Fred_Wellons - Fred Wellons

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					Transforming Animal Fats and Used Cooking Oils 
Transforming Animal Fats and Used Cooking Oils
   into Green Fuels – Technology that Works
                      Fred Wellons
                       representing
          National Renderers Association
                     USA Headquarters
               801 N F i f S          S i 207
               801 N. Fairfax Street, Suite 207
                   Alexandria, VA  22314
                    00.1.703.683.0155
             renderers@nationalrenderers.org
          NRA Website:  www.nationalrenderers.org


      16 March 2010
                                                    1
 Fred Wellons
 Fred Wellons
• Contact info:
   – wellonsmgmt@aol.com
   – Phone:  00.1.949.735.3752  (Los Angeles, CA)

• 30 years in oilseed processing, rendering, oleochemicals, 
  biofuels from waste fats and oils

• Currently consulting in biofuels processing, marketing, 
  feedstock procurement
  feedstock procurement



           16 March 2010
                                                               2
                         RED
   Definition of “wastes” and “residues”
• used cooking oils and animal fats appear to be 
  classified as “wastes” or “residues”
   – Examples: beef, pork, and poultry fats, 
      yellow grease
• biofuels using “waste” or “residue” feedstocks count 
  double toward the 10 percent target and toward 
  other renewable energy obligations


         16 March 2010
                                                      3
        US Legislation incentivizes the 
        US Legislation incentivizes the
    use of wastes and residues for biofuel
• Renewable Fuels Standard ‐2 requires biofuels to achieve 
  certain GHG goals to qualify as biofuels and advanced biofuels  
  Example: Biodiesel produced from animal fats and used 
  E      l Bi di l       d df           i lf        d    d
  cooking oils achieve a 60 – 85 % reduction vs Ultra Low Sulfur 
  Diesel

• States have their own rules… 
  Example: California s Low Carbon Fuel Standard
  Example: California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard



           16 March 2010
                                                                4
     US Production – 2008
                 (000’s metric tons)

Inedible tallow and greases
Inedible tallow and greases                 2,820
                                            2 820
  Inedible tallow                           1,605
  Greases                                   1,215
    Yellow grease                             704
           g
    Other grease                              512
Edible tallow                                 807
Lard                                          220
Poultry fat                                   657
Total                                       4,504
                                Source: US Census Bureau
 16 March 2010
                                                           5
   Specifications in the following slides 
   Specifications in the following slides
    can be found in NRA’s Blue Book
     This handbook on rendered products 
               can be found at:
http://nationalrenderers.org/publications/blue_book




        16 March 2010
                                                      6
 American Fats and Oils Association
    ifi i      f     ll      d
specifications for tallows and greases




  16 March 2010
                                         7
Industrial Tallow
( yp     y            )
(typically Cattle Fat…)

Raw materials are: 
• Slaughterhouse by‐products: 
  fats, offal, bones and blood 
  Meat market trimmings: 
• Meat market trimmings:
  fats, bone, cartilage and meat trimmings 
• Fallen animals
• Used cooking oils:
  (processed and stored separately) 

          16 March 2010
                                              8
       Pork Fat
       Pork Fat
  Lard is the fat rendered from fresh, clean, sound tissues of 
• Lard is the fat rendered from fresh clean sound tissues of
  pigs in good health at the time of slaughter. The 
  composition, characteristics and consistency of lard vary 
  greatly according to the diet. The higher the level of 
  greatly according to the diet The higher the level of
  unsaturated fats in the diets of pigs the softer (higher 
  iodine value) the fat.
  Choice white grease is usually a softer, darker form of 
• Ch i      hi          i      ll     f    d k f          f
  pork fat.  


           16 March 2010
                                                                  9
    Poultry Fat
    P lt F t
• Fat from rendered byproducts of 
  poultry slaughter and meat‐packing.




          16 March 2010
                                        10
     Yellow Grease
• This material is usually made up of 
  restaurant greases 
  restaurant greases
   (fats and oils from cooking). 
• Another source could be from 
  rendering plants producing lower 
  quality greases. 




           16 March 2010
                                         11
Specs for Feed Grade Fats
Specs for Feed Grade Fats




 16 March 2010
                            12
Industrial and Feed Grade Fats have other uses
I d    i l dF dG d F h                h

•   Soap and detergents
•   Fatty acids
•   Esters
•   New petroleum‐substitutes
     – Bio‐based cleaners
     – Candles
     – Direct fuel in boilers




           16 March 2010
                                                 13
When used as feedstocks for biofuel production,
Animal Fats and Used Cooking Oil products 
have processing challenges…

• Higher free fatty acid content than crop oils
• Higher moisture, insoluble and unsaponifiable
  contaminants (cannot be reacted into biofuels)
• Higher cloud points and pour points



         16 March 2010
                                                   14
Animal fats and UCO can b
A i lf         d UCO                   di
                           be processed into 
quality biofuels, using the right technology




        16 March 2010
                                                15
      Methods of dealing with Free Fatty Acids
Method                         FFA range              Yield loss
Caustic refining               Less than 4 %          1.5 – 2  x FFA
                                                      (soapstock co‐product)
Steam stripping
Steam stripping                Less than 8 %
                               Less than 8 %          1  1.2 x FFA
                                                      1 – 1 2 x FFA
                                                      (fa co‐product)
React “as‐is” and take         Less than 4 %          4 – 12 x FFA
the soap loss
th       l                                            (soap/FAME in glyc)
Acid esterification            Theoretically 100 %    Theoretically 110 %
of FFA, then TE
of FFA, then TE                Actual 20 %?
                               Actual 20 %?           (wgt of FAME vs feed)
                                                      (wgt of FAME vs feed)

Glycerolysis                   Theoretically 100 %    Approx. 100 % 
                               Actual 75%             depending on feed)

                                                     Wellons personal data (1995‐2009)
               16 March 2010
                                                                                     16
                   MIU
   Moisture, Insolubles, Unsaponifiables
• Technology solutions have been around a long time.
• The same technology used for using AF and UCO in 
  soaps, oleochemicals, etc.
   – Screening and/or filtration, with or w/o media (DE, 
             g y)
     bleaching clay)
   – Washing – salt, acid (sulfuric, citric), clean
   – Centrifuge and/or drying
• Specific steps and processing equipment dependent on 
  the feedstock characteristics.

          16 March 2010
                                                            17
            Cloud Points of FAME
Saturated nature of AF and some UCO feedstocks lead to 
  higher cloud points than most oilseed feedstocks.
    g            p
• Titer is the melt point of the fatty acids in a glyceride… The 
  cloud point of a methyl ester is usually around 30 deg. C. 
  less than the Titer.
  less than the Titer
• So, if a particular sample of tallow has a Titer = 40 deg. C, 
  then the cloud point will be around 10 deg. C



           16 March 2010
                                                              18
         Solutions for Cloud Point issues
         Solutions for Cloud Point issues

  Blending with lower cloud 
• Blending with lower cloud
  feedstocks
• Pour point or cloud point 
  depressants
• Winterization or cold‐filtering to 
  remove unreacted saturated
  remove unreacted saturated 
  glycerides and smaller amounts of 
  saturated esters
  Fractionation or distillation
• F ti     ti      di till ti


           16 March 2010
                                            19
Costs to Manufacture FAME from 
Costs to Manufacture FAME from
 various AF and UCO feedstocks
                                      Cost of
                                     Feedstock                         Total
                          Current    after Yield        Mfg           FAME
                         Price (US      Loss            Cost           Cost
 Feedstock               cents/lb)     ($/MT)          ($/MT)         ($/MT)
 Cr.Deg.
 Cr Deg Soybean               32.5
                              32 5       717             132            849
 BF Tallow                    28.0       630             147            777
 Yellow Grease                24.0       540             191            731
 Poultry Fat                  25.0       563             162            724

                                                    Jacobsen pricing Feb 16 2010
                                                    Jacobsen pricing, Feb 16, 2010
                                       Mfg costs, Wellons personal data, Feb. 2010
         16 March 2010
                                                                               20
                          FAME Costs to Make

900
800
                                                          Mfg Cost
700                                                       ($/MT)
600
500
400
300
                                                          Cost of
200                                                       Feedstock
100                                                       after Yield
  0                                                       L
                                                          Loss ($/MT)
      Cr.Deg.  BF          Yellow   Poultry
      Soybean Tallow       Grease    Fat

                                               From data on previous slide 
          16 March 2010
                                                                        21
       Animal Fats and Used Cooking Oils 
       Animal Fats and Used Cooking Oils –
               feedstock selection
• Each feedstock is different and will require a different 
  biofuel process.
  There is some variability by supplier, the facility, the raw 
• There is some variability by supplier the facility the raw
  material mix, and the season.
• To optimize costs, efficiency of process, and biofuel
  To optimize costs, efficiency of process, and biofuel
  quality: 
   Evaluate samples, specifications, feedstock cost, 
     expected yield, process cost, and equipment costs.


          16 March 2010
                                                             22
 Biofuels from these recycled sources are GREEN
California Air Resources Board is developing GHG data for CA’s LCFS –
   Obligated parties (refiners and importers) must reduce GHG emissions 
   compared to the 2010 baseline year.    Example: 1 gal ULSD.


            Year             Avg. gCO2e/MJ               Reduction
            2010                    94.71              Reporting year
            2011                    94.47                   0.25 %
            2012                    94.24                   0.50 %
            2013                    93.76
                                    93 76                   10%
                                                            1.0 %
            2014                    93.29                   1.5 %

            16 March 2010
                                                                           23
    California Air Resources Board
           Life Cycle Analysis 
           Life Cycle Analysis
       for Transportation Fuels

• Detailed California‐Modified GREET Pathway for 
  Transportation Fuels
  Transportation Fuels 
• http://www.arb.ca.gov/fuels/lcfs/lcfs.htm




     16 March 2010
                                                    24
               *       l      b
       CARB LCA* – gasoline substitutes
          LCA = Life Cycle Analysis, LUC = Land Use Change

Fuel                               gCO2e/MJ                   GHG reduction vs. 
                               (LCA + LUC = Total)             petro‐product
Calif. Gasoline                       95.86                                ‐‐‐
Corn Ethanol                     60.1 + 30 = 90.1                         5 %
S     Eth   l (B il)
Sugar Ethanol (Brazil)           26.6 + 46 = 72.6
                                 26 6 46 72 6                            24 %
                                                                         24 %
Cellulosic Ethanol               2.4  +  18 = 20.4                       79 %
(farmed trees)
Cellulosic Ethanol                     22.2                              77 %
(forest waste)

                                                 *  http://www.arb.ca.gov/fuels/lcfs/lcfs.htm
               16 March 2010
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           CARB LCA – diesel substitutes
           CARB LCA* – diesel substitutes
          LCA = Life Cycle Analysis, LUC = Land Use Change

Fuel                              gCO2e/MJ                 GHG reduction vs. 
                              (LCA + LUC = Total)           petro‐product
ULSD                                 94.71
                                     94 71                              ‐‐
Biodiesel – soy                26.93 + 42 = 68.93                     27 %
Renewable Diesel ‐ soy         28.80 + 42 = 70.80                     25 %
Biodiesel – UCO                      15.84                            83 %
Renewable Diesel ‐ tallow            39.33                            58 %
Biodiesel – tallow (calc*)           37.46                            60 %

                                             * http://www.arb.ca.gov/fuels/lcfs/lcfs.htm
                                                Calculated value by Wellons
                                             **Calculated value by Wellons

              16 March 2010
                                                                                           26
           % Reduction from Petro-product
                                          Products currently available
100
                      X   X
80
60
40
20
 0
      Corn Sugar Tree Waste Soy     Soy       UCO Tallow Tallow
      EtOH EtOH EtOH EtOH BD        RD         BD  RD     BD

                                      http://www.arb.ca.gov/fuels/lcfs/lcfs.htm
          16 March 2010
                                                                            27
Conclusion
Why has the US been so slow to utilize UCO and Animal Fats?
    –Larger, early producers were soy‐based: ADM, Cargill, REG, AGP.
    –Original tax credit was $1/gal for first‐use material, $0.50/gal for recycled.
    –The challenges of processing animal fats and used cooking oils into biofuels.
What has changed?
    –Biodiesel utilization has increased, creating the need for more feedstock.
    –Over‐capacity means that the “lowest cost” biodiesel producer has an 
         advantage.
    –Producers are modifying their manufacturing processes so they can use lower 
       tf d t k
    cost feedstocks.
    –Equal tax credit for feedstocks…  all $1 per gallon.
What is next?
    –Continued higher demand for AF, UCO due to cost of feedstock and GHG 
        advantages for waste feedstocks.



            16 March 2010
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