Creative_and_Cultural_Industries_LMI_March2010_130820101200

Document Sample
Creative_and_Cultural_Industries_LMI_March2010_130820101200 Powered By Docstoc
					Creative & Cultural Skills
March 2010

Contents                                                                                 Page

UK, England and English Regions
Sub sectors
    1.   Creative and Cultural Industries                                                2
    2.   Advertising                                                                     26
    3.   Craft                                                                           39
    4.   Cultural Heritage                                                               53
    5.   Design                                                                          67
    6.   Literature                                                                      81
    7.   Music                                                                           94
    8.   Performing Arts                                                                 108
    9.   Visual Arts                                                                     123
Each sub sector (eg sub sector 9 visual Arts) is divided up as follows
9. Sub-sector Visual Arts
9.1 A brief description of what the sub-sector covers at UK level
9.4 Information on entry requirements, application processes (e.g. Apprenticeships)
9.5 Qualifications
9.6 Data on employment and labour market trends and forecasts
9.7 Skill shortages
9.8 Information on opportunities for adults changing career direction
9.9 Information on points of entry or transfer into a sector from another area sector.
9.10 Job profiles
9.11 Case studies
9.12 FAQs
9.13 Sources of additional information, web-links etc
9.14 Creative and Cultural Industry Regional Information
9.14.1 East Midlands
9.14.2 East of England
9.14.3 London
9.14.4 North East
9.14.5 North West
9.14.6 South East
9.14.7 South West
9.14.8 West Mids
9.14.9 Yorkshire and the Humber
9.14.10 (Visual Arts) Northern Ireland
9.14.11 (Visual Arts) Scotland
9.14.12 (Visual Arts) Wales
9.14.13 (Visual Arts) England
Appendix 1
Apprenticeships on offer
Appendix 2
Basic information on Skills qualities etc from LMI YNY

Useful links:
Careersbox films about this sector:
http://www.careersbox.co.uk/sector.php?sector=42
S2a Barker Brooks Media Ltd – Harrogate Aspire No. - 77751




                                                                                                        1
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
1. Creative and Cultural Industries: Sector information - a brief description of what the
   sector covers at UK level

The creative and cultural industries include; advertising, craft, cultural heritage, design,
literature, music, performing arts and visual arts. They have experienced rapid growth in the
UK over the last ten years, which has focused attention on the industries, in terms of policy
development and action, and on the role of creativity and innovation in business and the
economy.
Three themes are common to these diverse industries; the central importance of creativity;
communication; and a focus on clients, customers, audiences and participants. Collaboration
is important through networks and partnerships, as a means of developing and delivering
business. In this, lies one of the means to achieve sustainable, increased employer
commitment and investment in skills and workforce development.
Across the UK:
       
                                                                                                    1
            The UK has the largest cultural economy in the world, relative to GDP. These
            creative and cultural industries currently employ 678,480, people and contribute
            £24.8B GVA to the UK economy each year.
           24% of the creative and cultural workforce is based in London although employment
            has grown in all geographical regions.
           There are 74,640 businesses in the creative and cultural industries and 87% of them
            employ less than 10 people.
           The sector is highly qualified - 54% of people working in the creative and cultural
            industry have at least a level 4 qualification.
           Diversity is an issue - there is a majority of male workers (60%) and 93% of the
            cultural industry is white.
           Wages can also be low - 62% of people working in the industry earn less than
                                                              2
            £20,000 while 1 in 10 earn more than £41,000.
           The sector has experienced unprecedented growth – over the past 20 years the UK‟s
            creative & cultural industries have grown by 4% p.a compared to 3% for the rest of
                           3
            the economy.
           Exports of services by the Creative Industries totalled £16 billion in 2006. This
                                                                   4
            equated to 4.3% of all goods and services exported.
           Current projections for 2009 indicate that creative and cultural industries are resilient
            in face of recession – growth is back to pre-recession levels of nearly 5% (compared
                                                            5
            to negative growth across the UK in general).
           Forecasts predict significant employment growth for creative & cultural industries –
                                              6
            150,000 more people by 2017. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
                                                                                       7
            has identified „Digital and Creative Industries‟ as a key growth industry.

1
    Staying Ahead: The economic performance of the UK‟s creative industries – The Work Foundation
http://www.theworkfoundation.com/research/publications/publicationdetail.aspx?oItemId=176&parentPageID=102&P

ubType=
2
    UK Creative & Cultural Industries Impact and Footprint 2009/2010 – Creative & Cultural Skills
http://www.ccskills.org.uk/Industrystrategies/Industryresearch/tabid/600/Default.aspx
3
    Staying Ahead: The economic performance of the UK‟s creative industries – The Work Foundation
http://www.theworkfoundation.com/research/publications/publicationdetail.aspx?oItemId=176&parentPageID=102&P
ubType=
4
    Creative Industries Economics Estimates – The Department for Culture, Media and Sport
http://www.culture.gov.uk/reference_library/publications/5727.aspx/
5
    Working Futures 3 – The UK Commission for Employment and Skills
6
    Ibid
7
    Jobs of the Future – The Departmend for Business, Innovation and Skills
http://www.hmg.gov.uk/media/41730/jobs_of_the_future.pdf


                                                                                                           2
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
International landscape:

           The world‟s creative economy is growing. In the 1990s for OECD countries, it grew at
            an annual rate that was more than twice that of the service industries overall and
                                                        8
            more than four times that of manufacturing.

           The growth of the cultural and creative sector in the European Union from 1999 to
            2003 was 12.3% higher than the growth of the overall economy.

           Turnover of the culture and creative sector in the EU generated €654 billion and
            contributed to 2.6% of the European Union‟s GDP in 2003.

           The culture sector employed at least 5.8 million people in Europe in 2004, which is
            more than the total working population of Greece and Ireland put together.

           Growth in demand for creative products has also been a significant driver of the
            growth of the creative economy. The percentage of GDP spent on household
            expenditure on recreation and culture for most OECD countries shows a positive
            correlation with per capita income (OECD, 2007). The richer a country is, the more
            chance there is that the population will spend a higher percentage of their income on
                                9
            culture and leisure. In the UK for example, consumer spending on culture increased
                                            10
            from 5% in 1963 to 7% in 2008.

           Worldwide growth in tourism has continued in recent years and has helped to fuel the
            growth of those creative industries selling creative goods and cultural services into
            the tourist market. In 2004, international tourist arrivals in Europe totalled 416 million
            while the numbers arriving in the Asia and Pacific region amounted to 153 million.

           From the economic perspective, international trade is a key component of the
            creative economy. According to UNCTAD, world trade in creative-industry products
            increased sharply in recent years. In the period 2000-2005, trade in goods and
            services from the creative industries grew on average by 8.7% annually. For instance,
            world exports of visual arts more than doubled from $10.3 billion in 1996 to $22.1
                                                                                   11
            billion in 2005. Exports of audiovisuals tripled over the same period.

           The global entertainment and media industry is forecast to grow from $1.3 trillion in
            2005 to reach 1.8 trillion by 2010.

           Asia is expected to record the highest growth rate of all regions in the entertainment
            and media industry, increasing from $274 billion to $425 billion (with a 9.2%
            compound annual growth rate) and China will have the fastest growing industry in the
                                                            12
            world, with a 26% compound annual growth rate.

Key industry features are the high numbers of micro businesses, and people who are self
employed or freelance. This needs to be set alongside the small number of large businesses
and organisations. Volunteering is also a key part of the workforce.
The public sector is a significant feature of the cultural heritage, and arts industries and they
along with Music and Literature specifically serve the school/education market.


8
 Creative Economy Report 2008 – UNCTAD http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/ditc20082cer_en.pdf
9
 Key role of cultural and creative industries in the economy – UNESCO
http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/11/47/38703999.pdf?contentId=38704000
10
     After the Crunch – Tom Bewick, CEO Creative & Cultural Skills
http://www.ccskills.org.uk/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=I3gSYFE0sQs%3d&tabid=138
11
  Creative Economy Report 2008 – UNCTAD http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/ditc20082cer_en.pdf
12
  Key role of cultural and creative industries in the economy – UNESCO
http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/11/47/38703999.pdf?contentId=38704000



                                                                                                        3
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
The industries have both global and local markets. The industries operating globally include
advertising, design and music. At a local level the industries are seen to contribute to
economic and community regeneration. This aspect of government policy has led to debates
on the balance between intrinsic and instrumental cultural value. It is important to recognise
that the industries view of value and success is not only economic, but also social, cultural
and aesthetic.

What skills are needed to drive up productivity?
The Government‟s central long-term economic objective is to achieve high and stable rates of
economic growth and employment. Increasing productivity is set to be the driving force behind
this and the route to higher prosperity. Despite no tangible link between increased skills levels
and increased productivity being set in the literature, developing and maintaining skills has
                                                                 13
been identified as one of the core „five drivers of productivity‟ needed to assure growth and
competitive advantage.

Key performance indicators such as levels of global competitiveness, innovation,
enterprise development and investment levels in education are suggested as linking to
increased productivity. Therefore, understanding the skills needs of the CCIs is vital to
increasing productivity and directing investment into improving skills and better meeting the
needs of business.

Skills Factors
Skills Factors: generalist and intangible, but more likely to impact future development of the
CCIs rather than economic factors.

As stated by the former BERR in its non-certified learning report: „Several recent studies have
                                                                               14
highlighted the important role that skills play as a drivers of productivity ‟. However, lacking
from this report is the identification of any specific skills that will drive up productivity. The
importance of having formal, higher-level qualification is cited as well as non-certified and
workplace learning but specific skill sets are not covered. Generally, the skills identified as
necessary to realise increased productivity for the whole economy are enhanced levels of
basic skills such as literacy and numeracy.

It is understood that „skills‟ do not always need to be taught in traditional education to young
people of school age. Studies have shown that it is valuable to maintain skills development
outside of traditional education and learning. For example, where workplace training is
undertaken, on average, people earn wages between 5 and 6% higher than those who do not
                                 15
undertake workplace training . There is currently significant government investment to
                                                                  16
increase skill levels throughout the whole of the labour market , so this should, in theory,
increase the performance of the sector as the availability of high-level skills should increase.

With regard to the CCIs specifically, the UK has a long history of being good at invention and
                                                       17.
creativity but bad at investment and management Therefore, to maximise growth
opportunities these are key areas for improvement across the sector. Entrepreneurship has
also been identified as an important base from which to increase innovation and develop
productivity, this is particularly relevant in a sector such as the CCIs, with a high proportion of


13
     The five drivers are skills, investment, innovation, enterprise and competition
14
     BERR(2006) Non-certified learning and skills: incidence in the UK, variation across countries and
links to productivity; executive summary.
15
     BERR( 2006) Non-certified learning and skills: incidence in the UK, variation across countries and
links to productivity.
16
     Such as the Future Jobs Fund (ref), Guarantee to provide employment or training for all young
people (ref), alternative routes into work (apprenticeships) and encourage for increased amount of
people to attain higher level skills (Leitch 2006).
17
     Creative Partnerships, Understanding policy.


                                                                                                          4
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
small businesses and independent practitioners. However, „there is currently no coherent
                                                              18.
national policy that addresses entrepreneurship for the CCIs‟ Further, NESTA state that
„long term Higher Education (HE) policy and funding strategies do not promote development
of „home-grown‟ entrepreneurial talent and opportunities that exist for developing graduate
                                                               ‟ 19
entrepreneurship for CCIs are provided on a piecemeal basis. This has led to short-term,
non-sustainable interventions and a gap in CCI leadership.

It is also vital to engage people in the CCIs from a young age and therefore it is important that
young people are given the chance to experience high quality culture within and outside
         20
school . Creative Britain emphasises the importance of the CCIs in this context and states
that the CCI workforce development must move from the margins to the mainstream of
economic and policy thinking, to create the jobs of the future and increase productivity of the
sector and the country alike. Despite a high skills equilibrium in the sector, the need to
promote up-skilling, which in turn is expected to increase productivity, should not be
neglected. However, as noted above, the emphasis should perhaps be on re-skilling.

Digital skills
Digital skills: essential for increased selling opportunities and advanced business
development in all areas of the economy, especially the CCIs.

A key factor anticipated to drive up productivity in all sectors of the economy is the increased
                                                  21
use of digital technology and media in business , along with a need for an increased ability to
use and manipulate emerging digital technology for learning. The skills needed to capitalise
on this are especially pertinent in the CCIs as advancements in the digital economy will
require increased creative skills to maintain innovation and meet the demands of the national
and global economy.

An important industrial policy influencing this workforce development is 2009 BIS report,
               22
Digital Britain . This emphasizes the need to develop and maximise „digital‟ skills to meet the
aim of Britain being „a global centre for the creative industries in the digital age‟. The report
states that possessing the skills to enable interaction and development of digital based
processes will be central to the development of an effective and productive creative
workforce. The government has made a commitment in this report to increase access to and
usage of digital technologies in hand with ICT skills development across the workforce. This
will provide opportunity for the CCIs to make wider usage of the skills entering the workforce
via increased promotion of creativity being embedded in ICT skills development and in the
specific remits such as creative content development.

Higher Level skills
“Leadership and management skills have a vital role to play in increasing productivity and
                              23
prosperity across the economy” .

Higher-level skills are needed to develop the knowledge economy. The knowledge economy
underpins creative research and development, which is essential for growth. Higher-level
skills are seen as the route to increasing employability and productivity in the workforce and
are suggested to provide the tools and knowledge needed for businesses to develop global
competitiveness and therefore increase productivity levels. The next 10 years will therefore be
critical to securing advantage as emerging economies are also moving into more highly




18
     Developing Entrepreneurship for the Creative Industries: July 2006:
19
     Developing Entrepreneurship for the Creative Industries: July 2006:
20
     McMaster (2008)
21
     BIS (2009) Digital Britain Final Report.
22
     BIS (2009) Digital Britain Final Report.
23
     Leitch (2006) Leitch review of skills Prosperity for all in the global economy- world class skills


                                                                                                          5
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
                     24
skilled industries . To attain higher level skills there needs to be a commitment to make
further and higher education accessible for all that want it and access to other opportunities to
improve skills out of traditional educational routes through work or vocational schemes.
Through the measures set out in the Leitch Review the government should also give
employers the opportunity to have influence over skills development programmes.

Train to Gain is a workforce development programme designed to up skill the workforce and
motivate those that are less likely to be engaged in the labour market through standard
education routes. It aims to transform the way that Government and training providers support
employers and focuses on employer engagement for routes to successful training
programmes; „at the heart of Train to Gain is the service to employers‟. There is a „Plan for
Growth‟ through which the government aims to increase the number of businesses and
individuals on the programme and reform the skills brokerage systems to include the creation
                              25
of sector specialist expertise .

The development of the Adult Advancement and Careers Service has also been identified as
                                                                             26
important to identifying the best opportunities for adult career advancement and therefore
                       .
increase skills levels. The service aims to combine skills and training advice with practical
guidance on how to overcome the complex range of barriers people face in progressing and
advancing their careers.

Creative Britain also recognises that it is important within the CCIs to unlock talent in order to
develop inspiration, aspiration and ambition in a highly skilled workforce. Furthermore, it
proposes a framework that businesses must engage in to develop skills in the sector. It states
aspirations for the government to support skills growth but does not say exactly how it plans
to do or fund this. The government does lay out some foundations of strategy, such as that
increased creative engagement with schools (noted above) and the development of creative
clusters, with the aim of unlocking talent, developing skills and thereby increasing the
productivity of the sector.

Innovation and Entrepreneurship
„The entrepreneurial capacity of the CCI workforce must be developed if the growth of the
                                                                       27
creative industries throughout the UK is to be maintained and enhanced ‟.

In order to meet high level skills demands and develop new creative talent, a more
entrepreneurial and innovative creative workforce is necessary. Stimulating this mindset
within young creative people before they enter the CCIs may result in increased productivity.
The government states that to facilitate this there needs to be and increasing joined up
approach to understanding skills demand and development along with increased networking
                             28
and business relations skills . Additionally, the government recognise the requirement to
develop the skills necessary for accelerated yet sustainable productivity growth in the creative
sectors in the UK. As such, entrepreneurship development is identified as key to increasing
productivity throughout the CCI sub sectors.

It is also recognised, that „teaching‟ entrepreneurial skills is a considerable challenge (if at all
possible) and some believe that entrepreneurialism is an innate ability or natural talent as
opposed to a skill that can be taught. As previously noted, NESTA identify that more needs to
be done to develop entrepreneurialism within the CCIs and a more rigid growth framework
needs to be established to facilitate this. However, in developing entrepreneurial skills, an
improved level of knowledge in areas such as securing intellectual property rights needs to be
developed, in order to to protect entrepreneurial ideas and products from being copied and
exploited.

24
     DIUS (2008) Higher education at work. High skills: high value.
25
     LSC (2007) Train 2 Gain
26
     DIUS (2008) Shaping the future: a new adult advancement and careers service for England.
27
     Developing Entrepreneurship for the Creative Industries: July 2006:
28
     DCMS, BERR & DIUS (2008) Creative Britain New Talents for the New Economy


                                                                                                        6
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Innovation development involves partnership working with government, universities, third
sector organisations, entrepreneurs, businesses and consumers. It relies on networks built on
trust, proximity, repeat engagement and „social capital‟, all of which the CCIs have been found
to foster and support. While innovation literature often emphasises technical research and
development activities, policymakers and academics increasingly recognise the importance of
                                                     29
creativity and design in the process of innovation . NESTA has illustrated how the CCIs can
often create fundamental links in developing innovative business to business solutions,
identifying that linking with creative industries supports innovation. A systematic
understanding of innovation, coupled with understanding the growing prominence of creative
production and cultural consumption in the economy, leads to a proposal that innovation in
the CCIs needs to be utilised for increased performance and pan sectoral innovation
                30
development . This finding has implications for CCIs productivity development, as no longer
is it sufficient to support the CCIs alone.

Further to this „the demand for creative goods, (unlike products in other parts of the economy)
tends to increase the more that creative goods are consumed. Their consumption becomes a
                31
virtuous circle‟ . This enhances the importance to develop the right skills and aptitudes to
build innovative, entrepreneurial and sustainable creative businesses. However, creative
institutions and departments are inhibited in their entrepreneurial development due to:
      Sector-wide quality assurance requirements,
      Academic management processes,
      A lack of strategic development,
      Collaborations with higher education being difficult .
                                                             32



Competitiveness
Up-skilling the entire workforce is a key aim of the government to “sustain and improve our
                                  33
position in the global economy” . The government has committed itself to the ambitious
challenge of becoming a world leader in skills by 2020. The CCIs are already acknowledged
to be highly skilled, yet this should not procure negligence. Rather, the CCIs need to maintain
their skills base and attainment levels to ensure global competitiveness is maintained and the
                                                 34.
high profile of the creative sector is continued

There is a need to maintain competitiveness through developments in innovation and the
                                                                                  35
knowledge economy. Commitment to this is demonstrated in the „Innovation Nation‟ that
sets an objective of investing in people and knowledge, thereby unlocking talent.
The CCIs need to be constantly reflective, managing and evaluating performance indicators in
order guard against complacency and ensure that the UK remains one of the most
competitive countries in the world.

Business strategy
In order to maximise the potential productivity of the CCIs, they must make themselves open
and accessible to all, lower barriers to entry and establish the correct make-up of leadership
                36.
in organisations However, a challenge in the sector is that business strategies often are not
a key priority:




29
     Cox, 2005 & DTI, 2005 in NESTA (2008) Creating Innovation.
30
     NESTA (2008) Creating Innovation
31
     DCMS(2006) Developing Entrepreneurship for the Creative Industries
32
     Developing Entrepreneurship for the Creative Industries: July 2006:
33
     Leicth (2006) Executive Summary
34
     DIUS (2007) World Class Skills, Implementing the Leitch review of Skills
35
     DIUS 2008
36
     CLP (2009) Women in Leadership


                                                                                                        7
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
             „half (49%)[of creative businesses] say that none of their senior managers have had
             any business strategy training. This is disproportionately higher than average for all
             industry small and medium sized enterprises (57% among those with 1 employee),
                                                            37
             this falls to 35% among the £1m+ companies‟ .

It‟s clear that CCIs need to take a more strategic approach to business development,
particularly young practitioners who should engage in CPD and gain experience of working
                                                                                           38
with a variety of artists to develop their practice into a successful and productive career .
Therefore, business and strategic development skills are important to increase productivity
but are area that CCIs are traditionally weak in, so Are a further focus for improvement. In
addition to this, the government stress the need for the integration and understanding of ICT
                                                                                  39
developments into all business strategies to maintain and develop productivity .


What lies ahead?

Broader Integration
Broader Integration: CCIs and the wider economy.

Recognition of the broader benefits of engagement with CCIs for social enterprise and
community development needs to be widespread in order to realise the economic value of
CCI activities. It is expected that this would result in an increase in demand for creative
products and skills. Additionally, the CCIs need to try to engage further with other industry
sectors to help them to understand the benefits that creative input can have on innovation and
enterprise development in their sector. Policy, education and industry should work together in
addressing and promoting the role that CCIs can take within other business sectors.

Furthermore, young people need to be more engaged with the CCI and have a better
understanding of the career opportunities within the sector from a young age. Their education
needs to encourage an active and responsive part in developments across technology,
                                                                              40
society and culture to make a link between the three and put CCI at the centre .

Business Support
There is a lack of private investment and insufficient business support and development
services for creative businesses. Providing a more holistic package would develop consistent
investment and support for new creative businesses and a greater focus on the commercial
                               41
potential of those businesses . The government has made significant pledges and
investment plans in this direction, although the recession might change these.

Despite it being widely understood that the CCIs need more sector specific business support,
it is difficult to identify in existing literature many specific employer workforce development
strategies other than those re-iterating that the CCIs need more sector specific support to
increase skills and businesses development. This is an area that needs to be clarified for
future development of the sector. Little information exists about the responsiveness of the
sector but this may be low given that a relatively high proportion of the CCIs do not have a
strategic plan. Therefore, one could conclude that they may not know what business support
they need or what is most appropriate for effective business development.

Government Investment
Government Investment: needs to be clear and well structured from school level skills
development to clear strategic business support.


37
     NESTA(2006) Creative Business Survey
38
     NESTA(2006) Creative Business Survey
39
     Digital Britain (2009)
40
     DEMOS (date) Expressive Lives
41
     NESTA(2006) Creative Business Survey


                                                                                                        8
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
The government recognises that it will be crucial to future prosperity to expand into new
                                                                              42.
global markets and make Britain‟s CCIs accessible to a wider pool of talent       Government
also recognises that it can only provide the framework and that those working in the sector
                                                                                          43
must be centrally engaged and appropriately skilled to build a prosperous creative Britain .
The government has set out plans to provide „clear routes‟ into creative careers in schools. A
commitment exemplified through a target to significantly expand creative apprenticeships to
5,000 a year by 2013. In sum they aim to:
     Give all children a creative education
     Turn talent into jobs
     Support research and innovation
     Help creative businesses grow and access finance
     Fostering and protecting intellectual property
     Supporting creative clusters
     Promoting Britain as the world‟s creative hub
     Keeping the Strategy up-to-date .
                                          44



The government also aims to use regulation, public procurement and public services to help
                                                                                   45
to shape the market for innovative solutions in business and commercial activities . The CCIs
are well placed to take advantage of these commitments to invest in knowledge and
innovation due to the inherent innovative, creative thinking and the „pushing the boundaries‟
nature of the sector.

There is little CCI specific information or policy in place that sets out clear steps to move the
CCIs „up the skills value chain‟. However, this gap may be driven by the fact that the sector is
currently very near the top of this chain. National policies to encourage skills development
include:
      DIUS & DCSF (2008) Draft Apprenticeships Bill
      DIUS & DCSF (2009) Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Bill
      Train 2 Gain –policies to get low skilled economically inactive people back into work
      Future jobs Fund & September guarantee, to support young people maintain
         economic activity or training during recession.
      Freud review (2007) the change from Incapacity Benefit being changed to the
         Employment Support Allowance to make it more difficult for people to remain long
         term inactive from the labour market and more incentives to get back into work.

Future Skills needs
It has been found to be essential for the future development of the CCIs that higher-level skills
are developed (or maintained) in order for fast and effective growth and to remain globally
competitive. Higher-level skills are said to provide the tools and knowledge for effective
business development and hence increase productivity levels. Skills should be developed
through both formal and informal education routes to suit the needs of the sector and be
encouraged from a young age.

The increasing importance of the knowledge-based economy in the UK has been recognised
                                                          46
to be essential to economic growth and wealth creation . This increases a need for England
to trade and compete on knowledge and innovation, thus a highly and relevantly skilled,
                              47
flexible workforce is required . Due to their levels of global competitiveness the CCIs are
important to contribute to the development of the knowledge economy. There is a need to

42
     DCMS, BERR & DIUS (2008) Creative Britain New Talents for the New Economy
43
     DCMS, BERR & DIUS (2008) Creative Britain New Talents for the New Economy
44
     DCMS, BERR & DIUS (2008) Creative Britain New Talents for the New Economy
45
     DIUS (2008) Innovation Nation
46
     Investing in the Creative Industries, A Guide for Local Authorities
47
     New Industry, New Jobs


                                                                                                        9
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
increase skill levels to meet knowledge expansion and job growth aims in higher-level
occupations to hopefully increase the productivity of the CCIs.

Specific future skills needs for the CCI include:
            Creative specific leadership and management skills
            Leadership skills, crucial for strategy formulation and success
            ICT skills, as also identified by the Digital Britain (2009) ICT skills will be essential
             for the development of the sector
            Business skills, the sector has a historical lack of business aptitude but this needs
             to change to ensure productivity and success
            Negotiation/ selling skills, again historically not the essence of the CCI, but very
                                                    48
             important for its survival and growth .

Challenges
Challenges: numerous but actionable.

Within the CCIs there are a number of challenges that might impact future development. A
core challenge is access to (or breaking into) the CCIs and the capacity to make a living from
full time employment in the sector. A danger frequently lamented in that that the CCIs can be
closed and elitist. There is a risk is that without appropriate action, employment segregation
will widen rather than narrow and there will continue to be a lack of ability to move up social
         49
ladders .

A further challenge is the development of skills to meet future skills needs. There is a need to
build a skills and training system which matches the increasingly competitive needs of the
sector in the future. Other challenges include:
     Access to new customers
     Long-term, sustainable funding
     Maintaining the existing high levels of skills
     The recession, potential funding cuts and lack of money to invest in training

Opportunities
The United Nations estimates that cultural and creative trade represents 3.4% of all world
                                      50
trade and is growing at a rate of 8.7% . The CCIs are expected to be one of the driving
industries of growth throughout the recession, individually and alongside other sectors of the
economy that have significant opportunity in the digital expansion. Furthermore, creative
                                                                   51
innovation links with the development of the new „green economy‟ could be an opportunity
for growth of the sector.

It has been suggested that 10 year funding programmes would allow more organizations to
further that ambition and fulfil their potential. However, employers also need to be encouraged
to invest in and see the value of investing in their workforce.

In 2007, DEMOS suggested a toolkit of improved access to the CCIs by way of developing:
     A digital resource for maintaining portfolios of people‟s learning and production life,
        access to potential employees and collaborators, mentors and knowledge.
     Easy access to micro-finance, and underwriting risk in business loans
     Creative spaces and meeting places that combine sector-specific expertise and local
        knowledge and provide a point of connection to new opportunities to build networks
        and provide a place for building informal relationships.


48
     CCS (2008) Creative Blueprint
49
     The Panel on Fair Access to the Professions ( 2009) Unleashing Aspiration


50
     Creative Economy Programme, Outline Programme (2010- 2013) Corporate Outcomes.
51
     CCS (2009) After the Crunch


                                                                                                   10
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
          Develop articles of how others have made it to illustrate different avenues of
                   52
           success.

Other opportunities for the development of the CCIs include:
    Capitalising on the UK CCIs high global positioning and reputation
    The creative economy being invested in as an area for fast and large growth,
       especially when emerging from recession the CCI has been suggested as a specific
       industry that is well placed for growth in the new era of development
    Develop (more) creative hubs
    Developments of creative innovation being well placed to integrate with the new
       green agenda, which is a national and global „hot-topic‟ for development.

Gaps in Knowledge
Certain gaps have been identified that exist in current research into the development of the
CCIs, especially the development of skills and sectoral growth. The most pertinent gaps are:
     Understanding how the specific demographic make-up of the sector has become
        established and how this might be impacting on productivity.
     How this might be translated to attain a more representative mix from different areas
        of the population.
     The full impact of the regular need for un-paid work experience to enter the sector is
        not understood.
     A lack of understating about creative-specific business support; what support is most
        needed and suited to the creative sector and how is it most effectively delivered to aid
        growth.
     It has been stated that creative skills and knowledge can be a valuable asset to
        enterprise and innovation development in any sector. However, other than via the
        development of „creative hubs or clusters‟ specifically how this might work and how
        creative partnerships could be established is not known.
     Gaps in investment can be identified, in that there are many pledges to help support
        entrepreneurial development of the CCIs but little evidence of the support on the
        ground. Providing this support would widen opportunities and give more options for
        entry routes into the sector thus, increase participation and development.
     There is a need to establish a specific entrepreneurial development strategy and
        more joined up working with relevant government departments and creative industry
        support bodies such as NESTA to facilitate this support.

Finally, a key gap is a lack of understanding of how forthcoming public sector budget cuts are
likely to impact the CCI. This is unlikely to be understood easily given the ambiguity of
potential government funding cuts and the potential of a new government being elected in
2010 that could totally re-direct funding streams.

Industry Skills and Training

The sector is highly qualified - 54% of people working in the creative and cultural industry
have at least a level 4 qualification - but skills shortages and gaps are still a significant
     53
issue .

Almost a quarter of businesses who have tried to recruit recently have faced difficulties. Only
6% of employers facing recruitment difficulties believe this to be due to a lack of appropriate
qualifications. Rather, candidates for vacancies in the sector lack the requisite experience
                     54
and specialist skills .




52
     DEMOS (2007) So what do you do?
53
   Ibid
54
   Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey



                                                                                                   11
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Just over one third of all employers within the footprint (37%) perceive that skills gaps exist in
their current workforce. Skills gaps tend to relate to information communication Technology
                                      55
(ICT), marketing and technical skills .

Gaps in an organisations existing skills base have a broader impact on businesses than skills
shortages, with employers stating key impacts as being lost business, increased workload for
                                                       56
others and delays to developing new products/services .

Across the industry, a greater proportion of employers have not undertaken/provided any
                                                        57
training or development in the last 12 months than have .

The most popular forms of training are those that people can engage in on an ad-hoc basis
                                                                   58
and, which require investment in terms of time as opposed to money .

Skills Shortages

Almost a quarter (24%) of businesses that have tried to recruit recently have faced difficulties.
These difficulties tend not to relate to a lack of appropriate qualifications, with only 6% of
employers stating that they felt this to be the reason they were finding recruitment
problematic. This may be driven by the fact that, across the creative and cultural industry,
half of employers have no minimum expectations in terms of qualifications. Of the remaining
half, 22% expect new recruits to be qualified to at least first degree level. Interestingly,
despite an anecdotal preference for postgraduate qualifications, only 3% of employers would
                                                                           59
expect new recruits to have postgraduate qualifications as a minimum .

A lack of experience or a lack of specialist skills were the main reasons for recruitment
difficulties noted by employers (42% and 35% respectively), this is key in an industry where
                                                                             60
nearly half of all professions are associate professional or technical based .

Additionally, almost a quarter of employers stated that there have had been few or no
applicants. In exploring the impacts of the difficulties in recruitment, employers tended to
                                                                            61
report a range of outcomes, the most significant indicators are as follows ;
     45% of business experienced an increased workload for others in the business
     26% lost business
     22% turned away business as a result of skills shortages

Skills gaps

Just over one third of all employers within the creative and cultural industry (37%) perceive
                                                 62
that skills gaps exist in their current workforce .

There is a wide diversity of occupations within the industry that employers report as displaying
skills gaps: 14% relate to management occupations, 11% to the specific occupation of graphic
design and 10% in marketing. Considering management and marketing together, there are
                                                                                               63
significant issues in the transferable and business related skill sets of the current workforce .

As a result of the high number of small businesses in the industry, in many cases one or two
individuals are required to perform a number of roles. Taking into account the large proportion
of technical roles that exist in the sector, it can be assumed that many employees with a
technical skill set and focus are taking on management and business related responsibilities,
which may not be their areas of expertise.

55
   Ibid
56
   Ibid
57
   Ibid
58
   Ibid
59
   Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey
60
   Ibid
61
   Ibid
62
   Ibid
63
   Ibid



                                                                                                   12
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Assessing the overall picture of skills gaps, for those companies acknowledging the existence
of skills gaps;
     27% of these gaps relate to ICT skills
     26% relate to a diverse pool of „other‟ skills
     15% relate to marketing/advertising/PR skills
     13% relate to technical skills

                                                                                               64
There are a number of drivers and reasons lying behind the existence of the skills gaps . For
example:
    37% of respondents had a limited amount of time available for training to fill gaps
    32% of skills gaps are driven by a lack of experience in the role
    25% are driven by a limited budget for training

It is interesting to note that skills gaps have a much broader impact on the business than the
impact of skills shortages (where most of the impact was felt in increased workload and
                                                                     65
lost/turned away business). With employers stating key impacts as ;
       Lost business (26%),
       Increased workload for others (17%)
       Delays to developing new products/services (14%)
       More work is outsourced (12%)
       Turned away business (12%)

Training

Across the footprint, more employers have not undertaken/provided any training or
                                                                    66
development in the last 12 months than have (61% compared to 39%) . Employers have not
undertaken/provided training because;
     Staff are already fully proficient (50%)
     They do not have time for training (27%)
     They lack the funds for training (14%)

Very few employers had not provided training/development opportunities because staff were
not keen to participate in training or because no suitable training was available in terms of
                                       67
mode of delivery or at the right level .

Employers believe that the most popular forms of training are those that people can engage in
on an ad-hoc basis and which, in general, require investment in terms of time as opposed to
      68
money . Over the last twelve months employers have undertaken or provided:
     45% - Personal knowledge development e.g. reading
     42% - Attending conferences
     42% - On-the-job coaching
     41% - Networking

Specific Industry Examples

Qualification levels

         Employers in Cultural Heritage have the highest expectations of new recruits, with
          47% expecting new recruits to be qualified to degree level as a minimum and 7%
          expecting postgraduate qualifications
         There is little variance by creative and cultural sector in terms of the expectation for
          employees to be qualified to at least A-level. In most sub-sectors between 25% and

64
   Ibid
65
   Ibid
66
   Ibid
67
   Ibid
68
   Ibid



                                                                                                    13
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
         29% of employers expect A-Level as a minimum. This excludes cultural heritage and
         performing arts, in which 19% and 18% of employers respectively expect A-Level as
         a minimum standard
        Performing arts, music and craft appear to have the most open approach to
         qualifications, with approximately 60% of employers in each requiring no minimum
                                69
         level of qualification

Skills shortages

        Only 12% of music and 16% of visual art organisations have faced recruitment
         difficulties. Compared to 34% of performing art and 29% of literature organisations
        Advertising and design businesses experienced particular difficulty recruiting to
         graphic design roles (46% and 32% of businesses respectively), while cultural
         heritage organisations experienced difficulty with archaeologists and visitor relations
         roles
        Employers in music were most likely to find that candidates lack the appropriate
         qualifications (15% compared to 6% across the footprint)
        Advertising businesses and employers in visual arts had significantly more difficulty
         finding candidates with the appropriate specialist skills, with 74% and 80% of
         employers respectively stating this as an issue
        Outsourcing work is a particular impact of experiencing a skills shortage for music
         and visual arts businesses. While for advertising and cultural heritage organisations,
                                                                                                70
         skills shortages can cause delays to the development of new products and services

Skills gaps

        Advertising (46%) has the highest number of respondents stating that they perceived
         gaps in the skills base of their current workforce, closely followed by design (44%)
        Only 26% of craft employers perceived that skills gaps were present in their current
         workforce
        Skills gaps in administrative roles were stated as being present frequently in literature
         (25%), visual arts (14%), performing arts (13%) and cultural heritage (10%)
        Similar to the picture for the industry in total, a large number of respondents with skills
         gaps stated that there was no direct impact on productivity and performance from
         these gaps. However the following sector specific features are of note:
              o 12% of respondents with skills gaps indicated that they were impacting on
                  business development in advertising
              o A lack of digital skills are having a significant impact in design (12%) and
                  advertising (8%)
              o Respondents from the visual arts sub sector stated that fundraising skills
                  gaps were having a significant impact (12%)
              o In literature, finance and accounting (13%) and sales (13%) skills gaps
                  impact significantly on productivity and performance.
        Specific impacts that skills gaps have on businesses in the creative and cultural
         industry are as follows;
              o In all sectors except cultural heritage and visual arts, the key impact is lost
                  business
              o In cultural heritage and visual arts, however, the key impact is increased
                  workload for others. This impact is the joint most significant along with lost
                                                           71
                  business in visual arts and craft also

Use of Training




69
 Ibid
70
  Ibid
71
  Ibid



                                                                                                   14
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
         The advertising and cultural heritage sectors provided an above average proportion
          of training, with 51% and 79% of employers respectively undertaking some form of
          training or development in the last 12 months
         Craft and music employers had undertaken the least amount of training (26% and
          30% respectively)
         Performing arts and advertising businesses had the least time available for training
          (approx. 40% of businesses in each)
         Although cultural heritage organisations were the most likely to provide training, they
          were also the most likely to lack funding for training (29%)
         Performing arts organisations were most likely to find that no appropriate training was
          available in terms of subject area (13% compared to an average of 7%)
         Organisations in the cultural heritage sector showed a much greater usage of NVQs
          and SVQs, with 14% of employers undertaking/providing this kind of training
         Cultural heritage, along with advertising businesses, were also more likely to deliver
                                                                              72
          training developed by the organisation (39% and 33% respectively)


National Skills and Training

Skills Shortages

A higher proportion of employers in Scotland have difficulty recruiting (19% compared to 13%
across the UK) and those in Wales have experienced least difficulty, with only 2%
experiencing recruitment issues. In terms if the challenges experienced, businesses in
Northern Ireland have particular issues recruiting to roles in public relations, with almost half
employers (47%) noting this as a problem area. Where businesses in Wales are experiencing
difficulty recruiting, this tends to be in visitor relations/services roles. Attracting candidates
with a suitable level of experience is a particular issue for businesses in Scotland, with 60% of
organisations identifying this as a challenge. In Scotland and Wales an increase in operating
                                                                                                   73
costs is more likely to be an impact of skills shortages than in England or Northern Ireland .

Skills gaps

Employers are least likely to state that their current workforce displays skills gaps in England
(36%), compared to 44% in Scotland, 42% in Wales and 41% in Northern Ireland. England
followed the UK creative and cultural industry pattern of skills gaps most closely, as one
would expect given that it contains the majority of the workforce. There is no marked
                                                                            74
difference in the pattern of reasons for skills gaps across the four nations . Employers concur
that the four main reasons for experiencing skills gaps are;
      Lack of time available for training
      Lack of experience in the role
      „Other‟ reasons, and
      Limited budget for training

Employers in England are the least likely to perceive that skills gaps are having a significant
impact on the performance and productivity of their business; 40% of employers were of this
                                                                         75
view, compared to 24% in Wales and 22% in both Scotland and Wales . So not only are
employers in the three devolved nations more likely to experience skills gaps, but they also
perceive them to have a greater impact.

ICT skills gaps are seen to have the greatest impact in England and Wales, while in Scotland
this has been through a gap in marketing/advertising/PR skills. Employers in Northern Ireland
concur with the Scotland perspective, with marketing/advertising/PR skills gaps being
                                        76
perceived as having the greatest impact .

72
   Ibid
73
   Ibid
74
   Ibid
75
   Ibid
76
   Ibid



                                                                                                   15
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
In all nations, the greatest impact of skills gaps is that it leads to lost business. Employers in
Wales and Northern Ireland also recognise a significant impact on the workload of colleagues
in order to make up for the skills gaps that are present. Businesses in Scotland, Wales and
Northern Ireland are also more likely to recognise an impact on the speed at which they can
                                     77
develop new products and services .

Use of Training

Employers in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland tend to undertake/provide more training
than those based in England. Businesses in Northern Ireland provide the most, with 55%
undertaking or providing some form of training or development in the last 12 months
                                78
compared to 39% across the UK .

In terms of the issues involved in providing access to training opportunities, employers in
Wales were more likely to find that no appropriate training was available in terms of subject
area (17% compared to an average of 7%) and employers in Scotland were the most likely to
                                                                 79
lack funding for training (20% compared to an average of 14%) .

Organisations in Northern Ireland showed a much higher propensity to attend conferences as
a mode of training, with 74% of employers providing this compared to an average of 42%.
Employers in Scotland made more extensive use of mentoring (45% compared to 25%) and
employers in Wales were least likely to develop their own training programmes, with only 8%
                                                       80
selecting this method compared to 19% across the UK .

UK Future Skills

                                                                              81
Research undertaken by the UK Commission for Employment and Skills suggests that, over
the next seven years, the creative and cultural industries across the UK are expected to grow
by a further 151,000 people in newly created jobs; significantly, over half of all these jobs
(55%) will be in „associated professional and technical roles‟, those requiring specialist
technical skills.

Figure 1: Occupational growth in the creative and cultural industries (numbers in 000's)




77
   Ibid
78
   Ibid
79
   Ibid
80
   Ibid
81
   UKCES (2008) Working Futures



                                                                                                   16
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
UKCES (2008) Working Futures 3


Meanwhile, employment in professional and associated and technical roles will increase at a
                                                                                    82
faster rate than compared to the UK as a whole (26% compared to 15% respectively) . This
places a huge emphasis on the industry and its support mechanisms to prepare people with
the right skills for these growth areas.

It would seem vital, therefore, that businesses begin to invest in training in associate
professional and technical roles as soon as possible.

However, evidence suggests (figure 9) that of the training that does occur (and only 39% of
businesses in the sector arrange or fund for training), only 13% of this is focussed on
associate professional and technical roles (off the job) and 16% for training on the job in these
                   83
occupational areas .

Figure 2: Percentage of training taking place specifically focused on professional and
associate professional/technical roles




UKCES (2009) Employment and Skills Almanac


It is vital, therefore, that creative and cultural businesses begin to invest in training in these
roles as soon as possible. Currently, organisations in the industry tend not to „think forward‟ in
terms of the skills issues that might affect them in the future. Nearly a third of businesses
(32%) do not anticipate future skills gaps, and 11% are unable to predict what they might be,
                                                             84
though digital and ICT skills score highest (see table 25) .


Perceived future skills needs

                                   Creative and cultural industries
None                                                                  32%
Digital skills                                                        16%
Don't know                                                            11%
ICT skills                                                            10%
Creative expertise                                                     8%
Online skills                                                          8%

82
     Ibid
83
     UKCES (2009) Employment and Skills Almanac
84
     Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey



                                                                                                   17
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Marketing skills                                                     7%
N/A                                                                  7%
Administrative skills                                                3%
Management                                                           2%
Fundraising                                                          2%
Finance/ Accounting                                                  2%
Design skills                                                        2%
Sales skills                                                         2%
Business skills                                                      2%
Foreign language skills                                              1%
Teaching skills                                                      1%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey

Free training in certain areas (65%), funding via sector skills councils (55%), subsidies (53%)
and tax breaks for essential training (47%) are the four most commonly cited kinds of support
that would help employers provide more training. The same general trend is true across all
the industry sectors, although free training in certain areas was of particular relevance to the
                             85
cultural heritage sub sector .

Support for training

                                                           Creative and cultural industries
Free training in certain areas                                                        65%
Funding available via Sector Skills Council’s                                         55%
Subsidies                                                                             53%
Tax breaks for essential training                                                     47%
None                                                                                  17%
Funding via any source                                                                  2%
Availability – Subject                                                                  1%
Other                                                                                   1%
Don't Know                                                                              1%
Awareness of provision                                                                  1%
Greater capacity                                                                        0%
Availability - Delivery Method                                                          0%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey

Over two thirds of organisations in the creative and cultural industry (69%) would support a
funding system where the money went directly to companies to manage, rather than via a
funding body.

Across the industry, 39% of employers state that all occupations will maintain their current
importance. It is cited by 21% that ICT will become increasingly important and 12%
understand that marketing will become increasingly important to achieving a high level of
                                 86
success over the next few years .

Individual sectors generally follow the same pattern as the overall footprint, although
fundraising is forecast to be of increasing importance in the cultural heritage sub sector (19%)
and creative writers are expected to be important to success in the literary arts sub sector
       87
(23%) .




85
     Ibid
86
     Ibid
87
     Ibid



                                                                                                   18
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Occupations likely to be important in the future

                                                                   Creative and cultural industries
All Occupations will maintain current importance                                              39%
ICT                                                                                           21%
Marketing                                                                                     12%
Management                                                                                      6%
Other                                                                                           5%
Retail/Sales                                                                                    4%
Fundraising                                                                                     4%
Education                                                                                       4%
Graphic Designer                                                                                3%
Finance                                                                                         3%
Programme/Project Management                                                                    3%
Public Relations                                                                                3%
Research                                                                                        2%
Creative                                                                                        2%
Facilities                                                                                      2%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey

Future Skills: Scotland

A quarter of businesses (25%) do not anticipate future skills gaps, and 9% are unable to
predict what they might be, though digital and ICT skills score highest (see table 26).

Perceived future skills needs

                                          Scotland creative and cultural              UK Creative and cultural industries
                                                              industries
None                                                                25%                                             32%
Digital skills                                                      17%                                             16%
ICT skills                                                          14%                                             10%
Online skills                                                       12%                                              8%
Marketing skills                                                    12%                                              7%
Don't know                                                           9%                                             11%
Management                                                           8%                                              2%
Creative expertise                                                   8%                                              8%
N/A                                                                  6%                                              7%
Administrative skills                                                        4%                                      3%
Fundraising                                                                  4%                                       2%
Finance/ Accounting                                                          4%                                       2%
Business skills                                                              4%                                       2%
Design skills                                                                3%                                       2%
Foreign language                                                                                                      1%
skills                                                                       1%
Sales skills                                                                 1%                                       2%
Teaching skills                                                              1%                                       1%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey

Free training in certain areas (57%), funding via sector skills councils (53%), subsidies (52%)
and tax breaks for essential training (49%) are the four most commonly cited kinds of support
that would help employers provide more training. The same general trend is true across all



                                                                                                                      19
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
the industry sectors, although free training in certain areas was of particular relevance to the
cultural heritage sub sector.

Support for training

                                                 Scotland creative and cultural             UK Creative and cultural
                                                                     industries             industries
Free training in certain areas                                             57%                                      65%
Funding available via Sector Skills                                        53%                                      55%
Council’s
Subsidies                                                                         52%                              53%
Tax breaks for essential training                                                 35%                              47%
None                                                                              13%                              17%
Funding via any source                                                             6%                               2%
Availability – Subject                                                                0%                            1%
Other                                                                                 0%                            1%
Don't Know                                                                            0%                            1%
Awareness of provision                                                                0%                            1%
Greater capacity                                                                      2%                            0%
Availability - Delivery Method                                                        1%                            0%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey

Over two thirds of organisations in the creative and cultural industry in Scotland (70%) would
support a funding system where the money went directly to companies to manage, rather
than via a funding body.

Across the industry in Scotland, 38% of employers state that all occupations will maintain their
current importance. It is cited by 15% that marketing will become increasingly important and
14% understand that ICT will become increasingly important to achieving a high level of
success over the next few years.

Occupations likely to be important in the future

                                                              Scotland creative and          UK Creative and cultural
                                                                 cultural industries         industries
All Occupations will maintain current                                          38%                                39%
importance
Marketing                                                                             15%                         12%
ICT                                                                                   14%                         21%
Other                                                                                  6%                          5%
Graphic Designer                                                                       6%                          3%
Management                                                                             5%                          6%
Retail/Sales                                                                           4%                          4%
Programme/Project Management                                                           3%                          3%
Finance                                                                                2%                          3%
Fundraising                                                                            0%                          4%
Education                                                                              0%                          4%
Public Relations                                                                       0%                          3%
Research                                                                               0%                          2%
Creative                                                                               0%                          2%
Facilities                                                                             0%                          2%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey

Future Skills Wales


                                                                                                                    20
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Nearly a third of businesses (41%) do not anticipate future skills gaps, and 12% are unable to
predict what they might be, though digital and ICT skills score highest (see table 26).

Perceived future skills needs

                               Wales creative and cultural industries             UK creative and cultural industries
None                                                                     41%                                          32%
Digital skills                                                           14%                                          16%
Don't know                                                               12%                                          11%
ICT skills                                                                8%                                          10%
Creative expertise                                                        4%                                           8%
Finance/ Accounting                                                       4%                                           2%
Online skills                                                             4%                                           8%
Administrative skills                                                      3%                                          3%
Design skills                                                              3%                                         2%
N/A                                                                        3%                                         7%
Foreign language skills                                                    2%                                         1%
Management                                                                 2%                                         2%
Marketing skills                                                           2%                                         7%
Fundraising                                                                1%                                         2%
Teaching skills                                                            1%                                         1%
Business skills                                                            0%                                         2%
Sales skills                                                               0%                                         2%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey

Free training in certain areas (59%), subsidies (45%) and funding via sector skills councils
(43%) are the three most commonly cited kinds of support that would help employers provide
more training.

Support for training

                                                    Wales creative and cultural            UK creative and cultural
                                                                     industries            industries
Free training in certain areas                                             59%                                        65%
Subsidies                                                                  45%                                        53%
Funding available via Sector Skills                                        43%                                        55%
Council’s
None                                                                             27%                                  17%
Tax breaks for essential training                                                26%                                  47%
Funding via any source                                                            2%                                   2%
Other                                                                                 2%                               1%
Availability - Delivery Method                                                        0%                               0%
Availability – Subject                                                                0%                               1%
Awareness of provision                                                                0%                               1%
Don't Know                                                                            0%                               1%
Greater capacity                                                                      0%                               0%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey

Over two thirds of organisations in the creative and cultural industry in Wales (62%) would
support a funding system where the money went directly to companies to manage, rather
than via a funding body.




                                                                                                                       21
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Across the industry in Wales, 37% of employers state that all occupations will maintain their
current importance. It is cited by 28% that ICT will become increasingly important and 21%
understand that marketing will become increasingly important to achieving a high level of
success over the next few years.

Occupations likely to be important in the future

                                                       Wales creative and cultural          UK creative and cultural
                                                                        industries          industries
All Occupations will maintain current                                         37%                                 39%
importance
ICT                                                                                   28%                        21%
Marketing                                                                             21%                        12%
Finance                                                                               10%                         3%
Management                                                                             4%                         6%
Other                                                                                  4%                         5%
Public Relations                                                                       3%                         3%
Facilities                                                                             1%                         2%
Fundraising                                                                            1%                         4%
Graphic Designer                                                                       1%                         3%
Retail/Sales                                                                           1%                         4%
Creative                                                                               0%                         2%
Education                                                                              0%                         4%
Programme/Project Management                                                           0%                         3%
Research                                                                               0%                         2%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey

Future Skills Needs Northern Ireland

Nearly a third of businesses (30%) do not anticipate future skills gaps, and 16% are unable to
predict what they might be, though and marketing skills score highest (see table 26).

Perceived future skills needs

                               Northern Ireland creative and cultural             UK Creative and cultural industries
                                                           industries
None                                                             30%                                             32%
ICT skills                                                       18%                                             10%
Don't know                                                       16%                                             11%
N/A                                                              16%                                              7%
Marketing skills                                                 13%                                              7%
Online skills                                                    11%                                              8%
Creative expertise                                                6%                                              8%
Digital skills                                                    6%                                             16%
Management                                                        1%                                              2%
Administrative skills                                                      0%                                     3%
Business skills                                                            0%                                     2%
Design skills                                                              0%                                     2%
Finance/ Accounting                                                        0%                                     2%
Foreign language                                                                                                  1%
skills                                                                     0%
Fundraising                                                                0%                                     2%



                                                                                                                  22
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Sales skills                                                               0%                                       2%
Teaching skills                                                            0%                                       1%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey

Free training in certain areas (82%), subsidies (48%), funding via sector skills councils (41%),
and tax breaks for essential training (38%) are the four most commonly cited kinds of support
that would help employers provide more training.

Support for training

                                                   Northern Ireland creative and             UK Creative and cultural
                                                              cultural industries            industries
Free training in certain areas                                              82%                                    65%
Subsidies                                                                   48%                                    53%
Funding available via Sector                                                41%                                    55%
Skills Council’s
Tax breaks for essential training                                                     38%                         47%
Availability – Subject                                                                11%                          1%
None                                                                                  10%                         17%
Funding via any source                                                                 5%                          2%
Other                                                                                 0%                            1%
Don't Know                                                                            0%                            1%
Awareness of provision                                                                0%                            1%
Greater capacity                                                                      0%                            0%
Availability - Delivery Method                                                        0%                            0%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey

Over two thirds of organisations in the creative and cultural industry in Northern Ireland (83%)
would support a funding system where the money went directly to companies to manage,
rather than via a funding body.

Across the industry in Northern Ireland, 44% of employers state that all occupations will
maintain their current importance. It is cited by 22% that fundraising will become increasingly
important and 18% understand that marketing will become increasingly important to achieving
a high level of success over the next few years. Generally, a wide spread of occupations are
considered important.

Occupations likely to be important in the future

                                                      Northern Ireland creative and            UK Creative and cultural
                                                                 cultural industries                         industries
All Occupations will maintain current                                          44%                                 39%
importance
Fundraising                                                                            22%                         4%
Marketing                                                                              18%                        12%
ICT                                                                                    16%                        21%
Management                                                                             16%                         6%
Programme/Project Management                                                           16%                         3%
Other                                                                                  13%                         5%
Public Relations                                                                        8%                         3%
Creative                                                                                7%                         2%
Retail/Sales                                                                            5%                         4%
Education                                                                               0%                         4%
Graphic Designer                                                                        0%                         3%


                                                                                                                    23
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Finance                                                                                     0%                         3%
Research                                                                                    0%                         2%
Facilities                                                                                  0%                         2%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey

Future Skills England

Nearly a third of businesses (32%) do not anticipate future skills gaps, and 11% are unable to
                                                                                      88
predict what they might be, though digital and ICT skills score highest (see table 26) .

Perceived future skills needs

                                              England creative and cultural            UK Creative and cultural industries
                                                                 industries
None                                                                   32%                                           32%
Digital skills                                                         16%                                           16%
Don't know                                                             11%                                           11%
ICT skills                                                              9%                                           10%
Creative expertise                                                      8%                                            8%
Online skills                                                           8%                                            8%
Marketing skills                                                        6%                                            7%
N/A                                                                     6%                                            7%
Administrative skills                                                          2%                                     3%
Management                                                                     2%                                      2%
Fundraising                                                                    2%                                      2%
Finance/ Accounting                                                            2%                                      2%
Design skills                                                                  2%                                      2%
Sales skills                                                                   2%                                      2%
Business skills                                                                2%                                      2%
Foreign language                                                               2%                                      1%
skills
Teaching skills                                                                1%                                      1%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey

Free training in certain areas (65%), funding via sector skills councils (56%), subsidies (53%)
and tax breaks for essential training (49%) are the four most commonly cited kinds of support
that would help employers provide more training. The same general trend is true across all
the industry sectors, although free training in certain areas was of particular relevance to the
                             89
cultural heritage sub sector .

Support for training

                                                      England creative and cultural          UK Creative and cultural
                                                                         industries          industries
Free training in certain areas                                                 65%                                   65%
Funding available via Sector Skills                                            56%                                   55%
Council’s
Subsidies                                                                             53%                            53%
Tax breaks for essential training                                                     49%                            47%
None                                                                                  17%                            17%
Funding via any source                                                                 2%                             2%

88
     Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey
89
     Ibid



                                                                                                                       24
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Availability – Subject                                                                1%                          1%
Other                                                                                 1%                          1%
Don't Know                                                                            1%                          1%
Awareness of provision                                                                1%                          1%
Greater capacity                                                                      0%                          0%
Availability - Delivery Method                                                        0%                          0%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey

Over two thirds of organisations in the creative and cultural industry in England (69%) would
support a funding system where the money went directly to companies to manage, rather
than via a funding body.

Across the industry in England, 39% of employers state that all occupations will maintain their
current importance. It is cited by 22% that ICT will become increasingly important and 11%
understand that marketing will become increasingly important to achieving a high level of
                                  90
success over the next few years .

Table 1: Occupations likely to be important in the future

                                                      England creative and cultural         UK Creative and cultural
                                                                         industries         industries
All Occupations will maintain current                                          39%                                39%
importance
ICT                                                                                   22%                        21%
Marketing                                                                             11%                        12%
Management                                                                             6%                         6%
Other                                                                                  5%                         5%
Retail/Sales                                                                           4%                         4%
Fundraising                                                                            4%                         4%
Education                                                                              4%                         4%
Graphic Designer                                                                       4%                         3%
Finance                                                                                3%                         3%
Programme/Project Management                                                           2%                         3%
Public Relations                                                                       3%                         3%
Research                                                                               2%                         2%
Creative                                                                               2%                         2%
Facilities                                                                             2%                         2%
Creative & Cultural Skills (2009) Creative and Cultural Industries Workforce Survey




90
     Ibid



                                                                                                                  25
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
2. Sub-sector Advertising

2.1 A brief description of what the sub-sector covers at UK level
Advertising agencies (creative, media, direct marketing, digital, sponsorship, specialist
agencies etcetera) are core to the advertising industry and are firmly positioned within the
„creative industries‟, alongside architecture, design, fashion and computer services.


2.2 Information on careers available and new emerging jobs, transferability of skills, career
paths and opportunities for progression

Jobs available in Advertising include:

       Account Manager
       Account Planner
       Advertising Account Executive
       Advertising Account Planner
       Advertising Art Director
       Advertising Installer
       Advertising Media Buyer
       Advertising Media Planner
       Brand Manager
       Copywriter / Art Director
       Event and Exhibition Organiser

For full details see section on Job Profiles (8.10)

Creative Careers in Advertising:
Creative careers in advertising include jobs in copywriting and art direction/graphic design.
Copywriters are in charge of writing the words that accompany the main image, while the job
of art directors and graphic designers is to develop the illustrations, colouring and layout of
the advertisement. Art directors also need to see how the copywriters' words fit in with the
illustrations and how the two look together.
As a result, creative opportunities in advertising require a lot of imagination, ingenuity and
original ideas. The ability to work long hours and do whatever it takes to meet deadlines is
also a must.
Commercial Careers in Advertising:
Commercial careers in advertising involve planning the advertising strategy and an analysis of
markets and targets. Media management and market research are the main strands here.
Media managers or strategy planners use data available to them through the market
researchers to construct the marketing plan. Skills needed are common sense, numeracy and
an ability to tap the consumer mindset. Once a plan has been made, it is passed to the
creative department.
For more information on careers in the advertising industry visit Creative Choices.


2.3 Information on pay scales in the sector

Pay scales in this industry are variable and therefore care should be taken when advising on
this area. The following data provides an indication of the wages structure of the current
advertising workforce:

       37% earn more than £41,000 per annum
       12% earn between £29,000-£41,000
       6% earn between £20,000-£29,000



                                                                                                   26
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
           18% earn between £10,000-£20,000
           28% earn less than £10,000

 40%
       Distribution of employees by wage band
                                                                                                             37%

 35%




 30%
                   28%



 25%




 20%
                                                 18%


 15%

                                                                                         12%

 10%


                                                                     6%

 5%




 0%
              £9,999 or below              £10,000 - £19,999   £20,000 - £28,999   £29,000 - £40,999   £41,000 or above

                                                                  % Employment




2.4 Information on entry requirements, application processes (e.g. Apprenticeships)
It is not always necessary to have a degree or qualifications for advertising careers. More
important is creativity, quick-thinking, an outgoing personality and the ability to keep up with
regular deadlines. In short, recruiters tend to look at applicants' characteristics rather than
qualifications or training.
However, this is being challenged at the moment, with critics saying the industry needs to be
more structured. Recruitment methods tend to be very informal and a number of those looking
for opportunities in advertising begin with undertaking low-paid or unpaid placements.
In the industry, as their highest qualification:
           52% have a level 4+ qualification (degree and above)
           7% have a level 4 qualification (foundation degree level)
           14% have a level 3 qualification (A-levels)
           17% have a level 2 qualification (GCSE level)
           6% have a below level 2 qualification or no qualification




                                                                                                                    27
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
 60%

         Distribution of employees by skill level

                                                                                        52%

 50%




 40%




 30%




 20%
                                                     17%
                                                                14%



 10%
                                                                               7%

             4%                                                                                    4%
                                    2%

 0%
         No Quals                Level <2           Level 2    Level 3       Level 4   Level 4+   Other

                                                              % Employment


Entry requirements for this industry vary depending on the job role being applied for. Some
roles require no formal qualifications; however having relevant qualifications and experience
will enhance employment opportunities, especially for higher paid job roles.
Technical/specialist roles may require specific qualifications and/or experience; however
some employers may invest in training a suitable candidate. Employers are also looking for
employees who show enthusiasm and have basic employability skills (team working; turn up
on time, communication skills etc.). Application requirements will vary dependant on the
organisation.

Advertising agencies demand creativity from everyone. The ability to create new ideas rather
than execute existing ones is becoming more crucial then ever to the industry and to be able
to think laterally about how those ideas can be applied to solve business problems.

Related to this has been the recent drive led by the IPA, and supported by Creative & Cultural
Skills, to validate the Diagonal Thinking™ hypothesis and then develop a test for it. To be
successful in the advertising industry requires 'linear' and 'lateral' thinking.
Creative Apprenticeships:
The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, music or theatre, are given flexible work-
based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain qualifications
(GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
There are no current plans for a Creative Apprenticeship in Advertising.

2.5 Qualifications

In all the creative and cultural industries, the dominance of „talent‟ as the raw material on
which the sector depends is often perceived as transcending educational processes such as
examinations, qualifications and training.




                                                                                                          28
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Relative to other creative and cultural industries, there is very little provision of specific
advertising education at any level.
In schools, there is an advertising option within the sector related disciplines of the new
Diploma in Creative & Media (more information available here www.skillset.org)
There are no accredited „low level‟ qualifications (levels 1 – 3) that directly relate to the
advertising industry.
Across the creative and cultural industries there is a high level of graduate recruitment and
currently 46% of the workforce is educated to graduate level or above. Because these
industries are perceived as attractive to new entrants there is an over-reliance on degrees
and higher degrees as a means of shortlisting new recruits.
Reflecting this, there are high level qualifications (such as undergraduate and postgraduate
degrees) available in advertising or closely related subject areas. There are also Foundation
Degrees available in Digital Advertising and Graphic Design and Advertising. These can be
found through Creative Choices Find a Course tool.
However, advertising draws its employees from many sources and as there is no overt
agreement on the merits of particular qualifications it is difficult to generalise the most
common types of qualifications that people in the industry have, or that employers value.
Therefore the type of qualifications an individual has gained before entering the industry is
generally not seen as important.
Employers in the advertising industry use external training for their staff far more often than
the other creative and cultural sectors. These are commonly specialised training programmes
offered by industry bodies, such as the IPA‟s Professional Development courses or D&AD‟s
professional development programmes and workshops, which do not lead to accredited
qualifications.
Apprenticeships:
The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, music or theatre, are given flexible work-
based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain qualifications
(GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
There are no current plans for a Creative Apprenticeship in Advertising.

Training, Further and Higher Education:

Advertising specific education and training information can be found through Creative Choices
Find a Course tool and Creative & Cultural Skills Sector Qualification Strategy.


2.6 Data on employment and labour market trends and forecasts

Across the UK there are 345 businesses employing just over 21,000 people. The sector
differs to other creative and cultural industries in that 64% of businesses employ more than 20
staff.

Business and workforce characteristics:
       There are 21,455 people working in the advertising sector.
                This has declined by 19% since 2006
       17% are self employed
                Those who are self employed have on average a lower qualification as their
                 highest qualification than those who are employed
       There is a majority of male workers in the sector (56%)
                Women are generally more highly qualified than men (53% have an above
                 level 4 qualification as their highest qualification compare to 50% of men)


                                                                                                   29
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
                Women are likely to earn less money than men (79% of women in advertising
                 earn less than £20,000 per annum, compared to 33% of men).
       92% of the advertising workforce is white.
       Advertising contributes £1.11B of GVA to the UK economy.
       There are 345 businesses in the sector.
       64% of businesses employ more than 20 people.
The advertising market is oversupplied across the UK and barriers to entry are low. New
technologies have led to the proliferation of different media advertising opportunities. Because
of the fragmentation of consumers across different media, new markets are opening up. This
has led to agencies setting up specialist services working alongside favoured specialist
suppliers or training their existing staff to understand and deliver a broader spread of
communications tools.
Recruitment methods can be very informal (e.g. a conversation in a pub). The industry tends
to be outward looking and the relationship between agencies and clients is paramount. This
comes at the risk of neglecting employees and their development. Staff turnover is generally
high with the perception that this keeps the industry fresh, ensures agencies can access new
ideas, and is a good indicator of an employee‟s ambition, drive, and determination to
succeed.
Advertising is small industry that has real influence. This leads some agencies to describe it
as a „cottage industry‟, where personal relationships are very important.
Changes in employment:
The key drivers of change in the industry include:
       The proliferation of new advertising methods (digital and interactive media) driven in
        large part by new technology. There is a virtuous circle of media fuelling technology
        and vice versa.
       The changing behaviour of consumers as a result of new technology and the
        pressures this puts on the industry to maintain lines of communication with the
        consumer.
       The convergence of different technology and the effects this is having on
        communication planning.
       The challenges and opportunities presented by globalisation.
       The demographics of the industry.
       Regulation (e.g. employment law).
       Increasing client sophistication (e.g. introduction of procurement layer), which is
        forcing the industry to become more professional.
       Renewed focus on improving creativity throughout all job roles (i.e. the quality of the
        creative product, quality of ideas).
Further information is available in The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills Agreement for the
Creative and Cultural Industries.


2.7 Skill shortages


Three broad skills shortage areas are described below; drivers of skills, current skills needs
and future skills need.

Drivers of Skills:
There are 5 key drivers of new skills in the advertising industry:
       Digital, Interactive Technology and the Proliferation of Channels: New
        technology offers advertisers new opportunities for communicating ideas to an
        audience.


                                                                                                   30
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       Globalisation: Specifically, the rise of multi-national corporations has presented new
        opportunities for global branding.
       Demographics: How an agency reflects its target audience will be increasingly vital.
       Client Sophistication: Pressure on potential clients to show value for money and
        return on investment in advertising has put pressure on the advertising industry to
        demonstrate effectiveness.
       Procurement of Advertising: Companies are realising more and more that they
        need to cut costs not just through products but also through services.

Current Skills:
With regards to current skills needs in the industry:
       Creative and IT roles are most difficult to fill. This is linked to the growing importance
        of digital and interactive media and how to creatively apply this knowledge.
       Management and leadership were skills considered most sought after in new recruits
        into the industry.
       Of those employed in the sector, the creative role is again considered the most
        difficult to provide for.
       There are three key skills that companies feel are insufficiently retained by their staff;
        IT, sales, and management skills.

Future Skills:
Key future skills include:
       Communication Planning: Communication planners will need to understand
        differing communication media, their costs, effectiveness, and availability and to
        evaluate their effectiveness in bringing brands to consumers.
       IP and the Ownership of Ideas: The importance of owning ideas will become even
        more important as will the ability to apply an idea across a number of different
        markets.
       Organisation and Logistics: The ability to coordinate and organise campaigns
        effectively.
       Management and Leadership: With increasingly integrated campaigns, the need for
        an individual to manage the practical requirements and ensure smooth integration is
        increasingly important.
Further information on skills shortages is available in The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills
Agreement for the Creative and Cultural Industries.


2.8 Information on opportunities for adults changing career direction

It is not always necessary to have a degree or qualifications for advertising careers. Entry
requirements for this industry vary depending on the job role being applied for. Some roles
require no formal qualifications; however having relevant qualifications and experience will
enhance employment opportunities, especially for higher paid job roles. Technical/specialist
roles may require specific qualifications and/or experience; however some employers may
invest in training a suitable candidate. Employers are also looking for employees who show
enthusiasm and have basic employability skills (team working; turn up on time,
communication skills etc.). Application requirements will vary dependant on the organisation.

For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.


2.9 Information on points of entry or transfer into a sector from another area sector.



                                                                                                   31
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
It is not always necessary to have a degree or qualifications for advertising careers. Entry
requirements for this industry vary depending on the job role being applied for. Some roles
require no formal qualifications; however having relevant qualifications and experience will
enhance employment opportunities, especially for higher paid job roles. Relevant
transferable skills will also enhance employment opportunities. Technical/specialist roles may
require specific qualifications and/or experience; however some employers may invest in
training a suitable candidate. Employers are also looking for employees who show
enthusiasm and have basic employability skills (team working; turn up on time,
communication skills etc.). Application requirements will vary dependant on the organisation.

For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.

2.10 Job profiles


Job profiles in the Advertising industry can be found on Creative Choices Job Profile page.

Job profiles listed are as follows:

       Account Manager
       Account Planner
       Advertising Account Executive
       Advertising Account Planner
       Advertising Art Director
       Advertising Installer
       Advertising Media Buyer
       Advertising Media Planner
       Brand Manager
       Copywriter / Art Director
       Event and Exhibition Organiser

2.11 Case studies


A number of case studies are available, about working in the advertising industry; these can
be found on Creative Choices Advertising Case Studies page.

2.12 FAQs

Q. I want to work in advertising, but I have no qualifications or experience. What
should I do?

Firstly, the most traditional route into Advertising is via graduate entry although not all roles
require a qualification, for example, administration. Media and Advertising agencies are highly
dependent on effective and highly sophisticated professional administration services. These
include progress chasing, scheduling, record maintenance, and the provision of meticulous
routine reporting and accounting services. Formal qualifications are not normally as important
as shrewd common sense and reliability.

Just about all advertising jobs demand an interest in people. This is more or less the only
common denominator. The other qualifications depend on specific job, which can call for very
different interest, attitudes and temperaments. The main categories of work available in
Advertising are; „Creative‟, „Planning‟, „Statistics‟, „Research and Analysis‟, „Buying and
Selling‟, „Sales Promotion‟, „Management‟ and „Administration‟.

Q. Once I gain employment what are the opportunities for progression?

There are many options for moving sideways as well as upwards – e.g. between an
advertising agency and a client, or perhaps in, out of, or between the media. This is partly



                                                                                                   32
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
because similar skills and knowledge are in demand in all three sectors, partly because
hands-on experience in one field is often thought valuable by an employer in another one.

2.13 Sources of additional information, web-links etc


Further information about the industry and links to industry organisations can be found on
Creative Choices Advertising Links page

For the latest news, events and career information for the Advertising industry visit the
Creative Choices Advertising News Pages


2.14 Advertising Regional Information


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


For national and regional creative and cultural industries news visit Creative Choices Creative
and Cultural Industries News pages

2.14.1 Advertising East Midlands. - Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and
labour market trends and forecasts, and skill shortages.

The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 44380 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   35% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 54% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.1B or 4% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25,000
   There are 3950 creative businesses in the region.
   92% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


2.14.2 Advertising East of England
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages




                                                                                                   33
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 63,700 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   37% are self employed, (41% UK Creative & Cultural Skills average), (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   66% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.8B or 7% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £27000
   There are 6710 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


2.14.3 Advertising London
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 164690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce in London, this
    represents 24% of the workforce.
   51% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   84% of the sector workforce is white 56% under 40 years.
   The industries contribute £13.1B GVA of the Creative & Cultural UK wide £25B
   GVA per employee is £79700
   There are 21600 businesses in London.
   93% of the businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more than
    £1M
2.14.4 Advertising North East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.


                                                                                                   34
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 19680 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 3% of the UK workforce.
   38% are self employed, UK average 41%.
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural workforce average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   96% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £491 million or 2% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are 1330 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m


2.14.5 Advertising North West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 59580 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   34% are self employed majority in Arts and Music, UK Creative & Cultural workforce total
    41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   62% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 55% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.9B or 8% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £32 200
   There are 5660 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


2.14.6 Advertising South East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 98170 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.


                                                                                                   35
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   This 14% of the UK workforce. SE and London together represent 44% of the UK
    workforce.
   43% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%),
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 47% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £3.8B or 15% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £39 200.
   There are 12 300 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


2.14.7 Advertising South West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 60690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   47% are self employed majority in Arts, Design and Music, UK Creative & Cultural
    workforce average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   98% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.5B or 6% GVA, UK £23.5B.
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are approximately 5000 creative businesses in the region 93% employ less than
    50, 7% have a turnover of more than £1m.


2.14.8 Advertising West Mids
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 40300 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 6% of the UK workforce.



                                                                                                   36
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   31% are self employed. This is the lowest regional figure, UK Creative & Cultural Skills
    average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   91% of the sector workforce is white, and 49% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.7B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £41 500
   There are 5060 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 150 people and 8% have a turnover of
    more than £1m.
2.14.9 Advertising Yorkshire and the Humber
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 45900 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   40% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   60% of the workforce is male, the same as the UK Creative & Cultural Skills average (UK
    total UK workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.4B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £31200
   There are just under 4000 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


2.14.10 Advertising Northern Ireland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.


The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 21455 people working in Advertising sub-sector
   1% of the Advertising industry is located in N. Ireland.
   More than 99% of the Advertising sector is white.
   74% of the Advertising sector is male.
   Advertising in Northern Ireland contributes £7M of GVA to the UK economy

2.14.11 Advertising Scotland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.


                                                                                                   37
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 21455 people working in advertising sector
   2% of the Advertising industry is located in Scotland.
   More than 88% of the Advertising sector is white.
   57% of the Advertising sector are female.
   Advertising in Scotland contributes £36M of GVA to the UK economy.


2.14.12 (Advertising) Wales
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 21455 people working in Advertising sector
   2% of the advertising industry is located in Wales.
   More than 99% of the advertising sector is white.
   79% of those working in Advertising in Wales are male.
   Advertising in Wales contributes £5.3M of GVA to the UK economy.




                                                                                                   38
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
3. Sub-sector Craft

3.1 A brief description of what the sub-sector covers at UK level


Craft is predominantly made up of individual designer makers and small businesses from a
diverse range of disciplines spanning the contemporary and traditional/heritage spectrum.
Designer made traditional and contemporary craft covers a wide range of individual
disciplines including:
       basketmaking
       bookbinding
       candlemaking
       ceramics
       fashion accessories
       furniture
       glass
       heritage and traditional crafts
       jewellery
       leather working
       lettering and calligraphy
       metal working
       mosaic
       musical instrument making
       paper crafts
       recycled textiles
       stone carving
       taxidermy
       textiles
       toys and automata
       wood turning and sculpture.


3.2 Information on careers available and new emerging jobs, transferability of skills career
paths and opportunities for progression


Entry routes into the crafts sector are diverse, with the majority of professionals entering as a
second career. In addition, a significant proportion of professional makers describe
themselves as being mostly self-taught: 35% of makers in England and Wales, 51% of
makers in Scotland and 46% of makers in Northern Ireland.
This diversity of routes into the sector, together with the frequently part time nature of crafts
work, demands a wide range of educational opportunities, including adult education, formal
apprenticeships and learning-on-the-job, as well as undergraduate, postgraduate and
foundation level degrees. Informal learning opportunities, including courses run by makers
and by craft guilds, are also a key part of the education landscape, often offering the first
contact which fires an individual‟s enthusiasm for craft.
For more information on Craft specific entry routes visit Creative Choices crafts page.


3.3 Information on pay scales in the sector




                                                                                                    39
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Pay scales in this industry are variable and therefore care should be taken when advising on
this area. The following data provides an indication of the wages structure of the current
craft workforce:

           4% earn more than £41,000 per annum
           14% earn between £29,000-£41,000
           27% earn between £20,000-£29,000
           38% earn between £10,000-£20,000
           17% earn less than £10,000

 40%
       Distribution of employees by wage band     38%


 35%




 30%

                                                                      27%


 25%




 20%

                    17%


 15%                                                                                      14%




 10%




 5%                                                                                                           4%




 0%
               £9,999 or below              £10,000 - £19,999   £20,000 - £28,999   £29,000 - £40,999   £41,000 or above

                                                                  % Employment




3.4 Information on entry requirements, application processes (e.g. Apprenticeships)


The nature of the craft sector raises challenges both for career progression and for guidance
on navigating that progression. In schools and Further Education, knowledge of career
opportunities and pathways within crafts is limited and this has a knock-on effect on the
diversity and age profile of the sector. That such a large proportion of makers come to craft as
a second career suggests that at earlier career stages, individuals may be unaware of the
breadth of available opportunities. The craft sector‟s relatively low profile (compounded by the
issues of leadership, ambition, and research considered elsewhere in this section) contributes
to this lack of awareness, particularly of the nature of contemporary craft practice and of
portfolio working.
Craft working itself presents challenges to progression routes and careers advice. Working
across a range of contexts, makers need to develop a suite of skills in addition to core making
and creative skills if they are to progress. In some cases, progression can be hampered
when a craft practice is dispersed across too wide a range of fields, often in order to sustain a
living but limiting development in any one direction.
In the craft industry, as their highest qualification:
           28% have a level 4+ qualification (degree and above)
           5% have a level 4 qualification (foundation degree level)
           22% have a level 3 qualification (A-levels)
           23% have a level 2 qualification (GCSE level)
           15% have a below level 2 qualification or no qualification



                                                                                                                   40
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
 30%

         Distribution of employees by skill level
                                                                                        28%



 25%
                                                     23%

                                                                22%


 20%




 15%




            10%
 10%


                                                                                                   7%

                                    5%                                         5%
 5%




 0%
         No Quals                Level <2           Level 2    Level 3       Level 4   Level 4+   Other

                                                              % Employment



Creative Apprenticeships:


The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, music or theatre, are given flexible work-
based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain qualifications
(GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
Consultation for a Creative Apprenticeship in Craft is currently under discussion.
For more information on Entry, progression and applications in the craft sector go to Creative
Choices Craft Café Blog.
The nature of self employed work in the craft sector makes specific entry and progression
routes hard to identify. The sector relies more on individual talent and a passion for craft
making.


3.5 Qualifications


In all the creative and cultural industries, the dominance of „talent‟ as the raw material on
which the sector depends is often perceived as transcending educational processes such as
examinations, qualifications and training.
However there are a range of qualifications that prepare learners for further learning and
develop their knowledge and/ or skills in craft.
In schools craft education is embedded within, and split between, Design & Technology and
Art & Design GCSE and A Level qualifications. However there is a specific craft option within
the sector related disciplines of the new Diploma in Creative & Media (more information
available here www.skillset.org)



                                                                                                          41
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
There are around 25 different accredited vocational craft qualifications offered by a variety of
Awarding Bodies through colleges and employers. These provide either a broad grounding in
craft disciplines (such as in Creative Craft or Design & Craft) or in more specialised areas
(such as Bookbinding, Model Making, or Gemmology).

There are also a very large number (100+) of accredited low-level vocational qualifications on
offer in Art & Design and in even broader subjects (such as Creative Arts, Creative Skills and
The Arts) which provide elements of craft education.

The only accredited occupational qualification (which confirms a learner is competent in a
particular occupation) currently available in a craft discipline is a Level 2 National Vocational
Qualification (NVQ) in Jewellery Manufacture.
There is some evidence that craft employers (including sole traders) value accredited
qualifications, but they tend not to use them in training their staff or themselves. More
commonly employers and practitioners create their own informal, non-accredited, bespoke
training solutions or work through Guilds and Societies who provide training programmes for
their members. There is a wide range of this kind of informal craft education which provides a
variety of entry and progression routes.
Apprenticeships historically formed the basis of learning in craft and they continue informally
within the traditional crafts sector, but not to any significant level within contemporary craft.
There is currently no craft apprenticeship pathway within the Creative Apprenticeships,
though the potential for this is being explored.
Over the last 40 years the basis of learning has been taken over by formal higher education.
Across the creative and cultural industries there is a high level of graduate recruitment and
currently 46% of the workforce is educated to graduate level or above. Because these
industries are perceived as attractive to new entrants there is an over-reliance on degrees
and higher degrees as a means of shortlisting new recruits.
Reflecting this, there are over 50 Foundation Degrees in craft or closely related disciplines,
and a range of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in craft, ceramics & glass, and other
art and design subject areas. These can be found through Creative Choices Find a Course
tool

Creative Apprenticeships:

The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, music or theatre, are given flexible work-
based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain qualifications
(GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
Creative Apprenticeships in craft are under discussion.


Training, Further and Higher Education:

Craft specific education and training information can be found through Creative Choices Find
a Course tool, Creative & Cultural Skills Sector Qualification Strategy and The Craft Blueprint
(due for publication in June 2009).

3.6 Data on employment and labour market trends and forecasts

Across the UK there are over 13,000 businesses employing more than 88,000 people.

Business and workforce characteristics:
       There are 88250 people working in the Craft sector.
       37% are self employed




                                                                                                   42
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
                Self employed workers are more likely to have a qualification at level 4 or
                 above (51%) compared to those who are employed (23%)
       There is a majority of male workers in the sector (65%)
                Women (43%) are more likely to have a level 4 or above qualification than
                 men (27%)

                Women (67%) are more likely to earn less than £20,000 per year compared
                 to men (50%)

       94% of the Craft workforce is white.
       Craft contributes £2.9B of GVA to the UK economy.
       There are 13060 businesses in the sector.
       98% of businesses employ less than 50 people.


Key features of the craft sector include:
       Large number of makers operating in the same, often small and localised, market
        places.
       A split between focus upon conceptual work and more commercial work.
       Buyers put a lot of value on individual, bespoke, one-off items. Provenance is
        important as is continual new product design and development.
       Pricing and establishing the value of the craft sector is poorly understood.
       To be successful, professionalism within the sector should be recognised and
        understood by peers within the creative and cultural industries and the general public.
       To be successful, the makers within the sector should be able to maintain a
        sustainable living.
       To be successful, makers within the sector should have the freedom to pursue the
        development of their skills.
Further information is available in The Craft Blueprint.

3.7 Skill shortages

Three broad skills shortage areas are described below; drivers of skills, current skills needs
and future skills need.

Drivers of Skills:
The key drivers of change in the industry include:
       Innovation: Craft is about creating something unique. Innovation is a key element of
        the sector in terms of both product and method.
       Information Technology: IT is increasingly being used in the production of craft for
        example the use of CAD/CAM products.
       Education: Declining craft education in school and fewer evening and weekend
        courses prohibit entry to the sector.
       Environmentalism: Traditionally many craft practitioners have been driven by the
        desire to produce environmentally sound goods. The current focus on climate change
        and eco-friendly industries has improved the market for craft.
       Diversity: Makers draw upon diverse backgrounds and experience to influence their
        work and will sell different types of products, in different market places.
       Government Policy: The lack of representation for craft in government statistics
        means it can be over looked and craft is sometimes perceived as the poor relation to
        fine art.



                                                                                                   43
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       Leadership: Practitioners are becoming more involved in decision making groups,
        panels and forums regarding the future of the sector.
       Public Interest: Through increased interest in craft, practitioners are recognising the
        value of their creative skills and capitalising upon them.

Current Skills:
With regards to current skills needs in the industry:
       There has been a serious decline in the practical and technical element of craft
        training where provision of workshop space, equipment and materials is causing
        institutions to review and reduce provision.
       The relatively small numbers of potential trainees in specialised craft areas is a
        barrier to provision and can lead these skills being overlooked within the scope of
        broad educational developments and can cause problems in gaining accreditation
        and funding.
       The majority of crafts people operate as sole-traders or micro-businesses and there is
        a need to provide business support and training tailored to sector needs particularly in
        the areas of business start-up and pricing, selling and marketing.
       There is a need to support the development of leadership within the sector, for both
        existing leaders and developing a new generation. There is currently a lack of
        infrastructure to support leadership development in the sector.

Future Skills:
With regards to current skills needs in the industry:
       Negotiation and Partnership Building: As more makers look to collaborate with other
        industries there is likely to be an increased demand for training in negotiation and
        partnerships.
       IT and Digital Technology: New entrants to the sector will continue to need training in
        areas such as e-commerce, using software packages to build websites and present
        their work.
       Teaching: Makers may need further training in how to teach their skills to others -
        particularly children.
       Leadership: To continue having more focused leadership the sector needs to be able
        to train a next generation of leaders appropriately.
Further information on skills shortages is available in The Craft Blueprint.

3.8 Information on opportunities for adults changing career direction

Entry routes into the crafts sector are diverse, with the majority of professionals entering as a
second career. In addition, a significant proportion of professional makers describe
themselves as being mostly self-taught. This diversity of routes into the sector, together with
the frequently part time nature of crafts work, means there is a wide range of educational
opportunities available to adults changing career direction, including adult education, formal
apprenticeships and learning-on-the-job, as well as undergraduate, postgraduate and
foundation level degrees. Informal learning opportunities, including courses run by makers
and by craft guilds, are also a key part of the education landscape, and may facilitate a
transition into a new career in craft.

Most craft organisation or centre qualifications will ask to assess a portfolio of work and past
experience of adult entrants on interview. Sole-makers will need to develop a suite of skills in
addition to core making and creative skills if they are to progress, including marketing skills.

For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.




                                                                                                   44
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
3.9 Information on points of entry or transfer into a sector from another area sector.

Key transferable skills from other area sectors will be needed to facilitate a transfer into craft.
If these are lacking, there is a wide range of educational opportunities available to adults
changing career direction, including adult education, formal apprenticeships and learning-on-
the-job, as well as undergraduate, postgraduate and foundation level degrees. Informal
learning opportunities, including courses run by makers and by craft guilds, are also a key
part of the education landscape, and may facilitate a transition into a new career in craft.

Most craft organisation or centre qualifications will ask to assess a portfolio of work and past
experience of adult entrants on interview. Sole-makers will need to develop a suite of skills in
addition to core making and creative skills if they are to progress, including marketing skills.



For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.

3.10 Job profiles


Job profiles in the Craft industry can be found on Creative Choices Job Profile page.

Job profiles listed are as follows. The craft sector is very diverse and the list below is not
exhaustive:

       Blacksmith
       Craft Maker
       Engraver
       Gemologist
       Glassmaker
       Gold/Silversmith
       Graphic Crafts Maker
       Hair Makeup and Wigs
       Heritage and Historical Skills
       Illustrator
       Joiner and Cabinet Maker
       Leatherworker
       Medical Illustrator
       Model Maker
       Musical Instrument Maker
       Potter/Ceramicist
       Props Maker
       Rural Crafts Maker
       Sculptor
       Stone Mason
       Studio Jeweler
       Taxidermist
       Technical Illustrator
       Textile Maker
       Toy Maker
       Wood Worker

3.11 Case studies


A number of case studies are available, about working in the advertising industry; these can
be found on Creative Choices Craft Case Studies page.


3.12    FAQs


                                                                                                   45
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Q: I want to work in craft but I have no qualifications or experience. What should I do?
A: It is not always necessary to have qualifications to work in craft however it is essential to
have skills which can be learnt informally or formally either through work shadowing,
apprenticeships, attending short courses offered through guilds and societies or the short
courses or weekend workshops that many makers offer. Or you could enroll on an adult
education course or commence formal study with either a public or a private training provider
at HE or FE level although many craft disciplines are not always covered in formal training –
especially in the nations.

Q: Once I gain employment what are the opportunities for progression?
A: It depends on the craft discipline and on your desired job role. If you are not interested in
designing objects then there are many other highly skilled jobs within craft that you could
pursue. In jewellery you might be a polisher and work for an employer as part of their
company, or you could work for several jewellery employers simultaneously. If you are
interested in designing as well as making objects then you could have a career as a sole
trader, freelancer, set up your own company employing staff, or be involved in portfolio
working with other craft and design disciplines, craft galleries, health and engineering sectors.

If you are interested in craft research and identifying new digital technologies and/or
combinations of materials and processes then you could be employed by universities, and
many different craft employers to inform their work. If you are interested in craft curatorial
work then you could work for craft retailers and craft galleries or outsource your skills to
hospitals and other public sector exhibition spaces. If you are interested in craft conservation
and restoration work then you could be employed by museums and built heritage
organisations as well as construction companies on „grand design‟ projects as well.


3.13 Sources of additional information, web-links etc

Further information about the industry and links to industry organisations can be found on
Creative Choices Craft Links page

For the latest news, events and career information for the craft industry visit the Creative
Choices Craft News Pages


3.14 Creative and Cultural Industry Regional Information


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


For national and regional creative and cultural industries news visit Creative Choices Creative
and Cultural Industries News pages


3.14.1 East Midlands
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages.


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.



                                                                                                   46
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


   There are 44380 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   35% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 54% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.1B or 4% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25,000
   There are 3950 creative businesses in the region.
   92% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


3.14.2 East of England
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 63,700 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   37% are self employed, (41% UK Creative & Cultural Skills average), (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   66% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.8B or 7% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £27000
   There are 6710 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


3.14.3 London
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.




                                                                                                   47
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 164690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce in London, this
    represents 24% of the workforce.
   51% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   84% of the sector workforce is white 56% under 40 years.
   The industries contribute £13.1B GVA of the Creative & Cultural UK wide £25B
   GVA per employee is £79700
   There are 21600 businesses in London.
   93% of the businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more than
    £1M
3.14.4 North East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 19680 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 3% of the UK workforce.
   38% are self employed, UK average 41%.
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural workforce average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   96% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £491 million or 2% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are 1330 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m


3.14.5 North West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 59580 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.


                                                                                                   48
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   34% are self employed majority in Arts and Music, UK Creative & Cultural workforce total
    41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   62% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 55% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.9B or 8% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £32 200
   There are 5660 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


3.14.6 South East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 98170 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 14% of the UK workforce. SE and London together represent 44% of the UK
    workforce.
   43% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%),
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 47% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £3.8B or 15% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £39 200.
   There are 12 300 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


3.14.7 South West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 60690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.




                                                                                                   49
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   47% are self employed majority in Arts, Design and Music, UK Creative & Cultural
    workforce average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   98% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.5B or 6% GVA, UK £23.5B.
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are approximately 5000 creative businesses in the region 93% employ less than
    50, 7% have a turnover of more than £1m.


3.14.8 West Mids
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 40300 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 6% of the UK workforce.
   31% are self employed. This is the lowest regional figure, UK Creative & Cultural Skills
    average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   91% of the sector workforce is white, and 49% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.7B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £41 500
   There are 5060 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 150 people and 8% have a turnover of
    more than £1m.
3.14.9 Yorkshire and the Humber
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 45900 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   40% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   60% of the workforce is male, the same as the UK Creative & Cultural Skills average (UK
    total UK workforce average 54%).


                                                                                                   50
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.4B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £31200
   There are just under 4000 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


3.14.10 (Craft) Northern Ireland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 88250 people working in Craft sub-sector
   2% of the Craft industry is located in N. Ireland.
   99% of the Craft sector is white.
   72% of the Craft sector is male.
   Craft in Northern Ireland contributes £39.9M of GVA to the UK economy

3.14.11 (Craft) Scotland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 88250 people working in Craft sub-sector
   6% of the Craft industry is located in Scotland
   99% of the Craft sector is white.
   63% of the Craft sector is male.
   Craft in Scotland contributes £131M of GVA to the UK economy

3.14.12 (Craft) Wales
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

National data is presented below.
   There are 88250 people working in Craft sub-sector
   4% of the Craft industry is located in Wales
   More than 99% of the Craft sector is white.
   68% of the Craft sector is male.
   Craft in Scotland contributes £73M of GVA to the UK economy


3.14.13 (Craft) England
National data is presented below.
   There are 88250 people working in Craft sub-sector
    88% of the Craft industry is located in England


                                                                                                   51
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   91% of the Craft sector is white.
   65% of the Craft sector is male.
   Craft in England contributes £2.6B of GVA to the UK economy




                                                                                                   52
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
4. Sub-sector Cultural Heritage

4.1 A brief description of what the sub-sector covers at UK level
The cultural heritage sector includes museums, galleries with collections, built heritage,
conservation, heritage landscape, archaeology, and related member organisations. The
sector contributes £1.01 billion to the UK economy, an increase from £952 million in 2006.
Cultural heritage is the legacy of past generations that is preserved and shared with today‟s
society and kept for future generations. Cultural heritage helps us to understand how society
has evolved and contributes to shaping the future.
It is broad, encompassing historic buildings, landscapes and collections – from towns, cities
and rural spaces in the UK, to collections from across the world. It stretches beyond the
tangible to languages, customs and practices. Cultural heritage is owned and held in trust on
behalf of the public. The public are central to defining what constitutes the UK‟s cultural
heritage by the value that they place on it. The sector‟s unique role has ensured its position
as a key driver for regeneration. It supports the development of cohesive communities and
contributes to shaping the cultural identity of specific places.
The sector comprises all those who collect, preserve, study and communicate the past,
present and future in order to develop and promote understanding and curiosity. It consists of
a variety of organisations, institutions, sector bodies and individuals. They operate at a
national level across the UK, for devolved nations or at a regional and grass-roots level. A
core part of the sector is publicly funded and volunteering is significant in the industry.
The cultural heritage sector:
       Collects, preserves and interprets the past
       Develops and shares knowledge and ideas
       Provides opportunities for learning and engagement
       Enriches people‟s lives and creates a sense of place and identity
       Provides creativity, inspiration, and enjoyment.


4.2 Information on careers available and new emerging jobs, transferability of skills career
paths and opportunities for progression

Jobs available in Cultural Heritage include:

       Administration
       Admission Staff
       Archaeological Scientist
       Archaeologist
       Archivist
       Art Exhibition Organisor
       Art Handler
       Art Valuer
       Artistic Director
       Arts Administrator
       Attendant / Gallery Staff
       Box Office Staff
       Conservation Officer
       Curator
       Curator, Heritage Manager
       Development Staff
       Director / manager
       Documentation Staff
       Events Staff
       Exhibitions Staff
       Front of House
       Guide / Demonstrator


                                                                                                   53
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       Historian
       Inspector of Ancient Monuments
       Museums Assistant
       Volunteer Co-ordinator

For full details see section on Job Profiles (8.10)

For more information on careers in cultural heritage visit Creative Choices.


4.3 Information on pay scales in the sector

Pay scales in this industry are variable and therefore care should be taken when advising on
this area. The following data provides an indication of the wages structure of the current
cultural heritage workforce:

       <1% earn more than £41,000 per annum
       <1% earn between £29,000-£41,000
       6% earn between £20,000-£29,000
       34% earn between £10,000-£20,000
       60% earn less than £10,000




4.4 Information on entry requirements, application processes (e.g. Apprenticeships)


There are few entry routes into the cultural heritage sector, with a strong emphasis on
academic qualifications. The high cost of training, limited opportunities for on-the-job training,
and the high number of graduates make entry into the sector very competitive.




                                                                                                   54
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Over the past twenty years organisations have moved away from training their own entry-level
staff to relying on Higher Education providers, but there is growing consensus that many of
the skills needed can only be learned on the job. The sector needs to do more entry-level
training itself and develop closer collaboration with Higher Education Institutions, not only on
an organisation to organisation basis, but also in a nationally or regionally co-ordinated way.
In the industry, as their highest qualification:
       50% have a level 4+ qualification (degree and above)
       4% have a level 4 qualification (foundation degree level)
       14% have a level 3 qualification (A-levels)
       16% have a level 2 qualification (GCSE level)
       10% have a below level 2 qualification or no qualification




Volunteering:
Volunteering is a key part of the sector. Experience is a requirement for many jobs across the
sector and volunteering is seen as a key route to gain that experience.
For more information about volunteering in the Cultural Heritage sector visit the following
sites:
       Volunteering England
       Volunteering Scotland
       Volunteering Northern Ireland
       Volunteering Wales


Creative Apprenticeships:


The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, music or theatre, are given flexible work-
based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain qualifications
(GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
In Cultural Heritage the following pathway has been developed:


                                                                                                   55
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Area                 Activity                                Job Roles


Cultural             Dealing effectively with customers      Front of house staff, admin
Venues               Helping organise event and              Attendant /gallery staff
Administration       exhibitions                             Customer/ visitor service
                     Use IT and systems                      staff
                                                             Guide Demonstrator
                                                             Schools liaison



4.5 Qualifications

In schools, GCSE and A Level qualifications are offered in history, archaeology, and history of
art though a wider range of subjects have relevance to the cultural heritage sector. There are
also relevant lines of learning within the new Diplomas in Creative & Media and Humanities &
Social Sciences (more information available here www.skillset.org and here
www.humanitiesdiploma.co.uk)

There are a number of accredited vocational qualifications offered by a variety of Awarding
Bodies through colleges and employers. These qualifications prepare learners for further
learning and develop their knowledge and/ or skills in cultural heritage related disciplines
including Front of House Management, Curators and Bookbinding.

There are a few accredited occupational qualifications (which confirms a learner is competent
in a particular occupation) currently available in areas of cultural heritage including National
Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) in Archaeological Practice; and Museums, Galleries and
Heritage. There are also Level 2 and 3 National Awards in Cultural and Heritage Venue
Operations which form part of the Creative Apprenticeship (more information available here:
http://www.creative-choices.co.uk/server.php?show=nav.189)

Accredited work-based learning is virtually non-existent. Over the past twenty years
employers have moved away from training their own entry-level staff to relying on Higher
Education providers. Across the creative and cultural industries there is a high level of
graduate recruitment and currently 46% of the workforce is educated to graduate level or
above. Because these industries are perceived as attractive to new entrants there is an over-
reliance on degrees and higher degrees as a means of shortlisting new recruits.

Reflecting this, Cultural Heritage employers often demand unnecessary qualification
requirements for entry level positions. To fulfill this demand there are large numbers of
popular undergraduate and postgraduate qualifications in broadly-based programmes within
historical & philosophical studies; history, archaeology, fine art and other sector related areas.
These can be found through Creative Choices Find a Course tool.

Apprenticeships

The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, music or theatre, are given flexible work-
based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain qualifications
(GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
In Cultural Heritage the following pathway has been developed:
Area                 Activity                                Job Roles




                                                                                                   56
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Cultural            Dealing effectively with customers       Front of house staff, admin
Venues              Helping organise event and               Attendant /gallery staff
Administration      exhibitions                              Customer/ visitor service
                    Use IT and systems                       staff
                                                             Guide Demonstrator
                                                             Schools liaison




Training, Further and Higher Education

Cultural Heritage specific education and training information can be found through Creative
Choices Find a Course tool and Creative & Cultural Skills Sector Qualification Strategy.

4.6 Data on employment and labour market trends and forecasts

Across the UK there are 1,510 businesses employing just over 57,000 people. 77%
businesses in the sector employ less than 50 staff.

Business and workforce characteristics
       There are just over 57000 people working in the cultural heritage.
       4% are self employed
             o   Self employed workers (73%) are more likely to have at least a level 4
                 qualification, compared to those who are employed (53%)
       Cultural heritage contributes £1.01B of GVA to the UK economy.
       There is a small majority of female workers in the industry (52%).
             o   Women (60%) are more likely to have a level 4 or above qualification than
                 men (46%)
             o   74% of women earn less than £10,000 compared to 51% of men
       93% of the cultural heritage workforce is white.
       There are 1,510 businesses in the sector.
       77% of organisations employ less than 50 people.
The sector is heavily publicly funded. Targets and benchmarks are generally ascribed to this
funding. These targets often involve increasing customer numbers in socio-economic groups
of importance to the funding provider. It is a feature of the public sector that funds are often
delivered through specific programmes that have a finite time frame. This results in two
identifiable features:
       Short time horizons: Long term planning is considered difficult because funding is
        contingent on many factors, some outside the control of the sector itself.
       A disjointed relationship with customers: Within cultural heritage the relationship with
        customers and standards of customer service are often routed through the conditions
        and targets set by funders rather than through a direct demand and supply
        relationship.
Although the sector is moving towards a more commercial model it still does not tend to
compete in the traditional sense. The focus is on organisations being the best that they can
be, rather than being better than another similar organisation. Non specialists are often
employed in key strategic positions in cultural heritage organisations.

Changes in employment:
The key drivers of change in the industry include:
       Social Inclusion: Heritage is seen by central Government as a significant route to
        engage excluded individuals and communities.



                                                                                                   57
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       Public Sector priorities and funding: Cultural heritage, more than any other sector is
        driven significantly by Public Sector spending priorities.
       Planning Policy: Applies particularly to Historic Environment businesses and
        organisations in relation to Local Authorities planning role.
       Increasing Commercialisation: Accountability and performance targets are embedded
        in the conditions of funding across the Public Sector. This has meant organisations
        becoming far more business like.
       Threats to Heritage: Where funding from outside of the sector is perceived by some
        parts of the cultural heritage industry to be influencing the structure of the industry.
Further information is available in The Cultural Heritage Blueprint

4.7 Skill shortages

Three broad skills shortage areas are described below; drivers of skills, current skills needs
and future skills need.
There are 5 key drivers of new skills in the cultural heritage industry:
Drivers of Skills:
       Social Inclusion: Heritage is seen by central Government as a significant route to
        engage excluded individuals and communities.
       Public Sector priorities and funding: Cultural heritage, more than any other sector
        is driven significantly by Public Sector spending priorities.
       Planning Policy: Applies particularly to Historic Environment businesses and
        organisations in relation to Local Authorities planning role.
       Increasing Commercialisation: Accountability and performance targets are
        embedded in the conditions of funding across the Public Sector. This has meant
        organisations becoming far more business like.
       Threats to Heritage: Where funding from outside of the sector is perceived by some
        parts of the cultural heritage industry to be influencing the structure of the industry.

Current Skills:
With regards to current skills needs in the industry:
       Leadership: including advocacy and the skills needed to provide vision and direction
        to the industry.
       Management: skills needed to ensure that organisations operates efficiently and
        effectively.
       Technical Skills: maintaining standards and quality e.g., in Conservation.
       Customer Services: skills focussing on the quality of service provided.
       Education and Interpretation: focussing on communication, audience and services.

Future Skills:
Key future skills include:
       Management and Leadership: Two broad views on management and leadership are
        prevalent; firstly that, where possible, managers and leaders should have experience
        of the sector (and not be recruited from other industries). And secondly, despite this,
        these skills were so lacking that it is important to import best practice examples from
        other successful industries.
       Technical skills: This encompasses a broad range of skills in conservation,
        collection care, collection development and archaeology. However, it is not enough to
        simply be a specialist who works in isolation, skills associated with communication,
        education and public engagement are also required for effective working.



                                                                                                   58
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       Partnership Working: Cross sector working and organisational collaboration is seen
        as vital in ensuring the success of the industry. The current structure of qualifications
        was not seen to address this.
Further information on skills shortages is available in The Cultural Heritage Blueprint

4.8 Information on opportunities for adults changing career direction

There is a wide variety of careers within the cultural heritage sector, some requiring specialist
training, others on-the-job experience. The most traditional entry route into cultural heritage is
via academic qualifications e.g. a degree in museum studies/history/fine art. A period of
volunteering/internships/placements can also be a useful way to gain relevant experience.
More vocational entry routes like Apprenticeships are now being developed. Cultural Heritage
specific education and training information can be found through Creative Choices Find a
Course tool and Creative & Cultural Skills Sector Qualification Strategy.

For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.


4.9 Information on points of entry or transfer into a sector from another area sector.

Demonstrating key transferable skills will apply to certain job roles, for example in business
management or communications. Other specialist positions may require retraining. The most
traditional entry route into cultural heritage is via academic qualifications e.g. a degree in
museum studies/history/fine art. A period of volunteering/internships/placements can also be
a useful way to gain relevant experience. More vocational entry routes like Apprenticeships
are now being developed. Cultural Heritage specific education and training information can be
found through Creative Choices Find a Course tool and Creative & Cultural Skills Sector
Qualification Strategy. Many careers in cultural heritage value transferable skills or
qualifications particularly if gained within the creative sector, for example education,
marketing or finance.

For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.


4.10 Job profiles


Job profiles in the cultural heritage sector can be found on Creative Choices Job Profile page.

Job profiles listed are as follows:

       Administration
       Admission Staff
       Archaeological Scientist
       Archaeologist
       Archivist
       Art Exhibition Organisor
       Art Handler
       Art Valuer
       Artistic Director
       Arts Administrator
       Attendant / Gallery Staff
       Box Office Staff
       Conservation Officer
       Curator
       Curator, Heritage Manager
       Development Staff
       Director / manager



                                                                                                   59
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       Documentation Staff
       Events Staff
       Exhibitions Staff
       Front of House
       Guide / Demonstrator
       Historian
       Inspector of Ancient Monuments
       Museums Assistant
       Volunteer Co-ordinator

4.11 Case studies


A number of case studies are available, about working in the cultural heritage industry; these
can be found on Creative Choices Cultural Heritage Case Studies page.

4.12 FAQs

Q: I want to work in Cultural Heritage but I have no qualifications or experience. What
should I do?

A: The cultural heritage sector tends to have 2 main routes into it that you should look at to
enter the sector. Firstly the more traditional route is via academia. You could look at a degree
in museum studies/history/fine art etc or something along those lines. This would be coupled
with volunteering/internships/placements at a museum or place of interest such as a National
Trust property; this could be followed by an MA and/or other studies. You will find that the
vast majority of people who are competing to work in our sector have looked at this route to
employment.

The other route tends to be more vocational where you learn whilst working in an
Apprenticeship role. This gives you the chance to enter the sector at entry level and gain the
skills for the sector whilst you are working. You will also gain a nationally recognised award
which could lead you to continue onto further studying.

Q: Once I gain employment what are the opportunities for progression?
A: Progression routes whilst you are in the cultural heritage sector are more varied depending
on the type of museum you work in. If you are in a small, local or independent museum you
will find you are doing a number of jobs in one role which gives you an idea of where you
would like to focus. This will allow you to look at specialisms and forwarding your career in
that area. You may wish to take other courses whilst you are working or look at informal
learning or mentoring in the sector.

If you are in a larger or national museum you will find you are more specialized in a certain
department to start with and will learn your sector this way. You may then wish to experience
other departments and look at secondments within them to learn more and progress your
skills as well as job opportunities. You may also find that you can continue to learn and gain
qualifications which will enhance your skills to allow you to progress your role. The interesting
thing about cultural heritage is that there is not one specified route which enables you to be
very proactive in choosing your career path and progression.

4.13 Sources of additional information, web-links etc

Further information about the industry and links to industry organisations can be found on
Creative Choices Cultural Heritage Links page

For the latest news, events and career information for the cultural heritage industry visit the
Creative Choices Cultural Heritage News Pages

4.14 Creative and Cultural Industry Regional Information




                                                                                                   60
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


For national and regional creative and cultural industries news visit Creative Choices Creative
and Cultural Industries News pages


4.14.1 East Midlands
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages.


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


   There are 44380 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   35% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 54% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.1B or 4% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25,000
   There are 3950 creative businesses in the region.
   92% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


4.14.2 East of England
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 63,700 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   37% are self employed, (41% UK Creative & Cultural Skills average), (UK total workforce
    average 12%).



                                                                                                   61
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   66% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.8B or 7% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £27000
   There are 6710 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


4.14.3 London
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 164690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce in London, this
    represents 24% of the workforce.
   51% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   84% of the sector workforce is white 56% under 40 years.
   The industries contribute £13.1B GVA of the Creative & Cultural UK wide £25B
   GVA per employee is £79700
   There are 21600 businesses in London.
   93% of the businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more than
    £1M
4.14.4 North East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 19680 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 3% of the UK workforce.
   38% are self employed, UK average 41%.
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural workforce average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   96% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £491 million or 2% GVA, UK £25B.


                                                                                                   62
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are 1330 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m


4.14.5 North West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 59580 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   34% are self employed majority in Arts and Music, UK Creative & Cultural workforce total
    41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   62% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 55% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.9B or 8% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £32 200
   There are 5660 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


4.14.6 South East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 98170 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 14% of the UK workforce. SE and London together represent 44% of the UK
    workforce.
   43% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%),
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 47% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £3.8B or 15% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £39 200.


                                                                                                   63
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   There are 12 300 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


4.14.7 South West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 60690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   47% are self employed majority in Arts, Design and Music, UK Creative & Cultural
    workforce average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   98% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.5B or 6% GVA, UK £23.5B.
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are approximately 5000 creative businesses in the region 93% employ less than
    50, 7% have a turnover of more than £1m.


4.14.8 West Mids
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 40300 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 6% of the UK workforce.
   31% are self employed. This is the lowest regional figure, UK Creative & Cultural Skills
    average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   91% of the sector workforce is white, and 49% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.7B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £41 500
   There are 5060 creative businesses in the region.




                                                                                                   64
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 150 people and 8% have a turnover of
    more than £1m.
4.14.9 Yorkshire and the Humber
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 45900 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   40% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   60% of the workforce is male, the same as the UK Creative & Cultural Skills average (UK
    total UK workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.4B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £31200
   There are just under 4000 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


4.14.10 (Cultural Heritage) Northern Ireland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 57300 people working in Craft sub-sector
   3% of the Cultural Heritage industry is located in N. Ireland.
   More than 99% of the Cultural Heritage sector is white.
   23% of the Cultural Heritage sector is male.
   Cultural Heritage in Northern Ireland contributes £0.1M of GVA to the UK economy

4.14.11 (Cultural Heritage) Scotland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 57300 people working in the Cultural Heritage sub-sector
   10% of the Cultural Heritage industry is located in Scotland
   More than 99% of the Cultural Heritage Sector sector is white.
   47% of the Craft sector is male.
   Cultural Heritage in Scotland contributes £41M of GVA to the UK economy



                                                                                                   65
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
4.14.12 (Cultural Heritage) Wales
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

National data is presented below.
   There are 57300 people working in the Cultural Heritage sector
   4% of Cultural Heritage industry is located in Wales
   99% of the Cultural Heritage sector is white.
   49% of the Craft sector is male.
   Craft in Scotland contributes £0.3M of GVA to the UK economy


4.14.13 (Cultural Heritage) England
National data is presented below.
   There are 57300 people working in Craft sub-sector
   83% of the Cultural Heritage industry is located in England
   93% of the Cultural Heritage sector is white.
   48% of the Cultural Heritage sector is male.
   Cultural Heritage in England contributes £0.9B of GVA to the UK economy




                                                                                                   66
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
5. Sub-sector Design

5.1 A brief description of what the sub-sector covers at UK level
The design industry covers a range of disciplines including communications, graphic, product
and industrial, interior and exhibitions, digital and multimedia and service design. Design is an
integral part of modern culture combining aesthetic techniques, practicality and creativity to
deliver solutions that make everyday life simpler and businesses more effective.


5.2 Information on careers available and new emerging jobs, transferability of skills career
paths and opportunities for progression

Jobs available in Design include:

       Advertising Design
       Computer Game Designer
       Costume Designer
       Exhibition Designer
       Fashion Designer
       Footwear Designer
       Graphic Designer
       Industrial Designer
       Interactive Designer
       Interior Designer
       Product Designer
       Textile Designer
       Textile Maker

For full details see section on Job Profiles (8.10)

There are no professional pathways for work in the design industry

For more information on careers in the design industry visit Creative Choices.

5.3 Information on pay scales in the sector

Pay scales in this industry are variable and therefore care should be taken when advising on
this area. The following data provides an indication of the wages structure of the current
design workforce:

       15% earn more than £41,000 per annum
       13% earn between £29,000-£41,000
       27% earn between £20,000-£29,000
       38% earn between £10,000-£20,000
       8% earn less than £10,000




                                                                                                   67
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
5.4 Information on entry requirements, application processes (e.g. Apprenticeships)


In the industry, as their highest qualification:
       50% have a level 4+ qualification (degree and above)
       15% have a level 4 qualification (foundation degree level)
       15% have a level 3 qualification (A-levels)
       10% have a level 2 qualification (GCSE level)
       4% have a below level 2 qualification or no qualification




                                                                                                   68
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Although the design industry is served by qualifications at most levels and in most categories,
employers tend not to use accredited qualifications, or, where they do, they only use higher
level qualifications. Across the sector, employers focus on training needs and skills gaps
rather than qualifications. In terms of employee training, employers often create their own
training solutions or work through trade associations who provide training programmes for
their memberships.
Employers use higher level qualifications (e.g. degrees) at entry level. In art and design roles,
art school graduates are preferred, and although they have higher-level qualifications,
progression is usually linked to portfolios and experience. Recruitment to managerial and
administrative roles usually requires a degree or equivalent.
More information can be found in Creative & Cultural Skills Sector Qualification Strategy.

Creative Apprenticeships:


The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, music or theatre, are given flexible work-
based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain qualifications
(GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
There are no current plans for a Creative Apprenticeship in Design.


5.5 Qualifications


In all the creative and cultural industries, the dominance of „talent‟ as the raw material on
which the sector depends is often perceived as transcending educational processes such as
examinations, qualifications and training.
In schools, GCSE and A Level qualifications are available in Art & Design and Design &
Technology. There are specific product and graphic design options within the sector related




                                                                                                   69
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
disciplines of the new Diploma in Creative & Media (more information available here
www.skillset.org)
There are around 50 accredited vocational design qualifications offered by a variety of
Awarding Bodies through colleges. These qualifications prepare learners for further learning
and develop their knowledge and/ or skills in specific Design disciplines such as Graphic
Design, 3D Design, Interior Design and Typography. There are also around 35 qualifications
with the same purpose under the broader banner of art & design.
The only three accredited occupational qualifications (which confirms a learner is competent
in a particular occupation) currently available in Design are the Level 2 National Vocational
Qualification (NVQ) in Design Support, Level 3 NVQ in Design and Level 4 NVQ in Design
Management.
When recruiting, design employers generally only value higher-level qualifications. Those
available include a wide range of broadly-based programmes within creative arts & design,
design studies, and many others in creative arts & design at both undergraduate and
postgraduate degree level. There are also a large number of Foundation Degrees in design
specialisms such as 3D Design, Art and Design, Design and Enterprise, Design Technology,
Graphic Communication, Interior Design, and Spatial Design. These can be found through
Creative Choices Find a Course tool
Although art school graduates with high-level qualifications are preferred, progression is
usually linked to portfolios and experience.

Apprenticeships:

The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, music or theatre, are given flexible work-
based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain qualifications
(GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
There are no current plans for a Creative Apprenticeship in design.

Training, Further and Higher Education:

Design specific education and training information can be found through Creative Choices
Find a Course tool and Creative & Cultural Skills Sector Qualification Strategy.

5.6 Data on employment and labour market trends and forecasts

Across the UK there are 18,105 businesses employing just over 194000 people. 94% of
businesses employ less than 50 staff.

Business and workforce characteristics
       194000 people currently work in the design sector.
       32% are self employed
             o   Those who are self employed are less likely (61%) to have a level 4 or above
                 qualification than those who are employed (68%)
       Design contributes £6.8B to the UK economy.
       There is a majority of male workers in the sector (68%).
             o   Men and women are equally likely (66%) to have a qualification at level 4 or
                 above
             o   Women are more likely (66%) to earn less than £20,000 per year compared
                 to men (39%)
       93% of the design workforce is white.
       There are 18,105 businesses in the design sector.


                                                                                                   70
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       94% of design businesses employ less than 50 people.
The design sector is a very commercial one. For businesses within the sector, financial
results and profits matter. However this is not the only parameter of success. The delivery of
„successful‟ design – where success can be defined in a large number of ways – is also a key
goal for many. There is widely held pride in the output that the industry and designers within it
produce. Indeed, clients are increasingly demanding more and more from the industry (i.e.
more creativity, more impact on the bottom line, a better understanding of client business
needs, a more strategic approach, better ideas, etc.).
Design business leaders vary in their overall aims and objectives in much the same way as
leaders do across the wider economy. Some seek growth and the greater responsibility and
financial reward (and sometimes risk) that growth brings. Others seek to generate incomes
either through establishing their own small businesses in which they and (perhaps) their
partners are the only staff, and others take the freelance route and the greater freedom and
control that that brings. Some business owners and practitioners see success simply as
survival, especially in the current challenging climate.
A successful design sector is therefore one which is providing opportunities for designers to
apply their trade under whatever business model the individuals involved wish to pursue. It
should be growing in terms of fee income and employment terms and building success on the
foundation of highly creative staff (supported by good managers and sales/service and admin
staff) with strong empathy for client needs and the ability to generate and communicate ideas
that meet those needs.

Changes in employment:
The key drivers of change in the industry include:
       Emerging economies: There is competitive threat posed by the emerging economies
        (e.g. India and China).
       Technology Use: Information Technology has had a major impact on the design
        sector, including; shortening design timescales, faster communication, the
        emergence of rapid prototyping, and businesses requiring fewer people carrying out
        more tasks.
       Growth of the service sector: In response to the strong growth of UK service
        industries, designers are working more in non-visual areas and businesses.
       Increasing sophistication of branding: Design‟s ability to utilise emotional mechanisms
        (such as aesthetics, taste, pleasure and memory) for commercial benefit and to
        integrate brand values into products and services is giving it an increasing role in
        marketing.
       IP with clients: On the designers‟ side there is likely to be a demand for more joint
        ownership of intellectual property with clients and even a refusal to work on a fee only
        basis.
       Knowledge Economy: Traditional, developed nations are increasingly finding that they
        cannot compete on a manufacturing basis alone. Government policy is aimed at
        generating a service based, knowledge economy that the UK can continue to
        compete.
       Consumer preference: As the reality of climate change permeates the public
        conscience, a new culture of sustainable development and environmentally aware
        practice is developing.
Further information is available in The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills Agreement for the
Creative and Cultural Industries.

5.7 Skill shortages

Three broad skills shortage areas are described below; drivers of skills, current skills needs
and future skills need.




                                                                                                   71
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Drivers of Skills
There are 7 key drivers of new skills in the design industry:
       Emerging economies: There is competitive threat posed by the emerging
        economies (e.g. India and China).
       Technology Use: Information Technology has had a major impact on the design
        sector, including; shortening design timescales, faster communication, the
        emergence of rapid prototyping, and businesses requiring fewer people carrying out
        more tasks.
       Growth of the service sector: In response to the strong growth of UK service
        industries, designers are working more in non-visual areas and businesses.
       Increasing sophistication of branding: Design‟s ability to utilise emotional
        mechanisms (such as aesthetics, taste, pleasure and memory) for commercial benefit
        and to integrate brand values into products and services is giving it an increasing role
        in marketing.
       IP with clients: On the designers‟ side there is likely to be a demand for more joint
        ownership of intellectual property with clients and even a refusal to work on a fee only
        basis.
       Knowledge Economy: Traditional, developed nations are increasingly finding that
        they cannot compete on a manufacturing basis alone. Government policy is aimed at
        generating a service based, knowledge economy that the UK can continue to
        compete.
       Consumer preference: As the reality of climate change permeates the public
        conscience, a new culture of sustainable development and environmentally aware
        practice is developing.

Current Skills
With regards to current skills needs in the industry:
       The role proving hardest to fill in the design industry is the creative role. Other
        problematic roles relate to the sales and service function of the industry.
       Design organisations are finding most applicants lack the right level of experience to
        be able to do their job well enough.
       Within design organisations the creative and management roles are most likely to
        experience missing skills. IT positions were also considered as lacking some key skill.
       IT and technical skills (i.e. specialisms) are the skills most likely to be missing from
        design organisations.

Future Skills
Key future skills include:
       Marketing and PR: The greatest demand for skills is likely to be around Marketing
        and PR.
       IT and digital skills: in particular for the freelance workforce.
       Business acumen and management: Linked to Marketing and PR and key for
        business growth and expansion into new markets.
       Creative Design skills: These are the core creative specialisms for design. There is a
        suggestion that new recruits into the industry are not as skilled in this area as they
        should be.
       Global business development: With an increasingly global market, tapping into
        emerging economies is essential.




                                                                                                   72
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Further information on skills shortages is available in The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills
Agreement for the Creative and Cultural Industries.

5.8 Information on opportunities for adults changing career direction

The most traditional entry route into design is academic, with employers requiring higher level
qualifications (e.g. degrees). Adults interested in pursuing a design career should initially get
a degree in a design discipline and then either work for an agency or become self employed
or freelance developing a client list.
For people wanting to work for an agency gaining work experience is often key. In art and
design roles, art school graduates are preferred, and although they have higher-level
qualifications, progression is usually linked to portfolios and experience. Recruitment to
managerial and administrative roles usually requires a degree or equivalent.

For School leavers: the main entry routes to a job in the design industry are at two levels, as a
design technician or at designer or freelance level after study at degree level. There are very
few jobs available for direct entry from school.
For Adult entry: most centres of education will examine the qualifications, a portfolio of work
and/or past industrial experience of adult entrants on interview to assess the relevant level of
entry. However, each case is decided on merit by the individual institution. Employment
opportunities for adults without qualifications or industrial experience are very limited.
For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.

5.9 Information on points of entry or transfer into a sector from another area sector.

When recruiting, design employers generally only value higher-level qualifications. Those
available include a wide range of broadly-based programmes within creative arts & design,
design studies, and many others in creative arts & design at both undergraduate and
postgraduate degree level. There are also a large number of Foundation Degrees in design
specialisms such as 3D Design, Art and Design, Design and Enterprise, Design Technology,
Graphic Communication, Interior Design, and Spatial Design. These can be found through
Creative Choices Find a Course tool

There may be key transferable skills from other sectors that may facilitate a career change
into design, for example marketing or communications. However, a portfolio of work is usually
necessary for progression to jobs or to higher qualifications in design.
For School leavers: the main entry routes to a job in the design industry are at two levels, as a
design technician or at designer or freelance level after study at degree level. There are very
few jobs available for direct entry from school.
For Adult entry: most centres of education will examine the qualifications, a portfolio of work
and/or past industrial experience of adult entrants on interview to assess the relevant level of
entry. However, each case is decided on merit by the individual institution. Employment
opportunities for adults without qualifications or industrial experience are very limited.
For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.

5.10 Job profiles


Job profiles in the design industry can be found on Creative Choices Job Profile page.

Job profiles listed are as follows:

       Advertising Design
       Computer Game Designer
       Costume Designer
       Exhibition Designer


                                                                                                   73
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       Fashion Designer
       Footwear Designer
       Graphic Designer
       Industrial Designer
       Interactive Designer
       Interior Designer
       Product Designer
       Textile Designer
       Textile Maker

5.11 Case studies
A number of case studies are available, about working in the design industry; these can be
found on Creative Choices Design Case Studies page.


5.12 FAQs
Q: I want to work in Design but I have no qualifications or experience. What should I
do?

As someone who wants to become a designer the route into the industry would be to initially
get a degree in a design discipline and then either work for an agency or become self
employed or freelance developing a client list. For people wanting to work for an agency
gaining work experience is often key. There is also a Design Support NVQ at level 2 which is
a work-based route into employment within the design sector.

Q. Once I gain employment what are the opportunities for progression?

Progression within a design agency is dependent on how the agency is structured.
Conventionally the route would be to start as a junior designer and then to a senior
designer/management position to then possibly a director. Many designers progress “out of
the agency” either becoming freelance or setting up their own design agency.

5.13 Sources of additional information, web-links etc

Further information about the industry and links to industry organisations can be found on
Creative Choices Design Links page

For the latest news, events and career information for the design industry visit the Creative
Choices Design News Pages

5.14 Creative and Cultural Industry Regional Information
The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


For national and regional creative and cultural industries news visit Creative Choices Creative
and Cultural Industries News pages


5.14.1 East Midlands
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages.




                                                                                                   74
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


   There are 44380 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   35% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 54% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.1B or 4% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25,000
   There are 3950 creative businesses in the region.
   92% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


5.14.2 East of England
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 63,700 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   37% are self employed, (41% UK Creative & Cultural Skills average), (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   66% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.8B or 7% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £27000
   There are 6710 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


5.14.3 London
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages




                                                                                                   75
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 164690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce in London, this
    represents 24% of the workforce.
   51% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   84% of the sector workforce is white 56% under 40 years.
   The industries contribute £13.1B GVA of the Creative & Cultural UK wide £25B
   GVA per employee is £79700
   There are 21600 businesses in London.
   93% of the businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more than
    £1M
5.14.4 North East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 19680 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 3% of the UK workforce.
   38% are self employed, UK average 41%.
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural workforce average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   96% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £491 million or 2% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are 1330 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m


5.14.5 North West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.



                                                                                                   76
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 59580 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   34% are self employed majority in Arts and Music, UK Creative & Cultural workforce total
    41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   62% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 55% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.9B or 8% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £32 200
   There are 5660 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


5.14.6 South East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 98170 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 14% of the UK workforce. SE and London together represent 44% of the UK
    workforce.
   43% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%),
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 47% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £3.8B or 15% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £39 200.
   There are 12 300 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


5.14.7 South West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.




                                                                                                   77
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 60690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   47% are self employed majority in Arts, Design and Music, UK Creative & Cultural
    workforce average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   98% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.5B or 6% GVA, UK £23.5B.
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are approximately 5000 creative businesses in the region 93% employ less than
    50, 7% have a turnover of more than £1m.


5.14.8 West Mids
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 40300 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 6% of the UK workforce.
   31% are self employed. This is the lowest regional figure, UK Creative & Cultural Skills
    average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   91% of the sector workforce is white, and 49% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.7B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £41 500
   There are 5060 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 150 people and 8% have a turnover of
    more than £1m.
5.14.9 Yorkshire and the Humber
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 45900 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.



                                                                                                   78
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   40% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   60% of the workforce is male, the same as the UK Creative & Cultural Skills average (UK
    total UK workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.4B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £31200
   There are just under 4000 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


5.14.10 (Design) Northern Ireland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 194000 people working in Design in the UK
   2% of the industry is located in N. Ireland.
   More than 99% of the Design sector in Northern Ireland is white.
   72% of the Design sector is male.
   Design in Northern Ireland contributes £69M of GVA to the UK economy

5.14.11 (Design) Scotland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 194000 people working in the Design sector in Scotland
   7% of the Design industry is located in Scotland
   99% of the Design Sector in Scotland is white.
   68% of the Design sector is male.
   Design in Scotland contributes £327M of GVA to the UK economy

5.14.12 (Design) Wales
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 194000 people working in the Design sector
   3% of the Design industry is located in Wales
   More than 99% of the Design sector is white.
   64% of the Design sector is male.
   Design in Wales contributes £164M of GVA to the UK economy




                                                                                                   79
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
4.14.13 (Design) England
National data is presented below.
   There are 194000 people working in the Design sector
   88% of the industry is located in England
   91% of the sector is white.
   68% of the sector is male.
Design in England contributes £6.2B of GVA to the UK economy




                                                                                                   80
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
6. Sub-sector Literature

6.1 A brief description of what the sub-sector covers at UK level
The literature sector includes areas of work such as; aspiring writers, novelists, poets,
playwrights, editors, agents, translators, critics and literature development sector.


6.2 Information on careers available and new emerging jobs, transferability of skills, career
paths and opportunities for progression

Jobs available in Literature include:

       Author
       Critic
       Editor
       Education Staff (Arts)
       Promoter
       Writer

For full details see section on Job Profiles (8.10)

For more information on careers in the literature industry visit Creative Choices.


6.3 Information on pay scales in the sector

Pay scales in this industry are variable and therefore care should be taken when advising on
this area. The following data provides an indication of the wages structure of the current
literature workforce:

       <1% earn more than £41,000 per annum
       20% earn between £29,000-£41,000
       29% earn between £20,000-£29,000
       17% earn between £10,000-£20,000
       34% earn less than £10,000




                                                                                                   81
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
6.4 Information on entry requirements, application processes (e.g. Apprenticeships)
The literature sector needs a high quality, able workforce. It has to be attractive to those
people with the skills and competencies that will help the sector grow and thrive. Similarly it
must equip those already in post for their current role and for progression to the next, while at
the same time building leadership capacity at all levels.
The sector‟s size and demography means there are relatively few opportunities for career
progression within. Furthermore, organising effective professional development can seem
onerous when organisations have limited funds and few staff managing large workloads. It is
often a struggle to provide full and effective professional development provision even where
there is a commitment to doing so.
In the industry, as their highest qualification:
       67% have a level 4+ qualification (degree and above)
       4% have a level 4 qualification (foundation degree level)
       9% have a level 3 qualification (A-levels)
       9% have a level 2 qualification (GCSE level)
       3% have a below level 2 qualification or no qualification




                                                                                                   82
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
The sector is relatively small and historically its activity has been funding-driven, with many
organisations dependent on core funding from the public purse or charitable sources. The
work of the sector is carried out by organisations employing low numbers of staff and a
relatively high proportion of freelancers, or people employed on short-term contracts. For all
groups the availability of posts fluctuates with the ebb and flow of funding. Literature salaries
do not compare particularly well to other sectors, either outside or within the arts field.


Creative Apprenticeships:


The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, music or theatre, are given flexible work-
based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain qualifications
(GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
There are no current plans for a Creative Apprenticeship in Literature.


6.5 Qualifications


In all the creative and cultural industries, the dominance of „talent‟ as the raw material on
which the sector depends is often perceived as transcending educational processes such as
examinations, qualifications and training.
In schools, GCSE and A Level qualifications are available in English and English Literature.
There is a specific creative writing option within the sector related disciplines of the new
Diploma in Creative & Media (more information available here www.skillset.org)
The only accredited vocational qualification available in the literature sector is a Level 3
Award in Narrative Structures. This qualification prepares learners for further learning and
develops their knowledge and skills in literature.




                                                                                                   83
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
There are a number of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees available in areas of
literature such as comparative literary studies, English studies, and Imaginative writing. These
can be found through Creative Choices Find a Course tool
There are a large number of non-accredited, bespoke training schemes such as the National
Association of Writers in Education (NAWE) Professional Development Programme and the
Arvon residential writing course run by writers.

Apprenticeships:

The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, music or theatre, are given flexible work-
based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain qualifications
(GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
There are no current plans for a Creative Apprenticeship in Literature.

Training, Further and Higher Education:

Literature specific education and training information can be found through Creative Choices
Find a Course tool and Creative & Cultural Skills Sector Qualification Strategy.

6.6 Data on employment and labour market trends and forecasts

Across the UK there are 17,805 businesses employing just over 68,900 people. 93% of the
industry employs less than 5 people.

Business and workforce characteristics
       74400 people currently work in the literary arts industry.
       Literary arts contribute £2.1B to the UK economy.
       54% of the sector is male
             o   Both men and women (71% and 70% respectively) are highly likely to have at
                 least a level 4 qualification
             o   Women (57%) are more likely to earn less than £20,000 per year than men
                 (43%)
       91% of the workforce is white.
       65% of the workforce are self employed
             o   Self employed workers are slightly more likely to have a level 4 or above
                 qualification than those who are employed (75% and 65% respectively)
       There are 17,000 businesses in the sector.
       95% employ less than 50 people.
The following aspects are key in the literature sector:
       The core craft skill itself is generally seen as instinctive and cannot be taught. It can
        however be nurtured (with the exception of storytelling which can be „experienced‟ in
        the nature of a tradition).
       Professionalism exists on a scale - from hobbyist to full time professional.
        Demarcations along this continuum are blurred, but the following indicative definitions
        are possible (in this case using authors):
             o   Emergent authors – hobbyists that may have published or are otherwise
                 engaged in the field in a professional manner (e.g. by readings, or perhaps
                 completion of a writers retreat).




                                                                                                   84
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
             o   Portfolio authors – being writers that, in addition to being directly involved in
                 professional writing, are involved in areas closely related to writing (such as
                 education, workshop facilitation or occupational therapy).
             o   Full time professionals – those who earn a sustainable living from the
                 industry.
       The fragmentation of key markets in the publishing sector has led to the need for an
        „augmentation‟ of skills that can at any point involve editing, proof reading, marketing
        and so on.
       Skills involved in the technical or production side of the industry are becoming more
        and more important.
       The artist as educator is seen as vital in the sector: there is a clear link between art
        and education, with authors, poets and storytellers involved as educators most
        typically in schools, but also in facilitating community and prison workshops, in a form
        akin to occupational therapy. This brings up a number of issues:
             o   Compliances such as Child Protection (CRBC). (The requirement that an
                 employer apply for this on the freelancers‟ behalf can create difficulties for
                 very short-term contracts).
             o   Relevant training in educational delivery as appropriate. Also, given the
                 seeming pervasiveness of the artist as educator, the question of its location
                 within existing provision arises, by embedding formalised education skills.
             o   The artist as trainer is equally important, although not as common with the
                 artist acting as trainer and facilitator in corporate settings. There is a link to
                 advertising, specifically branding with professional writers, and storytellers
                 narrating the corporate story.

Changes in employment:

The key drivers of change in the industry include:
       Legislative changes: It is an increasingly difficult market to access, which is reflected
        throughout the supply chain. Artists find that they are producing a product themselves
        and finding an alternative market.
       Technology: This has shortened the necessary steps required for a literary artist to
        take their creative work to a finished creative product. It is now within the means of an
        author to self-publish a book or a poet to record a DVD.
       Markets: The development of new markets and technology have opened up the
        accessibility of the literary arts to a wider group.
Further information is available in The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills Agreement for the
Creative and Cultural Industries.

6.7 Skill shortages

Three broad skills shortage areas are described below; drivers of skills, current skills needs
and future skills need.

Drivers of Skills
The key drivers of change in the industry include:
       Legislative changes: It is an increasingly difficult market to access, which is
        reflected throughout the supply chain. Artists find that they are producing a product
        themselves and finding an alternative market.
       Technology: This has shortened the necessary steps required for a literary artist to
        take their creative work to a finished creative product. It is now within the means of an
        author to self-publish a book or a poet to record a DVD.




                                                                                                      85
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       Markets: The development of new markets and technology have opened up the
        accessibility of the literary arts to a wider group.

Current Skills
With regards to current skills needs in the industry:
       Creative roles lacking writing skills
       Management roles lacking technical skills (copyright, internet strategy development)
       IT roles lacking internet development skills
       Finance staff lacking book-keeping skills

Future Skills
Key future skills include:
       Editing
       Creative writing skills
       Editing
       Professional skills (now encapsulating previous professional skills and education
        skills)
       Fundraising (at all levels, from entry to senior)
       Transition skills
       IT / Digital
Further information on skills shortages is available in The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills
Agreement for the Creative and Cultural Industries.

6.8 Information on opportunities for adults changing career direction

There are many different careers that can be pursued within literature and professionalism
exists on a scale - from hobbyist to full time professional. The core craft skill of writing is
generally seen as instinctive and cannot be taught. It can however be nurtured and
qualifications and training can help develop writing skills. There are a number of
undergraduate and postgraduate degrees available in areas of literature such as comparative
literary studies, English studies, and Imaginative writing. There are a large number of non-
accredited, bespoke training schemes such as the National Association of Writers in
Education (NAWE) Professional Development Programme and the Arvon residential writing
course run by writers.
Developing business skills and an understanding of the industry is also vital in order to be
able to profit from writing. A wide range of careers in publishing, editing and education are
also possible.

For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.


6.9 Information on points of entry or transfer into a sector from another area sector.

There are many different careers that can be pursued within literature and professionalism
exists on a scale - from hobbyist to full time professional. The core craft skill of writing is
generally seen as instinctive and cannot be taught. It can however be nurtured and
qualifications and training can help develop writing skills. There are a number of
undergraduate and postgraduate degrees available in areas of literature such as comparative
literary studies, English studies, and Imaginative writing. There are a large number of non-
accredited, bespoke training schemes such as the National Association of Writers in




                                                                                                   86
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Education (NAWE) Professional Development Programme and the Arvon residential writing
course run by writers.
Developing business skills and an understanding of the industry is also vital in order to be
able to profit from writing. A wide range of careers in publishing, editing and education are
also possible and being able to demonstrate transferable skills enhances employment
opportunities.

For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.


6.10 Job profiles


Job profiles in the Literature industry can be found on Creative Choices Job Profile page.

Job profiles listed are as follows:

       Author
       Critic
       Editor
       Education Staff (Arts)
       Promoter
       Writer

6.11 Case studies
A number of case studies are available, about working in the literature industry; these can be
found on Creative Choices Literature Case Studies page.

6.12 FAQs

Q. I want to work in Literature, but I have no qualifications or experience. What should
I do?

It is not always necessary to have qualifications to work in literature. To be a writer, you can
develop your writing skills informally or formally; there are creative writing courses at Higher
Education level or numerous informal long and short-term training courses available. As most
writers support their practice by taking their writing into education and community settings,
gaining some experience or skills in working in the community may also help. To work in the
wider literature sector, a degree in Literature or a Humanities subject is usually required.
Volunteering or doing an internship, for example at a literature development organization or
literature festival, is also common route through to work. Networking and getting involved in
literature projects is a good way to meet potential employers, improve your practice and
scope what opportunities exist in the sector.

Q. Once I gain employment what are the opportunities for progression?

Progression for someone working within literature is dependent on what they do. Practicing
freelance or self-employed writers often have a portfolio career and would measure success
in terms of such things as publication, making a living from their practice, peer recognition or
representation by an agent. Writers who work in an academic environment can “progress” to
having full-time teaching jobs. As most literature organizations are small, jobs tend to be
multi-faceted and provide you with the opportunity to learn a range of skills to move into
different areas within and outside the sector.

6.13 Sources of additional information, web-links etc

Further information about the industry and links to industry organisations can be found on
Creative Choices Literature Links page




                                                                                                   87
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
For the latest news, events and career information for the literature industry visit the Creative
Choices Literature News Pages

6.14 Creative and Cultural Industry Regional Information
The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


For national and regional creative and cultural industries news visit Creative Choices Creative
and Cultural Industries News pages


6.14.1 East Midlands
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages.


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


   There are 44380 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   35% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 54% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.1B or 4% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25,000
   There are 3950 creative businesses in the region.
   92% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


6.14.2 East of England
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 63,700 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.



                                                                                                   88
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   37% are self employed, (41% UK Creative & Cultural Skills average), (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   66% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.8B or 7% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £27000
   There are 6710 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


6.14.3 London
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 164690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce in London, this
    represents 24% of the workforce.
   51% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   84% of the sector workforce is white 56% under 40 years.
   The industries contribute £13.1B GVA of the Creative & Cultural UK wide £25B
   GVA per employee is £79700
   There are 21600 businesses in London.
   93% of the businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more than
    £1M
6.14.4 North East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 19680 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 3% of the UK workforce.
   38% are self employed, UK average 41%.




                                                                                                   89
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural workforce average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   96% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £491 million or 2% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are 1330 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m


6.14.5 North West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 59580 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   34% are self employed majority in Arts and Music, UK Creative & Cultural workforce total
    41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   62% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 55% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.9B or 8% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £32 200
   There are 5660 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


6.14.6 South East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 98170 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 14% of the UK workforce. SE and London together represent 44% of the UK
    workforce.
   43% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%),




                                                                                                   90
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 47% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £3.8B or 15% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £39 200.
   There are 12 300 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


6.14.7 South West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 60690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   47% are self employed majority in Arts, Design and Music, UK Creative & Cultural
    workforce average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   98% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.5B or 6% GVA, UK £23.5B.
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are approximately 5000 creative businesses in the region 93% employ less than
    50, 7% have a turnover of more than £1m.


6.14.8 West Mids
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 40300 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 6% of the UK workforce.
   31% are self employed. This is the lowest regional figure, UK Creative & Cultural Skills
    average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).



                                                                                                   91
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   91% of the sector workforce is white, and 49% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.7B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £41 500
   There are 5060 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 150 people and 8% have a turnover of
    more than £1m.
6.14.9 Yorkshire and the Humber
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 45900 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   40% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   60% of the workforce is male, the same as the UK Creative & Cultural Skills average (UK
    total UK workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.4B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £31200
   There are just under 4000 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


6.14.10 (Literature) Northern Ireland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 74400 people working in the literature sub-sector
   2% of the industry is located in N. Ireland.
   More than 99% of the sector is white.
   37% of the sector is male.
   Literature in Northern Ireland contributes £11M of GVA to the UK economy

4.14.11 (Literature) Scotland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 74000 people working in the Literature sector



                                                                                                   92
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   5% of the Literature industry is located in Scotland
   95% of the Literature Sector is white.
   46% of the Literature sector is male.
   Literature in Scotland contributes £52M of GVA to the UK economy

4.14.12 (Literature) Wales
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

National data is presented below.
   There are 74000 people working in the Literature sector
   3% of Literature industry is located in Wales
   98% of literature sector is white.
   46% of the literature sector is male.
   Literature in Wales contributes £27M of GVA to the UK economy


4.14.13 (Literature) England
National data is presented below.
   There are 74000 people working in Literature sub-sector
   91% of the Literature industry is located in England
   95% of the Literature sector is white.
   55% of the Literature sector is male.
Literature in England contributes £2B of GVA to the UK economy




                                                                                                   93
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
7. Sub-sector Music

7.1 A brief description of what the sub-sector covers at UK level

The music industry includes trade associations, businesses and employers in recording/labels
companies, music publishers, musical instruments & audio production & retail, live events &
promotion, specialist music retailers and not-for-profit music organisation, as well as music
education and training providers.


7.2 Information on careers available and new emerging jobs, transferability of skills, career
paths and opportunities for progression

Jobs available in Music include:

       Agent
       Artistic Director
       Arts Administrator
       Booking Agent
       Classical Musician
       Community Musician
       Composer/Arranger
       Development Staff
       Distribution Staff
       DJ
       Events Staff
       Licensing and Royalty Collection
       Lighting Technician
       Lyricist/Songwriter
       Management (Record Retail)
       Management (Record Label)
       Manager (Music)
       Marketing (Record Label)
       Music and Audio Manufacturer
       Music Conductor
       Music Director
       Music Industry Promotions manager
       Music Publisher
       Music Teacher
       Musical and Audio repairs
       Musical Instrument Maker
       Performer (Music)
       Performer (Recording Artist)
       Popular Musician
       Producer Live Event
       Producer / Engineer
       Producer (Music)
       Publicity and Promotions
       Record Production and Marketing
       Singer
       Sound Engineer
       Sound Technician
       Studio Manager
       Technical Support (Studios and facilities)

For full details see section on Job Profiles (8.10)

For more information on careers in the music industry visit Creative Choices.




                                                                                                   94
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
7.3 Information on pay scales in the sector

Pay scales in this industry are variable and therefore care should be taken when advising on
this area. The following data provides an indication of the wages structure of the current
music workforce:

       5% earn more than £41,000 per annum
       19% earn between £29,000-£41,000
       16% earn between £20,000-£29,000
       21% earn between £10,000-£20,000
       39% earn less than £10,000




7.4 Information on entry requirements, application processes (e.g. Apprenticeships)
In the industry, as their highest qualification:
       36% have a level 4+ qualification (degree and above)
       4% have a level 4 qualification (foundation degree level)
       18% have a level 3 qualification (A-levels)
       20% have a level 2 qualification (GCSE level)
       13% have a below level 2 qualification or no qualification




                                                                                                   95
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Creative Apprenticeships:


The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, music or theatre, are given flexible work-
based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain qualifications
(GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
In Music the following pathway has been developed:


Pathway          Activity                                         Job Roles

1. Live          Promotion of live events                         Director’s Assistant
Events and       Making license applications                     Assistant Stage Manager
Promotion        Planning a live event/                          Production Assistant
                 booking venues                                  Technical Assistant
                 Technical support                               Wardrobe
                 Stage management support                        Licensing/Contracts
                 Supporting artists                              Artist Management
                                                             
2. Music         Working with artists                            Publicity & Promotion
Business         Production of contracts                          Programmer
                 Preparing royalty statements                    Producers' Assistant
                 Supporting a music industry marketing
                                                                 Marketing & Communications
                 campaign
                                                                 Artist Management
                 Looking at the impact of the web
                                                                 Booking Agent




                                                                                                   96
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
National Skills Academy:
The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills Agreement for the Creative and Cultural Industries
revealed a need for 30,000 technical staff and the need to replace and expand the current
workforce by 2013 including to support the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympic Games.
Through the Academy, we will address the urgent skills shortages in theatre and live music.
There is currently as mis-match between the investment in performing arts and music
provision within the education sector and the needs of employers in the sector. Students are
attracted to courses in further and higher education which do not lead to employment and
employers are not engaging adequately with the training and education world.
The National Skills Academy is made up of a network of employers and colleges throughout
England. It is supported by the LSC, Arts Council England, the Regional Development
Agencies (particularly in the Thames Gateway) as well as the trades unions, the Association
of Colleges and industry bodies such as the Independent Theatre Council (TMA), the Society
of London Theatres (SoLT), and the Professional Lighting and Sound Association (PLASA).


7.5 Qualifications


In all the creative and cultural industries, the dominance of „talent‟ as the raw material on
which the sector depends is often perceived as transcending educational processes such as
examinations, qualifications and training.
In schools, GCSE and A Level qualifications are available in Music. There is a specific music
option within the sector related disciplines of the new Diploma in Creative & Media (more
information available here www.skillset.org.uk).
There are a large number of qualifications that prepare learners for further learning and
develop their knowledge and/ or skills in music disciplines. This includes around 30 graded
exam qualifications in areas such as music performance, music literacy and music theatre.
There are also around 150 accredited vocational qualifications in the music sector (levels 1–
7) available through Further Education colleges in areas such as music technology, music
performance, music teaching, music practice, music composition and music business.
In the classical (subsidised) music sector, qualifications gained at a small list of
conservatoires in the Conservatoires UK group are often preferred by employers (The
members are Birmingham Conservatoire, Leeds College of Music, Royal College of Music,
Royal Northern College of Music, Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama, Royal Welsh
College of Music and Drama, Trinity College of Music and The Guildhall School of Music and
Drama).
The only accredited occupational qualifications (which confirm a learner is competent in a
particular occupation) currently available in music are the Level 2 and 3 National Awards in
Music Business (Recording Industry), and the Level 2 and 3 National Awards in Live Events
and Promotion. These form part of the Creative Apprenticeship (more information available
here: http://www.creative-choices.co.uk/server.php?show=nav.189)
There are a large number of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in music. There are
also around 30 foundation degrees in subjects such as Music and New Media Management,
Music Technology, Live Music and Touring Production and Musical Instruments. These can
be found through Creative Choices Find a Course tool
Employers often develop their own courses and trade organisations commonly arrange well
received short training courses (neither usually lead to qualifications). Examples are the
Association of British Orchestras‟ Brass Tacks Professional development and business
training; The Royal School of Church Music‟s Voice for Life Training Scheme and London
Centre of Contemporary Music‟s LCCM Foundation.

Apprenticeships

The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t



                                                                                                   97
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
normally have the chance to work in, for example, music or theatre, are given flexible work-
based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain qualifications
(GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
In Music the following pathway has been developed:


Pathway           Activity                                        Job Roles

1. Live           Promotion of live events                        Director’s Assistant
Events and        Making license applications                    Assistant Stage Manager
Promotion         Planning a live event/                         Production Assistant
                  booking venues                                 Technical Assistant
                  Technical support                              Wardrobe
                  Stage management support                       Licensing/Contracts
                  Supporting artists                             Artist Management
                                                             
2. Music          Working with artists                           Publicity & Promotion
Business          Production of contracts                         Programmer
                  Preparing royalty statements                   Producers' Assistant
                  Supporting a music industry marketing
                                                                 Marketing & Communications
                  campaign
                                                                 Artist Management
                  Looking at the impact of the web
                                                                 Booking Agent



National Skills Academy:
The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills Agreement for the Creative and Cultural Industries
revealed a need for 30,000 technical staff and the need to replace and expand the current
workforce by 2013 including to support the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympic Games.
Through the Academy, we will address the urgent skills shortages in theatre and live music.
There is currently as mis-match between the investment in performing arts and music
provision within the education sector and the needs of employers in the sector. Students are
attracted to courses in further and higher education which do not lead to employment and
employers are not engaging adequately with the training and education world.
The National Skills Academy is made up of a network of employers and colleges throughout
England. It is supported by the LSC, Arts Council England, the Regional Development
Agencies (particularly in the Thames Gateway) as well as the trades unions, the Association
of Colleges and industry bodies such as the Independent Theatre Council (TMA), the Society
of London Theatres (SoLT), and the Professional Lighting and Sound Association (PLASA).

Training, Further and Higher Education:

Music specific education and training information can be found through Creative Choices Find
a Course tool and Creative & Cultural Skills Sector Qualification Strategy.


7.6 Data on employment and labour market trends and forecasts


Across the UK there are 13800 businesses employing just over 102,000 people. 89% of
businesses in the industry employ less than 50 people.

Business and workforce characteristics
    102,000 people work in the music Industry.

          46% are self employed



                                                                                                   98
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
             o   Self employed workers are more likely (51%) to have a level 4 or above
                 qualification than those who are employed (32%)

       Music contributes £4.2B of GVA to the UK economy.

       There is a significant majority of male workers in the sector (66%)

             o   Men and women are equally likely to have a level 4 or above qualification
                 (40%)

             o   Women (78%) are more likely to earn less than £20,000 than men (51%)

       92% of the music workforce is white.

       There are 13800 businesses in the music sector in the UK.

       89% employ less than 50 people.

The following aspects are key in the music sector:
       IT and Digital Technology development: The effects of digitalisation are numerous,
        from convergence of product delivery onto digital platforms, to the ease of creating
        and recording new music, to publishing and marketing this music.

       The Continuing Importance of Marketing: Despite changes surrounding distribution
        channels and entry barriers brought about by the digital revolution, the role marketing
        plays in achieving commercial success continues to be of prime importance. The sort
        of impact required to achieve success in an increasingly global marketplace brings
        very high levels of investment in marketing and promotion.

       Major labels are still likely to dominate the market, although possibly in different
        forms.

       The outsourcing of international marketing is emerging as a trend as companies
        reduce their fixed overheads.

       Engaging with Universities in Innovation Partnership: There is a relatively low rate of
        research and development collaboration with universities.

       Small Businesses in Music: There are some excellent examples of successful small
        businesses in the industry but the statistical data available about the skills agenda of
        the 17,680 or so SME music businesses is poor.

       Small businesses in the sector have considerable entrepreneurial drive led by people
        who will invest their personal collateral in their businesses. Better relationships with
        banks should be encouraged, and the perceived risk associated with small music
        businesses could be diminished through demonstrating better skills development.

       Keeping hold of Intellectual Property in small businesses is a real challenge.

Changes in employment:

The key drivers of change in the industry include:
       IT and Digital Technology: This ranges from convergence of product delivery onto
        digital platforms, to the ease with which new music can be created and marketed. In
        many cases new music that is considered cutting edge is developed through unique
        applications of technology, to create new sounds.

       Intellectual Property: With new distribution channels, challenges arise in both formal
        and informal ways of accessing music.


                                                                                                   99
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       Marketing Specialisms: The role of marketing in achieving commercial success
        continues to be of prime importance. The sort of impact required to achieve success
        in an increasingly global marketplace brings very high levels of investment in
        marketing and promotion.

       Small Music Firms: At the heart of these businesses are organisations with
        considerable entrepreneurial drive led by people who will invest their personal funds
        in their businesses.

Further information is available in The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills Agreement for the
Creative and Cultural Industries.

7.7 Skill shortages

Three broad skills shortage areas are described below; drivers of skills, current skills needs
and future skills need.

Drivers of Skills
     IT and Digital Technology: This ranges from convergence of product delivery onto
        digital platforms, to the ease with which new music can be created and marketed. In
        many cases new music that is considered cutting edge is developed through unique
        applications of technology, to create new sounds.

       Intellectual Property: With new distribution channels, challenges arise in both formal
        and informal ways of accessing music.

       Marketing Specialisms: The role of marketing in achieving commercial success
        continues to be of prime importance. The sort of impact required to achieve success
        in an increasingly global marketplace brings very high levels of investment in
        marketing and promotion.

       Small Music Firms: At the heart of these businesses are organisations with
        considerable entrepreneurial drive led by people who will invest their personal funds
        in their businesses.

Current Skills
    Management skills were considered most deficient in the industry. Significantly, a
       focus on the small business model is imperative.

       IT and Technical skills are also considered important skills needed by the industry.

       More collaboration with technology firms and universities will be important if the
        industry is to keep up to date with new developments.

       Live music has increased dramatically in the last ten years, and technical specialisms
        are vital to maintain this upsurge.

       Knowledge of specialist contract law and Intellectual Property rights is essential.

Future Skills
    Creating and managing knowledge

       Management skills

       Selling and Marketing skills

       IT and digital skills

       Negotiation skills



                                                                                                  100
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       Performing skills

Further information on skills shortages is available in The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills
Agreement for the Creative and Cultural Industries.

7.8 Information on opportunities for adults changing career direction

Different careers in music have different entry requirements. Understanding what these are
and how to demonstrate relevant skills is vital. There are a large number of qualifications that
can help develop knowledge and/ or skills in music disciplines. This includes around 30
graded exam qualifications in areas such as music performance, music literacy and music
theatre. There are also around 150 accredited vocational qualifications in the music sector
(levels 1–7) available through Further Education colleges in areas such as music technology,
music performance, music teaching, music practice, music composition and music business.

Qualifications do not guarantee entry into the music industry and on the job experience and a
good understanding of how the industry operates is highly valued which means internships,
apprenticeships or volunteering can enhance employment opportunities.

For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.

7.9 Information on points of entry or transfer into a sector from another area sector.


Different careers in music have different entry requirements. Understanding what these are
and how to demonstrate relevant skills is vital. There are a large number of qualifications that
can help develop knowledge and/ or skills in music disciplines. This includes around 30
graded exam qualifications in areas such as music performance, music literacy and music
theatre. There are also around 150 accredited vocational qualifications in the music sector
(levels 1–7) available through Further Education colleges in areas such as music technology,
music performance, music teaching, music practice, music composition and music business.
Qualifications do not guarantee entry into the music industry and on the job experience and a
good understanding of how the industry operates is highly valued which means internships,
apprenticeships or volunteering can enhance employment opportunities.

For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.

7.10 Job profiles


Job profiles in the Music industry can be found on Creative Choices Job Profile page.

Job profiles listed are as follows:

       Author
       Critic
       Editor
       Education Staff (Arts)
       Promoter
       Writer

7.11 Case studies


A number of case studies are available, about working in the music industry; these can be
found on Creative Choices Music Case Studies page.


7.12 FAQs




                                                                                                  101
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Q. I want to work in commercial music, but I have no qualifications or experience.
What should I do?

Qualifications do not guarantee entry into the music industry however they are required for
specific specialist functions around business affairs and finance. Jobs are limited and the
supply of the potential workforce vastly outstrips demand. The value of training and
education as perceived by employers in generally increasing but in an industry renowned for
its „mavericks‟ there will always be a career route for the untrained, imaginative entrepreneur
as well as the educated individual.


7.13 Sources of additional information, web-links etc

Further information about the industry and links to industry organisations can be found on
Creative Choices Music Links page

For the latest news, events and career information for the music industry visit the Creative
Choices Music News Pages

7.14 Creative and Cultural Industry Regional Information


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


For national and regional creative and cultural industries news visit Creative Choices Creative
and Cultural Industries News pages


7.14.1 East Midlands
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages.


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


   There are 44380 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   35% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 54% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.1B or 4% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25,000
   There are 3950 creative businesses in the region.


                                                                                                  102
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   92% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


7.14.2 East of England
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 63,700 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   37% are self employed, (41% UK Creative & Cultural Skills average), (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   66% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.8B or 7% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £27000
   There are 6710 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


7.14.3 London
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 164690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce in London, this
    represents 24% of the workforce.
   51% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   84% of the sector workforce is white 56% under 40 years.
   The industries contribute £13.1B GVA of the Creative & Cultural UK wide £25B
   GVA per employee is £79700
   There are 21600 businesses in London.
   93% of the businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more than
    £1M



                                                                                                  103
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
7.14.4 North East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 19680 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 3% of the UK workforce.
   38% are self employed, UK average 41%.
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural workforce average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   96% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £491 million or 2% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are 1330 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m


7.14.5 North West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 59580 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   34% are self employed majority in Arts and Music, UK Creative & Cultural workforce total
    41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   62% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 55% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.9B or 8% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £32 200
   There are 5660 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


7.14.6 South East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


                                                                                                  104
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 98170 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 14% of the UK workforce. SE and London together represent 44% of the UK
    workforce.
   43% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%),
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 47% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £3.8B or 15% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £39 200.
   There are 12 300 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


7.14.7 South West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 60690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   47% are self employed majority in Arts, Design and Music, UK Creative & Cultural
    workforce average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   98% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.5B or 6% GVA, UK £23.5B.
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are approximately 5000 creative businesses in the region 93% employ less than
    50, 7% have a turnover of more than £1m.


7.14.8 West Mids
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages




                                                                                                  105
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 40300 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 6% of the UK workforce.
   31% are self employed. This is the lowest regional figure, UK Creative & Cultural Skills
    average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   91% of the sector workforce is white, and 49% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.7B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £41 500
   There are 5060 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 150 people and 8% have a turnover of
    more than £1m.
7.14.9 Yorkshire and the Humber
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 45900 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   40% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   60% of the workforce is male, the same as the UK Creative & Cultural Skills average (UK
    total UK workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.4B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £31200
   There are just under 4000 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


7.14.10 (Music) Northern Ireland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 102000 people working in Music



                                                                                                  106
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   1% of the music industry is located in N. Ireland.
   99% of the Music sector is white.
   63% of the Music sector is male.
   Music in Northern Ireland contributes £59M of GVA to the UK economy

4.14.11 (Music) Scotland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 102000 people working in the Music sub-sector
   6% of the Music industry is located in Scotland
   98% of the Music sector is white.
   63% of the Music sector is male.
   Music in Scotland contributes £230M of GVA to the UK economy

4.14.12 (Music) Wales
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 102000 people working in the Music sector
   4% of the Music industry is located in Wales
   More than 99% of the Music sector is white.
   69% of the sector is male.
   Music in Wales contributes £69M of GVA to the UK economy


4.14.13 (Music) England
National data is presented below.
   There are 102000 people working in the Music sub-sector
   88% of the Music industry is located in England
   91% of the Music sector is white.
   66% of the Music sector is male
   Music in England contributes £3.9B of GVA to the UK economy




                                                                                                  107
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
    8. Sub-sector Performing Arts

8.1 A brief description of what the sub-sector covers at UK level


The performing arts industry includes everything from opera, dance, theatre through to street
arts and carnival while skills needs include both backstage and onstage requirements.


8.2 Information on careers available and new emerging jobs, transferability of skills, career
paths and opportunities for progression

Jobs available in Performing Arts include:

       Actor
       Agent
       Artistic Director
       Arts Administrator
       Choreographer
       Circus Performer
       Costume Designer
       Dancer
       Entertainer
       Hair, Makeup and Wigs
       Lighting Technician
       Makeup Artist
       Props Maker
       Puppeteer
       Rigger
       Sound Engineer
       Sound Technician
       Special Effects
       Stage Manager
       Stage Hand
       Studio Manager
       Technical Manager
       Theatre Director
       Wardrobe Assistant

For full details see section on Job Profiles (8.10)

For more information on careers in the performing arts industry visit Creative Choices.


8.3 Information on pay scales in the sector

Pay scales in this industry are variable and therefore care should be taken when advising on
this area. The following data provides an indication of the wages structure of the current
performing arts industry workforce:

       18% earn more than £41,000 per annum
       <1% earn between £29,000-£41,000
       10% earn between £20,000-£29,000
       31% earn between £10,000-£20,000
       42% earn less than £10,000




                                                                                                  108
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
8.4 Information on entry requirements, application processes (e.g. Apprenticeships)

Working as a performer unfortunately does not always provide constant and consistent
income. Becoming a performing artist will probably require balancing a variety of part-time
roles which could often include work not specific to the sector. Being proactive in considering
potential sources of future income is essential to earn a sufficient living from performance,
especially in the early stages of careers. There is a lack of structured career paths and
progression plus information for employers and individuals about the relevance and value of
courses to enter into performing arts.

For more information visit the Performing Arts Page on Creative Choices

In the industry, as their highest qualification:
       40% have a level 4+ qualification (degree and above)
       4% have a level 4 qualification (foundation degree level)
       18% have a level 3 qualification (A-levels)
       20% have a level 2 qualification (GCSE level)
       11% have a below level 2 qualification or no qualification




                                                                                                  109
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Creative Apprenticeships:


The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, performing arts or theatre, are given
flexible work-based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain
qualifications (GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
In performing arts the following pathways have been developed:
Pathway          Activity                                 Job Roles

Technical        Planning sound/lighting                  Stage Assistant
Theatre          Getting in, fitting up, getting out      Production Assistant
                 Operating sound/lighting                 Technical Assistant
                 Running and crewing an ongoing           Lighting/Stage Engineer
                 production                               Rigger/Flyman
                 Setting up/checking sound                Special Effects &
                                                          Pyrotechnics
                 Drafting patterns for costumes
Costume &        Making, fitting and altering             Wardrobe Assistant
Wardrobe         costumes                                 Pattern Cutting
                 Planning, maintaining & sourcing         Repairs & Alterations
                 costumes, materials & equipment          Costume Design

Community        Acquiring funding/bursaries              Arts Development officer/
Arts &           Developing a project                     coordinator
Education        Partnership building/liaison             Outreach worker
                 Cross art form collaboration             Youth work
                 * Peer training, mentoring               Fundraising Assistant
                                                          Community Artist




                                                                                                  110
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
National Skills Academy:
The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills Agreement for the Creative and Cultural Industries
revealed a need for 30,000 technical staff and the need to replace and expand the current
workforce by 2013 including to support the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympic Games.
Through the Academy, we will address the urgent skills shortages in theatre and live
performing arts.
There is currently as mis-match between the investment in performing arts and performing
arts provision within the education sector and the needs of employers in the sector. Students
are attracted to courses in further and higher education which do not lead to employment and
employers are not engaging adequately with the training and education world.
The National Skills Academy is made up of a network of employers and colleges throughout
England. It is supported by the LSC, Arts Council England, the Regional Development
Agencies (particularly in the Thames Gateway) as well as the trades unions, the Association
of Colleges and industry bodies such as the Independent Theatre Council (TMA), the Society
of London Theatres (SoLT), and the Professional Lighting and Sound Association (PLASA).


8.5 Qualifications


In all the creative and cultural industries, the dominance of „talent‟ as the raw material on
which the sector depends is often perceived as transcending educational processes such as
examinations, qualifications and training.
In schools, GCSE and A Level qualifications are available in Performing Arts as well as drama
& theatre studies, dance and expressive arts. There are specific dance and drama options
within the sector related disciplines of the new Diploma in Creative & Media (more information
available here www.skillset.org)
There are a large number of qualifications that prepare learners for further learning and
develop their knowledge and/ or skills in performing arts disciplines. There are around 50
graded exam qualifications in areas such as speech & drama, ballet, drama, dance, speech
and communication skills. There are also around 50 accredited vocational qualifications
(levels 1–7) offered by a variety of Awarding Bodies through colleges and employers in areas
such as performing skills, drama, speech and drama education, and technical theatre.
The only accredited occupational qualifications (which confirm a learner is competent in a
particular occupation) are Level 2 and 3 National Awards in Technical Theatre (Costume &
Wardrobe and Rigging, Lighting and Sound). These form part of the Creative Apprenticeship,
along with other relevant pathways in Live Events & Promotion and Community Arts (more
information available here: http://www.creative-choices.co.uk/server.php?show=nav.189)
Trade associations such as the Professional Lighting and Sound Association (PLASA) have
developed qualifications which they have validated. The Dance and Drama Awards (DaDA)
scheme also has validated courses and training for singers, dancers and stage managers
developed by the sector and has drawn bespoke solutions into the formal Further and Higher
Education sector. In very specialist areas employers prefer graduates from a preferred list of
specialist courses. For acting, dancing and stage management employers prefer students
graduating from Higher Education Institutions and Further Education offering DaDA funded
qualifications.
There are a large number of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in both dance and
drama. There are also foundation degrees in subjects such as Acting, Ballet, Dance &
Theatre Arts, Touring and Community Theatre and Inclusive Performance. These can be
found through Creative Choices Find a Course tool

Creative Apprenticeships:

The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, performing arts or theatre, are given



                                                                                                  111
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
flexible work-based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain
qualifications (GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
In performing arts the following pathways have been developed:
Pathway          Activity                                 Job Roles

Technical        Planning sound/lighting                  Stage Assistant
Theatre          Getting in, fitting up, getting out      Production Assistant
                 Operating sound/lighting                 Technical Assistant
                 Running and crewing an ongoing           Lighting/Stage Engineer
                 production                               Rigger/Flyman
                 Setting up/checking sound                Special Effects &
                                                          Pyrotechnics
                 Drafting patterns for costumes
Costume &        Making, fitting and altering             Wardrobe Assistant
Wardrobe         costumes                                 Pattern Cutting
                 Planning, maintaining & sourcing         Repairs & Alterations
                 costumes, materials & equipment          Costume Design


Community        Acquiring funding/bursaries              Arts Development officer/
Arts &           Developing a project                     coordinator
Education        Partnership building/liaison             Outreach worker
                 Cross art form collaboration             Youth work
                 * Peer training, mentoring               Fundraising Assistant
                                                          Community Artist


National Skills Academy:
The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills Agreement for the Creative and Cultural Industries
revealed a need for 30,000 technical staff and the need to replace and expand the current
workforce by 2013 including to support the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympic Games.
Through the Academy, we will address the urgent skills shortages in theatre and live
performing arts.
There is currently as mis-match between the investment in performing arts and performing
arts provision within the education sector and the needs of employers in the sector. Students
are attracted to courses in further and higher education which do not lead to employment and
employers are not engaging adequately with the training and education world.
The National Skills Academy is made up of a network of employers and colleges throughout
England. It is supported by the LSC, Arts Council England, the Regional Development
Agencies (particularly in the Thames Gateway) as well as the trades unions, the Association
of Colleges and industry bodies such as the Independent Theatre Council (TMA), the Society
of London Theatres (SoLT), and the Professional Lighting and Sound Association (PLASA).

Training, Further and Higher Education:

Performing arts specific education and training information can be found through Creative
Choices Find a Course tool and Creative & Cultural Skills Sector Qualification Strategy.

8.6 Data on employment and labour market trends and forecasts

Across the UK there are 5,480 businesses employing just over 102,000 people. 92% of
businesses in the industry employ less than 50 people.

Business and workforce characteristics
    102000 people currently work in the performing arts sector.

       58% are self-employed




                                                                                                  112
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
             o   Self employed workers (50%) are slightly less likely to have a level 4 or
                 above qualification than those who are employed (41%)

       Performing arts contribute £4.6B to the UK economy.

       51% of the sector is male

             o   Men and women are equally likely to have a level 4 or above qualification
                 (45%)

             o   Men (87%) are much more likely to earn less than £20,000 per year than
                 women (58%)

       94% of the workforce is white.

       There are 5,480 businesses in the sector.

       92% employ less than 50 people.

There are a high number of freelancers in the sector and portfolio working is common with a
second job to supplement artistic income. Income may also be seasonal. The sector is also
well qualified but poorly paid.

Experience is valued and at entry level this leads to volunteering, which is a barrier to
workforce diversity. There is a lack of career structures or paths to support progression, for
example for technical staff or middle managers progressing to senior management. This
means people leave the sector, particularly women.
Many performing arts organisations face competition for venues to stage events. It is
essential that touring companies gain good box office returns at the venue, or they may not
be invited back.

Public funding is a key revenue stream often from the relevant national Arts Council, The
sector, therefore, is also sensitive to changes in public funding and policy towards the arts.

Where training needs are identified, freelancers and smaller theatres often find it difficult to
organise and cannot achieve the volumes necessary for economic training (whereas a large
national theatre could potentially run something in-house).

Past high levels of European funding have contributed to a community based arts culture.
This means that there is more of a „bottom-up‟ approach to the arts, with education tending to
be participant led.

Changes in employment:

The key drivers of change in the industry include:
       Funding: Since such a large proportion of performing arts are reliant upon funding
        from various sources, changes in this landscape can have serious consequences.

       The Increasing Importance of Freelancing: Freelancers may originate from different
        areas. For example there are those that started as employees and broke out and
        those that have come out of university straight into freelancing because they cannot
        find employment. These people tend to be around 20-25 years old. Evidence of the
        need to become multi-skilled and have more to offer employers can be observed
        through the wide range of courses that freelancers enrol on.

       Regulation: Health & Safety and Human Resources: Regulation means that rigging,
        working at height, HR, the Working Time Directive etc., have a significant impact on
        production & rehearsal schedules i.e. imposing regulations and limitations on a fixed
        structure by consuming more of existing workers time.


                                                                                                  113
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       There will be a need for 30,000 back stage and technical staff in the performing arts
        and live performance by 2017.

Further information is available in The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills Agreement for the
Creative and Cultural Industries.

8.7 Skill shortages

Three broad skills shortage areas are described below; drivers of skills, current skills needs
and future skills need.

Drivers of Skills
     Funding: Since such a large proportion of performing arts are reliant upon funding
        from various sources, changes in this landscape can have serious consequences.

       The Increasing Importance of Freelancing: Freelancers may originate from different
        areas. For example there are those that started as employees and broke out and
        those that have come out of university straight into freelancing because they cannot
        find employment. These people tend to be around 20-25 years old. Evidence of the
        need to become multi-skilled and have more to offer employers can be observed
        through the wide range of courses that freelancers enrol on.

       Regulation: Health & Safety and Human Resources: Regulation means that rigging,
        working at height, HR, the Working Time Directive etc., have a significant impact on
        production & rehearsal schedules i.e. imposing regulations and limitations on a fixed
        structure by consuming more of existing workers time.

       There will be a need for 30,000 back stage and technical staff in the performing arts
        and live performance by 2017.

Current Skills
    Education skills with education staff are becoming harder to recruit while teaching
       skills are seen as an issue for existing staff. Also education skills for
       artists/practitioners working in schools and community settings.

       Technical skills: in particular in relation to technical theatre and live events.

       Management skills: for specialists and artist/practitioners moving into management.
        This is also contributing to lack of career progression to senior positions. Customer
        service is also seen as a management gap.

       IT skills for artists: managers and in marketing.

       Marketing skills: in relation to fundraising, selling and developing new markets.

       Business and professional skills: in the transition from education to work, also
        generically in business planning and finance.

Future Skills
    Creative and performance skills: in areas of growth e.g. street arts.

       Technical skills: with demand for experienced staff/practitioners.

       Leadership and management skills: for freelance/portfolio working and collaboration.

       Education and community development skills: for organisations and
        artist/practitioners.

       Fundraising from entry level upwards with an increasing demand for fundraisers.



                                                                                                  114
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Further information on skills shortages is available in The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills
Agreement for the Creative and Cultural Industries.

8.8 Information on opportunities for adults changing career direction

It can be difficult to find out about structured career paths and progression into the performing
arts. Working as a performer unfortunately does not always provide constant and consistent
income. Becoming a performing artist will probably require balancing a variety of part-time
roles which could often include work not specific to the sector. Being proactive in considering
potential sources of future income is essential to earn a sufficient living from performance,
especially in the early stages of careers.

There are a large number of qualifications that prepare develop knowledge and/ or skills in
performing arts disciplines and in some areas, like technical theatre, these are becoming
mandatory. Experience is valued and at entry level this often means stints of volunteering.

For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.


8.9 Information on points of entry or transfer into a sector from another area sector.

It can be difficult to find out about structured career paths and progression into the performing
arts. Working as a performer unfortunately does not always provide constant and consistent
income. Becoming a performing artist will probably require balancing a variety of part-time
roles which could often include work not specific to the sector. Being proactive in considering
potential sources of future income is essential to earn a sufficient living from performance,
especially in the early stages of careers.

There are a large number of qualifications that prepare develop knowledge and/ or skills in
performing arts disciplines and in some areas, like technical theatre, these are becoming
mandatory. Experience is valued and at entry level this leads to stints of volunteering. Many
careers in the performing arts value transferable skills or qualifications particularly if gained
within the creative sector, for example education, marketing or finance.

For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.


8.10 Job profiles


Job profiles in the Performing arts industry can be found on Creative Choices Job Profile
page.

Job profiles listed are as follows:

       Actor
       Agent
       Artistic Director
       Arts Administrator
       Choreographer
       Circus Performer
       Costume Designer
       Dancer
       Entertainer
       Hair, Makeup and Wigs
       Lighting Technician
       Makeup Artist
       Props Maker
       Puppeteer
       Rigger


                                                                                                  115
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       Sound Engineer
       Sound Technician
       Special Effects
       Stage Manager
       Stage Hand
       Studio Manager
       Technical Manager
       Theatre Director
       Wardrobe Assistant

8.11 Case studies

A number of case studies are available, about working in the literature industry; these can be
found on Creative Choices Performing Arts Case Studies page.

8.12 FAQs

Q. I want to work in the Performing Arts, but I have no qualifications or experience.
What should I do?

Qualifications are important if you want to work as a performer. Professional training at a
recognized dance or drama school is the most conventional way to train, although it should be
mentioned that competition for places (and for jobs afterwards) is high. Before attending a
vocational school, you will need to have had as much practical experience as possible, and
for dance particularly you will need to train from a young age. As most performers support
their practice by working in education and community settings, gaining some experience or
skills in teaching may also help. A Further Education course in Stage Management or
Technical Theatre courses is a route into the management or backstage side of the sector,
where the chance of employment is much higher.

Q. Once I gain employment what are the opportunities for progression?

Performers are very likely to have a portfolio career, working as a freelance or self-employed
performer. Your career may involve work in film, corporate training videos, radio,
commercials, voice-overs, cruise ship entertainment, small-scale theatre touring, theatre-in-
education and West End productions. Some performers later move into the management
side of the sector, where you could direct, produce or be involved in the running of a company
or venue. Opportunities in technical theatre and other backstage roles are varied, as there
are many different kinds of venues, touring companies, festivals and other events where your
skills will equip you to work.

8.13 Sources of additional information, web-links etc

Further information about the industry and links to industry organisations can be found on
Creative Choices Performing Arts Links page

For the latest news, events and career information for the visual arts industry visit the
Creative Choices Visual Arts News Pages

8.14 Creative and Cultural Industry Regional Information
The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


For national and regional creative and cultural industries news visit Creative Choices Creative
and Cultural Industries News pages


                                                                                                  116
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
8.14.1 East Midlands
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages.


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


   There are 44380 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   35% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 54% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.1B or 4% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25,000
   There are 3950 creative businesses in the region.
   92% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


8.14.2 East of England
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 63,700 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   37% are self employed, (41% UK Creative & Cultural Skills average), (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   66% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.8B or 7% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £27000
   There are 6710 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


8.14.3 London


                                                                                                  117
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 164690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce in London, this
    represents 24% of the workforce.
   51% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   84% of the sector workforce is white 56% under 40 years.
   The industries contribute £13.1B GVA of the Creative & Cultural UK wide £25B
   GVA per employee is £79700
   There are 21600 businesses in London.
   93% of the businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more than
    £1M
8.14.4 North East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 19680 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 3% of the UK workforce.
   38% are self employed, UK average 41%.
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural workforce average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   96% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £491 million or 2% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are 1330 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m


8.14.5 North West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages




                                                                                                  118
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 59580 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   34% are self employed majority in Arts and Music, UK Creative & Cultural workforce total
    41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   62% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 55% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.9B or 8% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £32 200
   There are 5660 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


8.14.6 South East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 98170 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 14% of the UK workforce. SE and London together represent 44% of the UK
    workforce.
   43% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%),
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 47% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £3.8B or 15% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £39 200.
   There are 12 300 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


8.14.7 South West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages




                                                                                                  119
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 60690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   47% are self employed majority in Arts, Design and Music, UK Creative & Cultural
    workforce average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   98% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.5B or 6% GVA, UK £23.5B.
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are approximately 5000 creative businesses in the region 93% employ less than
    50, 7% have a turnover of more than £1m.


8.14.8 West Mids
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 40300 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 6% of the UK workforce.
   31% are self employed. This is the lowest regional figure, UK Creative & Cultural Skills
    average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   91% of the sector workforce is white, and 49% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.7B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £41 500
   There are 5060 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 150 people and 8% have a turnover of
    more than £1m.
8.14.9 Yorkshire and the Humber
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.



                                                                                                  120
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 45900 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   40% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   60% of the workforce is male, the same as the UK Creative & Cultural Skills average (UK
    total UK workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.4B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £31200
   There are just under 4000 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


8.14.10 (Performing Arts) Northern Ireland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 102000 people working in Performing Arts
   2% of the industry is located in N. Ireland.
   More than 99% of the sector is white.
   86% of the sector is male.
   Performing Arts in Northern Ireland contributes £42M of GVA to the UK economy

8.14.11 (Performing Arts) Scotland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 102000 people working in the Cultural Heritage sub-sector
   10% of the Cultural Heritage industry is located in Scotland
   More than 99% of the sector is white.
   51% of the sector is male.
   Performing Arts in Scotland contributes £143M of GVA to the UK economy

8.14.12 (Performing Arts) Wales
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 102000 people working in the Performing Arts sector
   3% of Performing Arts industry is located in Wales
   99% of the sector is white.



                                                                                                  121
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   58% of the sector is male.
   Performing Arts in Wales contributes £86M of GVA to the UK economy


8.14.13 (Performing Arts) England
National data is presented below.
   There are 102000 people working in the Performing Arts sector
   89% of the industry is located in England
   92% of the Cultural Heritage sector is white.
   50% of the Cultural Heritage sector is male.
   Cultural Heritage in England contributes £4.2B of GVA to the UK economy




                                                                                                  122
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
9. Sub-sector Visual Arts

9.1 A brief description of what the sub-sector covers at UK level

Throughout the UK, the visual arts involve a vast range of people in an array of different jobs
and practices. Around the creative hub of artists, many of whom also contribute to education
programmes and community work, the art world is supported by technicians, curators,
managers, publicists, academics, educators, project managers, art theorists, critics and more.
Employers are museums, galleries, studios, arts centres, public sector agencies, public art
agencies, educational bodies, studio organisations, festivals and art fairs. Statistically the
workforce is, however, dominated by individuals and sole traders – artists, freelancers,
consultants, interns and volunteers. Many visual artists have portfolio careers combining a
variety of different jobs.
The visual arts landscape is particularly complex to analyse, a task made more difficult by the
fact that data provided by the Office of National Statistics does not clearly describe types of
activity, patterns of work or conditions of employment. It is a heterogeneous sector where
there are many individual practitioners and where, apart from a few large institutions, most
organisations that there are are classified as micro-enterprises with 1-9 employees. Its
activities range from the small, local and community-based to the global, and from the not-for-
profit to the highly lucrative.
The visual arts sector does not stand alone. It also acts as a feeder for industries such as
advertising, interactive media, the games industry, publishing and design. Its position within
the creative industries has therefore important implications for more general workforce
development and many of visual arts skills are transferable to other creative professions.


9.2 Information on careers available and new emerging jobs, transferability of skills, career
paths and opportunities for progression

Jobs available in Visual Arts Industry include:

       Animator
       Art Editor
       Art Exhibition Organisor
       Art Handler
       Art Valuer
       Artist
       Artistic Director
       Arts Administrator
       Attendant/Gallery Staff
       Cartoonist - Updated
       Development Arts - Staff
       Education Arts - Staff
       Illustrator
       Manager - Arts Centre
       Sculptor
       Technical Illustrator

For full details see section on Job Profiles (8.10)

For more information on careers in the Visual arts industry visit Creative Choices.


9.3 Information on pay scales in the sector

Pay scales in this industry are variable and therefore care should be taken when advising on
this area. The following data provides an indication of the wages structure of the current
visual arts industry workforce:


                                                                                                  123
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       3% earn more than £41,000 per annum
       2% earn between £29,000-£41,000
       5% earn between £20,000-£29,000
       31% earn between £10,000-£20,000
       59% earn less than £10,000




9.4 Information on entry requirements, application processes (e.g. Apprenticeships)

In the visual arts sector, gaining experience and learning through action is a fundamental
principle. Few occupations in the sector are entered with a complete range of skills.
Consequently, industry point out the value of work based learning, continuing professional
development and the provision of courses that provide a relevant skill set.
       There is a lack of knowledge concerning the types of skills needed to succeed in the
        sector.
       Occupational pathways in the industry are either non existent, unclear or overly
        complicated.
       There is a lack of objective, impartial advice for learners making decisions regarding
        which courses and qualification are right for the jobs they want to do.

For more information visit the Visual Arts Page on Creative Choices

In the industry, as their highest qualification:
       57% have a level 4+ qualification (degree and above)
       5% have a level 4 qualification (foundation degree level)
       15% have a level 3 qualification (A-levels)



                                                                                                  124
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       13% have a level 2 qualification (GCSE level)
       7% have a below level 2 qualification or no qualification




Creative Apprenticeships:


The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, performing arts or theatre, are given
flexible work-based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain
qualifications (GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
In visual arts the following pathways have been developed:
Pathway                       Activity                              Job Roles

Community Arts &              Acquiring funding/bursaries           Arts Development officer/
Education                     Developing a project                  coordinator
                              Partnership building/liaison          Outreach worker
                              Cross art form collaboration          Youth work
                              * Peer training, mentoring            Fundraising Assistant
                                                                    Community Artist


9.5 Qualifications

In all the creative and cultural industries, the dominance of „talent‟ as the raw material on
which the sector depends is often perceived as transcending educational processes such as
examinations, qualifications and training.
There are a number of accredited vocational qualifications offered by a variety of Awarding
Bodies through colleges. These qualifications prepare learners for further learning and



                                                                                                  125
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
develop their knowledge and/ or skills in Visual Arts related areas such as fine art, life
drawing, illustration, printing and a number under the broader heading of art & design.
Employers tend to look for undergraduate and postgraduate qualifications, even for entry level
roles but particularly in specialist areas like curating and gallery management. Reflecting this,
there are a large number of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in fine art and other
creative art and design areas, as well as history of art. There are also Foundation Degrees
which include applied art, arts management, digital fine art, fine art, and visual studies.
In schools, GCSE and A Level qualifications are available in Art & Design and History of Art.
There are also specific 2D and 3D visual art option within the sector related disciplines of the
new Diploma in Creative & Media (more information available here www.skillset.org.uk).

Creative Apprenticeships:


The Creative Apprenticeships programme is designed to meet the needs of the creative and
cultural sectors. Approved by industry and supported by Government, those who wouldn‟t
normally have the chance to work in, for example, performing arts or theatre, are given
flexible work-based learning opportunities where they can learn valuable skills and obtain
qualifications (GSCE or A-level equivalent) whilst earning a wage.
In visual arts the following pathways have been developed:
Pathway                       Activity                              Job Roles

Community Arts &              Acquiring funding/bursaries           Arts Development officer/
Education                     Developing a project                  coordinator
                              Partnership building/liaison          Outreach worker
                              Cross art form collaboration          Youth work
                              * Peer training, mentoring            Fundraising Assistant
                                                                    Community Artist



Training, Further and Higher Education:

Visual arts specific education and training information can be found through Creative Choices
Find a Course tool and Creative & Cultural Skills Sector Qualification Strategy.


9.6 Data on employment and labour market trends and forecasts


Across the UK there are 4,580 businesses employing just over 37500 people. 82% of
businesses in the industry employ less than 50 people.

Business and workforce characteristics
    37500 people currently work in the visual arts industry.
       Visual arts contribute £1.9B to the UK economy.
       The sector is evenly split between male and female workers.
             o   Men (66%) are lightly more likely to have a level 4 qualification than women
                 (58%)
             o   More than 9 in 10 women earn less than £20,000 per year, compared to 8 in
                 10 men
       95% of the workforce is white.
       70% are self-employed
             o   Self employed workers are much more likely (76%) to have at least a level 4
                 qualification (31%)


                                                                                                  126
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       There are 4,580 businesses in the sector.
       Less than 82% employ less than 50 people.
For many organisations, the main revenue stream is public funding, generally with a degree of
Arts Council input. Public funding is therefore key to the vitality of this sector and changes to
the funding landscape should be examined carefully as the effect will be magnified by its
centrality to the sector.
Parts of the sector are also very commercially driven and this reveals a dichotomy within the
market. Some organisations rely entirely upon Arts Council funding, and are sensitive to any
changes in government policy, whilst other organisations rely on sales generation. There is
money to be made in the sector and that there is potential to exploit latent demand through
effective business strategy and planning.
The markets for artists are brokered within internal and external spaces through Galleries and
Public Art curators. These have specific features:
       Gallery: Can be public (large scale to small), with a focus on audience development,
        or private, with a focus on private sales and typically some form of niche (e.g.
        regional, specific contemporary).
       Public Art: Typically crosses a number of boundaries and traditional sectors operating
        within the local council planning framework at one end of the scale, and involving
        multi-faceted stakeholders at the regional (RDA) and European level. As a result key
        features of the market are networking and collaborative working. Due to its diversity, it
        is difficult to categorise further, but the following sub sectors could be seen to exist:
             o   Art for the public realm
             o   Art for regeneration
             o   Art for sustainable communities
             o   Craft for the designed environment
             o   Process based practise without artistic product
       Past high levels of European funding have contributed to a community based arts
        culture and this means that there is more of a „bottom-up‟ approach to the arts, with
        education tending to be participant led.

Changes in employment:

Due to government policy and social regeneration, a widening of the perception of public art
has occurred. Public art is increasingly seen as a quality marker for the built environment,
which also means that it does not fit comfortably within the traditional boundaries of the
creative sector. The cross-disciplinary situational nature of public art does however lead to a
myriad of sector drivers, with examples from public transport through to shopping precincts.
Further information is available in The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills Agreement for the
Creative and Cultural Industries.


9.7 Skill shortages

Three broad skills shortage areas are described below; drivers of skills, current skills needs
and future skills need.

Drivers of Skills
Due to government policy and social regeneration, a widening of the perception of public art
has occurred. Public art is increasingly seen as a quality marker for the built environment,
which also means that it does not fit comfortably within the traditional boundaries of the
creative sector. The cross-disciplinary situational nature of public art does however lead to a
myriad of sector drivers, with examples from public transport through to shopping precincts.




                                                                                                  127
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Further information is available in The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills Agreement for the
Creative and Cultural Industries.
Current Skills
There is anecdotal evidence that artists are lacking production skills and IT skills. With
regards to internal skills gaps the key roles identified in the survey were artists, management,
marketing and creative.
For artists the specific skills lacking are artistic, craft, finance/accounting, IT and technical. In
the creative role, business development, design, production and technical skills are lacking.

Future Skills
Future skills in the sector include:
            Professional skills (pricing, selling, negotiation, networking)
            Marketing skills (awareness of new markets and the creation of „cultural
             products‟)
            Entrepreneurial skills (taking „cultural products‟ to new markets)
            Digital / IT skills
            Freelancing skills (professional skills & contract, budget, use of accounting, co-
             operation skills)
            Fundraising skills (awareness and some specialisation)
            Education skills (entry level, facilitation and general practise)
            Management / Leadership
            Transition skills (expressed elsewhere as a proxy for experience)
            Education (specialisms, training for private sector, development and Occupational
             therapy)
            Fundraising (Awareness, specialisation and accounting for rising seniority)
            Digital / IT
            Professional skills (developing to relate to professional codes of practise and
             encapsulating freelance skills)
            Project management / Leadership (consensus approach to formation and
             management of project teams comprised of freelancers and part / full time staff)
            Transition skills
            Professional skills (now encapsulating previous professional skills and education
             skills)
            Fundraising (at all levels, from entry to senior)
            IT / Digital
            Transition skills
Further information on skills shortages is available in The Creative Blueprint: The Sector Skills
Agreement for the Creative and Cultural Industries.

9.8 Information on opportunities for adults changing career direction

To work as a practicing artist the most conventional entry route is through academia which
would mean a BA in a related discipline such as Fine Art. As many artists support their
practice with other work such as education, curatorship or arts admin then an MA or PHD is
often the next step to this attaining type of employment.

Outside of academia, to gain the relevant experience a period of voluntary work or an
internship in gallery or studio space can enhance employment opportunities. There is a wide




                                                                                                  128
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
range of organisations, networks and initiatives designed to signpost information and
opportunities for skills development and experience in the visual arts.

For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.


9.9 Information on points of entry or transfer into a sector from another area sector.

To work as a practicing artist the most conventional entry route is through academia which
would mean a BA in a related discipline such as Fine Art. As many artists support their
practice with other work such as education, curatorship or arts admin then an MA or PHD is
often the next step to this attaining type of employment.

Outside of academia, to gain the relevant experience a period of voluntary work or an
internship in gallery or studio space can enhance employment opportunities. Many careers in
the visual arts are open to people with key transferable skills, particularly if gained within
another creative industry, for example education, marketing and management. There is a
wide range of organisations, networks and initiatives designed to signpost information and
opportunities for skills development and experience in the visual arts.

For more information visit Creative Choices Careers Clinic tool.


9.10 Job profiles


Job profiles in the Visual arts industry can be found on Creative Choices Job Profile page.

Job profiles listed are as follows:

       Animator
       Art Editor
       Art Exhibition Organisor
       Art Handler
       Art Valuer
       Artist
       Artistic Director
       Arts Administrator
       Attendant/Gallery Staff
       Cartoonist
       Development Arts - Staff
       Education Arts - Staff
       Illustrator
       Manager - Arts Centre
       Sculptor
       Technical Illustrator


9.11 Case studies


A number of case studies are available, about working in the literature industry; these can be
found on Creative Choices Visual Arts Case Studies page.


9.12 FAQs
Q: I want to work in Visual Arts but I have no qualifications or experience. What should
I do?




                                                                                                  129
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
As a practicing artist the most conventional route is through academia which would mean a
BA in a related discipline such as Fine Art. As many artists support their practice with other
work such as education, curatorship or arts admin then an MA or PHD is often the next step
to this type of work. To gain the relevant experience after leaving HE getting voluntary work
or embarking on an internship within an organization such as a gallery or studio space is as a
common route through to working within the sector. Within the visual arts sector there is also
the option of “just getting on with it” and building your own networks, representation and
practice this way.

Q: Once I gain employment what are the opportunities for progression?
Progression for someone working within visual arts is dependent on what they do. Practicing
artists as sole traders often embark on a folio career and would often measure success in
terms of such things as making a living from their practice, peer recognition, exhibiting or
representation. Artists who work in an academic environment can “progress” to having full-
time jobs, be heads of departments and gaining research posts.


9.13 Sources of additional information, web-links etc


Further information about the industry and links to industry organisations can be found on
Creative Choices Visual Arts Links page

For the latest news, events and career information for the craft industry visit the Creative
Choices Craft News Pages


9.14 Creative and Cultural Industry Regional Information
The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


For national and regional creative and cultural industries news visit Creative Choices Creative
and Cultural Industries News pages


9.14.1 East Midlands
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages.


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.


   There are 44380 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   35% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).




                                                                                                  130
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 54% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.1B or 4% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25,000
   There are 3950 creative businesses in the region.
   92% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


9.14.2 East of England
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 63,700 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   37% are self employed, (41% UK Creative & Cultural Skills average), (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   66% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.8B or 7% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £27000
   There are 6710 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1M.


9.14.3 London
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 164690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce in London, this
    represents 24% of the workforce.
   51% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).



                                                                                                  131
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   84% of the sector workforce is white 56% under 40 years.
   The industries contribute £13.1B GVA of the Creative & Cultural UK wide £25B
   GVA per employee is £79700
   There are 21600 businesses in London.
   93% of the businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more than
    £1M
9.14.4 North East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 19680 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 3% of the UK workforce.
   38% are self employed, UK average 41%.
   63% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural workforce average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   96% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £491 million or 2% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £25000
   There are 1330 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m


9.14.5 North West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 59580 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   34% are self employed majority in Arts and Music, UK Creative & Cultural workforce total
    41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   62% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   95% of the sector workforce is white and 55% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.9B or 8% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £32 200



                                                                                                  132
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   There are 5660 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 7% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


9.14.6 South East
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 98170 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 14% of the UK workforce. SE and London together represent 44% of the UK
    workforce.
   43% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%),
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 47% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £3.8B or 15% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £39 200.
   There are 12 300 creative businesses in the region.
   93% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 6% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.


9.14.7 South West
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 60690 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 9% of the UK workforce.
   47% are self employed majority in Arts, Design and Music, UK Creative & Cultural
    workforce average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   59% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total UK
    workforce average 54%).
   98% of the sector workforce is white and 46% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.5B or 6% GVA, UK £23.5B.
   GVA per employee is £25000




                                                                                                  133
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
   There are approximately 5000 creative businesses in the region 93% employ less than
    50, 7% have a turnover of more than £1m.


9.14.8 West Mids
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 40300 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 6% of the UK workforce.
   31% are self employed. This is the lowest regional figure, UK Creative & Cultural Skills
    average 41% (UK total workforce average 12%).
   58% of the workforce is male, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 60% (UK total
    workforce average 54%).
   91% of the sector workforce is white, and 49% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.7B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £41 500
   There are 5060 creative businesses in the region.
   91% of creative businesses employ less than 150 people and 8% have a turnover of
    more than £1m.
9.14.9 Yorkshire and the Humber
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
and skill shortages


The presentation of sub-sector regional information is problematic due to the sometimes small
numbers of people being represented. Because of this, all regional information is presented
for the creative and cultural industries as a whole. This includes information on advertising,
craft, cultural heritage, design, literature, music, performing arts and visual arts.
All the information more regarding data on the craft industry can be found on Creative
Choices Data Generator page.
   There are 45900 people in the Creative & Cultural Skills workforce.
   This 7% of the UK workforce.
   40% are self employed, UK Creative & Cultural Skills average 41% (UK total workforce
    average 12%).
   60% of the workforce is male, the same as the UK Creative & Cultural Skills average (UK
    total UK workforce average 54%).
   97% of the sector workforce is white and 53% under 40 years.
   The region contributes £1.4B or 6% GVA, UK £25B.
   GVA per employee is £31200
   There are just under 4000 creative businesses in the region.
   90% of creative businesses employ less than 50 people and 8% have a turnover of more
    than £1m.




                                                                                                  134
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
9.14.10 (Visual Arts) Northern Ireland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 37500 people working in the Visual Arts sub-sector
   1% of the industry is located in N. Ireland.
   More than 99% of the sector is white.
   22% of the sector is male.
   Visual Arts in Northern Ireland contributes £16M of GVA to the UK economy

9.14.11 (Visual Arts) Scotland
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 37500 people working in the Visual Arts sub-sector
   7% of the industry is located in Scotland
   85% of the sector is white.
   3% of the sector is male.
   Visual Arts in Scotland contributes £47M of GVA to the UK economy

9.14.12 (Visual Arts) Wales
Key regional variations for sub-sector, employment and labour market trends and forecasts,
skill shortages and qualifications.

The presentation of national data is at a sectoral level

   There are 37500 people working in the Visual Arts sector
   7% of the industry is located in Wales
   96% of the sector is white.
   55% of the sector is male.
   Visual Arts in Scotland contributes £36M of GVA to the UK economy


9.14.13 (Visual Arts) England
National data is presented below.
   There are 37500 people working in Visual Arts sector
   85% of the industry is located in England
   92% of the sector is white.
   51% of the sector is male.
Cultural Heritage in England contributes £1.8B of GVA to the UK economy




                                                                                                  135
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Appendix 1
Apprenticeships available
          All apprentices will complete a Certificate in Creative & Cultural
          Practice, which gives learners the basic knowledge to work in the
          sector.

          Job Roles
          Level 2 (Apprenticeship)
          Technical Theatre

                Stage Assistant
                Production Assistant
                Technical Assistant
                Lighting/Stage Electrics
                Sound Engineer
                Rigger/Flyman
                Special Effects & Pyrotechnics

          Costume & Wardrobe

                Wardrobe Assistant
                Pattern Cutting
                Repairs & Alterations
                Costume Design

          Community Arts & Education

                Arts Development officers/coordinators
                Project coordinators
                Project managers
                Outreach workers
                Youth work
                Fundraising Assistant
                Community Artist
                Education Assistant
                Contracts Assistant

          Live Events & promotion

                Performers
                Directors Assistant
                Assistant Stage manager
                Production Assistant
                Technical Assistant
                Wardrobe
                Props
                Licensing/Contracts
                Artist Management

          Music Business

                Programmers


                                                                                                  136
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
                Programme assistants
                Producers assistants – live events
                Administrators of live events

          Publishing

                Marketing & Communications
                Artist Management
                Artists & repertoire
                Record Label employee
                Booking Agent
                Publicity & Promotion Staff

          Cultural & Heritage Venue Operations

                Front of house staff, administration
                Attendant / gallery staff / warden
                Customer, visitor service staff
                Guide Demonstrators
                Sales Staff
                School Liaison Staff


          Level 3 (Advanced Apprenticeship)
          Technical Theatre

                Stage Manager
                Production Manager
                Technical Manager
                Lighting/ Stage electrics
                Sound Engineer
                Rigger/Flyman
                Props
                Special effects and pyrotechnics

          Costume & Wardrobe

                Wardrobe Manager
                Pattern Cutting
                Repairs & Alterations
                Costume Design
                Dresser

          Community Arts

                Arts Development officers/coordinators
                Project coordinators
                Project managers
                Fundraising Manager
                Community Artist
                Arts Education Manager
                Contracts Manager
                Youth work


                                                                                                  137
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
          Live Events & promotion

                Performers
                Directors
                Stage Manager
                Production Manager
                Technical Manager
                Wardrobe
                Props
                Licensing/ managing contracts
                Special effects and pyrotechnics
                Artist Managment

          Music Business

                Programmers
                Programme managers
                Producers – live events
                Managers and administrators of live events
                Publishing
                Marketing & Communications

             Artist Management

                Artists & repertoire
                Record Label owner/employee
                Booking Agent

          Cultural & Heritage Venue Operations

                Front of house staff, administration
                Attendant / gallery staff / warden
                Customer, visitor service staff
                Guide Demonstrators
                Sales Staff
                School Liaison Staff


Appendix 2
Basic information on Skills qualities etc from LMI YNY

Reality Check

       Working in Creative, Media and Design can give great job satisfaction
        from doing something you love for other people's enjoyment
       There is fierce competition for both jobs and places on specialised
        courses
       Jobs in this sector may involve touring and staying away from home,
        unsocial and long hours, including weekends and public holidays
       There is a lot of contract and temporary work, which can mean income
        and regular work, fluctuates



                                                                                                  138
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
        Work can be very varied and can give the opportunity to meet a wide
         variety of people

And a note on Pay ...

        Many jobs may entail a low starting salary
        Artists' pay varies greatly depending on the success of the artist
        Rates of pay for IT jobs depend on levels of qualification, experience
         and responsibility
        The pay rates for Professional performers and backstage theatre staff
         are set by Equity and vary according to the job role and the type of
         performance

The website below can give you a rough idea of average salaries in
Creative, Media and Digital:

www.paywizard.co.uk



Skills

There are number of skills that are useful for any sub-sector of the Creative
Industries:

Creativity - all sub-sectors require an element of creativity, whether it is for
example having a natural talent for music or dance, or being able to design a
website

Communication skills - good communication and interpersonal skills are
important in any industry and the ability to work well with others is just as
important in creative, media and design

Ability to meet deadlines - deadlines such as the opening night of a stage
production require performers to have learned their lines, positions and
movements, lighting and sound technicians need to make sure all the
equipment has been tested and is working order, website designers need to
meet client deadlines

More specifically, those working in art & design need to:

        Be able to interpret other people's ideas
        Be able to work alone and also as part of a team
        Have an eye for shape, colours, textures and layout
        Pay attention to detail
        Have advanced it skills if the role requires it

Useful skills for working in information technology are to:

        Have an interest in and knowledge of IT


                                                                                                  139
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
       Have some mathematical ability
       Have problem-solving skills and be logical, analytical and methodical

Those working in the music industry need to:

       Have a good ear for musical sounds, pitch and tone and good music
        knowledge
       Often be able to play a musical instrument and read music
       Familiarity with the music industry and current trends
       Have time management skills
       Have business and negotiation skills
       Be able to market and promote themselves to get work
       Have good ict skills with knowledge of specialist software
       Have a basic knowledge of electrics and electronics for some jobs
       An interest in technology for some jobs

Those working in the performing arts need to:

 Be aware of Professional etiquette and traditions involved in stage or
  television work
 Have good timing and coordination skills
 Be able to engage and hold the attention of the audience
 Have clear and concise diction and the ability to assume different accents
 Have a logical and fast approach to problem solving
 Be able to deal effectively with the press for some jobs
 Have the ability to work well in a team
 Be in good general health and have a high level of fitness and stamina
 Have the ability to concentrate for long periods of time
 Have good administrative, organisational and financial management skills
  for some jobs
 Be flexible and adaptable
 Be able to motivate others
 Be able to read a musical score for some jobs

Personal Qualities

There are several personal qualities that are useful for any sub-sector in the
Creative, Media & Design industry:

Enthusiasm - the creative industries thrive on the enthusiasm and dedication
of those involved and most roles suit an outgoing personality with self-
motivation

Ability to deal with criticism - many roles are open to feedback from the
public, press and clients so it is necessary to be able to withstand any
criticism




                                                                                                  140
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010
Determination - competition for jobs in this sector is fierce so those involved
need to be self-disciplined and committed to practising their skills and have
the drive, determination and self-belief to succeed in this tough job market

More specifically, those working in art & design need to:

       Be dedicated and confident
       Be able to compromise
       Welcome other people's ideas and opinions
       Be motivated to keep up with technological advances

Those working in IT need to:

       Be tactful and patient
       Be persuasive
       Be innovative
       Be adaptable and flexible

Those working in the music industry need to:

       Love music
       Be confident performers
       Be persistent
       Be willing to change and adapt to new ideas and tastes
       Have an open mind with regard to different styles of music
       Be able to work well under pressure
       Have patience and a high level of concentration
       Be committed to keeping up to date with advances in audio technology
       Be physically fit and prepared to work hard
       Be adaptable and open to change
       Be able to understand the needs of performers
       Have the ability to work calmly under pressure

Those working in the performing arts need to:

       Be willing to work long and irregular hours
       Love performing to an audience
       Be willing to accept the ideas and instructions of the choreographer or
        director
       Be uninhibited in order to to be made up, dressed, positioned and
        directed by others
       Be tactful and diplomatic to get the best out of performers
       Have the ability to work calm under pressure




                                                                                                  141
This document has been produced by the Creative and Cultural Industries Skills Council and additional
information has been added by Anne Almond, Connexions Recruitment Adviser, for Connexions in
North Yorkshire July 2010