Lantana and Verbena How to Combat Insect and Mite

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     Lantana and
             Verbena
How to Combat Insect
and Mite Pests
                                Dale Mott and Michael E. Merchant*




L     antana and verbena are perennial ornamental plants found in many Texas
      landscapes. These plants are known for their drought tolerance, cold hardiness
      and colorful flowers that generally bloom from March through October.
Because of these attributes, lantana and verbena are very popular in residential and
commercial landscapes and xeriscapes. They perform well in full sun and bloom in
an assortment of colors.
   At first these plants appear to be problem-free             Although lantana and verbena can survive most
perennials that you can plant, water until estab-           pests, you may need to intervene if the plant is
lished, and then leave alone. However, there are            attacked heavily. Intervention can help manage the
several insect and mite pests that attack lantana and       injury and stimulate the plant to continue blooming
verbena. In most situations, their damage is minimal        on its regular cycle.
and goes unnoticed. The problem is recognized
                                                               Most of the insect and mite pests that affect lan-
when infestations become severe, and often the
                                                            tana and verbena are similar. They usually suck sap
cause of the problem remains a mystery.
                                                            from the plant tissue (phloem) using mouthparts
*Extension Agent—Integrated Pest Management and Professor   that are adapted for piercing and sucking. As a
 and Extension Urban Entomologist, The Texas A&M            result, the plant is injured, which reduces its vigor
 University System                                          as well as the quality and number of blooms.
   Some insects—including aphids, whiteflies and
mealybugs—also excrete a sweet, sticky material
                                                                                         Lacebugs
called honeydew, which drips down on the plant.                                           Probably the most com-
The honeydew accumulates on the leaves and stem                                         mon insect pests found on
of the plant and on whatever is nearby. Sooty mold,                                     lantana are lacebugs.
a black fungus, often grows on the honeydew,                                            Populations of this pest
resulting in the sidewalk or the side of the house             Lacebugs                 generally do not build up
being stained black. This problem is especially                until temperatures climb to near 90 degrees F.
noticeable on limestone (white rock) houses.
                                                                  Lacebugs are broad, flattened, rectangular and
   You can prevent most pest problems by adopting              small, about 1⁄8 to 1⁄4 inch long. Their bodies are usu-
integrated pest management (IPM) practices. The                ally brown to black. Their wings are partially trans-
first step in an IPM program is identification. Once           parent and gauze- or lace-like in appearance. An
you identify the pest, you can then implement con-             immature lacebug is blackish and wingless, with
trol measures that are most effective, least expen-            many small spines projecting from its body.
sive and least harmful to the environment.
                                                                  The adult lacebug deposits its eggs on the under-
                                                               side of a leaf along the midrib, then secretes a
                          Aphids                               brownish substance over the eggs to secure them to
                                                               the leaf. When the leaves become heavily infested,
                             Several species of aphids         these dark, varnish- or molasses-like spots are very
                          feed on lantana. Aphids              noticeable.
                          are small, soft-bodied
                                                                 Damage on the top side of the leaf appears as
                          insects about 1⁄25 to 1⁄8 inch
                                                               white, brown or yellow specks caused by the insects
Aphid                     long with relatively short
                                                               feeding on the underside. Heavily infested leaves
                          legs and antennae. You can
                                                               turn yellow and die from the tips toward the base
usually recognize aphids by their slow, deliberate
                                                               and drop off prematurely.
movement and the presence of cornicles or “tail
pipes” on the apex (tip or top) of the abdomen. They
can be winged or wingless. Their color varies from
black to green, yellow or pink, depending on the
                                                                                          Mealybugs
species and the host plant.                                                               Mealybugs are closely
   Although some aphids lay eggs, most give birth to                                   related to many of the
live young that mature in as few as 7 days. Because                                    scale insects that attack
they mature so quickly, aphids can quickly build up                                    many different types of
to high numbers in a relatively short period.                                          plants. The name mealy-
                                                               Mealybugs
                                                                                       bug is derived from the
   Aphids generally live in groups on buds, on the             mealy or waxy secretions that cover the body of this
undersides of leaves or in the plants’ terminal (end)          insect.
growing points. They suck sap from the plant and
excrete honeydew, which you can see accumulating                   Mealybugs are soft-bodied insects that grow to
on leaves and stems of the lantana. Sooty mold
                                                               1
                                                                ⁄4 inch long. They are found at rest or crawling
often grows on the honeydew, making the plant                  slowly on stems or along veins on the undersides of
unattractive and hampering its growth by reducing              leaves. Their eggs are laid in clusters enclosed in
photosynthesis.                                                white, waxy, cottony material.

   Plants heavily infested with aphids appear wilted.             Damage by mealybugs is similar to that caused by
Some aphid species cause leaves to yellow or drop              aphids. It is caused by sucking of plant sap, which
from the plant; other species stunt and curl young             stunts or kills the plant. Also, black sooty mold
leaves (also see Extension publication B-6047,                 grows on the honeydew excreted by the mealybugs.
Aphids in Texas Landscapes).




                                                           2
                           Whiteflies                      tations cause the leaves to turn yellow, gray or
                                                           brownish and eventually drop off (see also
                             Adult whiteflies are          Extension publication L-1244, Destructive Mites in
                           small, white, soft-bodied       the Home Garden).
                           insects. They are only
                           about 1⁄16 inch long and
Whitefly adult and nymphs have four wings. Weak            Pest management
fliers, they resemble tiny snowflakes fluttering              Most populations of insect and mite pests are reg-
about a plant. The wings and body are covered with         ulated by naturally occurring beneficial insects, also
a fine, white, powdery wax.                                known as beneficials. Some of these beneficials
   The immature stage is found on the underside of         include immature and adult lady beetles, lacewing
leaves. It is flat, oval in outline and slightly smaller   nymphs, spiders and various tiny parasitic wasps.
than a pinhead. Immature lacebugs are light green          However, these beneficials may take longer to con-
to whitish and are somewhat translucent.                   trol pests naturally than you’d like. In the mean-
                                                           time, the plants are damaged and become stressed.
   Both immature and adult forms feed on lantana
and verbena, leaving yellow spots on the leaves.              To manage the pest population more quickly, you
Heavy infestations can cause defoliation. Much like        may employ a mechanical control method such as a
aphids and mealybugs, whiteflies secrete honeydew,         “water wand” sprayer or chemical control methods
causing plants to be covered with the sticky sub-          such as an insecticide. Many products are available
stance (see also Extension publication L-1299,             to control pests in residential and commercial land-
Whiteflies).                                               scapes; examples are provided in Table 1. You may
                                                           also use other products with labels that cover lan-
                                                           tana in general categories such as “ornamental
                           Spider mites                    plants” or “flowering plants.”
                              One of the most com-            It is important to become familiar with a pesticide
                           mon pests attacking orna-       before using it. Always read and follow the pesticide
                           mental plants is the spider     label instructions. Be sure to use proper equipment
                           mite, commonly referred         and the rates of the product that are specified on
                           to as a group as “mites.”       the label.
                           They are not insects, but          Other protective measures include proper cultural
                           are more closely related to     practices such as watering and adding compost and
                           spiders and ticks. Adult        mulch. These practices will help keep the plants
                           mites, spiders and ticks        healthy and more tolerant of pests. In addition,
                           have eight legs. Mature         proper soil fertility is also important to keep lantana
Spider mites
                           mites are usually less than     and verbena actively blooming throughout the sea-
1
 ⁄50 inch long and generally are found on the under-       son. But over-applying nitrogen can actually con-
sides of leaves.                                           tribute to plants being more attractive to the pierc-
  Mite infestations often go undetected until the          ing-sucking insects previously mentioned.
plants are damaged severely. Mite populations tend to         Before adding more plants, make sure that the
peak during the hottest, driest time of the year, gen-     soil is good, well-drained and in an area that
erally between July and mid-September. Mites can           receives at least 8 hours of full sun per day. South
easily be seen by shaking the foliage over a white         and west exposures are perfect. Incorporating up to
sheet of paper and observing any mites present.            4 inches of organic matter, such as compost and a 2-
   The undersides of infested leaves usually have          to 4-inch layer of mulch, should be a standard prac-
fine, silken webbing spun across them. Among the           tice when adding new plants to a landscape.
live mites, there may be cast skins, which leave a           Also, to encourage constant blooming and a
grayish residue on the leaf’s underside.                   neater appearance, be sure to lightly trim the tips of
  Damage from light infestations appears as yellow         the plant occasionally.
or gray stippled patterns on the leaves. Heavy infes-


                                                           3
                Insecticides and Miticides for Pests of Lantana and Verbena
Table 1. Examples of insecticides and miticides registered for use on insect and mite pests of lantana
and/or verbena, 2005.*
 Generic or Active                                                                       Pest(s) Labeled for Use Against:
 Ingredient                 Trade Name(s)                            Aphid           Lacebug     Mealybug Whitefly Spider Mite
 abamectin**                Avid 0.15 EC                                                                                                     ✓
 acephate                   Orthene Turf, Tree &
                            Ornamental Spray, WSP                       ✓                ✓
 azadirachtin               Safer Brand BioNEEM
                            Multipurpose Concentrate
                            Insecticide & Repellant                     ✓                ✓                ✓                ✓
 Beauveria bassiana Naturalis-O                                         ✓                ✓                ✓                ✓                 ✓
 carbaryl                   Chipco Sevin Brand 80WSP,
                            Sevin SL                                    ✓                ✓                ✓
                            Sevin Brand Insecticide
                            Liquid (21.3%)                              ✓                ✓                ✓
 cyfluthrin                 Bayer Advanced Multi-Insect
                            Killer                                                       ✓                ✓                ✓
 disulfoton                 Hi-Yield Di-Syston
                            Granules (2%)                               ✓                ✓                ✓                ✓                 ✓
 horticultural oil          SunSpray Ultrafine Year Round
                            Pesticidal Oil                              ✓                ✓                ✓                ✓                 ✓
 imidacloprid +             Bayer Advance Garden
 cyfluthrin                 Rose & Flower Insect Killer                 ✓                ✓                ✓                ✓
 insecticidal soap          Concern Insect Killing Soap
                            Concentrate                                 ✓                                 ✓                ✓                 ✓
 malathion                  50% Malathion                               ✓                ✓                ✓                ✓                 ✓
 permethrin                 Ford’s InterCept Insect Control
                            Vegetable, Lawn & Garden
                            Spray Concentrate                           ✓                                 ✓                ✓                 ✓
 pyrethrins plus            Concern Multi-purpose Insect
 piperonyl butoxide         Concentrate                                 ✓                                                  ✓
 * Note: Some of the products listed are Restricted Use or for commercial use only and cannot be purchased without pesticide
         applicator license. For any insecticide, always refer to the product’s label for instructions, registered use sites (outdoor,
         greenhouse, interior scape), species controlled and plant species or types on which the material can be safely applied.
** This product is used primarily by professional landscape maintenance personnel.




           The information given herein is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products
           or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorse-
           ment by the Texas Cooperative Extension or the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station is implied.


                         Produced by Agricultural Communications, The Texas A&M University System

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Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics, Acts of Congress of May 8, 1914, as amended, and
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