Neuroscience Institute of Schizophrenia and Allied Disorders. JULY 2005 The Windows of the Soul In Memory of Prof. Neil McConaghy How does schizophrenia affect the ability to share O n Sunday 5th June, many distinguished scientists The three key brain areas thought to be involved in social joined Neil’s family at the South Chapel in the Eastern Suburbs Crematorium to bid goodbye to a much attention and empathy ? cognition: the medial prefrontal cortex (blue); the temporal poles loved colleague. Neil was the inspirational researcher (yellow) and the superior F or some families caring for a temporal sulcus (red). and teacher who had mentored many in the key group of Right: Brain tissue showing the scientists who started NISAD, and was one of the first schizophrenia-affected relative, one of infolded surface of the superior Australian psychiatrists to champion the neuroscientific the most disturbing behavioural effects is temporal sulcus. techniques which would come to dominate psychiatric the emotional ‘blunting’ or lack of to arrive at a measure of the gaze direction research. As Founding Chairman of the Scientific empathy shown by many patients. Some sensitivity of each group. Advisory Committee, Neil played a vital role in formulating the structures and parents, for instance, refer to the “glass Summarising her results, Dr Langdon procedures which became the foundation of NISAD’s growth into the diverse wall” that has appeared between reports that, contrary to expectations, the and internationally recognised institute it is today. themselves and their son or daughter after schizophrenia subjects were abnormally onset. Neuroscience refers to this category over-responsive to the gaze direction of the of empathetic interpersonal abilities as image, not under-responsive as predicted. ‘social cognition’, and asserts that it is This surprising result suggests that the severely impaired by schizophrenia. Early Intervention Poster Goes National Ongoing NISAD studies at the emotional blunting and unresponsiveness observed in schizophrenia may not be due University of Newcastle have revealed that A ustralia’s first schizophrenia early intervention awareness poster received an auspicious official launch at hospitals and doctor’s waiting rooms, the poster provides full information on schizophrenia’s early symptoms, how the schizophrenia subjects and their family members exhibit abnormal eye scanpaths to deficits in attention sharing, but rather to deficits in interpreting the intention of interpersonal ‘signals’ received from when viewing emotionally expressive face the South Sydney Police & Community brain is affected, and what treatments are others. images, and have suggested that such Youth Club (PCYC) on 20 May, attended available. by NISAD Patron and Governor of NSW Thousands of the posters are now scanpath anomalies could be linked to Feeling what others feel deficits in social cognition. And at the Prof. Marie Bashir AC. being distributed to a wide variety of Speaking from her distinguished professional background in youth and venues throughout every State in Australia with the help of State Branches of the Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science, a NISAD affiliated team is investigating the D r Langdon’s second study was devised to investigate the degree to which schizophrenia causes misinterpretation of remedial effects of training people to community psychiatric services, Prof. Mental Illness Fellowship of Australia the intentions or emotional states of deliberately correct these scanpath Bashir applauded the NISAD initiative (MIFA). These posters carry the single others. abnormalities. which will give young onset sufferers contact number of 1800 985 944, which Empathy has been described as the Now, Dr Robyn Langdon and a better chance of receiving early connects callers to the MIFA head office in ability to feel an emotional response, collaborators at the Macquarie Centre for intervention therapy. their State. Hundreds of additional posters which is more appropriate to someone Cognitive Science have completed two At present it is common for young have been distributed by NISAD directly to else’s situation than to one’s own: that is, to studies* further investigating social people to develop increasingly severe all Area Health Services in NSW, and many ‘put yourself in another’s shoes’. Dr cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. schizophrenia symptoms for up to 5 years requests for copies from organisations are Langdon’s method of measuring this ability after onset without being diagnosed and being received every week. Many thanks to PCYC manager The eye of the beholder was to use cartoons of simple emotional treated. During this delay, symptomatic thinking and behaviour become entrenched, often leading to denial and Samatha Sidwell, Aboriginal Elder Sylvia Scott, Member for Heffron Kristina D r Langdon’s first study was based on the hypothesis that schizophrenia’s social cognitive deficits may be associated non-compliance when diagnosis and Keneally (representing Minister for Health treatment are offered. The poster is Morris Iemma), ‘Triple J’ radio presenter with a reduced ability to share attention designed to alert family members to the Maya Jupiter, and Rabbitoh’s Captain Brian with others, and that this deficit may be symptoms, and to provide a contact Fletcher for making the launch occasion measured by testing the automatic reflex of number from where expert advice can be memorable. detecting and following another person’s gained. The poster, which was funded by NSW change in direction of gaze. Though Displayed in civic centres, social clubs, Health, can be viewed and downloaded simple, this reflex is a fundamental corporate workplaces and hotels, as well as from www.nisad.org.au indicator of shared attention. The experiment involved 30 subjects with schizophrenia and 24 healthy One of the picture puzzles used to measure research controls. The test apparatus was a subjects’ ability to interpret the emotional content of social interactions. Subjects were asked to assign a pair series of pictures of facial expressions (A, B or C) to each frame of the flashed on a com- cartoon strip above. The correct sequence is C, A, B. puter screen of a situations; to blank out the facial female head which expressions of the characters involved, and looked either right or to ask study subjects to choose which left, before a ‘target’ facial expressions matched each frame of red star appeared in the cartoon. one of the empty After comparing the results of 22 boxes shown in each schizophrenia-affected subjects and 18 side. The interval healthy controls, it was found that between the head schizophrenia subjects scored significantly turning right/left L-R: NISAD Executive Director Debbie Willcox with NISAD Patron Her Excellency Professor Marie Bashir AC, lower than controls in choosing correct Governor of NSW, and poster designer Alan Tunbridge. Right: Member for Heffron Kristina Keneally. and the appearance facial expressions, and that the lowest of the target was scores were recorded by those with the varied from 100 to 800 milliseconds. longest duration of illness. Subjects were asked to simply click the This study provides the first direct space bar on the keyboard as soon as empirical evidence that schizophrenia possible after seeing the target star. By impairs the ability to attribute emotions varying the head turn direction, the speed appropriately on the basis of how another of change in the sequence of images, and person is likely to be feeling in specific recording the speed of space bar clicks, the circumstances. research team was able to assess how much each subject was distracted by the gaze * Langdon R, Coltheart M, Ward P. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry (in press 2005) direction of the central head. * Langdon R, Corner T, McLaren J, Coltheart M, Ward P. Subject’s ‘scores’ were then processed Neuropsychologia (in press 2005) INSIDE I Volunteers Make a Difference...... I Mice on Medication...... I APRN: The Birth of Nationwide Psychosis Research...... IVE DIRECTOR FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR FROM THE EXECUTIVE Rotary Enables Research Volunteers to Make a Difference NISAD connects volunteers, brain donors and DNA donors into a new force for research. P rior to NISAD's inception in 1996, very little schizophrenia research was happening in NSW, largely due to the dearth of bedrock research resources such as volunteer patients and post-mortem brain tissue. That's why NISAD's first priority was to establish the Schizophrenia At the NISAD poster launch. L-R: Executive Director Debbie Willcox, NISAD Patron Her Excellency Prof. Marie Bashir AC, and South Sydney PCYC Manager Samantha Sidwell . Research Register, and the 'Gift of Hope' Tissue Donor Program. Since then, the DNA Bank has been added to complete the Institute's set of basic research resources. With the support of the Schizophrenia Fellowship of NSW and successful TV appeals, the Register, 'Gift of Hope' and DNA Bank programs have now enrolled NISAD Research Officer Lisa Azzizi conducts a friendly close to 1,500 volunteers. These volunteers interview with a volunteer. include a mix of patients, their family volunteers are still waiting to be members and people with no medical interviewed. connection to schizophrenia. In order to facilitate the Many thanks to Members of Botany Bay Rotary Club. The unique differences processing of the backlog of existing between individuals registrants, as well as the constant stream Botany Bay Rotary of new volunteers, NISAD has used a Interviewing each person to answers the question record their details, including $60,000 grant from the Australian Rotary Health T he question was, “How can we help NISAD?” Botany Bay Rotarians answered it by organising a Trivia Night in such information as individual and family medical history, is an essential part of making every Research Fund together with additional funding from the Institute to employ two new October at Mascot RSL for 130 members. A volunteer's contribution as Clinical Assessment Officers - great night was enjoyed by all, raising valuable as possible. Dr Sarah Russell and Gali NISAD banners outside Sydney Tower. $3,000 for NISAD’s research. These assessments help to Lawrence. 'characterise' the research Later in 2005 NISAD will Flying the Flag in the Telstra Makes the performance, brain tissue or DNA be investing more funds in City Centre Connection provided by volunteers. Because the essence of the research is to staff and infrastructure to ensure the ongoing success of G enerously sponsored by Macquarie Bank, NISAD marked Schizophrenia Awareness Week 15-21 May by displaying A s part of the Schizophrenia Awareness Week campaign, Telstra generously detect differences between groups of individuals, and these vital research resource programs. allowed NISAD to set up information identify their causes. The more bright red banners in Pitt Street Mall booths in the foyers of their Sydney Pitt information researchers have How you can help and Philip Street. Many thanks to the City and Elizabeth Street buildings, and in their about each participant or donor, find the answer of Sydney, and Screengraphics Printing for Exhibition Street office in Melbourne. Over the more powerful the research A new brochure has been produced their contributions. 1,200 staff received literature and a copy of results will be. appealing for volunteers for all three the Early Intervention Poster. Many thanks Due to the overwhelming interest and NISAD infrastructure programs. So if you to key Telstra organisers Cherry Parker and support from the community, the would like to make a difference to the Emma Reid. successful recruitment of such a large progress of schizophrenia research, just number of volunteers has outstripped the call (02) 9295 8407 to have a copy mailed resources that NISAD has been able to to you, or simply log on to provide to support the programs. www.nisad.org.au to read about the pro- Therefore around half of the registered grams and download a Registration Form. The Chair goes to the eventually appointed to the Chair will be prominent in this field. University of......... The next question was about where the At Parliament House L-R: TRC Data Systems Manager Chair should be located, and discussions Donna Sheedy, Helen Blake and TRC Director Prof. Clive Harper. Management at Telstra’s Pitt Street office take a keen A t the ‘Spark of Genius’ event held last year the NSW Minister for Health were held with a number of potential host institutions before arriving at a short list of Recognition for TRC interest in NISAD literature: Roy Watman, Mary Mallioatakis, Perry Tsiamouslis, Tim Jenson and Cherry Morris Iemma MP announced a recurrent annual grant of $0.5M three: the University of New South Wales/Prince of Wales Medical Research Volunteer Helen Parker. to NISAD to establish Institute, University of Newcastle, and Australia’s first University University of Sydney. H elen Blake has been working as a volunteer administrator at the NSW Tissue Resource Centre (TRC) for two days Chair of Schizophrenia Research - with an At the 13 July Board meeting, the Directors of NISAD accepted the additional commitment conjoint proposal of the a week over the past three years. Her to underwrite a further University of NSW/POWMRI, generous contribution was recognised at a $0.5M p.a. of fundrais- and announced that this NSW Parliament House occasion in May, ing efforts for the Chair. university will host and where Minister for Charities Grant Consultation McBride presented her with a certificate. co-support the Chair and immediately began with Helen continues to work for the ‘Using Our his/her research team. It is NISAD’s senior scientists Brains’ donor program, which operates expected that this team will to determine the field of alongside NISAD’s ‘Gift of Hope’ First thing in the morning, NISAD’s Lee Drury constitute a new and powerful centre research expertise in which the brain donor program. ambushes Telstra’s Ian Tyrrell - but all in a good cause. for schizophrenia research Chair should be active, and in in Australia. which institute or university it NISAD, the University of Members of The NISAD Society should be based. NSW and the Prince of Wales In August the NISAD Board will soon receive their invitations to the exclusive 2005 approved the proposal that the Chair Medical Research Institute will Cocktails & Consciousness event - to be held at The now work in partnership on the interna- Garvan Institute on 20 October. If you’ve been thinking should specialise in developmental neuro- about joining, please do so before the end of September biology of behaviour and cognition – a field tional search for the scientist who will so that yourself and three of your guests can join us for which includes the very latest occupy Australia’s first University Chair in an inspirational evening! Just call (02) 9295 8407. technological developments in genetics Schizophrenia Research. The position is and tissue-based research. Whoever is expected to be filled in early 2006. Page 2. HeadLines. July 2005. How Medications Alter Genes APRN - The Birth of a National NISAD’s Dr Albert Chetcuti Program for Psychosis Research an inherited genetic alteration have an abnormality present in the DNA of uses mice to explore how virtually all their body cells, which can be drugs affect human genes. NISAD Founding Chairman passed on to their offspring. More than 4,000 diseases are thought to stem from Prof. Stan Catts rallies A lthough each cell in the human body contains a full complement of genes contained in DNA, cells use genes genes inherited from parents. Acquired changes in the profile of gene support for a national effort expression, however, affect which cells against psychotic disorders. selectively. Many genes encode proteins express which genes, and how strongly a that are unique to a particular kind of cell particular gene is expressed. A major and that give the cell its character - making a brain cell, say, different from a bone cell. influence on the pattern of gene expression is due to a variety of environmental causes. I n 1992 Prof. Stan Catts initiated and coordinated the movement of scientists and family members which resulted in the A normal cell activates or ‘expresses’ just Some medicines which are known to incorporation of NISAD in 1996. In 2000 he the genes it needs to do its particular job, improve diseases of specific organs can do stepped down as Chairman to continue as and actively suppresses all the rest. so by causing changes in the levels of a NISAD Director while working as A healthy body and brain depend on expression of genes affecting Professor of Hospital and Community the continuous interplay of those organs. These genes can be Psychiatry at Royal Brisbane Hospital. thousands of proteins, acting Prof. Stan Catts and the identified by taking a tissue Since then, says Prof. Catts, Australia Myer Foundation funded sample of the organ and has developed world class research centres Report which forms the blueprint for nationally comparing its genetic profile in the neurosciences and genetics, often integrated research. with profiles from normal co-located with mental health clinical healthy organs. When the organ services. But despite these favourable create a critical mass of technical and is the brain, and the functional conditions for a major national research clinical infrastructure; promote standardis- deficits are mental illnesses, effort into the causes of psychosis, there is ation of measurement across research however, such ‘live’ tissue currently little coordination or strategic centres; support multi-centre studies of samples cannot be obtained – direction of the skills and resources now large representative clinical cohorts and making the task of identifying the available. their long term follow-up; enable affected genes doubly complex. In a 50-page Report submitted to the integration of research databases Myer Foundation last year, Prof. Catts nationally, and establish multi-disciplinary Enter the Mouse outlined the urgent need for large scale meeting processes for scientific exchange.” Fortunately, the genetic profiles of studies: Proposals and budgets for seven major mice are almost the same as human “Currently, more than 70 percent of the research initiatives, involving up to 3,000 profiles. That’s why ‘animal studies’ are an disability associated with psychosis is subjects, were endorsed by 83 eminent expanding feature of worldwide genetic completely untreatable. Virtually all our scientists from every State in Australia. research into mental illness. treatments are non-specific – only research The Myer Foundation has awarded a At the NISAD Centre for Molecular can offer the prospect of targeted treatments grant of $80,000 to Prof. Catts for the Brain Research within the Garvan Institute, that act on specific brain systems.” purpose of gaining support for the APRN Dr Albert Chetcuti has been investigating The Report called for the establish- concept from Federal and State govern- the genetic effects of the widely prescribed ment of an Australian Psychosis Research ments, the corporate sector, and consumer bipolar disorder mood-stabilising drug Network (APRN) which would provide advocacy groups – and of developing the valproate by comparing the genetic direction and coordination: funding sources and structures necessary profiles of treated and untreated mice.* “This nationally coordinated effort will for its full implementation. Dr Chetcuti has identified 11 genes in the treated mice which exhibit altered levels of expression, and many of these genes are known to be involved in the development and functioning of the brain. This research uses the beneficial effects of medication as clues to help Very similar to mouse DNA, the human DNA molecule identify the genetic abnormalities which is a long strand made up of the four chemical bases produce the illness. adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G) arranged in varied sequence. Certain thousands-long sequences of A,T,C,G in the strand are active genes - Dr Chetcuti is now mobilising the experience gained from his study of St. George Foundation coded instructions that allow cells to make proteins, which are the building blocks of the body. valproate in a new ‘animal’ study Funds a Schizophrenia targeting anti-psychosis medication. together in just the right amounts and in When combined with the results of Research First just the right places - and each properly functioning protein is the product of an intact gene. other such studies, Dr Chetcuti’s work aims to provide new insight into the genetic I n 2002, Dr Katerina Zavitsanou and colleagues in NISAD’s University of Wollongong centre published their causes of psychotic disorders. But genes can be altered in many ways. findings of increased levels of glutamate Genetic abnormalities can be either * Chetcuti A, Adams LJ, Mitchell PB, Schofield PR. neurotransmitters in the anterior cingulate Altered gene expression in mice treated with the mood inherited from a parent or acquired from stabiliser sodium valproate. International Journal of cortex (ACC) of schizophrenia-affected environmental sources. Individuals with Neuropsychopharmacology (in press) brains. As glutamate is the primary trigger of excitatory brain activity, and the NISAD’s Beta-Imager at the University of Wollongong reveals a 40% increase of glutamate NMDA neurore- ACC plays a fundamental role in cognition ceptors in the PCC of schizophrenia brain tissue (left) Prof. Loris Chahl and attention, these findings were a highly significant addition to the growing body of as compared with tissue from healthy donors (right). percent increase in NMDA neuroreceptors steps down evidence that such abnormal excitatory activity in the ACC played a key role in in the schizophrenia brain tissue. This is the first time a selective A founding member of NISAD’s schizophrenia. increase in NMDA receptors has been scientific team retires. Dysfunction in the ACC has been demonstrated in the posterior cingulate directly linked to disorders such as cortex in schizophrenia. P rof. Loris Chahl’s distinguished career in neuroscience research at the University of Newcastle did not include obsessive-compulsive and bipolar, as well as to depression, autism and Together with the earlier ACC study, this evidence of increased glutamate schizophrenia. All evidence indicates this schizophrenia studies until NISAD’s initial densities in two regions of the cingulate brain area as a key ‘accident black spot’ in advocacy drew her attention to the urgent cortex strongly indicates a source of the brain’s busy pathways. need. Since then Loris has become one of dysfunction that could alter activity in Led by NISAD scholar Kelly Newell, a the Institute’s strongest supporters. At Newcastle, L-R: NISAD Scientific Director Prof. further study* at Wollongong has explored related brain circuits and result in Initiated in 1998, NISAD’s Newcastle Vaughan Carr, Prof. Loris Chahl, and NISAD Research abnormal information processing. Manager Daren Draganic. whether the abnormal glutamate activity centre was the first to specialise in found in the ACC is also present in the The St. George Foundation has added a neurobiological research, and has since Following her retirement Loris will further $10,000 to the $75,000 provided for posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). The PCC grown to include 10 researchers and to continue her schizophrenia studies as the St.George Foundation Schizophrenia tissue from schizophrenia and control become one of NISAD’s most productive Conjoint Professor in the School of subjects was examined for the binding of Research Scholarship - which has funded groups. Throughout this period, Loris was Biomedical Sciences - an honorary three kinds of glutamate receptors; NMDA, Kelly Newell’s research. always on hand to support NISAD’s cause, position. As a hobby? Helping her AMPA and kainate. *Newell K, Zavitsanou K, Huang XF. Differential daughter run a furniture hire business alterations of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors in the supervising a number of NISAD postdoc- The results showed no difference in posterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia. toral scientists and PhD students. called 'Keeping up Appearances'! AMPA or kainate, but a highly significant 40 Neuroreport (in press 2005) Page 3. HeadLines. July 2005. ..............Profile of a NISAD Scientist.............. Fatty Acids and Brain Signals Dr. Irina Dedova Two Wollongong University The study found that high levels of arachidonic acid and other fatty acids that Tissue Resource Centre (TRC) Coordinator studies investigate the enhance anandamide function were abnormally low levels of fatty A s a part of the NSW TRC team, I deal with the brain tissue used in research. I oversee its collection at the time of death, then its careful dissection and storage, and acids in schizophrenia brain associated with lower levels of nervous tension-stress, but only in the former cannabis users. its distribution to other researchers, both nationally and and red cell membranes At the same time, high levels of linoleic internationally. I am also directly involved in research, the main focus of which is on the effects of schizophrenia and E ssential fatty acids play an important role in neural membrane structure and function, influencing the activity of acid, a fatty acid that is abundant in diet, were strongly associated with higher levels of nervous tension-stress - again, only in antipsychotic medications on human brain ‘proteome’ - a range of neural chemical signalling former cannabis users. which is the term used for all of the proteins in the brain. systems in the brain. These results suggest that fatty acids All the schizophrenia brain tissues available for research These polyunsaturated fatty acids are may aid cannabis-using individuals with comes from patients who have used antipsychotic medication, so it is important (and divided up into the two families of omega- schizophrenia to cope with stress. While very difficult) to distinguish changes in the brain proteome caused by medications 6 (found in cereals, eggs, poultry, most promising from the point of view of from those caused by the illness itself. vegetable oils, whole-grain breads, baked developing pharmacological and/or goods, and margarine) and omega-3 dietary interventions which may help What does NISAD mean to you? Great people, great cause, excellent team work and (found in oily cold-water fish and fresh protect stabilised patients from relapse, exciting research! seaweed). Abnormally low levels of both further research with larger numbers is What got you interested in researching schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is not only types are associated with schizophrenia. needed. affecting the lives of patients but also their families and the general community. An opportunity to help someone and change someone's life for the better is the most Fatty acids, stress and cannabis How fats affect rats exciting thing about researching schizophrenia. What is the most difficult thing about research? For me, the most difficult thing A preliminary study led by Sharon Monterrubio at Wollongong has investigated the relationship between fatty I n another Wollongong study**, Teresa du Bois and colleagues have been looking at the influence of different fat diets in rats: about research is critical thinking. You have to question what you read and not take acids, cannabis use and stress in focusing on how different levels of fat anything for granted. You have to question yourself and try not to be overexcited schizophrenia. This line of research was consumption affect muscarinic acetyl- about your results! inspired by evidence that cerebrospinal choline receptor binding levels, which are If you were not a scientist, what would you be doing? I have always been involved in fluid levels of anandamide (a neurotrans- involved in normal cognition, mood and research. I believe that no matter what I did, I still would end up being a scientist! mitter formed from an omega-6 fatty acid) motor functioning. What do you do when not researching? My Dachshund ‘Doonya’ (she is the best!), were abnormally high in patients with Rats were fed on either a saturated family, friends, and sports. schizophrenia. Anandamide is known to fat, omega-6 polyunsaturated fat, omega-3 affect the stress-regulating cannabinoid polyunsaturated fat or low fat diet. system, and higher levels are associated Examination of the post-mortem brains Neuroscience Institute of Schizophrenia and Allied Disorders with reduced symptoms. In addition, cannabinoid (CB1) showed that, compared to the low fat intake group, only the group fed omega-6 Patron: Her Excellency, Professor Marie Bashir AC, Governor of NSW receptor levels have been found to be polyunsaturated fats showed a reduction S P O N S O R S A N D M A J O R S U P P O RT E R S 2 0 0 4 - 2 0 0 5 F Y elevated in post-mortem brains from in the density of acetylcholine 3-YEAR GOLD SPONSORSHIP SPECIAL CONTRIBUTIONS patients. In this context, the possible muscarinic receptors. ($25,000 per year for 3 years) relationship between fatty acid levels, These results suggest that a diet high in Individuals • Mrs Margarete Ainsworth anandamide levels, alterations in stress omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids may • Mrs Kate Armati • Janssen-Cilag selectively alter neurotransmission activity • Justice Graham Barr mechanisms and cannabis use by • Macquarie Bank Foundation • Mr Robert Benkhauser individuals with schizophrenia was in rat brains. Similar effects in humans • St. George Foundation • Mr & Mrs Tony & Alison Dickin • Tony Bleasdale & Associates investigated. have yet to be investigated. • Mr Doug Hawkins • Westfield Design and Construction • Mr Thomas Henley Fatty acid levels were measured in red • Mr David Hook blood cell membranes of 12 clozapine- *Monterrubio S, Solowij N, Meyer B, Turner N. Fatty 3-YEAR SILVER SPONSORSHIP acid relationships in former cannabis users with ($10,000 per year for 3 years) • Mr Abraham James medicated patients. Six had never used schizophrenia. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology • Australand Holdings Ltd • Mr Thomas Jucovic QC and Biological Psychiatry (in press) • Mr N Lees cannabis, and six had stopped using • Baulderstone Hornibrook • Ron & Peggy Bell Foundation • Mr N Minogue cannabis more than six months prior to the **du Bois T, Bell W, Deng C, Huang XF. A high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet reduces muscarinic • Mr Clem Morfuni study. Stress levels were also measured M2/M4 receptor binding in the rat brain. The Journal of 3-YEAR BRONZE SPONSORSHIP • Mrs Irene Moss ($5,000 per year for 3 years) using standardised questionnaires. Chemical Neuroanatomy 2005; 29: 282-288. • Mrs Frances Powell • AbiGroup Contractors • Mr & Mrs Bryan & Fiona Shedden • Chubb Fire Safety • Leighton Holdings Clubs • Lundbeck Australia • ARAFMI Cowra Branch Irene Kwong Moss AO • Paynter Dixon Constructions • East Maitland Beresfield Lioness Club • Leagues Clubs Association of NSW Joined the NISAD Board in April, bringing a wealth of WORKPLACE GIVING PROGRAMS • Roseville Returned Servicemen's Memorial experience from her distinguished career, which has • ABN AMRO Club encompassed appointments as Commissioner, Independent • Deutsche Bank • Rotary Clubs of Botany Bay and Picton • Insurance Australia Group (IAG) Commission Against Corruption (1999-2004), Ombudsman • Wollongong City Council Corporations NSW (1995-1999), Magistrate (1994-1995) and Federal Race • Australian Charities Fund Discrimination Commissioner, Human Rights and Equal SCIENTIFIC GRANTS • AW Edwards Builders & Contractors • Australian Rotary Health Research Fund • Awesome Screen Printing Opportunity Commission (1986-1995). Irene is currently a Irene Kwong Moss AO • National Alliance for Research on • Bristol-Myers Squibb Consultant to the Minister for Justice of NSW. Schizophrenia and Depression (USA) • Hungerford Hill • J S Love Trust • Qantas Dr. Marion Kellenbach • Alma Hazel Eddy Trust • Ramrod Constructions • Baxter Charitable Foundation • Tyrrell's Wines Appointed in March at NISAD’s Central Office, working with • Sylvia & Charles Viertel Foundation Research Manager Daren Draganic on coordinating an Baulderstone Fundraising Golf Day MAJOR SUPPORTERS • Australand • Axis Plumbing • Baratech ever-expanding program of research projects, grant applications • AMP • Baylin Industries • City East Carpentry and staff management. Marion has a substantial research and • ASX-Reuters Charity Foundation • Coates Hire • Commercial & Residential publication background in cognitive neuroscience, both in • Bovis Lend Lease at Macarthur Square Waterproofing • De Martin & Gasparini • Deno's Cranes • Groedel Kitchens Holland and the UK. • Construction Forestry Mining & Energy Marion Kellenbach Union (CFMEU) • Heyday • Impact Scaffolding • Lidco • KMPG Audit & Risk Advisory Services • Linddales • Melrose Cranes and Rigging • Lifework Foundation • Metrotex Painters & Decorators • NSW EFY APPEAL JUST SHORT OF FUNDING A • QBE Insurance • Telstra Friends IN MEMORIAM • Mrs Florence Maggs Tiling Services • Perform Framework • Petar Zlatar Partitions • Peter Favetti & Sons • Premier Plumbing Services • Ramrod Construction Services • Ward Civil & Engineering • Wastecorp • Zenith Works YOUNG SCIENTIST SCHOLARSHIP NK YOU! Mailed to HeadLines readers in June, NISAD’s appeal needs to raise $30,000 for the HA • The Bandy Family first year of a 3-year PhD Scholarship which would enable a young scientist to NISAD Society Members specialise in schizophrenia research. The generous response has been the best ever • The Jensen Family • The Pailthorpe Family • The Snow Family • To the 71 people who have joined The NISAD Society - Thank you! NISAD IS SUPPORTED BY NSW HEALTH T recorded, but is still short of the target. So if you have forgotten to send your donation, please remember! And join all the other contributors who will be kept informed of the young scientist’s progress over the three years. To include yourself on the mailing list to receive free HeadLines, call (02) 9295 8407. NISAD, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010. Fax: (02) 9295 8415 Web: www.nisad,org.au HeadLines is written, designed and produced by NISAD Communications Director Alan Tunbridge. The opinions expressed in HeadLines do not necessarily represent the views of all NISAD’s participating scientists.