferred to          Conventions and international
The Bush administration used          Guantánamo Bay where his tor-        law, it was natural that their
the events of 9/11 as the perfect     ture and mistreatment contin-        allies, such as Pakistan, Uzbeki-
opportunity to refashion the          ued well into 2003. It included      stan, Saudi Arabia, and Afghan-
global legal order. International     extensive use of sleep depriva-      istan, would follow suit.... The
law became the bogeyman, a            tion through Guantánamo’s infa-      international community had
constraint on America’s ability       mous “frequent flyer” program.       gone to great lengths to set up a
to defend itself and prosecute its    Notably, this occurred in advance    credible government in Kabul,
war on terrorism and protect its      of a planned visit of CSIS offi-     but the effort was totally under-
economic and military interests       cials who interrogated him. The      mined when the CIA used the
around the world. The Geneva          results of the interrogation were    fledgling government and the
Conventions, the International        handed over to U.S. authorities      powerful warlords to run secret
Covenant on Civil and Political                                                                                 “For the greatest
                                      and formed the basis of a charge     prison systems.”                     power on earth
Rights, the Convention Against        in 2004 of killing a member of         Canada is the only Western
Torture, and the UN Charter’s                                                                                   to wage its war
                                      the U.S. forces, at a time when      democracy that did not take          on terrorism by
prohibition on the use of force       Omar Khadr was a child soldier       steps to repatriate its citizens
all came under attack.                                                                                          rejecting the very
                                      engaged in military combat.          from Guantánamo. Canada has          rules of war it is
  The most well-known Canadi-           How was this possible? The         been complicit in any mistreat-
an victim of this change is                                                                                     signatory to… and
                                      Geneva Accords ensure POWs           ment that occurred to Khadr          then pressuring
Maher Arar. In September 2006,        receive humane treatment and         after it learned of his presence
inquiry commissioner Justice                                                                                    its allies to
                                      provide immunity from prosecu-       in that facility and the likely      do the same,
Dennis O’Connor declared there        tions for harm inflicted on their    treatment he would receive from
was no evidence to indicate that                                                                                set in motion
                                      ‘enemy’ in the field of battle. On   his continued detention there.       a devastating
Maher Arar had committed any          February 7, 2002, President            Prime Minister Harper’s deci-
offence or that his activities con-                                                                             denial of civilized
                                      Bush decided to declare all Al-      sion not to repatriate Kadr was      instincts.”
stituted a threat to the security     Qaeda and Taliban prisoners to       ultimately reviewed by the
of Canada and that the actions        be “unlawful enemy combatants”       Supreme Court of Canada which
of Canadian officials facilitated     thereby denying them the status      ruled that “the regime providing
his ‘rendition’ to Syria for tor-     of POWs under the Geneva Con-        for the detention and trial of Mr.
ture and detention. Justice           ventions. This designation has       Khadr at the time of the CSIS
O’Connor emphasized that the          been widely discredited in the       interviews constituted a clear
prohibition against torture has       legal world.                         violation of fundamental
                                                                                                    DECEMBER 2010     mondial 5

                      Harper government flouting int’l laws
                         human rights protected by          ian state within the occupied        runaway global warming
                      ▼  international law” and that,       territories. However, under the      becomes a greater and greater
                      by making its interviews avail-       Harper government, Canada            risk.
                      able to the U.S. authorities,         abandoned its traditional ‘hon-
                      Canada participated in a process      est broker’ role.                    Summary
                      “that was contrary to Canada’s          Prime Minister Netanyahu             The international community
                      international human rights obli-      has refused to extend the con-       does notice when Canada fails to
        “…Canada      gations” and in breach of Kadr’s      struction freeze in the occupied     respect international law and we
    participated in   rights under the Charter. The         territories and has acted in a       paid that price when the vote
     a process that   Harper government made no             manner that would suggest that       was taken for a seat in the Secu-
      was contrary    serious effort to address this fun-   he intentionally sabotaged the       rity Council.
       to Canada’s    damental breach, thereby dem-         peace process. It has come to the      The 1995 report of the Com-
      international   onstrating its lack of respect for    point where the hopes and            mission on Global Governance
      human rights    even the domestic rule of law.        dreams of the Palestinian people     reminds us of the measures that
obligations and in                                          to achieve a two-state solution      can be taken when other state
 breach of Kadr’s     Middle East                           may never be achieved if the         parties fail to comply with their
  rights under the      On November 22, 1967 follow-        international community does         international obligations. They
       Charter.…”     ing the 1967 war in the Middle        not take measures to enforce the     include “…direct contact, public-
                      East, the UN Security Council         international legal obligations of   ity and the mobilization of

                                                            ty and engage in bona fide nego-
                      passed resolution 242 which           Israel to cease settlement activi-   shame, deterrence, peaceful set-
                      affirmed that the fulfillment of                                           tlement procedures, sanctions,
                      charter principles requires the       tiations for a just peace.           and, as a last resort, expulsion
                      establishment of a just and last-                                          from intergovernmental organi-
                      ing peace in the Middle East          Climate Change                       zations or the UN itself.”
                      which should include the “with-         Under the UN Framework               The Commission also encour-
                      drawal of Israeli armed forces        Convention on Climate Change         aged NGOs to continue lobbying
                      from territories occupied in the      and the Kyoto protocol, which        and pressuring governments to
                      recent conflict.” On July 9, 2004     Canada has signed and ratified,      comply with their international
                      the International Court of Jus-       the parties are obliged to take      legal obligations. The World
                      tice provided an advisory opin-       “precautionary measures” to          Federalists is a unique organiza-
                      ion to the UN General Assembly        minimize the causes of climate       tion among NGOs. It has as its
                      in which it concluded that all of     change and mitigate its adverse      purpose the enhancement of
                      the territories seized by the         effects, and to reduce green-        international law and global
                      Israelis in the 1967 war includ-      house gas emissions to 94 per        governance institutions.
                      ing East Jerusalem remain occu-       cent of 1990 levels by 2012. Can-      The rule of law has been the
                      pied territories, that Israel has     ada has not made any serious         ethical cornerstone of every free
                      continued to have the status of       attempt to meet those obliga-        society; respect for it is at least
                      occupying power, and that “the        tions. In fact, at the Framework     as essential to the global neigh-
                      Israeli settlements in the occu-      Convention talks in Copenha-         bourhood as to the national one.
                      pied Palestinian territory            gen, Canada led the way in           Global governance without law
                      (including East Jerusalem) have       obstructing progress and for its     would be a contradiction in
                      been established in breach of         efforts was awarded the NGO          terms. Its primacy is a precondi-
                      international law.”                   “Fossil of the Day” and the          tion of effective global gover-
                        Canada has had a long, friend-      “Colossal Fossil” (for the most      nance. The global neighbourhood
                      ly relationship with Israel but       awards in all of the conferences     of the future must be character-
                      has always taken a balanced           of the parties). As this is writ-    ized by law and the reality that
                      position between the competing        ten, it is embarrassing to see       all, including the weakest, are
                      interests of Israel’s desire to       Environment Minister Baird           equal under the law, and none,
                      expand its settlements and the        doing his best to obstruct prog-     including the strongest, is above
                      Palestinian quest for a Palestin-     ress in Cancun at a time when        the law.
6 mondial      DECEMBER 2010

U.S. policy shift reducing nuclear role?
    by Simon Rosenblum               whether Washington might use          tion cannot be overstated.
                                     its nuclear weapons against non-        As one might expect, the new
  Two major government reviews       nuclear targets whose prolifera-      NATO strategic concept falls
of nuclear weapons policies have     tion policies are not acceptable to   pretty much into line with Wash-
been released during the past six    the United States. Furthermore,       ington’s nuclear posture review.
months. The first was Washing-       additional clarification is needed    The circumstances in which the
ton’s Nuclear Posture Review         on what precisely is the Ameri-       alliance could contemplate using
and the other was NATO’s Stra-       can policy in regards to other        its nuclear arsenal are now said
                                                                                                                Simon Rosenblum
tegic Concept review. Not too        nuclear weapons states. This is       to be “extremely remote.” Again
                                                                                                                is a member of
surprisingly, given the central      most relevant at a time when          compare this if you will to the      WFMC Council.
role played by the Americans in      1,000 nuclear weapons are ready       previous 1999 NATO review;
NATO, both documents are             to be fired at a moment’s notice.     “Nuclear weapons make a unique
largely joined at the hip.           Sadly, there was no mention of        contribution in rendering the
  The Nuclear Posture Review is      the urgency for nuclear states to     risks of aggression against the
what is known in the trade as        remove these weapons from alert       alliance incalculable and unac-
“declaratory doctrine” and con-      status.                               ceptable. Thus, they remain
tains what Washington is willing        Quickly on the heels of the        essential to preserve peace.” Rus-
to say in advance about the con-     American Nuclear Posture              sia now has been removed as the
ditions under which the United       Review came the review confer-        bogeyman and indeed NATO and
States will use its nuclear arse-    ence of the Nuclear Non-Prolifer-     Russia are getting more comfort-
nal. The key sentence is that “the   ation Treaty which, for reasons       able with each other of late. That
United States will not use or        that puzzle me, is seen as the        said, one might have thought
threaten to use nuclear weapons      cornerstone of nuclear arms con-      that it was high time for NATO
against non-nuclear states that      trol. Thanks in part to the           to eliminate the 200 tactical
are party to the Nuclear Non-        expected new U.S.–Russia Stra-        nuclear weapons that it has
                                                                                                                ‘The U.S. will
Proliferation Treaty and in          tegic Arms Reduction Treaty           remaining on European soil. Rus-     not use or
compliance with their non-prolif-    (START), and also taking some         sia, which has many more,            threaten to
eration obligations.”                comfort from the U.S. nuclear         should of course be doing like-      use nuclear
  Now – except in extenuating        posture review’s reduced reliance     wise. These tactical nukes serve     weapons
circumstances – the United           on nuclear weapons, the NPT got       no credible military strategy and,   against non-
States will respond to chemical      a relatively easy new lease on        ironically, it was the French with
                                                                                                                nuclear states
and biological weapons assaults      life. That as well is to the good     their own “force de frappe” that
with a “devastating conventional     but complacency regarding nucle-      put up the loudest refusal           that are party
military response,” thus reducing    ar proliferation is hardly war-       regarding NATO eliminating this      to NPT.’
the role of nuclear weapons in       ranted given the treaty has           class of nuclear weapons.
American national security strat-    proven to be quite ineffective in       All in all, not a bad start.
egy. The document goes on to         stopping a country from going         Which brings us back to START.
mention “the objective of making     nuclear if it is determined to do     The new START would achieve
deterrence of nuclear attack…        so. It is frequently said that        modest 30 per cent reductions in
the sole purpose of U.S. nuclear     progress on nuclear proliferation     U.S. and Russian strategic nucle-

                                                                                                                (Ed. note: As
weapons.”                            is inextricably linked to nuclear     ar forces. But now the resurgent

                                                                                                                Mondial goes to
  This is largely good news. Com-    disarmament progress among the        Republicans in the U.S. Senate

                                                                                                                press, the U.S.
pare it for a moment to the Bush     major powers. I find this link to     seem determined to hold up rati-

                                                                                                                Senate did vote
doctrine where new missions          be somewhat tenuous at times          fication of this treaty. This only

                                                                                                                December 22 to
were being continually invented      and the centrality of an effective    goes to show, of course, that

                                                                                                                ratify the new
for nuclear weapons. Yet             verification and compliance           nuclear weapons arms control is

                                                                                                                START treaty.)
Obama’s nuclear posture review       regime to serious progress            no tea party.
still invites questions about        towards nuclear weapons aboli-
                                                                                                  DECEMBER 2010     mondial 7

                    American nuclear weapons policy in spotlight

                      RLOAD carries the day in collegiate debate
                      Evan DeFilippis is a graduate
                    student at the University of Okla-
                                                         incredibly short time-frame,          onstrated that glitches, malfunc-

                    hama and participated in the
                                                         whether or not to retaliate to a      tions, lapses in human judgment,

                    2010 U.S. competitive national
                                                         perceived nuclear attack. Such        and cyber-terrorism are omni-

                    university policy debates. Inter-
                                                         compressed decision-making            present and have historically

                    ested in U.S. nuclear weapons
                                                         times increase the risk of nuclear    increased the risk of false alarm.

                    policy, Evan came across the
                                                         miscalculation and accidental           Despite this contention, our

                    RLOAD proposal as a replace-
                                                         nuclear war and is thus unac-         opponents argued that the

                    ment policy for Launch on Warn-
Evan DeFilippis                                          ceptable as our default nuclear       threats associated with RLOAD

                    ing. He drew on expertise offered
                                                         policy. RLOAD instantly reduces       in terms of our deterrence credi-

                    by Steven Starr and WFM-Cana-
                                                         this risk without any onerous         bility outweighed the risk of acci-

                    da Executive Committee member
                                                         technical changes or modifica-        dental or inadvertent nuclear

                    Robin Collins, both of whom have
                                                         tions to our alert status; a simple   launch.

                    advocated for RLOAD for several
                                                         change in standing orders is all        Our response was thorough.

                                                         that is necessary.                    We argued that our second strike
    “Launch on                                              The proposal seemed so intui-      capability would be maintained
                                                         tive that my team had a difficult     through submarines, secret silos,
Warning forces        by Evan DeFilippis
                                                         time constructing arguments           and retaliatory assurances from
      leaders to      In 2008, as a student at the
                                                         against it. Fortunately, our oppo-    our allies, thereby maintaining
 decide, within     University of Oklahoma, I partic-
                                                         nents had similar difficulties. As    deterrence. We pointed out that
                    ipated in Inter-Collegiate Policy
   an incredibly                                         a result, we advanced to late         even in the absence of secondary
                    Debate, an undergraduate,
     short time-    research-based, national contest
                                                         elimination rounds at the annual      strike capabilities, self-inflicted
frame, whether                                           George R. R. Pflaum Tourna-           destruction through global envi-
                    in which teams of two debaters
       or not to                                         ment, the District-3 Regional         ronmental damage would still
                    advocated for or against a partic-
                                                         Tournament, the Wake Forest           preserve deterrence. And we
     retaliate to   ular resolution.
                                                         National Tournament, and the          argued that it was disingenuous
    a perceived       The topic called for the United
                                                         CEDA National Championship,           for our opponents to conflate
         nuclear    States federal government to
                                                         earning us a spot as one of the       RLOAD with a complete collapse
                    change the role of its nuclear
        attack.”                                         top 32 teams in the country.          in our deterrence capacity, for
                    weapons arsenal. I advocated for
                                                            Indeed, the majority of our        even a single nuclear weapon is
                    the resolution using a proposal
                                                         rounds were won with a simple         adequate to deter a state actor.
                    lips (see Mondial April 2002)
                    articulated by the late Alan Phil-
                                                         calculation: does RLOAD consti-
                                                         tute a significant enough risk to     The ‘Risk is Good For Us’
                    termed “RLOAD” (Retaliatory                                                Argument
                                                         deterrence to justify the status
                    Launch Only After Detonation)
                                                         quo policy of launch-on-warning         As the year progressed, our
                    which called for a safer alterna-
                                                         which holds the world hostage to      opponents began to abandon
                    tive to current U.S. (and other
                                                         the imperfections of our early        deterrence arguments and pur-
                    states’) nuclear policy of “Launch
                                                         warning systems? To our judges,       sued more nuanced positions. I
                    on Warning.” As the name
                                                         it was inconceivable that deter-      found two of their arguments
                    implies, RLOAD calls for no
                                                         rence concerns could ever be pri-     sufficiently interesting to merit
                    response to a perceived incoming
                                                         oritized over the safety of           attention:
                    nuclear attack until it is con-
                                                         humanity and, as a result, we         1. Current launch-on-warning
                    firmed to be real by detonation.
                                                         won the majority of our affirma-         policy provides adversaries
                    It does not support the use of
                                                         tive rounds.                             with an enormous incentive
                    nuclear weapons in any circum-
                                                            To substantiate our concern           for maintaining strict com-
                    stance; its sole purpose is to
                                                         over accidental nuclear launch,          mand and control procedures,
                    eliminate the risk of nuclear war
                                                         we presented empirical evidence          thereby reducing the risk of
                    due to a false warning.
                                                         to expose the fallibility of our         accidents in other countries;
                      “Launch on Warning” forces
                                                         early warning systems. We dem-
                    leaders to decide, within an                                               See “Nuclear arms…” on page 9
8 mondial       DECEMBER 2010

‘Basel III’ – New rules for the banking sector
         by Fergus Watt                   er with additional guidance in     2. New regulatory challenges
  The Bank for International              the areas of sound valuation         The knee bone’s connected to
Settlements in Basel, Switzer-            practices, stress testing,         the thigh bone. There are com-
land is the home of the Basel             liquidity risk management,         plementary global regulatory
Committee on Banking Supervi-             corporate governance and           challenges that will have an
sion, a forum for regular coopera-        compensation;                      impact on the efficacy of these
tion on banking supervisory            • promoting the buildup of capi-      efforts to regulate banking.
matters by Central Bank Gover-            tal buffers in good times that     According to Nicolas Veron of the
nors and Heads of Supervision             can be drawn down in periods       Washington-based Peterson             Fergus Watt is
from 27 wealthy countries,                of stress, to protect the bank-                                          WFM–Canada’s
                                                                             Institute for International Eco-      Executive Director.
including all G20 members.                ing sector from periods of         nomics, “Capital markets must
  Following a mandate from the            excess credit growth.              have globally consistent policies
2009 G20 Summit in Pittsburgh,           The Basel regulators also           to avoid regulatory arbitrage and
the so-called ‘Basel III’ agree-       agreed that large “systemically       fragmentation. Stronger global
ments on banking regulation and        important banks” should have          institutions are needed to enforce
supervision, approved in Septem-       loss-absorbing capacity beyond        disclosure requirements, main-
ber 2010, address some of the          the minimum standards of the          tain a level playing field for
systemic weaknesses in the glob-       Basel III framework. To their         cross-border trading, and moni-
al banking system that were so         credit, the Basel Committee           tor market developments. Where
dramatically exposed during the        withstood considerable resistance     suitable bodies are unavailable,
recent financial crisis.               and lobbying by the big interna-      policymakers should stand ready
  The new Basel III regulations        tional banks to do so.                to create them, as may be
are aimed at:                            With the benefit of hindsight, it   required for the oversight of
• raising the level of the mini-       is now widely acknowledged that,      credit rating agencies, global
   mum capital that banks are          by 2007 and 2008, banking regu-                                             “…there
                                                                             audit networks, or securities
   required to hold, including an      lation was far too weak for the       clearing houses.”
                                                                                                                   are genuine
   increase in the “minimum            stresses and innovations that                                               difficulties
   common equity requirement”          were changing the industry.           3. Tracking the bottom line           for regulators
   to 4.5 per cent from two per          Will these regulatory responses       When banks are holding, buy-        in enforcing
   cent and a “capital conserva-       be adequate? From a lay perspec-      ing and selling numerous com-         minimal
   tion buffer” of 2.5 per cent,       tive, there are at least three        plex securities, off–balance-sheet
   bringing the total common           broad areas of concern:
                                                                             items or derivatives, there are
   equity requirement to seven                                               genuine difficulties for regulators
   per cent;                           1. Implementation                                                           and ensuring a
                                                                             in enforcing minimal liquidity
• strengthening definitions of           The Basel supervisory system        requirements and ensuring a           sound banking
   capital and raising the “quali-     is an example of a global stan-       sound banking system. Regula-         system.
   ty of capital;”                     dard-setting body that relies on      tors need to understand what          Regulators
• increasing the risk coverage         national and regional implemen-       they’re regulating. Little wonder
                                       tation. No matter how tough the
                                                                                                                   need to
   for trading activities, securiti-                                         that the Basel Committee was
   zations, exposures to off–bal-      new standards are, they must be                                             understand
                                                                             preoccupied not only with mini-
   ance-sheet vehicles and             effectively enforced. This            mal capital requirements, but         what they’re
   counter-party credit exposures      requires rigorous supervisory fol-    also the “quality of capital.” In a   regulating.”
   arising from derivatives;           low-up. In a world where the          report to the Seoul G20, Hol-
• introducing an internationally       number of off-shore low-tax           land’s Nout Wellink, Chairman
   harmonized leverage ratio to        banking jurisdictions is increas-     of the Basel Committee on Bank-
   contain the build-up of exces-      ing dramatically, there are           ing Supervision, acknowledges
   sive leverage in the system;        understandable questions              that, “Our standards need to keep
• raising standards for the            regarding how tough the regula-       pace with financial innovation.”
   supervisory review process          tors will get with the banking          Good luck with that.
   and public disclosures, togeth-     sector.
                                                                               DECEMBER 2010    mondial 9

Intergov’t conference urged on UNPA
  An international meeting of the     ical challenges of our times. It        Andreas Bummel, Secretary of
Campaign for the Establishment        calls on individual world citizens,   the Campaign for the Establish-
of a United Nations Parliamenta-      and especially parliamentarians,      ment of a UN Parliamentary
ry Assembly in the Senate of          governments, the international        Assembly, added that, “The new
Argentina in Buenos Aires has         donor community and civil soci-       global social contract needs to
called on the United Nations and      ety, to make a commitment to          have two pillars: the individual
its member states “to initiate a      democratic global change.”            citizens and the nation-states.
preparatory process towards an          At the opening session, the         These two dimensions could be
intergovernmental conference for      Argentinean deputy Fernando           reflected by today’s UN General
the purpose of establishing a         Iglesias reiterated the need for      Assembly and by an additional
Parliamentary Assembly at the         global democratization through a      parliamentary chamber that
United Nations.”                      UN Parliamentary Assembly. “In        eventually is directly elected.”
  A declaration adopted October       many areas, global governance           As a result of the meeting, the
5, 2010 by over 50 participants       now is an absolute necessity. But     co-chairs of the UNPA Cam-
from 20 countries, including 10       the world population is not           paign’s Parliamentary Advisory
members of parliament and rep-        included in decision-making,”         Group contacted more than 170
resentatives of 20 civil society      said Mr. Iglesias. “The issue is      foreign ministers around the
organizations, states that, “The      how to change this and the solu-      world requesting the commence-
need to democratize global gover-     tion is to establish a world par-
nance is one of the greatest polit-   liament.”                             See “IPU…” on page 11

Nuclear arms debate sparked passion for research, action
Continued from page 7 _________       after the debate season ended, I      become the policymakers of
                                      continued to discuss the illogic of   tomorrow.
2. Launch-on-warning reduces          our nuclear weapons posture and          Policy debate, a forum that
   the need for maintaining a         found myself dumbfounded by           privileges objectivity, research,
   large nuclear arsenal capable      just how little people knew about     and persuasion, undoubtedly
   of surviving a first strike.       our nuclear policies. I was con-      trains its participants to be
  We argued that all states have      vinced that ignorance should not      active and productive citizens. It
an incentive to maintain strict       be the norm when it came to           encourages them to imagine
command and control procedures,       something as existentially fright-    nuanced solutions to real-world
regardless of launch-on-warning,      ening as an accidental nuclear        problems; it trains them to be
and that no state would be bra-       war, yet even among scholars the      skeptical of hyperbole and ideolo-
zen enough to risk international      heart of the debate was hardly        gy; and it imbues them with a
backlash as a result of accidental    scratched.                            sense of efficacy that is aban-
nuclear launch. We also chal-                                               doned by most citizens. I, for one,
lenged the asserted correlation       Debating to Policy-making?            have become impassioned as a
between launch-on-warning poli-          I joined policy debate at the      result of policy debate and have
cies and reductions to the nucle-     university level because no other     changed my career goals in light
ar arsenal, pointing out that the     activity demands such academic        of my research on RLOAD.
United States’ launch-on-warn-        rigor. It is said that over the          I encourage young readers to
ing policy during the Cold War        course of a single debate season      take advantage of policy debate if
did not prevent an arms race.         enough research is produced to        the opportunity is ever offered—
  As the year progressed, I found     fill two doctoral theses. Now, I      it will change the way you think
myself impassioned to research,       hope to use the research and the      about the world and it will equip
write about, and eventually lobby     skills gleaned from debate in         you with the tools necessary to
for real change in the form of        hopes that I might influence the      make a difference.
policies such as RLOAD. Even          debaters of today for when they
10 mondial       DECEMBER 2010

Regional federations are the missing tier
         by Peter Bailey               and the disparities of size and       inevitably brings democratic
   In his presidential address to      power between existing nations        principles and practice into focus.
the International Studies Associ-      are too great. Some level of dis-     An authoritarian regime may
ation in 2009, Thomas Weiss            parity is unavoidable and man-        work for a single state, but a
asked what had happened to the         ageable, but the imbalance            regional union of many states,
idea of world government and           between the major powers and          bringing a variety of interests to
why had it been replaced by            nation-states at the other end of     the table, requires a completely
‘‘global governance?” I believe        the scale, ranging in size from       democratic legislature and other
there are two answers.                 micro to small to medium, would       institutions, and the universal       Peter Bailey is
                                       impose a contentious and              application of its laws. No federal   a member of
   First, since any form of world
                                                                                                                   WFMC’s council.
government has always been a           unwieldy structure on any global      system can be partially demo-
long-term project, there is a nat-     federation.                           cratic. Regional federations are
ural determination to do some-           The political and economic          therefore natural instruments of
thing useful in the meantime.          fragmentation of much of the          democratization, putting pres-
Constructive international             world is not only an obstacle to      sure on would-be members to
reform, typically embodied in          world federation, but also a seri-    change their systems and prac-
treaties, UN resolutions and new       ous impediment to global devel-       tices if they wish to reap the ben-
international bodies lays practi-      opment of all kinds. This             efits of union.
cal and psychological foundations      fragmentation denies many               A third purpose is a federa-

                                                                             peace. Conflicts between member
for the future. The campaign to        states the benefits of size and       tion’s role in enforcing regional
reform the UN plays a similar          pooled resources, whether natu-
role. Even so, such activities fur-    ral, political, economic or human.    states are inevitably eliminated
ther only the cause of improved        The solution is regional federa-      by a supranational authority          “No federal
global governance. The notion of       tion, which has the advantage of      applying commonly agreed feder-       system can
world government is still paid         serving several purposes, as well     al law, and by the existence of
                                                                                                                   be partially
respect, but largely in lip service    as opening the way to world fed-      federal institutions providing
                                                                             power struggles within states,
to an ideal that inspires but has      eration.                              ways to resolve disputes. The
no immediate relevance. This             One obvious purpose is eco-                                               Regional
brings us to the other answer to       nomic. This can easily be seen        causing civil wars that are the       federations
Weiss’s question.                      without the help of elaborate         scourge of social and economic        are therefore
   The second answer is that it is     analysis. Regional federation         development, are diverted into        natural
difficult to keep the goal of world    offers its member countries the       constitutional channels backed        instruments
government in sight and make           same mutual economic support          by federal law enforcement.
                                                                                                                   of democrat-
useful efforts to promote it, if the   that existing federations provide       A fourth purpose is in world
future shape and even the pur-         their member states. The perils       affairs, where federations enable     ization, putting
pose of that government is little      of illusory independence, which       regions to exercise their proper      pressure on
more than a vague idea, and if         often include recurring balance       share of political and economic       would-be
therefore the way to achieve it is     of payments and external debt         influence. Some world federalists     members to
anybody’s guess.                       problems, weak economies and          seem to view regional federations     change their
   Compounding this lack of clari-     stunted development, are              as dangerous new power blocs
                                                                                                                   systems and
ty is the common assumption            replaced by the benefits of politi-   which should not be encouraged.
that democratic world federation       cal cohesion, combined resources,     The logical extension of such
is to be based on the current line-    collective development and com-       arguments is to advocate the
up of nation states. In my view,       mon financial and monetary sys-       break-up of existing regional fed-
it is a mistaken assumption. Sys-      tems.                                 erations and other subcontinen-
temic differences are too wide –         Another purpose is political.       tal states, either immediately or
a federation cannot be partially       The difficult process of unifying     as a condition of their entry into
democratic with a patchwork            or harmonizing different political    world federation. However,

observance of human rights –           systems under a federal umbrella      since federation obviously
                                                                                DECEMBER 2010     mondial 11

Regional unions are already evolving
▼   makes sense for such regions       their function as the penultimate      nary scientific and technological
    as the US, Canada, India,          tier of the pyramid of world gov-      advances will reach into all
    Brazil and Europe, it is illogi-   ernment. The final stage for a         aspects of life. The new global
cal and indeed discriminatory to       community of democratic region-        society will be reflected in an
argue against its extension wher-      al federations is a global federa-     official world language, an
ever it makes equal sense.             tion of federations, the top tier of   emerging world-wide culture and
  In fact, regional unions (often      world government. There will           a unifying spiritual philosophy,
modeled on the European Union)         always be large disparities            in each case embracing rather
are already at various stages of       between regions but not so large       than replacing traditional forms.
evolution in Africa, Asia, Latin       that they cannot be managed            With eventual unfettered free-
America, the Caribbean, the Mid-       with a well balanced constitu-         dom to migrate, humanity will
dle East and elsewhere. In addi-       tion.                                  have become a rainbow race, its
tion, existing continental and           In a process lasting many gen-       common genetic identity no lon-
subcontinental powers are either       erations, the whole planet will        ger hidden by the veils of race,
already federal democracies or         eventually become the home of a        culture and language. Unity will
have the potential to be so in         socially and economically devel-       become synthesis. A new world
time, after systemic upgrades.         oped global community, enjoying        civilization will have emerged.
  The final important purpose          comprehensive democracy in a           That is the ultimate promise of
served by regional federations is      true world federation. Extraordi-      democratic world federation.

IPU does not aspire to become a UNPA
Continued from page 9 _________          The Inter-Parliamentary Union        IPU has explicitly confirmed, at
                                       is an international association of     the Third World Conference of
ment of formal preparatory pro-        national parliaments. It has been      Speakers of Parliament (July
cesses at the UN to create a           granted observer status at the         2010, Geneva), its determination
Parliamentary Assembly.                UN General Assembly (similar to        not to develop these parliamenta-
                                       the observer privileges granted        ry characteristics and functions.
Government of Canada                   the International Committee of           Canada has become the coun-
replies                                the Red Cross). It convenes occa-      try with the greatest number of
  The reply from Canada’s For-         sional meetings at or near the         parliamentarians (70 MPs and
eign Minister Lawrence Cannon          United Nations every two or            Senators, from all parties) sup-
was similar to many the cam-           three years.                           porting the international UNPA
paign received. Cannon indicated         In a further reply to Foreign        Appeal.
that, “Under the UN Charter,           Minister Cannon, the UNPA                The UNPA meeting in Buenos
membership is open to states;          Campaign clarified the distinc-        Aires was part of a 10-day pro-
states in turn choose their own        tion between the IPU and the           gram in Buenos Aires that also
representatives… [who are]             proposed UNPA. The IPU serves          included a seminar of the Latin-
tasked with representing their         as a forum for national parlia-        American Parliament on regional
government’s position on the           mentarians to share experiences        integration and the reform of
wide range of issues currently on      and supports the exercise of par-      international institutions, as well
the UN’s agenda.” Cannon also          liamentary oversight at the            as the meeting of the interna-
suggested that a UNPA would be         national level, whereas a UN           tional Council of the World Fed-
“similar to the Inter-Parliamen-       Parliamentary Assembly aims to         eralist Movement – Institute for
tary Union (IPU), which is             make the UN executives and             Global Policy. All three meetings
accredited in the UN and meets         institutions accountable to a          were coordinated by the Argen-
regularly during UN sessions,          global parliamentary body and          tinean non-governmental organi-
providing parliamentarians with        would function as a representa-        zation, Democracia Global.
a voice in UN debates.”                tive parliament at the UN. The
12 mondial       DECEMBER 2010

Next steps to advance the responsibility to protect
  The public seminar on “Next         and equally important aspects,        support the UN Special Advisors
Steps to Advance The Responsi-        which together form the principle     on R2P (Ed Luck) and on the
bility to Protect” was sponsored      of the responsibility to protect      Prevention of Genocide (Francis
by World Federalist Movement –        (R2P).                                Deng).
Canada and took place October            The understanding of R2P has         The expected 2011 debate at
28, 2010 at Desmarais Hall, Uni-      evolved since the 2001 Interna-       the UN General Assembly will
versity of Ottawa.                    tional Commission on Interven-        focus on strengthening regional
  Speakers included Dr. Allan         tion and State Sovereignty report     and sub-regional approaches to         Hon. Allan Rock
Rock, President, University of        to now attach greater priority to     R2P.                                   took part in the
Ottawa (and former ambassador         developing effective measures for                                            October seminar
of Canada to the United Nations)      prevention of mass atrocity           Further Developing the R2P             on R2P.
and Wim Geerts, Dutch ambas-          crimes.                               Toolbox
sador to Canada. The Nether-             Critics fear that R2P could be a     Meeting participants all recog-
lands recently succeeded Canada       ‘trojan horse’ for illegitimate or    nized the need to strengthen and
as co-chair of the “Friends of the    unjustified intervention. These       develop the ‘R2P toolbox.’ Sug-
Responsibility to Protect” group      fears are understandable. How-        gestions discussed at the meeting
of states at the United Nations.      ever, R2P critics should be           include:
Evan Cinq-Mars, former coordi-        reminded that R2P is not a            – expanding the UN’s roster and
nator of Stand Canada (a youth-       threat to state sovereignty; it          capacity to deploy trained
led anti-genocide advocacy group)     reinforces the responsibility and        mediators;
and recent intern at the Interna-     authority of the state, and devel-    – a wider range of targeted
tional Coalition for the Responsi-    ops norms that will hopefully            sanctions with maximum
bility to Protect based in New        make illegal or nefarious inter-         impact on a rogue regime, or
York, provided a civil society        ventions less likely in the future.      individuals in authority, with-
response to the two keynote                                                    out punishing populations at
speakers. The event moderator         Immediate Next Steps                     large;
was Dr. James Christie, Director        A ‘roadmap’ for advancing R2P       – a standing, 15,000-member
of the Ridd Institute for Religion    in the near term should include          UN rapid-response force with
and Global Policy at the Univer-      concrete measures for prevention         specialized training and
sity of Winnipeg. Here are some       and assistance, and continued            equipment. This UN Emer-
highlights of the discussion.         outreach to mobilize and secure          gency Peace Service (UNEPS)
                                      broader support.                         would help remedy the prob-
Understanding the                       Early-warning commitments              lems associated with slow
responsibility to protect             agreed to in 2005 at the UN              deployments that result from        “R2P is not a
  The January 2009 report from        World Summit have yet to be put          the current practice of cob-
                                                                                                                   threat to state
Implementing the Responsibility
the UN Secretary General,             in place. The recent July 2010           bling together peace support
                                                                                                                   sovereignty; it
to Protect presents the ‘three-pil-                                            tingents (see article on oppo-
                                      report of the UN Secretary-Gen-          operations from national con-
                                                                                                                   reinforces the
                                                                               site page);
                                      eral offers a roadmap for
lared’ approach, namely:              strengthening the early-warning                                              responsibility
– the responsibility of states to     capacity within the UN Secretar-      – calling for a more formal set of     and authority
   protect their own people;          iat. Implementing these recom-           rules on conditions for the use     of the state…”
– international assistance and        mendations should be a priority          of force in civilian protection
   capacity-building to help          for members of the R2P Friends           contexts;
   states implement this respon-      Group. Early warning is also one      – addressing the problems posed
   sibility; and                      of the key areas where civil soci-       by the veto power of the per-
– timely and decisive response        ety can make important contri-           manent members of the UN
   from the international com-        butions.                                 Security Council. The ‘P5’ said
   munity.                              Another immediate priority is          ‘no’ to any discussion of this in
  These are three interconnected      the setting up of a joint office to      2005; the issue needs to be
                                                                                                   DECEMBER 2010    mondial 13

                    Linking UNEPS to responsibility to protect
                      The following is derived from a
                          by H. Peter Langille             scale massive ethnic cleansing.       most areas of armed conflict; one

                    paper prepared for a conference
                                                           That suggests a dedicated UN          that should be self-sufficient for

                    organized by Global Action to
                                                           mechanism including a range of        six months at the maximum.

                    Prevent War that took place
                                                           services – military, police, civil-   Another seldom-discussed role of

                    December 7–8, 2010 at 866 UN
                                                           ian – capable of using force when     a UNEPS is its potential to serve

                    Plaza, New York.
                                                           necessary.”                           as a deterrent to bad behavior.
                                                                                                   Of late, there have been a few
                      Despite the need at times to         What roles do we envision             encouraging, hopefully comple-
Peter Langille is   move quickly to prevent geno-          for a UNEPS?                          mentary, developments. The UN
a member of the     cide, crimes against humanity or         Those of us on the internation-     Department of Peacekeeping
WFMC Council.       ethnic cleansing, the United           al UNEPS working group have           Operations has a very small (25
                    Nations has very little reliable       agreed on four primary roles:         persons) operational standing
                    capacity to do so, even when a         1. Preventing armed conflict and      civilian police capacity. And the
                    rapid response could save hun-            genocide;                          UN Department of Political
                    dreds of thousands of lives.           2. Protecting civilians at risk;      Affairs has developed an even
       “…If the       The idea of a standing UN            3. Ensuring the prompt start-up       smaller (six persons) quick-
                    rapid response capacity is not            of demanding peace opera-          response mediation team. Per-
 objective is to
                    new. It is designed to comple-            tions;                             haps these developments will
 protect people
                    ment present arrangements (the         4. Addressing human needs in          build confidence in possibilities
    and prevent     so-called “standby arrangements           areas where others could not.      for further standing capacities.
       violence,    system”) whereby for every new           As currently proposed, a              Two years ago, we briefly
     you send a     peacekeeping mandate from the          UNEPS would be comprised of           noticed renewed concern about
     legitimate,    Security Council, the UN must          approximately 15,000 individual-      UN rapid deployment. We were
   credible UN      first recruit troops from contrib-     ly recruited personnel. It would      very close to seeing a UN strate-
                    uting member states. As Lloyd          be based at UN designated sites       gic reserve. In 2006, British cabi-
    presence to
                    Axworthy has argued, “If the           and designed to deploy within 48      net minister Hillary Benn raised
 start a mission    objective is to protect people and     hours to perform humanitarian,        the idea of a world emergency
   quickly - not    prevent violence, you send a           environmental and/or security         service.
     wait 4 to 6    legitimate, credible UN presence       roles.                                  Like other good ideas, these
       months.”     to start a mission quickly - not         Overall, we view the general        linger but don’t appear to be
                    wait 4 to 6 months. That way,          role of UNEPS as that of a first      shifting our prospects for advanc-
                    there is far less likelihood of peo-   responder, one that was suffi-        ing UNEPS. There is one
                    ple being murdered, or large           ciently robust to intervene in        promising exception, however.
                                                                                                 Increasingly, we hear of others
                                                                                                 making a link between UNEPS
                    P5 veto needs to change                                                      and the responsibility to protect
                       revisited. A campaign led by a      works in the capacity-building        (R2P).

                       number of American NGOs             development assistance provided         UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-
                       calling for a ‘Global Responsi-     by donor countries. Genuine ini-      Moon’s 2009 report on “Imple-
                       bility not to Veto’ would           tiatives in this direction would      menting the Responsibility to

                                                                                                 lared” approach to R2P (see semi-
                       require the permanent mem-          also support a positive outcome       Protect” sets out a “three-pil-

                                                                                                 nar report on page opposite) of
                       bers to agree not to use their      at next year’s proposed General
                       veto where the Security Coun-       Assembly debate on the role of
                       cil is considering matters          regional and sub-regional organi-     protection, capacity building and
                       where genocide or other atroc-      zations in implementing the           intervention that has been
                       ity crimes is involved. Canada      Responsibility to Protect.            endorsed by a growing number of
                       could support this proposal.          A fuller report on the discus-      member states in two subsequent
                      There is a need to encourage         sion is available at       Continued on page 14
                    the incorporation of R2P frame-
14 mondial       DECEMBER 2010

GMM resolution questions G20 legitimacy
  WFM–Canada’s General Mem-            rectly represented by the par-        ing global policy to the disad-

                                     – questionable legality and legit-
bers Meeting this October passed       ticipation of their government.       vantage of the ‘have-nots.’

                                       imacy. The G20 lacks an ade-
a resolution outlining its policy                                           The resolution called for
on the G20.                                                               reformed institutional and legal
  While recognizing that “the          quate international treaty         economic governance within the

                                     – structural deficiencies. There
G20 is a more representative           underpinning its work.             framework of the United Nations
forum than its predecessor, the                                           system. This could be achieved
G8,” the resolution expresses          is no G20 Secretariat. Fur-        through a reformed and re-man-
concern that “ad hoc deliberative      thermore, there is no consen-      dated UN Economic and Social
forums like the G20 undermine          sus on the appropriate             Council (ECOSOC) or through a
the relevance of international         number of members, who they        new regionally representative
treaty-based organizations,            are and on what basis they         body such as the Economic Coor-

                                     – concerns over mandate and
including the United Nations.”         are selected.                      dination Council as called for by

                                       agenda. Its status as a self-
The resolution goes on to enu-                                            the Stiglitz Commission.
merate some of the G20’s defi-                                              Visit www.worldfederalistscan-

– a lack of democratic account-
ciencies, including:                   appointed ad hoc forum of for a copy of the complete

   ability. Hundreds of millions
                                       mostly powerful and wealthy        WFMC resolution text.
                                       governments contributes to           Also at the GMM, held in
   of the world’s citizens, mostly     concerns that the G20 agenda       Ottawa,
   the poor, are not even indi-        is dominated by ‘haves’ decid-     • the 2010 World Peace Award
                                                                             was presented to the Hon.
                                                                             Flora MacDonald at a ban-
UNEPS strengthens case for R2P                                               quet in her honour on Octo-
                                     framework, the UNEPS proposal           ber 29.
Continued from page 13 ________
                                     is attractive because it would       • the WFM–Canada Hanna
thematic debates at the UN Gen-      provide options for intervention        Newcombe Lifetime Achieve-
eral Assembly.                       using military force that carry         ment Award was given to
                                                                                                               Hon. Flora
  As Nicola Reindorp from the        greater legitimacy. Interestingly,      Bill Pace (presented in Buenos
Global Centre for the Responsi-      some R2P advocates also see a           Aires in October and shown on
bility to Protect has pointed out,   role for a UNEPS in “pillar one”        video at the World Peace
there is an unfortunate tendency     to assist in the prevention of          Award Banquet).
to understand and apply the R2P      mass atrocities in the early stag-   • the Hon. Warren Allmand was
pillars in a rigidly “sequenced”     es of a crisis.                         re-elected WFMC national
manner. Situations of potential        There was a time when the             president. The Executive Com-
                                                                             mittee for 2011 includes War-
complex and must not be
or existing atrocity crimes are      political sensitivities around R2P
                                     were such that advocating any           ren Allmand, Robin Collins,
addressed through pre-set for-       sort of permanent UN military           Karen Hamilton (chair), Cam-
mulas. Diverse circumstances         capacity was considered ill-            eron Laing, Simon Rosenblum,
call for diverse and ‘nimble’        advised. But the times, they are        John Trent, Fergus Watt and
applications of existing tools and   a-changing. There are wide-rang-        Dimitri Alpatoff.
capacities.                          ing efforts at the UN to imple-      • WFM-IGP Executive Director
  Opponents of the responsibility    ment R2P not as rhetorical cover        Bill Pace (New York) and
to protect fear (understandably)     for illegal big-power interven-         Andreas Bummel, secretary of
that it will be misused by big       tions, but in ways that strength-       the UNPA Campaign (Berlin)
powers to justify intervention in    en the UN’s actual capacity to          participated in the meeting by
weak, often failing states. For      legitimately protect civilians. A       video and teleconference.
those interested in further opera-   UNEPS is an indispensable part         The national conference began
tionalizing the R2P normative                                             with a seminar on the responsi-
                                     of the R2P toolbox.
                                                                          bility to protect (see page 12).
                                                                             DECEMBER 2010   mondial 15

Branch News
Vancouver – On November              “The Potential of Federalism” at      gious Society of Friends, the
9, the 2010 Richard B Splane         a meeting on Thursday, Septem-        Quakers), in a commemoration of
Lecture in Social Policy was         ber 23. The Marie-Berthe Dion         the International Day of Peace.
presented by Mary Ellen Tur-         Issues Action Group letter-writ-      There was a shared information
pel-Lafond, President of the         ing sessions have continued this      fair and an afternoon reception.
Canadian Council for Provincial      year. The letter-writing group        Branch members and staff at the
Child and Youth Advocates, and       meets six times each year. One        WFM–Canada national office
Representative for Children and      member prepares a briefing            took part in a holiday season
Youth for British Columbia. Ms       paper and the participants write      reception December 14 at 145
Turpel-Lafond spoke on “The          lobbying letters on the topic. This   Spruce St. Recently elected mem-
State of the Children in BC and      fall’s topics have included shale     ber of WFMC Council, Prof. Errol
Canada: Twenty Years after the       gas mining in Quebec; climate         Mendes from the Law Faculty at
UN Convention on the Rights          change, the tar sands, and Cana-      University of Ottawa, will speak
of the Child.” The event is co-      dian taxpayers. Spring sessions       on “Peace and Justice at the
sponsored by UBC’s School of         will include peacekeeping and         International Criminal Court”
Social Work and Liu Institute        nuclear issues. The Montreal          at an event January 19, 4 p.m.,
for Global Issues, and the Van-      branch has launched the “One          Desmarais Hall, University of
couver Chapters of the United        World Forum.” The first in a          Ottawa. Prof. Mendes recently
Nations Association in Canada        proposed series on topics of inter-   spent nearly a year as a visiting
and the World Federalist Move-       est to World Federalists took         professional at the ICC in The
ment – Canada. On September          place on October 5. The forum         Hague. His new book discusses
16, Susan Ruzic, president of        discussed “The G20 and World          the political and organizational
the British Columbia Teachers        Feds. Does the establishment of       challenges the ICC faces as it
for Peace and Global Education,      the G20 to replace the G-7/G-8        reconciles the demand for justice
gave a presentation on “Creating     constitute a step towards the         for the most serious crimes with
a Culture of Peace for Youth.” On    goals of world federalists or is      the promotion of sustainable
August 19, the discussion was        it a step backwards?” The event       peace in conflict areas around
on the “International Criminal       was facilitated by Blair Rourke.      the world.
Court: Breakthrough on Crime         The annual post-holiday lun-
                                                                           Toronto – WFM–Canada was
of Aggression,” a presentation on    cheon will be held at the Café
                                                                           one of the sponsors of the 50th
the recent ICC treaty review con-    of the Museum des beaux arts
                                                                           anniversary celebration and con-
ference where ICC States Par-        on January 23, at 1 p.m. Guest
                                                                           ference of the Canadian Voice

                                     los, author of Saris on Scooters,
ties agreed on a definition and      speaker Sheila McLeod Arnopou-
                                                                           of Women for Peace, which was
jurisdictional regime that will
                                                                           held in Toronto on November
allow the Court to prosecute indi-   will present an illustrated talk
viduals, including political and     about the use of microcredit by
military leaders, guilty of plan-    groups of women in villages in        Victoria – Public meetings

(See Mondial August 2010, page
ning and carrying out aggression.    India. Reservation deadline is        are held at St. John the Divine
                                     January 18. To reserve, or for        Anglican Church the last Friday
2) The ICC was again the topic       further details, contact Inez Pug-    of each month. Recent discus-
of discussion at a branch meeting    liese at       sion topics have included Middle
held October 10 with Prof. Bruce                                           East peace issues and the case
                                     Ottawa – On September 21,
Broomhall as the guest speaker.                                            of Salineh Ashtiani. An Iranian
                                     2010, WFM–Canada participat-
                                                                           court found Ms. Ashtiani guilty
Montreal – Christine Jacobs has      ed, along with five other Cana-
                                                                           of adultery and sentenced her to
succeeded Carol Greene as presi-     dian civil society organizations
                                                                           death by stoning. An internation-
dent of the Montreal Branch.         (Canadian Friends of Burma,
                                                                           al outcry resulted in a postpone-
Sara Hayward, a WFM–Canada           Group of 78, Peace Brigades
                                                                           ment of the sentence but the case
delegate to the Ventotene Semi-      International, Physicians for
                                                                           draws international attention to
nar this past summer, spoke on       Global Survival, and the Reli-
                                                                           human rights in Iran.
16 mondial            DECEMBER 2010

Planned giving to secure the WFM–Canada
From: Robin Collins, Dieter Heinrich,                                                                 Volunteers needed!
Karen Hamilton, Simon Rosenblum,
                                                          cant bequest to the World Federalists.

Larry Kazdan, Cameron Laing, John
                                                            To get the ball rolling, each of us
                                                                                                        The World Federalist Movement –

Trent, Ian Waddell, Fergus Watt
                                                          have arranged a bequest to WFM-
                                                                                                      Canada is a national non-profit orga-
                                                          Canada (or the World Federalist
                                                                                                      nization committed to achieving
                                                          Foundation) of $25,000 or more in
Dear World Federalist friends,                                                                        democratically accountable global gov-
                                                          our wills.
  As current members of the govern-                         World Federalism is a history-
                                                                                                        Core funding is not provided by gov-
ing Council of the World Federalist                       changing idea to create a more civi-
                                                                                                      ernment. The organization depends on
Movement – Canada, we are taking                          lized order for the human community,
                                                                                                      the support of members, donors and
the lead in a planned giving initiative                   one that is based on the primacy of
                                                                                                      board members across Canada.
to better ensure a secure future for                      the rule of law and principles of dem-
                                                                                                        If you can donate some of your spare
the organization in Canada.                               ocratic federal governance. Such an
                                                                                                      time, we can use your help. Please
  We are asking that all World Fed-                       idea, on that scale, must be achieved
                                                                                                      contact Fergus or Monique at:
eralists consider joining this initia-                    in stages, over many lifetimes.
tive by taking the decisive step of                         When considering your will, please
amending your will to add a signifi-                      consider world federalism.

  Join the World Federalist Movement                                                     Consider UPGRADING your
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  December 2010

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