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					                 Paper Knowledge management:
                              Dhr. Lemeire


      Content management on intranet


                                 Door:
                              Hubain Henri
                             Kesteloot Kevin
                             Lammens Niels
                           Vandeputte Thomas
                           Van Renterghem Nils
                            Verheecke Jeroen




Academiejaar 2007 - 2008
Hogeschool Gent
Knowledge management                                                               Content management on intranet



Introduction

Introduction ................................................................................................................. 2
1 What is CMS? .......................................................................................................... 3
   1.1 Definition ........................................................................................................... 3
   1.2 Features ............................................................................................................ 4
2 Working of a CMS ................................................................................................... 6
3 Goals of a content management (system) ............................................................... 8
   Why using a content management system? ........................................................... 8
   3.1 Knowledge management goals ......................................................................... 9
   3.2 Supporting goals ............................................................................................... 9
   3.3 Business-specific goals ................................................................................... 10
   3.4 Implementation of a CMS ................................................................................ 10
4 Advantages within CMS-projects ........................................................................... 11
   4.1 Seven advantages of a CMS .......................................................................... 11
5 Difficulties and failures within CMS-projects. ......................................................... 12
   5.1 Level of difficulty.............................................................................................. 12
   5.2 Top reasons of CMS failure ............................................................................ 14
6 Applications of content management ..................................................................... 15
   6.1 How to choose the appropriate CMS? ............................................................ 16
   6.2 How to organize the site requirements? .......................................................... 16
7 Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 19
Bibliografie ................................................................................................................ 20
List of figures ............................................................................................................ 20




                                                              -1-
Knowledge management                                       Content management on intranet



Introduction

Have you ever heard of content management? Maybe you did, but most of the
people don‟t have a clue what it is. In the following text we will explain it for you, so
that afterwards the term will ring a bell.

First of all we will explain the term itself, it is the basis to enlarge your knowledge and
to be able to dig deeper into the system. You will see that it is used in companies to
manage all the knowledge that they have and to spread it with those who need it.

In the next part, you will see how it really works. With a small and easy example you
will see the steps that it took for someone to get information. You will be convinced
that that sort of system is needed in a company to safe time and to make things
easier.

Now that you know what is meant by a content management system, we will give you
the goals of that sort of systems. There are several goals that can be achieved: first
of al there are knowledge management goals, secondly there are supporting goals
and at last you have business goals. You will also find out why companies use it and
how you can implement the system.

Of course there are several applications of a content management system. So it is
very important to choose the appropriate one. Afterwards you have to know how to
organize the site requirements. All this is also explained in the paper.

It is logical that in every system there are advantages and disadvantages. We will list
them, so you have an honest opinion about it.

We hope you enjoy reading our paper and that you won‟t forget it for the rest of your
live.




                                            -2-
Knowledge management                                              Content management on intranet



1 What is CMS?

1.1 Definition 1

Content management system (CMS) is not really a product or a technology. It is a
system used to manage the content of a Web site. Content management systems are
deployed primarily for interactive use by a potentially large number of contributors.
The Web has become the preferred sytem for content delivery, that‟s why we
sometimes call CMS „Web Content Management System‟2 (it contains additional
features to make the tasks required to publish web content to web sites easier).

Every company has got a lot of „content‟ (stored, but also not stored), namely data,
information or knowledge. When the creation and publication of content is well
managed, the organisation works more cost-effectively (see: advantages) ans it also
leads to better decisions in that company.

CMS can include computer files, image media, audio files, databases, electronic
documents (even e-mails) and web content. A CMS should make it able to see these
files (and ask for them) inter-office (between the several offices), as well as over the
web. It is also often used as an archive. Many companies use a CMS to store files in
a non-proprietary form.

The main goal of a CMS is to increase and automate efficient and effective Internet
delivery. It is also often used for storing, controlling, versioning, and publishing
industry-specific documentation (sales guides, technical manuals, articles,...).3

We can place the functions of CMS in 4 catagories: authoring, workflow, storage and
publishing. This system manages the way from authoring to publishing. Below you
will find the scheme of workflow and content storage.




                                 Figure 1.1.1: CMS-functions




1
    http://contentmanagement.startpagina.nl/
2
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_management_system
3
    http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/200004/im_04_18_00a.html


                                                  -3-
Knowledge management                                              Content management on intranet

In previous scheme4 we can see the 4 catagories appearing:

         Authoring: Here, much people in the company can create „Web content‟ if
          there is a authoring and managed environment. For example: somebody
          enters the sentence „the sales department will only work until 3 p.m.‟ on a
          „What‟s new‟-page.
         Workflow: This is situated between authoring and publishing. Typical is here
          link checking and review by a manager of a legal team. It hasn‟t been built in
          in software processes in traditional Web site management. Workflow is also
          the idea of moving an electronic document along for either approval, or for
          adding content.
         Storage: This is the placing of the previous authored content in a „reservoir‟.
          All access conflicts between multiple employees is avoided and previous
          versions can be asked for and restored if it is required (=versioning of content).
         Publishing: The stored content is here delivered. This can mean several
          thing: „deliver to the Web site as HTML, as an e-mailmessage, an Adobe PDF-
          file,...‟ In the future multiple delivery mechanism will be required.

1.2 Features




                                Figure 1.2.1: The feature-onion




4
    http://landau.dsic.upv.es/spw/viejo/content%20management/tsw_01-02.pdf



                                                 -4-
Knowledge management                                             Content management on intranet

In order to keep the functionality required by a complex, mulit-author and dynamic
Web site, many features are desirable. The core features are displayed in the
„Feature Onion‟5 above. To be called a CMS a product or set of tools will provide 3
functions:

         Versioning: The posibility (for a group of individuals) to work on a document
          and recall older versions.
         Workflow: The possibility that content goes through an assessment, review or
          quality assurance process.
         Integration: The possibility to store content in a manageable way and deliver
          as a web page or re-used in different web pages.

Next to these caracteristics there are some additonal functions (in the „Onion‟
situated around the core features) that varies from product to product:. These
additional features are grouped into 5 categories:

         User management: Here a role is given to a user, and acces rights are
          provided. The level of interaction with the system is also very important.
         User interface: The central theme here is a browser-based application for
          both content provision & CMS and Web site administration.
         Data sources: The storage (here you have to describe the data) that is
          managed and the created knowledgement is part of this (plus external data).
          File systems, relational databases, etc. can be a form of storage methods. It is
          important to manage the flexibilty of the system with the intended use of it.
         Applications: It integrates the content with existing data in order to perform
          specific software manipulations on the content.
         Deployment: This is the publishment of the Web site to the live web server. It
          is again too profound to discuss all of the possibilities of live publication. So we
          can conclude by saying that there are almost as many methods of live
          publication as there are products available.


The 3 core and 5 associated categories summarised above are broken down into
specific features that are quite irrelevant to discuss here, because that is too
profound. You can see them on the outside layer of the „Onion‟ and they don‟t need a
lot of explanation. We just hope that everybody gets a good impression of the
diversity in CM-systems.




5
    http://landau.dsic.upv.es/spw/viejo/content%20management/tsw_01-02.pdf



                                                 -5-
Knowledge management                                          Content management on intranet



2 Working of a CMS




                                   Figure 2.1: Working of a CMS


In the previous part we explained what a content management system (CMS) is, but
we still don‟t know how it actually works in a company. In the following part we will
give a little example (also look at the figure6) that we made up ourself, but it can
happen at any company you think of. Therefore we take a good look at the scheme
above and follow every step to explain how a content management system works.

In the example we will take a person from the sales department who wants to look if
there is a product in stock. Thanks to the content management system, the person
doesn‟t have to call to the production department and ask to look if the product is in
stock. Or he doesn‟t have to take a look himself. But he just has to take a look at his
computer to see if it is there. To make sure he gets the appropriate information, the
following steps are taken by the content management system:




6
    http://www.mynetcologne.de/~nc-starkedr/wcm.htm



                                                -6-
Knowledge management                                    Content management on intranet

   1) The first step in the system is one of the most important steps, otherwise
      wrong information is given to other persons. The production department must
      keep their stock up to date on their computer, who sends the data to a central
      document base.
   2) The sales department has to connect to the CMS by using his own browser-
      client. In our example he does it over the intranet.
   3) Most of the time the access will be protected, so the sales department has to
      give in there login and there personal password.
   4) Now the person from the sales department has to find the document with the
      appropriate information. Because there is a lot of information from the whole
      company it is not that easy to find the appropriate one. Therefore it is easy to
      have a search engine who will look up the document for them.
   5) It is logical that not every person from the company can see every single
      document that is circulating. So to prevent abuse by a staff member, the
      search engine will control the sales department login to see if they can take a
      look at the document or not. So the sales department will only see things
      related to them. Because it is not necessary for them to know the cash flow
      the cash flow.
   6) Every search engine has its own index, so when new documents are put on
      the document base it has to be up to date.
   7) After putting a word into search engine it will go to the document base and
      look after the tight document. When he found the appropraite one, he will
      show it on your browser client. So without leaving ther desk and lose time on
      watching it themself or letting someone else watching, the sales department
      will know if the product is still in stock.

In the example that we used, someone from the sales and someone from the
production. But the system has got a lot of functions between all departments. Some
departments will have the right to look at every single document, for example the
manager, and others won‟t.

In the example that we used, intranet was the way to connect to the content
management system, but there are also other ways to connect. Extranet and internet
are also used to connect to the system. Extranet is a bit the same like intranet, only
here people from outside the company can also visit certain documents. It is
interesting for suppliers, stock/stake holders or other people dealing with the
company. A good example is Dokeos from Hogeschool Gent. You can visit it from
everywhere, but you need a login and a password to get information. When you use
internet in combination with a content management system, then everybody can see
the information that is put on the site of the company.




                                         -7-
                           Knowledge management                                                      Content management on intranet



                           3 Goals of a content management (system)

                           Every large organisation establishes at certain point, that implementing an effective
                           content management system (CMS) is necessary for maintaining their intranet or
                           website. But without a clear vision of the goals of a content management system, it is
                           almost impossible to implement the system correctly and effectively to maximize the
                           benefits of the system.
                           That is why we have included a specific chaptre explaining most of the goals and
                           how to align them with the corporate goals of your own organisation. The list of goals
                           we have drawn up only contains goals which are achiveable in an intranet
                           environment and not those specific for an website or an extranet.
                           The majority of the goals of a CMS in an intranet can be split up into three main
                           categories7:

                                    “Knowledge management goals”
                                    “Supporting goals”
                                    “Business-specific goals”


                           Further, we will discuss how to match the content management goals with those of
                           your own organisation, how to effectively set up a CM-project supporting these goals
                           and how to evaluate it if the goals are reached.
                           But first we are going to discuss the reasons why you could or should implement a
                           content management system.
                                 VASONT research: Content reuse by industry                  Why using a CMS?

                           100%                                                              When you talk about content
                                                                                             management, 3 things will return
                                                                                             everytime: “content or knowledge
                               80%
                                                                                             creation”,    “content or knowledge
Percent of total content




                                         62%                                                 sharing” and “content reuse”8. These
                                                            70%
                               60%                                                           are also the reasons why a CMS
                                                                               93%           could be useful in your company. A
                                                                                             CMS is specially made to reduce
                               40%                                                           duplicated content and maximise the
                                                                                             reuse of it9. No more time waisted to
                               20%
                                                                                             duplication existing content without
                                          38%
                                                             30%                             knowing the content already existing
                                                                                             within the organisation. Time which
                                                                                7%
                               0%                                                            now can be used for other more
                                       Publishing        Technology        Manufacturing     pressuring purposes.
                                                Unique Content     Reused Content

                           Figure 3.1: Content Reuse by industry

                           7
                             http://www.steptwo.com.au/papers/kmc_goals/index.html
                           8
                             http://www.infomanagementcenter.com/enewsletter/200510/second.htm
                           9
                             http://www.vasont.com


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Knowledge management                                   Content management on intranet

With all the content stored in a centralised place, it improves the processes of
knowledge creation and – sharing, and in general it improves the efficiency of the
organistion.

3.1 Knowledge management goals
These are the goals used for creating a good foundation for any kind of knowledge
management project or extending an existing one. A thought-out content
management system can be a very vital backbone in such a project and the key to
success.

      Improve information accuracy and updates: The quality of
       information will be higher and more up-to-date with a CMS. The system
       allows fast manipulation of the information.

      Reduce duplication of information: As said before, an organisation
       wants to improve content reuse. The first step is reducing duplicates of
       information. A correctly used CMS should prevent duplication;
       information would be stored once and reused multiple times.

      Keeping knowledge: It‟s known that the loss of key staff members
       reduces the amount of knowledge within the organisation. A CMS could
       help in preventing this by capturing the knowledge of the staff members
       in a documented form.

    Knowledge discovery: The staff can find the needed information much
       quicker through the use of powerful searching and filtering tools
       provided by a CMS. Or the knowledge creation process could be
       improves with a CMS.

      Knowledge sharing: Communication is important for knowledge
       sharing, by spreading information through a content-management
       system. The process of knowledge sharing can be improved.

3.2 Supporting goals
The functionality of a CMS can deliver faster information and content to several
departments of the organisation or give them access to new and more up-to-date
info. In summary, this is a very general category, which improves the organisation on
several levels.

      Support growth/expansion: A implementation of a CMS can easely
       support an growth ex. Growth of customers or the expansion of the
       corporation itself, because the CMS is simpel to adapt to a changing
       environment with changing demands and needs.

      Improve staff efficience: By supporting business processes with the
       necessary information, a CMS can improve the efficience of the process and
       the staff. Mostly this will lead to time saving and the saved time can now be
       used for other task which would otherwise be put aside or even cancelled.



                                         -9-
Knowledge management                                    Content management on intranet


      Reduce (printing) costs: Because with a CMS basicly every kind of
       data can now be stored on a server or a mainframe and easely
       accessed by every individual which has approved acces to that kind of
       data. It will result in a direct cost saving of paper and ink.Manuals, logs
       and other data will all be digitalised and put onto the CMS.

      Support marketing: This is more a internet-based goal, but a CMS can
       also support marketing by giving them access to necessary information
       which they need to produce the appropriate marketing mix, fixed upon
       the target group.

      Improve business responsiveness: A CMS can easily support sudden
       business changes or changes in tactics. It also improves the
       development of new products. All this is possible through an efficient
       CMS which can update and spread information on a high tempo.

3.3 Business-specific goals
As final we have the business-specific goals, which are related directly to the
organisations products or services and his practical use of the CMS. It is important to
find these specific goals, because they can give you that “extra competitive edge”. To
find these goals you have to examine every product/service you provide, every
internal process and match them with your corporate strategy.

3.4 Implementation of a CMS
Now if you want to introduce a CMS into your company, you need to follow these
three steps. Match the goals of the CMS with those of your corporate strategy, with
these goals in on your mind you can set-up a CMS. And afterwards it‟s necessary to
evaluate the system and his effectiveness.

      Match the goals: Select the necessary goals from above and match
       them with the corporate strategy. It‟s important to only select those
       goals needed or can be used in your organisation. Every company
       which uses a CMS uses it in a different way for a different purpose.
       Example: a large international corporation versus a local retail
       business.

    Set-up a CM-project: Once you have selected the necessary goals you
       can set-up the content management project. With the goals in mind you
       can adjust the CMS to your personal needs and wishes. It‟s important
       that every process and department of the organisation has access to
       the system.

      Evaluation: When the system is successfully introduced in the
       organisation, you can check the effectiveness of the system by
       consulting build-in statistics and other measurement and solve
       bottlenecks or other failures.




                                          10
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Knowledge management                                     Content management on intranet



4 Advantages within CMS-projects 10

Implementing a website within a CMS enables non-technical staff to update and add
content in a controlled web publishing environment.
A CMS delivers a platform for:

        Publishing information: Enable staff to create and manage their own web
         content in a WYSIWYG („What you see is what you get‟: means that the
         finished page will display exactly the way it was designed. The program
         generates HTML (HyperText Markup Language) tags while you point and click
         on desired functions) editing environment using only a web browser.
         Templates control the areas they can edit and an approval process manages
         the flow of published information.
        Consistency and quality: Allow content contributors to manage content while
         maintaining a consistent look and feel. Change the design and structure of the
         site without re-programming or re-implementing every page.
        Rapid delivery: Modify and add new content, have it approved, and publish it,
         all within a few minutes.
        Cost effective management of content: Rather than requiring specialist
         skills a CMS makes authoring available to everyone. The ability to publish and
         manage large volumes of web content make a CMS far more cost effective
         than traditional page based site management.
        Standards compliance: Ensure that your site adheres to accessibility laws
         and internet standards as it evolves.
        Regulatory compliance: Maintain a complete page archive for your internal
         regulatory and compliance procedures.
        Content control and targeting: Control visitor access to information and only
         show content to the relevant user groups

4.1 Seven advantages of a CMS
The task of keeping a website's content fresh and up-to-date can be a daunting one,
yet it's of utmost importance to the success of that website. Adding a Content
Management System to your website makes updating content a snap, but until
recently these were very expensive to implement. The cost of implementing a CMS is
much lower today than it was a few years ago for a couple of reason, there are some
good comprehensive solutions available now that require very little customization and
some of these solutions are open-source so there is no software costs is
implementing them.




10
   http://www.wysiwygwebbuilder.com
http://www.activewebcontent.com/
http://www.gerrymcgovern.com/



                                           11
                                           - -
Knowledge management                                        Content management on intranet

Seven advantages of a Content Management System11 are:

        Fresh Content - The most obvious reason is that your website will be easier
         to keep up to date. It just takes a minute to add new content, if it's easy you're
         more likely to do it and your website benefits by staying fresh.
        Lots of functionality is available to you at little cost. There are hundreds of
         free modules available that plug into existing content management systems
         adding complex programming features with very little effort. Meaning that the
         cost of adding certain features to your site drops significantly. Some of the
         modules available include: site search, polls, password secured content, e-
         mail newsletters, blog, discussion forums, photo galleries, and much more.
        Dynamic categories, not only can you add new pages easily, but new
         categories can be added and the site navigation will expand gracefully to
         match.
        Extensibility, new modules are being written all the time and since modules
         are developed in common languages like PHP, almost anything can be
         custom tailored to work within the system.
        User friendly interface, the technical features of a CMS may tend to
         intimidate, but the interface is user friendly and easy to use.
        Control, the control for managing and updating the web site is put back in to
         the hands of your staff. Your content will be fresh, up-to-date and accurate. No
         need for you to wait until your web designer has time to update your site. The
         people who create the content for a company's web site can publish it
         themselves. This helps to eliminate errors in the content and poor
         categorisation of content.
        Cost Reduction, you can reduce the costs associated with ongoing web
         maintenance, because your staff is handling many of the changes that used to
         require internal or third party programmers.

5 Difficulties and failures within CMS-projects.

5.1 Level of difficulty
Lots of companies want to solve and adjust ICT-problems with CMS. They have a lot
of complains about the content on their websites so they have to act in the most
efficient way as possible. Mostly firms want to create business units that take care of
their intranets and websites.




11
   http://docs.phpcms.de/index.php/Advantages_of_CMS
http://www.ifocus-consulting.com/
http://www.reddingwebdesign.com



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Knowledge management                                          Content management on intranet

It‟s very attractive to have it in your company. Everyone in the organisation should be
able to use the intranet or website because you don‟t have to be an IT-specialist to
use CMS. Everyone can easily adapt or modify what he wants so that the customers
service can reach a higher level of results. But everyone knows that IT-projects in
general are never easy to implement even if they say it‟s very easy. With the help of
research made by Erik Hartman we came up with some difficulties who occur with IT-
projects implementations.
        20,2% says it did not meet the users expectations
        15,4% said it had no improvement
        49,9% had problems with budget and time-limits
        And to conclude, 70% of IT-projects are problematic!!!

KPMG research also indicated that due to a lack of communication between different
departments, managers and end users IT-projects tend to fail way to often (look
below12).




 Figure 5.1.1: Problems when designing and implementing CM-software

13
  According to J.Veen CMS projects are very appealing for lots of companies, but
why does only 27% of CMS using companies want to continue with their current
CMS? Lots of specialists are sure that it‟s not the fault of CMS itself, but it‟s a human
problem. It‟s very easy to have a CMS that fails if no one uses it after it‟s
implemented, or if nobody wants to take the time to learn how to use or implement it.

12
   http://content.hartman-
communicatie.nl/assets/binaries/2005x10x11_why_do_cmxprojects_fail_xalleenxlezenx.pdf
13
   http://www.adaptivepath.com/ideas/essays/archives/000315.php
http://n4b.com/cms_central/why_cms.cfm


                                              13
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Knowledge management                                        Content management on intranet



Once the software is available people are reluctant to use it, this is a well known
problem because lots of people are scared of change and don‟t want to adjust to new
things. Everybody is scared of things they don‟t know and seem difficult, like IT-
projects and CMS.

If companies want to improve a CMS they have to do it graduate step by step
because otherwise people will have difficulties in accepting and understanding the
system, which is very important in learning a new system. Not everybody wants to
learn a new CMS because they don‟t want to be involved in it, they just want some
editors to do the work for them. A specialist must be able to provide better work then
they possible can.

The goal of CMS is that it can help companies to save money and deliver better
services, but what if they don‟t do this? A CMS has to improve the content publishing,
make sure that a lot of people can use it and especially that it can provide a decrease
of financial costs.

5.2 Top reasons of CMS failure 14
Janus Boye of Boye IT has done some research in the main reasons why CMS fails
and how we can avoid them.

      1) The first reason is that you have to know what it has to do, what does CMS
         mean for your company. You have to have some specified expectations of
         your company in the sense of how they have to work and use CMS. You
         cannot just drop a CMS on your company, it‟s a part of the whole managerial
         picture of your company.
          You definitely have to help every actor in your company to use and implement
          CMS so that they can see that it will help them in the whole of their work and
          also that it will be a big help for the company itself.
          There‟s also FATWIRE SOFTWARE (www.fatwire.com) that can help
          employers to understand difficult terms. It‟s very necessary and important that
          every member of your organisation knows and understands all the terms so
          that everybody is on the same level. And it would be also very effective to
          appoint some employees who will lead the whole „implementation‟ and who
          can also help with the problems that may occur. It‟s good for the employers to
          now that they always have someone to help and support them whenever they
          need help.
      2) The other reason why CMS can fail is because CMS is too complex and too
         technical which makes it‟s difficult to use.
          How you can prevent this problem is by defining tasks for every member of
          your organisation so that you can split up the difficulty of a CMS. You can split
          them up in editors, managers, administers, developers, occasional users,
          …these are the most common used.

14
     http://www.crm2day.com/library/docs/wp0214.pdf



                                                 14
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Knowledge management                                     Content management on intranet


   3) Another reason why CMS can fail is because it‟s not easy to measure the
      results or the success.
      Without criteria‟s it‟s difficult to measure the success of CMS and if you are
      achieving your goals or not. You can prevent this by attaching goals to the
      implementation of CMS. These goals can be, reducing costs or increasing
      profit. And when you set goals you also have to define what‟s successful for
      every goal so you can measure if you are providing good work or not. This is
      also known as Key Performance Indicators (KPI‟s).
   4) Another reason of failure is that members of an organisation haven‟t got a clue
      who is responsible or in charge of the ownership of the CMS.
      To avoid this it would be good to have an external IT specialist who will lead
      the CMS implementation. This person has to build a business process to make
      sure CMS can be implemented, he has to lead everybody and set up
      guidelines to ensure success.
      It‟s also interesting, like mentioned before, to set up a „helpdesk‟ or to appoint
      people where the members of the organisation can come with their problems
      and who will also be the link between different business units.
   5) A last reason of CMS failure is a very important one, namely the failure of
      acceptance of the organisation itself.
      If members will refuse to work with CMS, or if their isn‟t enough money
      available for the implementation, the CMS project will not get very far…
      To counter or avoid this problem it‟s crucial to have a link, a „cross-functional‟-
      team that investigates what needs to be done and how to set-up the
      implementation. You also have to make sure that a lot of actors are
      participating in the implementation so that everybody‟s working towards each
      other, but with their own specific tasks.

    These are some of the top reasons why CMS-projects can fail and how they
     can be prevented. As we can notice you have to be very well organized and
     up to date of possible difficulties to have a good CMS-implementation.

6 Applications of content management

There are many different content management solutions. Due to the many solutions,
it is important to choose the appropriate web content management solution. Selecting
the wrong one can have the opposite result. The wrong web content management
system could drive back the productivity and growth of an organization, because
everyone will have to work harder to compensate the site‟s technological
shortcomings. On the other hand the appropriate web content management system
can save time and money, improve communications, strengthen business
relationships, and increase revenues.




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6.1 How to choose the appropriate CMS? 15

Before an organization should choose a content management system, it should know
how, when and to whom the system should deliver content. And of course what the
site should contain. Therefore the organization could ask some questions to define
the site requirements. In example, how often content needs to be updated, the type
and extent of content changes that are required, the number of authors contributing
site content and their physical locations, whether diverse types of content (e.g.,
image, video, and other media files) will be used, if one or more approvals are
required before content is posted, whether content must be viewable across a variety
of browsing devices, not just PCs, …

Not only the site requirements but also the IT infrastructure in the organization has to
be considered during the choosing of the appropriate content management system. It
is possible that the current web management team isn‟t big enough or doesn‟t have
the skills to build a content management system. The organization should have the
availability of technical resources (e.g., the Webmaster or designers) to manage site
content updates. It has to consider that when in-house resources are limited, if time
and money are available for outside consultants to deploy a highly customized
installation. Also which desktop applications content providers want to use in
developing new materials (i.e., Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, etc.) or which
authoring environments need to be supported (e.g., Windows, Macintosh, Solaris).
And there are tons of other things an organization should think about before choosing
the proper content management system.

It is also important not to store too much information. Because then most of the
information stored will become irrelevant. It is a content management system and not
a content storage system. A little bit of information that is really valuable can be much
more worth than a lot of information that is less valuable. Irrelevant information can
draw the attention away from relevant information. Organizations should also update
there content on a regular base, because the longer you keep old content on an
intranet, the more difficult and time consuming it will be to clean it up later. It also
affects the quality of search engines on an intranet. It also takes storage space that
you can use for other relevant information. The true worth of an intranet is not
measured by how much content it has, it's by how much quality content it has.

6.2 How to organize the site requirements?
After you know what to look for, you must sort the information you have into major
categories. This process will help you identify general requirements and the features
of Web content management solutions that support them. These are some typical
site requirement categories16:




15 http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/200004/im_04_18_00a.html
16
   http://www.dotinternet.be/contentmanagement.htm
http://www.snakeware.nl/showpage.asp?ID=755


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      Efficient, self-service authoring for non-technical content providers: A
       good content management solution should be easy to work with. So that even
       non-technical content authors are able to keep the content up-to-date or to
       post new content on the site. After content is made, it doesn‟t matter what type
       of file, content providers should be able to post them to the web using pre-built
       design templates that provide the proper formatting and corporate branding
       elements.
      Support for worldwide content authoring: This category has the power that
       people in the organization can work from any location in the world. The site
       must be multi-lingual so that people with an other native language also could
       work with it. Also time synchronization is needed so that content is always
       presented at the right time, regardless of the author‟s location.
      Automated scheduling for both content publishing and archiving: This
       adds an automatic calendar to the system. Calendaring should allow content
       providers to determine when content is placed and removed on the site. Date
       sensitive information is now only available when relevant. Another great
       advantage is that no one in the organization has to remember when to post or
       eliminate site content.
      An integrated workflow process to automate content approval: If the
       routing of materials for approval follow a predictable process, human error,
       caused from non-automated processes, will be minimized. When a mistake is
       discovered, several employees must take time to remove or replace the
       erroneously posted material. Also the posting of inaccurate web content can
       impact the organization‟s credibility or even its income.
      A component architecture that separates content from the presentation
       format and dynamic serving of content: Content and presentation should
       be separated, so that the same information can be viewed in various formats,
       depending on the user his needs and interests.
      Version archiving and an audit trail to provide a record of site changes:
       Time and effort can be saved if authors can refer back to a previous version of
       a Web page. It‟s also helpful for the Webmaster to be able to determine who
       has made which changes on the site. It might be necessary to perform a full
       site audit for legal reasons.

Support for a diverse set of browsing devices should also be a consideration.

Technology keeps evolving. Over the next couple of years, PC-based Web-browsers
will be replaced or augmented by a lot of alternatives. Devices as stereo systems,
home appliances, phones, PDA‟s … will be placed in Web-browsers. So the web
sites will have to be flexible enough to adapt all of these devices. This will require a
content repository that separates web site content from its format. The following web
content management solutions will satisfy these requirements.




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          Template-based Web content publishing and presentation: The use of
           templates simplifies the look and feel of a web content management system.
           Content providers don‟t have to remember a lot of rules and it is also more
           effective than non-automated procedures. Materials can be created in
           common desktop applications and then be pasted into a design template.
          Centralized control of site design elements: A designer should only be
           worried about the design and not the content of the site. That is the role of the
           authors. To simplify the site management, an organization should have well-
           prescribed roles. This is especially important when content providers are
           located in remote offices.
          Content-component site architecture and dynamic serving of Web
           pages: Content is easily served up in formats appropriate to various browsing
           devises when it is stored separately from its format. When this is the case,
           pages can be compiled really fast when they are requested. The number of
           devices increases day by day, so an organization will want to have a web
           content management solution that offers the flexibility required. Separating
           content and presentation ensures that the site will look good, regardless of the
           device that is used to access it.

The appropriate Web content management solution17 can allow your organization to:

                   Make effective use of all internal resources.
                   Slash the time required to implement site content changes, or re-design
                    a site.
                   Ensure the availability of timely, accurate information.
                   Scale its Web site to keep pace with organizational growth.
                   Plan to accommodate new business initiatives and technological
                    advances.




17
     http://intranetjournal.com/articles/200707/ij_07_25_07a.htm




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7 Conclusion

A Content Management System can be very useful for an organisation. It improves
several aspects of the organisation. It makes regulating things easier, it improves the
work efficiency, it reduces duplicate information and improves content reuse.

Everything is kept save in a centralised server and spreads information if needed
over the network to the appropriate persons. These persons can use the knowledge
and update it if needed.

With the introduction of a CMS in a company, information will be accessible at any
given time and it will constantly be up to date, or at least it should be. This is the
crucial point of a CMS. If it gets implanted the wrong way the project will ultimately
fail. The proposed goals will not be reached. That‟s why it‟s so important to align the
goals of a CMS with those of your corporate strategy.

In short a CMS is fresh and dynamic system, which improves the overall efficiency
inside the company on many levels, it maximises content reuse and minimises
content duplication, it works cost reducing and time saving. It‟s also a good
foundation for a Knowledge Management project.




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Bibliografie

Gebruikte bronnen (zie ook voetnoten) alfabetisch gerangschikt:

      http://content.hartman-
       communicatie.nl/assets/binaries/2005x10x11_why_do_cmxprojects_fail_xallee
       nxlezenx.pdf
      http://contentmanagement.startpagina.nl/
      http://docs.phpcms.de/index.php/Advantages_of_CMS
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_management_system
      http://landau.dsic.upv.es/spw/viejo/content%20management/tsw_01-02.pdf
      http://n4b.com/cms_central/why_cms.cfm
      http://www.activewebcontent.com/
      http://www.adaptivepath.com/ideas/essays/archives/000315.php
      http://www.crm2day.com/library/docs/wp0214.pdf
      http://www.dotinternet.be/contentmanagement.htm
      http://www.gerrymcgovern.com/
      http://www.ifocus-consulting.com/
      http://www.infomanagementcenter.com/enewsletter/200510/second.htm
      http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/200004/im_04_18_00a.html
      http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/200707/ij_07_25_07a.html
      http://www.mynetcologne.de/~nc-starkedr/wcm.htm
      http://www.reddingwebdesign.com
      http://www.snakeware.nl/showpage.asp?ID=755
      http://www.steptwo.com.au/papers/kmc_goals/index.html
      http://www.vasont.com
      http://www.wysiwygwebbuilder.com

List of figures

      Figure 1.1.1: CMS-functions
      Figure 1.2.1: The feature-onion
      Figure 2.1: Working of a CMS
      Figure 3.1 Content Reuse by industry
      Figure 5.1.1: Problems when designing and implementing CM -software




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