Celanem Institute for Biochemistry, Metabolic Studies
and Applied Nutrition
P.O.Box 910, Brackenfell, Cape Town,
South Africa, 7561
Telephone: 27 21 981 4510
1st August 2005
29 8th Avenue
Dear Mr. Kransdorff,
e’PAP NUTRITIONAL & CHEMICAL EVALUATION
In reply to our telephonic conversation we refer as follows regarding the
Celanem Institute for Biochemistry, Metabolic Studies and Applied
The Celanem Institute for Biochemistry, Metabolic Studies and Applied
Nutrition is based in Guatemala. It was formed in 1976 by leading scientists
in Central American specializing in addressing the nutrient deficiencies of the
After rapid success of clinical trials using biochemistry and applied nutrition,
the Celanam Institute rapidly gained international recognition though
publications of their results obtained in fortifying staple foods with nutrients
that were deficient amongst children, pregnant and lactating mothers, and the
The Celanem Institute was headed up by the late Professor Oscar Alfonse
Pineda. Currently, there are 6 clusters of the Celanem Institute worldwide.
One of these include Africa where the office provides technical support for
South Africa and the entire African Continent.
To date 73 clinical trials in a host of different countries have been conducted
with the aim of improving the nutritional status of vulnerable population groups.
Four of these studies have been carried out in South Africa in collaboration
with the University of Pretoria and the Medical Research Council.
The Celanem Institute is a non profit organization and carries out work for the
likes of UNICEF, FAO, & Multinational Corporations continuously seeking
scientific methods to improve staple functional foods to rid the world of
nutrient deficiencies amongst the most vulnerable sectors of the global
Background - Nutritional Status South African Children
As we are all aware, many South African children are malnourished and suffer
from many nutrient deficiencies as identified by The National Food
Consumption Survey April 2000. The four main nutrient deficiencies in
malnourished South African children are iron, zinc, iodine and Vitamin A.
Over the past several years we have evaluated many instant porridges on
their ability to correct and prevent the known nutrient deficiencies. The
criteria of our evaluations were to investigate these porridges on the basis of
their ability to feed and at the same time to eradicate known nutrient
deficiencies and to maintain these children in a homeostasis nutrient balance.
We are not at liberty to disclose the names of other instant porridges tested.
With the exception of the e’Pap, in each and every one of them, the chemistry
did not add up in terms of their ability to address known nutrient deficiencies.
It is our view that formulators of many of these instant porridges do not
understand that there is competition for receptor sites in the body and
antagonism between inorganic minerals. It would seem to us, based on the
mineral compounds selected for these porridges, that most formulators of the
porridges we evaluated totally disregard the absorption by the body of the
mineral compounds selected. In addition, the degradation of vitamins appears
never to be considered when inorganic minerals are added.
It is our view that scientifically based formulations have to be calculated on
their ability to address the most extreme cases of nutrient deficiency in
children. This has not been evident in all instant porridges that we have
evaluated with the exception of the e’Pap.
The use of inorganic nutrient compounds such as iron, regardless how it is
manufactured, only has a bioavailability (absorption) factor of 0.1% in a high
phytate diet such as maize. 98% elemental iron with a mesh size greater than
300 millimetres in diameter is difficult to be absorbed by the body and pass
intact through the Duodenum. The lack of toxicity data on reduced iron for
example is a major concern because it could lead to Hemochromotosis and
other degenerative diseases. Studies have shown, that, with the addition of
reduced iron and vitamin A and the B vitamin complexes, over a period of 180
days, the oxidative effects are catastrophic.
Inorganic zinc oxide has not properly been tested in humans. Inorganic zinc
and iron compete for the same absorption receptor sites in the body. The
interference and antagonism of these minerals cannot be ignored if nutrient
absorption is the primary objective.
Inorganic minerals such as magnesium calcium potassium (the macro
minerals) have a significant influence on what will be absorbed by the human
body because of positive and negative electric charge interaction and
because of the volume in a serving size.
Critical areas that need to be evaluated in terms of the ability of a nutrient
dense porridge to address nutrient deficiencies are the micronutrients. W.H.O.
F.A.O. surveys and the Food Consumption Survey conducted in South Africa
amongst children collaborate these findings. Trace elements are important as
is evident by new scientific research that has been conducted over the past
ten years. The objective of this research has been to understand just how to
improve the nutritional content of food matrixes to assist in the contribution to
a healthy mind and body. It is important to remember, that, in highly refined
and processed cereal flour’s, many nutrients are removed or destroyed.
Over the past four years we have diligently overseen the advancement of the
nutrient compounds added to e’Pap instant porridge. All nutrients used were
subjected first and foremost to:
• toxicity publications and results
• stability in a cereal based food matrix
• activity levels of the minerals used
• bioavailability and absorption levels to the body in a high phytate diet
• regulation by the body of the minerals selected
• the effect on the degradation of vitamins added to the cereal flours over
On studying the nutrient blend used by e’Pap, it is evident that the selection of
Chelated Amino Acid Minerals has been the correct scientific and chemical
choice for such a nutrient dense maize based food matrix. Chelated minerals
are absorbed via the Jejunum and pass directly through the Duodenum.
Approximately 20% of the Chelated minerals are hydrolyzed in the Jejunum
with the balance been absorbed via the blood stream. Chelated minerals are
therefore more effectively utilized and regulated by the body to make up for
daily utilization and losses. This does not infer that the Chelated minerals are
absorbed 100%. They too are subjected to inhibiters such as phytates,
phenols, tannins etc. Clinical studies show that smaller dosages of chelates
are required to be absorbed compared to much larger doses of inorganic
This makes chelates more effective in correcting and preventing nutrient
deficiencies especially when so many minerals and vitamins have been
combined in one food matrix.
The correction and prevention of the nutrient deficiencies lower morbidity and
mortality rates in the most vulnerable due to the fact that the immune system
is enhanced to operate at a functional level.
Amino Acid Chelated iron and zinc has proven to be the most successful
choice chemically. There is no interference or antagonism at receptor sites
due to the fact that the chelates are deposited in the body where needed.
Iron is deposited at 20% in the liver and the balance is deposited in the bone
marrow. This improves blood oxygenation flow through increased
haemoglobin values per decilitre plus increasing iron stores (ferritin).
The addition of Potassium Iodate to e’Pap and not Potassium/Iodine is further
evidence that the chemistry in e’Pap is of the highest standard. Many of the
porridges we have evaluated to date use Potassium/Iodine, which
degenerate’s vitamin A, rapidly.
Macro elements, carbohydrates, fats, protein and fibre in e’Pap are adequate
to correct protein energy malnutrition, if consumed on a sustainable basis.
The Celanem Institute for Biochemistry, Metabolic Studies and Applied
Nutrition do not endorse any commercial branded products for usage. It is our
view, based on our own evaluation of the chemistry used and as a result of
our own test studies, that e’Pap is by far superior to any other instant porridge
we have tested in the South African market. The results of extensive clinical
studies carried out using e’Pap confirm our evaluation and conclusion that the
most effective chemistry has been used in formulating e’Pap. The clinical and
educational improvements observed by these studies highlight the benefits
that result from effectively addressing nutrient deficiencies. (To the best of
our knowledge we are not familiar with any clinical evaluations done on other
instant porridge using inorganic minerals and synthetic vitamins)
The cost dose response of e’Pap in these evaluations corresponds with our
findings. Reducing opportunistic infection/diseases amongst malnourished
people is the objective that results from addressing micronutrient deficiencies.
It is our view - instant porridges using inorganic nutrients have challenging
technical issues to address to achieve this objective.
The water reconstitution of e’pap delivers a constituency and taste profile as
an instant porridge culturally acceptable by the targeted population. The low
CFU counts per gram of fungi and bacteria that the e’Pap product is able to
deliver, puts it in a class of its own when comparing to all other porridges. Low
bacteria/fungal counts in epap prevent colonization in the duodenum allowing
for maximal absorption of nutrients.
Ms. Anthea Nefdt
Celanem Institute African Desk