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									 Workshop on sharing best practices with conducting TNAs
             Bangkok, Thailand, 27-29 June 2007

   The lessons learned and best
practices with conducting the TNA
                  of Viet Nam

                Mr. Nguyen Mong Cuong
           Research Center for Climate Change
              and Sustainable Development

1. Introduction
2. Technology      needs
   assessment processes
3. Some lessons learned

                           1. Introduction
 Viet Nam (8º27-23º23 N and 102º08-109º30 E)
  with the land area of 330,990 km2 located in
  Southeast Asia.
 Three quarters of the land is mountainous and
  hills with the elevation mostly from 100 to          Min istr y o f n a tur a l r eso ur c es a n d en v ir o n men t
  1000m.                                                                       o f v iet n a m
 The population of Viet Nam was 77,6 million          UN EP/GEF project "V iet N am: Expedited financing for measures for capacity
                                                                          building in priority areas (phase I I )"

  (2000) with average annual growth rate of 1.36%       Technica l report on the identifica tion a nd
 It is predominantly an agricultural country with      a ssessment of technology needs for GHG
  74% of its population are involved in agriculture,     emission reduction a nd clima te cha nge
  7.4 million ha of agricultural lands.                          a da pta tion in Viet Na m

 The forest areas are 9.3 million ha, forest
   coverage increases from 27% in 1991 to 33.2% in
 The average annual GDP growth rate was 7.5%
   during 1990-2004. GDP per capita (2004) 560
 Sectoral contribution to GDP (2000):
    Industry: 36.7%
    Services: 38.7%                                                             Ha Noi, November 2005

    Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing: 24.5%
              1. Introduction (Cont’.)
 Viet Nam ratified UNFCCC on 16 November 1994 and
  Kyoto Protocol on 25 September 2002.
 MONRE was assigned by the GOV as a national
  authority for implementation of the UNFCCC & KP.
 INC has been submitted to UNFCCC on 2003; under
  phase II of INC project “The technical report on
  identification and assessment of technology needs
  for GHG emission reduction and climte change
  adaptation in Viet Nam“ has been submitted on 2005
    2. Technology Needs Assessment processes

    The Project “Expedited financing for measures for
    capacity building in priority areas in Viet Nam
    (Phase II)”
•   This project is a follow-up to the Initial National
    Communication project
•   The Implementing Organization: International
    Cooperation Department (ICD) of the Ministry of
    Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE)
•   Duration: July 2004 – September 2005
•   The objective of the project: enhance capacity and
    maintain the efforts to access and disseminate
    information related to climate change technologies.
   Three types of activity are required
            for effective TNA

1. Institutional arrangements for
  stakeholder engagement
2. TNA assessment processes
3. Implementation actions
The institutional arrangement of INC Phase II project

              Ministry of
             Resources and

              Cooperation                 Climate Change
               Department                  Country Team

             Climate Change
                 Project                                     GHG
                Managers                                   inventory


             Secretariat Staff   Technical Expert           V &A
                                      Team                  Group
                Identified a list of stakeholders who will sustain
                           the implementation process

Organization                    Sub - bodies                                    Role
                 International Cooperation Dept.           National Focal Point Agency
                 National Environment Agency               Environment monitoring
  MONRE          Environment Dept.                         Environment management
                 Dept. of Hydrometeorology                 Hydrometeorology management
                 National HMS                              Climate change monitoring
                 Dept. of Energy & Petroleum               Energy, RE management
                 Dept. of Science&Technology               EE & ES management
                 Dept. of Science&Technology of industry   Science&Technology development in Industry
   MOST          Dept. of Science&Technology of            Science&Technology development in
                 Agriculture & forestry                    Agriculture &Forestry
    MPI          Dept. of Science, Technology, Education   Project validation
                 and Environment
   MOFA          Dept. of International organizations      Focal Point of foreign policies
   MOF           Dept. of International Cooperation        Financing policies, fund, finance incentives
   MARD          Dept. of Agriculture                      Agriculture, forestry and rural development
                 Dept. of Forestry
                 Dept. of Science &Technology              Environment management in transport
                 Vietnam Register                          Gases pollution control of transport means
Provinces and                                              Local management
Identified sector industries, associations, and distributors involved
     Enterprises           Sub bodies                            Role
 State owned at
 National level
                   Dept. of Science& Technology         New tech. introduction
                       Regional Companies         Elec. Transmission and distribution
                        Dispatching Center                       Data
                           Power plants                       End users
      Cement       Dept. of Science&Technology          New tech. introduction
    Corporation           Cement plants                       End users
                   Dept. of Science&Technology          New tech. introduction
     VINA Steel
                           Steels plants                      End users
                   Dept. of Science&Technology          New tech. introduction
                           Coal mines                         End users
                   Dept. of Science&Technology          New tech. introduction
                         Petro companies                      End users
                   Dept. of Science&Technology          New tech. introduction
    VINA Paper
                        Paper & pulp Mills                    End users
 Identified sector industries, associations, and distributors involved (cont’)

Enterprises                      Sub bodies                    Role
Other Entities

Provincial level    Companies                               End users

                   - Domestic companies                     End users
 Private sectors   - Foreign invested companies
                   - Joint venture companies

                   - State banks                            Financing
     Finance       - Private and foreign banks
                   - Funds

                   - Carbon funds                      Co-project developers
                   - Investors
                   - Carbon buyers
          Criteria for technology needs assessment
Code Key criteria         Sub- criteria                     Criteria content
                    A1. GHG reduction potential The study is specialized in GHG
                                                 reduction technologies
 A    Environment   A2. Local environment        Reduction of solid waste, liquid waster
      protection    quality                      and air pollution
                    A3. Biodiversity and         Mineral, water, land, forest and bio-
                    resource conservation        resources
                    B1. Initial investment       Specific investment - Low investment per
 B    Economic      B2. Payback period           High IRR
                    B3. Low O&M cost and         National circumstance
                    C1. Good impacts to          Improving local education, health care,
                    socioeconomic-               job creation, poverty reduction, etc.
                    development of locals
 C    Good social   C2. Less barrier on          Good public acceptance and participation
      impacts       prevalence practice,
                    C3. Contributions to science Better tech. transfer, localization,
                    & technology capacity        manpower development.
                    D1. Advanced but             Mature commercialization. No second
                    established tech.            hand and high adaptability
 D    Technology    D2. Appropriate tech ( but   Effective deployment, O&M, exploitation
      Development   established)
                    D3. Up scaling tech.         Easy apply and dissemination
        Key priorities sectors for technology needs
        Sectors                         Sub-sector’s activities
1. Energy production          1. Energy production; 2. Energy transmission and
and refining of                 distribution; 3. Production, refining, storage and
  fuel ( including power     transportation of oil and gas; 4. Fugitive gas and gas
        generation)                 recover; 5. Renewable energy application
2. Industry                1. Ferric and non-ferric metallurgy; 2. Building materials
                           production; 3. Ore-free mineral products; 4. Chemical
                                     industry; 5. Food industry; 6. Textile
3. Transport                           Road; Railways; Water transport

4. Household & Service               Usage of electrical energy and heat

5. Agriculture                   1. Rice cultivasion; 2. Manure management;
                                                  3. Residues
6. Forestry                                    1. Reforestation;
                                                2. Afforestation
No of Technologies reduction GHG emissions have been

                                          No. of
    Items             Sectors
                  1.Electricity              23
                  2.Industry                 20
   Energy         3.Household                 9
                      and Services
                  4.Transportation            9
                  1. Agriculture             10
Non-energy        2. Forestry                14
Priority Technologies identified in the project
  1.Solar heating technology
  2.Small and medium hydropower
  3.Grid-connected biomass-fired for electricity generation
  4.High efficiency fire - chamber technologies for coal - fired thermal power
  5.Combined cycle gas turbines
  6.Switching from oil, coal fired to gas in the thermal power plants.
  7.Clean Coal technology
  8.Oil field associated gas recovery and utilization
  9.Reduction the electricity loss in transmission and distribution

  1. Change from west to dry process in cement production
  2. In brick production: Vertical shaft brick kiln; and Dry cellar and tunnel
  fire one uninterrupted channel in brick production
  3. BOF exhaust gas recovery device; BOF: basic Oxygen Furnace
  4. Raw material preheated for electric arc furnace
Household and services

   1.Compact lighting technology using compact lamp
   2.High energy efficiency air conditioner, EER>10BTU/W
   3.Using central air conditioning systems
   4. Biogas for cooking and electric generation

   1. Implementing the road map of exhaust gases
   standards for road transport means
   2. Constructing and operating the public railway system
   3. Developing the public transport system (bus), limiting
   the number of motto-scooter/motorcycle in the big cities
   4. Using LPG for the transport means in Vietnam
1. Water management from rice field
2. Livestock feed processing and modification
3. Rational application of fertilizer
1. Forest conservation, reforestation, afforestation
2. Mechanization of timber processing and logging
3. Forest fire reduction
  Some adaptation technologies to Climate change on
  sectors of Agriculture, Water resources, Coastal zone
  management has been analyzed, however it is primary and
  has not comprehensive due to lack of data, information and
       One Example: GHG reduction technologies in steel production
                     Identification of technologies

             Technology                        Saving           Investment       Age
1. DC arc furnace use water to cool the    5-10% electricity
                                                               Data not avail.   1990
furnace wall                              40-50% electrodes
2. High frequency melting furnace              12-13%                            1979
                                          While reduction 1%
3. Drying and humidity control                                   18MUS$
                                           humidity, saving                      1983
equipment for refine coke oven                                  3.2MT/year
4. BOF exhaust gas recovery device                               18MUS$
                                            250Mcal/Tsteel                       1962
BOF: Basic Oxygen Furnace                                        250T/hr
5. Raw material preheated for                                     8MU$
                                              70Mcal/T                           1981
electric arc furnace                                            150T/shief
6. Heating furnace with regenerative
                                               10-30%          0.25MUS$/pair     1990
7. Ladle heating apparatus with
                                                56%              1.2MUS$         1990
regenerative burners
8. Energy saving operating electric arc
                                                13%            Data not avail.   1980
       One Example: GHG reduction technologies in steel production
                    Technology needs Assessment

     Technology            Tech. parameters            2005-25        Reduction cost
                                                    accumulated        USD/tCO2
                                                   CO2 reduction
                                                   of whole sector,
                          Energy       Cost       Refurbishment       Refurbishment
1. BOF exhaust gas       80kWh/t    18 MUSD/
recovery device.                    200t per
                                                        0.991             - 48.6
BOF: basic Oxygen                   hour
2. High frequency        12.5%      1MUSD/
                                                        1.084             312.7
melting furnace                     1t per hour
3. Raw material          70Mcal/t   8MUSD/
preheated for electric              150t per            0.638             - 44.4
arc furnace                         batch
4. Drying and humidity   306        18 MUSD/
control equipment for    MCal/t     3Mt/year            0.157              8.6
refine coke oven         coal
                The barriers identified in TNA processes
    Items                                  Barriers analysis

                  Inadequate access to technical and financial information and poor
Information       dissemination of information to technology users.
                  Difficulty for small and medium firms to access technology information
                  Insufficient level of public awareness for intensive activities on CC
                  technology for GHG emission reduction
                  Lack of information about potential market of technologies for investors

Technological     Inadequate infrastructure, lack of technical standards and supporting
                  institutions, low technical capabilities and technology knowledge base...
                  Lack of technological maintenance.
                  Lack of human resources that can provide consultancy on TNA and
                  technology transfer of climate change adaptation.

Market            Lack and absent of       technology market on GHG reduction and CC
Institutional     Inadequate legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks.
                  Insufficient support at the local level for encouraging energy efficient
                  projects, etc.
                  Lack of joint stakeholder networking and planning
                  Poor coordination among donors and within the country

Financial         Undeveloped system of environmental funds.
                  Lack of financial, tax and tariff policies on EST transfer project. Deficiency
                  of capital for updating technologies and environmental measures.
                  Lack of involvement of national banks in EST technology transfer.
3.Some lessons learned

+ TNA will be most successful when they focus on
  technologies and actions that meet national
  development goals while also responding to
  climate change concerns, and when
  implementation actions complement existing
  development programs.
+ Effective TNA should actively engaged all key
  stakeholders, including government agencies,
  businesses, technical institutions, and
  international partners in the selection of
  technology priorities and design of actions to
  overcome barriers to technology implementation.
+ It is necessary to build or strengthen the human,
  scientific, technical and institutional capacity for
  identifying, designing, developing, monitoring,
  evaluating and hosting technological projects,
  including targeted research projects, for bilateral
  and multilateral funding
+ The main outputs of the TNA project will be the
  good and important input of Viet Nam’s SNC
  project, as expected result a draft action plan
  framework for the transfer and adoption of ESTs
  will be prepared during the implementation of
+ TNA help Viet Nam to identify their climate
  change adaptation technology transfer priorities
  and develop effective strategies to address them.
  It can be powerful instruments for focusing the
  attention of government agencies, the
  international donor community and private sector
  investors on a well-defined set of priority
+ Strengthening the technical and financial support
  on TDT for reducing GHG emission and
  adaptation to CC from International and donor
  countries is necessary; and should be as part of
  commitments by developed countries.
Thank you for your attention !
  For more information please contact:
      Climate Change Project Office
 No.45 Tue Tinh Street, Ha Noi, Viet Nam
 Tel: 844 – 9743195; Fax: 844 – 9743200

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