Update - FMR -3 dupe by dfsiopmhy6


									staff were evacuated in August, the very
few international NGOs trying again to
meet needs from Bukavu and Goma
have difficulty negotiating access and                                     The impact of Russia’s                         Hurricane Mitch - concern for
all activities and communications are                                      economic crisis on forced                      safe relocation of displaced
screened by the military authorities.
                                                                           migration in the former                        communities
Humanitarian response, while imperative,                                   Soviet Union
                                                                                                                          The assault on Central America and the
is not the solution. Increased diplomatic
                                                                           Forced migrants in Russia - 125,400            Caribbean by Hurricane Mitch in late
initiative, from the UN and western gov-
ernments as well as the current regional                                   forced re-settlers and 5,700 refugees -        October left widespread destruction in
efforts, must end the violence, deal with                                  are among the hardest-hit by the current       its wake. Of some 10,000 estimated
impunity and address the citizenship                                       economic crisis. First, the high propor-       deaths so far throughout Central
concerns of the Congo-lese Tutsi popu-                                     tion of unemployed among them will             America, 7,000 occurred in Honduras
lation. Any solution must include mea-                                     grow even higher. Second, inflation has        while almost 2 million Hondurans -
sures regarding rebel and non-state                                        devalued established loans and subsi-          roughly one third of the population -
armed groups operating in DRC and                                          dies for purchasing and constructing           reportedly lost or had to leave their
find a way to achieve accountable gover-                                   houses and apartments. Those who have          homes. The UN Inter-Agency Task Force
nance and development progress for                                         accommodation face serious difficulties        on Hurricane Mitch, which met on 18
Congolese children and their families.                                     in paying for wood, heating and water
                                                                                                                          November, highlighted the need for
                                                                           supplies because of the rise in prices.
                                                                                                                          projects in the following areas:
by Beth L Verhey (who worked with                                          Many cannot even buy basic foods and
children affected by armed conflict in                                     medical supplies. Third, the paralysis of      i) early warning systems, national
eastern DRC for 18 months in 1997 &                                        the banking system was a great blow for            disaster prevention, mitigation and
1998)                                                                      many migrants’ organisations and firms             response structures
                                                                           as well as individual families that lost       ii) resettlement of affected populations
                                                                           their savings and active financial                 to safe areas with access to income
                                                                           resources. Fourth, the crisis has affected         earning opportunities
                                                                           international organisations assisting          iii) integrated watershed management
                                                                           international organisations assisting
                                                                                                                          iv) environmental protection and sus-

                                                                           forced migrants and refugees. UNHCR,
                                                                                                                              tainability, including reforestation and
                                                                           IOM and others are holding back their
                                                                                                                              soil management
                                                                           money until the situation improves, and
                                                                           it will take time to restore their pro-
                                                                                                                          During the past two decades, the coun-
                                                                                                                          tries of this region have made significant
                                                                                                                          strides in disaster preparedness and mit-
                                                                           The crisis has severely limited Russia’s
                                                                                                                          igation. The Pan American Health
                                                                           Forced Migration Service’s ability to
                                                                                                                          Organisation has been working with
                                                                           implement programmes. Only one third
                                                                                                                          them in programmes that stress pre-
                                                                           of the 388m rubles designated for com-
                                                                                                                          paredness, prevention, mitigation, emer-
                                                                           pensation of lost properties of forced
                                                                           migrants from Chechnya has been paid.          gency relief and post disaster develop-
                                                                           From August-October 1998, no compen-           ment. The resulting high level of coordi-
                                                                           sation was paid at all. Practically, all FMS   nation at country level in the days and
                                                                           money is spent now on maintaining cen-         weeks following Hurricane Mitch has
                                                                           tres for provisional living and on distrib-    been widely recognised.
                                                                           uting small subsidies. The daily
                                                                           allotment of eight rubles per forced           For more information, see a) the report
                                                                           migrant is worth next to nothing when a        of the UN Emergency Relief Coordinator
                                                                           kilo of white bread costs five rubles.         and the UN Inter-Agency Task Force on
                                                                                                                          Hurricane Mitch at http://www.relief
                                                                           Summarised from a report by Professor          web.int/ and b) the PAHO website at
                                                                           Valery Tishkov, director of the Center for     http://www.paho.org/ PAHO is organis-
                                                                           Study and Management of Conflict at the        ing an interagency workshop, 9-12
                                                                           Russian Academy of Sciences’ Institute of      February 1999 in Santo Domingo, to
                                                                           Ethnology and Anthropology. For a full         evaluate the preparedness and response
                                                                           report, see the November issue of the          to hurricanes Mitch and Georges.
                                                                           Forced Migration Monitor:
                                                                           email refugee@sorosny.org
                                            UNIYA/Jesuit Refugee Service

FORCED MIGRATION review                                                                                                                December 1998, 3          33
                               Sri Lanka                                     taken over by various political factions.    comment to the EU’s cryptically named
                                                                             Yet such a movement may be a pre-req-        K4 Committee with a view to later pre-
                               After more than 15 years of armed con-        uisite for peace, to transform the wide-     sentation to the Justice and Home
                               flict in Sri Lanka, most people are pes-      spread war-weariness that has long           Affairs Council of Ministers in December
                               simistic about the prospects of peace,        pervaded Sri Lankan society into a force     1998.
                               and for the return to their homes of the      for peace.
                               hundreds of thousands of Tamils,                                                           The document called for a highly restric-
                               Singhalese and Muslims who have been          The experience of many Sri Lankan fami-      tive EU-wide approach to immigration
                               displaced within the country or have          lies during the conflict puts into sharp     and asylum, for firm policies on the
                               sought refuge overseas. The pessimism         focus some of the recent debates about       repatriation of illegal immigrants, and
                               has been heightened in the wake of the        the proper role of UNHCR and other           for the requirement of adoption of
                               bloody battle between government              humanitarian agencies. Many families -       ‘Schengen criteria’ by countries aspiring
                               forces and LTTE fighters at the key town      Tamil, Singhalese and Muslim - have          to EU membership. Intriguingly, for con-
                               of Kilinochchi, just south of the Jaffna      experienced complex patterns of dis-         ceptualising the protection of ‘target’
                               peninsula towards the end of September,       placement: some household members            countries, it also invoked a concentric-
                               when probably more a thousand com-            may be internally displaced, within the      circle analogy for the classification of
                               batants were killed. The depressed mood       north and east, or to Colombo or other       other countries that recalls some
                               was exacerbated by the downing of a           urban centres; others may have sought        historical approaches to national-
                               civilian aircraft flying between Colombo      refuge in south India; others have           defence strategy.
                               and Jaffna, almost certainly by the LTTE,     sought asylum in Europe or Australia;
                               at the end of that month. The Lionair         and still others may be working as           However, the politics of this project are
                               flight was a lifeline for the people of the   housemaids in the Gulf to support those      perhaps as interesting as the proposals.
                               Jaffna peninsula, since it provided one       at home. Some have repatriated, only to      The draft was initially intended to be
                               of the few links between the area and         become displaced again, or stranded and      confidential but its existence was
                               the rest of the country; people used the      unable to reunite with their families.       revealed in the press in early September,
                               flight to travel to Colombo to collect        Given such complex circumstances, it is      first in Austria and then picked up in
                               money sent back from their relatives          difficult to see how the argument that       other countries. Refugee lawyers and
                               overseas, to call family members abroad,      protection and assistance should be          NGOs dealing with immigraion and asy-
                               and for trade, jobs, study and to escape      afforded only to those who are techni-       lum matters were generally alarmed by
                               harsh living conditions. It was also a ten-   cally refugees can possibly be sustained.    the tenor of the proposals but much
                               tative indication that some kind of nor-                                                   shorthand critical comment focused
                               mal life was returning to the area.           Dr Nicholas Van Hear, Senior                 upon the suggestion (in Para 103) of
                                                                             Research Officer, RSP (currently             ‘supplementing, amending or replacing
                               Outside the conflict areas in the north       undertaking field work in Sri Lanka as       the Geneva Convention’, as the English-
                               and east, the signs of a society under        part of a research project entitled          language text said (‘replacing’ in the
                               siege are pervasive. One Sri Lankan artist    ‘People who stay: migration, develop-        German version was ‘aufheben’, meaning
                               has coined the term ‘barrelism’ to            ment and those left behind’)                 in this context ‘abolish’ or ‘repeal’). The
                               describe the ‘check-point’ culture that                                                    latest version of the document, for the
                               affects everyone - characterised by the                                                    December 1998 Council meeting, deletes
                               concrete-filled oil drums that line road      Austria’s strategy paper on                  this reference in order to placate the
                               blocks in much of the country. The                                                         criticism it received, and makes a num-
                                                                             immigration and asylum                       ber of further amendments to those sec-
                               check-points are increasingly patrolled
                               by women soldiers and police, as more         policy                                       tions of the original text that occasioned
                               and more male troops are drawn into                                                        particular controversy. However, the
                               the frontline. An increase in crime in the    It is quite accepted that the country        spirit of most of the original proposals
                               country has been attributed to the diver-     holding the six-month Presidency of the      remains unchanged, as does the concen-
                               sion of police and other security forces      European Union should use this as an         tric-circle analogy.
                               from regular duties to the war effort.        opportunity to raise the profile of an
                                                                             issue high on its own domestic political     It will be interesting to see what, if any-
                               Although there have recently been calls       agenda. Austria wasted no time in doing      thing, the British Home Office makes of
                               for peaceful resolution of the conflict by    exactly that when, on the very first day     all this in the light of its recently pub-
                               a grouping of private industrialists and,     of its current Presidency, 1 July 1998, it   lished ‘Fairer, Faster and Firmer’ White
                               most recently, by a new grouping, the         tabled a 133-paragraph draft strategy        Paper.
                               Women’s Coalition for Peace, no mass          paper, supplemented by an ‘Operational
                               movement for peace has yet emerged,           plan’, on immigration and asylum. This       Chris Husbands,
                               partly perhaps for fear that it would be      was put forward for discussion and           London School of Economics
UNIYA/Jesuit Refugee Service

                                34    December 1998, 3                                                                                 FORCED MIGRATION review
Displacement and famine
in Sudan
Famine in Sudan poses an immediate
threat to hundreds of thousands of dis-
placed people. Some 4.5 million Sudanese
have been displaced during the last decade
of civil war; the majority have sought
refuge in southern Sudan which is now on
the brink of famine. Violence has escalated
since January 1998, forcing still more from
their homes. Food, medicine and seeds are
                                               Islam, Human Rights and Refugees
                                               Professor Khadija Elmadmad of the
                                               University of Casablanca
                                               27-28 March 1999
                                                                                                 the basis for a refugee claim; and the
                                                                                                 determination of claims grounded in
                                                                                                 generalised circumstances. Fee: £120
                                                                                                 (excluding accommodation).
desperately needed, yet the government
continues to block relief efforts. In the      This seminar will focus on the dimen-             Venue: Queen Elizabeth House, Oxford,
refugee camps, diseases such as measles        sion of refugees in the Muslim world              UK. Contact: Short Courses Secretary
are taking their toll. Furthermore, Sudan’s    and on the kind of protection granted             (address below).
eastern state of Kassala has recently regis-   to forced migrants. It will compare
tered some 28,300 people displaced as a        Islamic law on asylum, the practices              Short Courses Secretary, Refugee
result of conflict on the Sudan-Eritrea bor-   pertaining in Muslim states, and inter-           Studies Programme, Queen Elizabeth
der, and UNHCR has expressed concern           national law relating to human rights             House, 21 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3LA, UK.
over reports that Sudanese refugees are        and refugees. The seminar aims, firstly,          Tel: +44 (0)1865 270722
being forced back into war-torn southern       to show how Islamic law and principles            Fax: +44 (0)1865 270721
Sudan after Sudanese rebels invaded their      relating to asylum and refugees are               Email: rspedu@ermine.ox.ac.uk
settlements in the northeastern corner of
                                               very protective of asylum                         WWW home page: http://www.qeh.
the Democratic Republic of Congo.
                                               seekers/refugees and, secondly, to                ox.ac.uk/rsp/
Meanwhile, on 26 October, four relief agen-
                                               analyse their impact on the policy of
cies - Oxfam, CARE International, Médecins
                                               Islamic states today.                             RSP International Summer School
Sans Frontières and Save the Children Fund
                                               Fee: £120 (excluding accommodation).              1999
- took the unusual step of urging the UN
Security Council to act to end the fighting    Venue: Queen Elizabeth House, Oxford,             12-30 July 1999
in Sudan. The agencies argue that the 30-      UK. Contact: Short Courses Secretary              This three-week course aims to provide
year war and the resulting humanitarian        (address below).                                  a broad understanding of the issues of
crisis ‘have now reached an unimaginable                                                         forced migration and humanitarian
and extraordinary level of tragedy’.           The Law of Refugee Status                         assistance, against which participants
                                               Professor James C Hathaway of the                 can then examine, discuss and review
                                               University of Michigan                            the role of assistance in practice.
300,000 displaced in                           15-16 May 1999                                    Designed for experienced managers,
Guinea-Bissau                                  This comprehensive workshop on the                administrators and field workers in
                                               scope of the refugee definition gives             assistance and/or policy-making in the
The civil war which flared up in Guinea-       participants the opportunity to grapple           humanitarian field. Involves group dis-
Bissau on 7 June 1998 has already exacted a    with difficult issues of application of           cussions, case studies, exercises, simu-
heavy toll, although the precise details       the legal norms in the context of factual         lations, lectures and individual study.
remain unclear. In addition to the un-         scenarios based on actual refugee                 Course fees: £1,750 (including B&B
known number of deaths, between                claims. Questions to be addressed                 accommodation). Deadline for final
250,000-300,000 people have been dis-
                                               include the standard of proof in                  enrolment/payment of fees: 30 April
placed from the capital, Bissau, which vir-
                                               refugee claims; the use of international          1999. Contact: International Summer
tually emptied following the first week of
                                               human rights law to inform refugee                School Project Manager (address as
violence. There has also been enormous
                                               determination; the extent of a state’s            above; tel: +44 (0)1865 270723; email
material destruction caused by intense
                                               duty to protect its citizens; the viola-          anthea.sanyasi@qeh.ox.ac.uk).
bombardment with heavy artillery. Among
the organisations most affected by the         tion of socioeconomic human rights as
destruction is the Instituto Nacional de
Estudos e Pesquisa (The National Institute
of Studies and Research, INEP), which is the
                                                             Master of Studies in Forced Migration
                                                         This is a nine-month postgraduate degree course grounded in a multi-
largest and most active research institution
                                                disciplinary approach that includes the perspectives of anthropology, law, politics and
in the country. The ICRC has been distrib-
                                                             international relations. It will include courses and seminars on:
uting food to about 10,000 people still in
and around the capital. The Red Cross, WFP                              Introduction to the study of forced migration
and other relief agencies are implementing                     Liberal democratic states, globalisation and forced migration
aid efforts in other towns in which popula-                             International human rights and refugee law
tions have almost doubled since the start                                     Ethical issues in forced migration
of the conflict. In mid-July the UN launched                                          Research methods
                                                                        Issues and controversies in forced migration
an appeal for $28.7 million to help assist
displaced people in Guinea-Bissau and                Enquiries should be addressed to: Graduate Admissions Office, University Offices,
refugees who have fled to neighbouring                                      18 Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK.
Guinea-Conakry and Senegal.                                Tel: +44 (0)1865 270055 · Email: graduate.admissions@ admin.ox.ac.uk

FORCED MIGRATION review                                                                                       December 1998, 3           35

To top