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Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt Republican 26th President

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									Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt
         Republican
 26th President-1901-1909




     October 27, 1858- January 6, 1919
Childhood

     • When Roosevelt was a child,
       he was small, weak, and had
       asthma. His father helped him
       overcome the asthma by
       getting him into sports such as
       weightlifting, gymnastics,
       horseback riding, swimming,
       hiking, wrestling, boxing, and
       judo.
     • By the time he was in college,
       he was an average human
       being with exceptional
       stamina.
                           Family
• Theodore’s parents were
  Theodore Roosevelt Sr. and
  Martha Bulloch Roosevelt.
• Theodore Sr. was a rich New
  Yorker who got his money
  from a family business started
  when Cornelius Van Schaack
  Roosevelt converted the family
  hardware company into a glass
  importation business. Also,
  the company later changed
  into an investment firm. This
  switch made the company
  even richer, providing
  Roosevelt with a lifetime
  income.                           Theodore Roosevelt Sr.
Family (Cont.)
       • Roosevelt had two
         sisters, Anna(Bamie)
         and Corinne, and one
         brother, Elliott.
       • Anna was the oldest in
         the family. She was 3
         years older than
         Theodore and suffered
         from Pott’s disease,
         which caused
         weakening in the bones.
                        College

• Roosevelt entered Harvard
  University at the age of 18.
• He graduated with Phi Beta
  Kappa honors in 1880.
• He played tennis and boxed.
  Also, he started writing
  novels his senior year.
• Here is where he became
  interested in politics.
Roosevelt’s First Wife

           • After graduating, Roosevelt
             married Alice Hathaway Lee
             of Massachusetts in 1880.
           • Soon after the marriage, he
             began studying law at
             Columbia University.
           • In 1881, he gave up law
             when he was elected into
             the New York State
             Assembly.
              Tragedy for Roosevelt

• He served three terms in the
  New York State Assembly. In
  the third term, Roosevelt’s
  mother died. A few hours
  later, his wife died after giving
  birth to Alice. Roosevelt
  would give Alice to his oldest
  sister Anna for the time being.
• The coming summer, in 1883,
  he went to the Dakota
  Territory to become a cowboy
  on Elkhorn Ranch on the Little
  Missouri River.
Western Life

      • While living in the West,
        Roosevelt became a sheriff, and
        wrote books and magazine
        articles.
      • In 1885, he fell in love with one of
        his life-long friends Edith Kermit
        Carow.
      • In the fall of 1886, he ran for
        mayor of New York. He came in
        third place out of three.
      • In the winter of 1886 and 1887,
        most of his cattle were killed by
        continual blizzards. He decided
        to move back to the East.
     Roosevelt’s Second Marriage

• On December 2, 1886, he
  finally married Edith Carow
  in London.
• They moved to Sagamore
  Hill in Long Island.
• They later had four sons
  and one daughter and took
  care of Alice.
Pre-Presidential Positions

             •   In 1889, Roosevelt was appointed
                 to the United States Civil Service
                 Commission and served there for 6
                 years.
             •   He resigned in 1895 and became
                 the president of the New York
                 Police Board.
             •   After serving 2 years, he resigned
                 from the Police Board and became
                 the Assistant Secretary of the Navy.
             •   While Assistant Secretary of the
                 Navy, he urged the U.S. to build up
                 its fleet, drive Spain from the
                 Western Hemisphere, to acquire
                 colonies of its own.
          Rise of the Rough Riders

• The Spanish- American war
  broke out in 1898 and in
  response, Roosevelt quit as
  the Assistant Secretary of the
  Navy and organized the First
  United States Volunteer
  Cavalry Regiment known as
  the Rough Riders.
• Leonard Wood, a good friend
  of Roosevelt and the physician
  of William McKinley, was
  named Colonel of the
  regiment and Roosevelt
  became Lieutenant Colonel.
Rough Riders

      • The Rough Riders consisted
        of 1,250 men who were
        cowboys, Indians, and Ivy
        League athletes from the
        East.
      • They first assembled at San
        Antonio, Texas in the May of
        1898 and left for Cuba on
        June 14, 1898.
          Battle of San Juan Heights

• The troops landed in Cuba on
  June 22 and fought in the Battle
  of Las Guasimas on June 24.
• On July 1, 1898, Roosevelt led the
  Ninth Cavalry to the San Juan
  hills, a mountain ridge east of
  Santiago. The Spanish were on
  top of Kettle Hill shooting down
  on the Americans. Roosevelt, on
  horse, led the troops up the hill
  and the Spanish fled.
• Later, Roosevelt led his troops to
  San Juan Hill, but the Tenth
  Cavalry had already captured it.
Coming Back to the U.S.

            • Soon after the battle of San Juan
              Heights, Santiago surrendered.
            • The war became very close to
              coming to an end.
            • On September 16, 1898, the
              Rough Riders were shipped to
              Montauk Point, New York. About
              1 out of every 3 Rough Rider had
              been killed, wounded, or stricken
              by disease. These statistics made
              them the highest casualty rate of
              any American unit that
              participated in the Spanish-
              American War campaign.
                  Medal of Honor

• Once Roosevelt and the Rough
  Riders came home, Roosevelt
  was nominated for a Medal of
  Honor, but he was denied.
• On January 16, 2001, he was
  finally awarded the Medal of
  Honor. Theodore’s great
  grandson Tweed Roosevelt
  accepted the award on behalf
  of the Roosevelt family.
  Theodore became the 1st
  president to receive the Medal
  of Honor.
                New York Governor

                                     •   He was elected governor of New
                                         York in 1899. His political bosses
                                         found him difficult to manage and
                                         headstrong.
                                     •   As governor, Roosevelt immediately
                                         looked at reform including a tax on
                                         corporation franchises, regulation
                                         of sweatshops, a raise in school
                                         teachers salaries, and a
                                         conservation program.
                                     •    To get Roosevelt out of office in
                                         New York, the political bosses
                                         devised a plan to get him to the
                                         Vice Presidency and out of their
                                         way.
Roosevelt with Capitol press corps
            Republican Convention
• At the Republican convention,
  Roosevelt wore a western-
  style cowboy hat that made
  him stand out.
• A chant that circulated the
  convention was “we want
  Teddy.”
• William McKinley won the
  Republican nominee for
  president and Roosevelt was
  his vice president running
  mate. They would be facing
  off against William Jennings
  Bryan, a Democrat still arguing
  for the free coinage of silver.
                 Election of 1900

• In the election of 1900,
  McKinley safely campaigned
  from his front porch.
  Roosevelt on the other hand
  toured the country with
  revolver shooting cowboys.
• The results were in favor of
  the Republicans again, with
  McKinley winning with
  7,218,491 to 6,356,734 in
  popular votes and 292 to 155
  in the electoral votes.
        Tragedy Strikes Washington

• President William McKinley only
  served 6 months into his second
  term until an anarchist murdered
  him in Buffalo, New York in
  September of 1901.
• At the time, Roosevelt was at a
  campsite in the Adirondacks and
  rode a buckboard to take the
  oath of office in 1901. When he
  took the oath, he was only 42
  years old. This made him the
  youngest president up until this
  point in American history.
Roosevelt’s Attributes

           • Roosevelt had squinty eyes, a
             mustache, and a piercing
             voice.
           • He had very high energy,
             especially when making
             speeches.
           • He would was a philanthropist
             who would shake hands with 6
             thousand people at one time
             and rode by horse many miles
             in a single day to prove an
             example for cavalry officers.
                   Big Stick Policy

• Roosevelt was a champion
  of naval and military
  preparedness, so he
  adopted the famous saying,
  “Speak softly and carry a big
  stick, [and] you will go far.”
• He used this policy in many
  events, including the
  building of the Panama
  Canal.
Views of the President

           • Roosevelt believed that a
             president should have full
             control of the country and
             hated the checks and
             balances among the three
             branches of the
             government.
  Beginning of a Latin American Canal

• Roosevelt figured that a
  canal in Latin America
  would strengthen the Navy
  by giving them more
  mobility, and it would
  provide protection for
  newly acquired Puerto Rico,
  Hawaii, and the Philippians.
                   Obstacles
• An obstacle that arose that prevented the
  immediate building of a canal was the Clayton-
  Bulwer Treaty of 1850 with Britain. It said that
  the United States couldn’t secure exclusive
  control over an isthmian route.
• In 1901, Britain was in the South African Boer
  War and gave in to the demands of the U.S.
  Britain and the United States signed the Hay-
  Pauncefote Treaty. The treaty not only gave the
  U.S. a free hand to build the canal but granted
  the right to fortify it as well.
      Where was the Canal to go?

• There was much debate
  whether the canal was
  going to go in Nicaragua or
  Panama.
• Agents from the old French
  Canal Company wanted to
  build it in the S-shaped
  Panama.
• Philippe Bunau-Varilla was a
  part of the New Panama
  Canal Company.
Panama Chosen but Refused Money Offer


                   • In 1902, Congress decided that
                     the canal was going to be in
                     Panama.
                   • At this time, Panama was a
                     part of Colombia. When the
                     United States offered
                     Colombia $10 Million and a
                     yearly payment of $250
                     thousand for a 6 mile wide
                     zone across Panama, the
                     Colombian Senate rejected the
                     offer.
                   Panama Rebellion

• Furious Panamanians, feeling that
  the building of the canal in
  Panama would bring prosperity,
  feared that the U.S. would switch
  to building the canal in Nicaragua.
• Bunau-Varilla, in fear of losing his
  company’s $40 million, helped
  spark a rebellion on November 3,
  1903.
• U.S. Naval forces prevented
  Colombian troops from crossing
  the isthmus to stop the rebellion.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

            • In 1903,Bunau-Varilla, who
              had been promoted to the
              Panamanian minister,
              signed the Hay-Bunau-
              Varilla Treaty in
              Washington.
            • The treaty kept the price of
              the canal at $10 million, but
              the 6 mile zone of the canal
              was extended to 10 miles.
            Canal Construction

                            • The construction of the Panama
                              canal finally began in 1904, but
                              problems suddenly broke out.
                            • The two main problems in the
                              construction of the canal was
                              landslides and tropical diseases.
                            • Colonel William C. Gorgas,
                              notorious for exterminating
                              yellow fever in Havana, made the
                              canal zone “as safe as a health
                              resort” by installing $90 thousand
                              into getting rid of all yellow fever
                              in the area.

Colonel William C. Gorgas
               Finishing the Canal

• In 1914, the Panama Canal
  was finally finished. Colonel
  George Washington
  Goethals, a West Point
  engineer, finished the Canal
  just as World War 1 was
  starting.
• The price to build the entire
  canal was about $639
  million.
            Debt in Latin America

                         • Debt in a few of the Latin
             Venezuela     America countries led
                           Roosevelt into getting involved
                           in the affairs.
                         • Venezuela and the Dominican
                           Republic were the 2 main
                           countries that were behind on
                           their payments to European
                           creditors.
                         • In 1903, Germany bombed a
                           town in Venezuela in anger at
                           the unpaid dues.
Dominican
Republic
European Powers Needed To Leave

• Roosevelt didn’t want the
  European bill collectors to stay
  in Latin America.
• If they did stay in Latin
  America, major world powers
  would be close to the U.S.
  Also, it would be a violation of
  the Monroe Doctrine.
• Roosevelt came up with a
  policy to get the cross ocean
  enemies out of Latin America.

                                     Monroe Doctrine
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine


                     • Roosevelt’s policy was known
                       as “preventive intervention,”
                       or the Roosevelt Corollary to
                       the Monroe Doctrine.
                     • This doctrine stated that if the
                       Latin American countries failed
                       to repay any of the European
                       nations, the U.S. would
                       intervene, take over
                       customhouses, pay off the
                       debts, and keep the
                       troublesome Europeans on
                       their side of the Atlantic.
 Start of the “Bad Neighbor” Policy

• Roosevelt’s doctrine came into
  effect in 1905 when the U.S.
  took over the management of
  tariff collections in the
  Dominican Republic.
• This made the United States
  act like the “policeman of the
  Caribbean.”
• Also, the doctrine promoted
  the “bad neighbor” policy at
  this time by strangling the
  Latin American countries.
Other Foreign Affairs

           • Another major foreign affair
             broke out in Europe in 1904.
             There was war between Russia
             and Japan over the ice-free
             ports of Manchuria, China that
             Russia wanted to take over.
           • Japan felt that if a Communist
             country was able to take
             control of the major port of
             Port Arthur, they were
             doomed.
            Japanese Ask For Help

• Later on in 1904, the Japanese
  planned a sneak attack on the
  Russian fleets at Port Arthur.
• At first, the Russians were
  caught off guard and
  humiliated, but soon the
  Japanese ran out of men and
  yen.
• To respond to their weakness,
  Tokyo officials secretly asked
  Roosevelt to help come up
  with fair peace negotiations.
The Treaty of Portsmouth

            •   Roosevelt agreed to the plea, but
                wanted to keep Russia strong
                enough to counterweigh Japan’s
                growing power.
            •   In 1905, the two country’s leaders
                met in Portsmouth, New
                Hampshire, and Roosevelt made a
                treaty between the two countries
                known as the Treaty of Portsmouth.
            •   Roosevelt’s settlement forced
                Japan to drop its demands for a
                cash guarantee. He did give Japan
                Korea and Southern Manchuria.
            •   Russia was forced to evacuate
                Sakhalin Island.
     Results from the Portsmouth Treaty


• Japan became resentful to
  the United States because
  they believed that they had
  won the battle. This
  resentment led to a rival
                                Rivals
  between the two countries.
• Russia believed that
  Roosevelt had robbed them
  of military victory.
The Nobel Peace Prize

           • In 1906, Roosevelt helped
             arrange an International
             Conference at Algeciras,
             Spain to mediate North
             African disputes.
           • With the combination of
             this arrangement and the
             peace settlements made
             between Japan and Russia,
             Roosevelt won the Nobel
             Peace Prize in 1906.
                         Square Deal

• Roosevelt’s main drive was to
  balance economic interests. He
  believed that he should represent
  farmers, laborers, and workers
  such as businessmen.
• This program was known as the
  “Square Deal” and it was enacted
  for capital, labor, and the public
  at large.
• The program embraced 3 C’s:
  Control of the corporations,
  consumer protection, and
  conservation of natural
  resources.
Northern Securities Company

              • In 1902, Roosevelt ordered an
                antitrust suit on the Northern
                Securities Company. The
                company was a railroad holding
                company organized by J.P.
                Morgan and James J. Hill.
              • The two were planning to create
                a monopoly of all railroads in the
                Northwest.
              • In 1904, the Supreme Court sided
                with the president and ordered
                the Northern Securities Company
                to be dissolved.
                               Trusts

• In 1905, the Supreme Court
  made beef trust illegal, and
  the monopolies controlling
  sugar, fertilizer, harvesters, and
  other products were dissolved.
• Roosevelt brought down major
  trusts to prove that the
  government, not private
  business, ruled the country.
• Also, he believed in good and
  bad trusts. He wanted to
  regulate the major businesses
  instead of fragment them.
Newlands Reclamation Act

            •   The Newlands Reclamation Act was
                signed on June 17, 1902. This act gave
                Washington the authority to collect
                money from the sale of public lands in
                the western states and then use this
                money for the development of
                irrigation projects.
            •   The accomplishments of the
                Reclamation Act:
                1.   More than 125 million acres were added
                     to national forests.
                2.   The number of National Parks doubled.
                3.   16 National monuments created.
                4.   51 wildlife refuges were established.
                5.   Roosevelt Dam was constructed on
                     Arizona’s Salt River in 1911.
              Anthracite Coal Strike

• In 1902, the Square Deal was
  tested by a strike that broke out
  in the Anthracite coal mines of
  Pennsylvania.
• 140 thousand workers, many of
  them immigrants, demanded a 20
  percent increase in pay and a
  reduction of the working day
  from 10 hours to 9.
• These demands were not fulfilled,
  and the state was feeling it.
  Factories and schools were shut
  down due to the lack of coal in
  the wintery months.
Results of the Strike
           • Roosevelt summoned
             representatives of the striking
             miners and the mine owners
             to the White House.
           • He threatened to seize the
             mines and to operate them
             with federal troops. This
             marked the first time that the
             president threatened to use
             federal bayonets against
             capital, rather than labor.
           • The mine owners agreed to
             the proposition, and the
             miners got a 10 percent pay
             increase and the work day was
             changed to 9 hours.
  New Department of Commerce and Labor
• Roosevelt, aware of the rivalry
  between capital and labor, urged
  Congress to create the New
  Department of Commerce and
  Labor.
• In 1903, this goal was achieved.
  10 years later, the agency was split
  in two. One major arm of this
  department was the Bureau of
  Corporations. This was authorized      1913
  to probe business engaged in
  interstate commerce.
• The newly formed Bureau was
  able to break monopolies and
  cleared the road for “trust
  busting.”
Railroad Strength
         • At this time, the railroad business
           was unstoppable by the Interstate
           Commerce Commission created
           in 1887. Congress started to
           change this with the signing of
           the Elkins Act of 1903.
         • The Elkins Act was aimed at the
           rebates of the railroad industry.
           Rebates were when the railroads
           returned part of their payment to
           favored customers.
         • When the Elkins Act was passed,
           heavy fines could be imposed on
           both the railroads that gave
           rebates and the shippers that
           accepted them.
                Election of 1904
• In the election of 1904,
  Roosevelt faced off against
  the Democrat Alton B.
  Parker. Parker supported
  the gold standard and
  wanted to get away from the
  silver issue.
• Roosevelt won with 336
  electoral votes to 140 and
  7,623,486 to 5,077,911 in
  the popular vote.
Beginning the Second Term
             • Near the beginning of his
               second term, Roosevelt forced
               conservative Republicans into
               line by threatening to lower
               the tariff on imports. This
               action won conservative
               support for later reforms in
               1906.
             • Also in his second term,
               Roosevelt turned away from
               Imperialism and concentrated
               more on protecting the
               Philippines, supporting a
               balance of power in the East,
               and building up a friendship
               with the Japanese.
                     Conservation
• Roosevelt, with his chief
  forester Gifford Pinchot,
  pushed for conservation.
  Roosevelt believed that
  natural resources belonged to
  all people, scientific forestry
  would provide a constant
  supply of timber, and River
  Valleys should be developed as
  entire units.
• Their beliefs were strongly
  opposed by small lumber
  companies, electric power
  corporations, and states’
  righter's.
National Monuments Act
           • Many new Acts were signed
             in 1906. The first of many
             was the Antiquities or
             National Monuments Act
             signed on June 8.
           • This act enabled Roosevelt
             to establish the first 18
             National Monuments.
           • Some of these monuments
             include Devils Tower, Grand
             Canyon, and Mount
             Olympus.
            Forest Homestead Act

• The Forest Homestead Act
  occurred in 1906. This act
  opened agricultural lands in
  forest reserves to
  settlement.
Hepburn Act of 1906
          • Even more successful than the
            Elkins Act when looking at the
            railroad industry, the Hepburn
            Act of 1906 restricted free
            passes that resembled bribery.
          • Also, the Interstate Commerce
            Commission was expanded to
            include express companies,
            sleeping-car companies, and
            pipelines.
          • The Interstate Commerce
            Commission was given the
            power to regulate the railroad
            rates for the first time.
                       Tainted Meat

• In 1906, large meatpackers were
  shut out of certain European
  markets because some American
  meat was tainted. Foreign
  governments threatened to ban
  all U.S. meat.
• Also in 1906, Upton Sinclair wrote
  a novel known as The Jungle. He
  was trying to draw attention to
  the workers in the big canning
  factories, but the public
  responded to it’s description of
  unsanitary Chicago
  slaughterhouses.
Investigation

       • In response, Roosevelt hired
         a special investigating
         commission to look into the
         validity of Sinclair’s book.
       • The commission found out
         that piles of poisoned rates,
         rope ends, splinters, and
         other debris were canned
         as potted ham.
             Meat Inspection Act

• Roosevelt urged Congress to
  pass the Meat Inspection
  Act of 1906. This act said
  that the preparation of
  meat shipped over state
  lines would be subject to
  federal inspection.
Food and Drug Act

         • Another monumental Act of the
           time was the Food and Drug Act
           passed on June 30, 1906.
         • This act:
             1.   Created the Food and Drug
                  Administration, which tested
                  foods and drugs intended for
                  humans.
             2.   A requirement of a prescription
                  from a licensed physician before
                  a patient could buy certain drugs.
             3.   Label warnings on certain habit-
                  forming drugs
         •   This act was supported by the
             Department of Agriculture’s
             chief chemist Harvey W. Wiley.
           Final Years as President

• In Roosevelt’s final two years
  as president, Congress hated
  his leadership and progressive
  policies. They refused to do
  what he wanted.
• On January 31, 1908,
  Roosevelt sent Congress a
  message calling for better
  conditions for workers and for
  the arrest of businessmen who
  broke the law.
Progressive Era
        • Muckraking Journalists such as
          Ida Tarbell wrote of the
          corruptions in the country. Some
          of these included child labor,
          corruption in city governments,
          horrors of lynching, and the
          corrupt business practices.
        • The Progressives wanted
          economic, political, social, and
          moral reforms. They wanted to
          eliminate corruption in the
          government, regulate business
          practices, address health hazards,
          improve working conditions, and
          give the public more direct
          control over the government.
                 Election of 1908
• Roosevelt announced in his
  second term that he would
  not be a candidate for a
  third term.
• Instead, he decided to
  support one of his friend
  and Secretary of War
  William Howard Taft.
• Taft won the 1908 election,
  and Roosevelt left for Africa
  in 1909 to hunt big game
  and to collect specimens for
  the Smithsonian Institution.
New Nationalism
        • While Roosevelt was in Africa,
          progressivism was being held
          back by William H. Taft. This
          put Taft on the side with the
          Republican conservatives who
          opposed Roosevelt’s policies.
        • In 1910, Roosevelt returned to
          the United States and tried not
          to hurt his friend about his
          policies. Unable to keep silent,
          Roosevelt made speeches in
          the Midwest about his own
          views, which he called New
          Nationalism.
              Running for President

• This New Nationalism extended
  his views that he had in the last
  years of his presidency. It called
  for graduated income and
  inheritance taxes and other social
  and political reforms.
• In 1912, he fulfilled the pleas of
  the progressive Midwestern
  Republicans and challenged Taft
  for the presidency.
• The Republican Convention did
  not nominate Roosevelt even
  though he had a two-to-one
  victory over him in the primary
  elections.
The Bull Moose Party

          • After being denied the
            Republican nomination,
            Roosevelt organized the
            Progressive Party, or the Bull
            Moose Party. The party was
            supported by most social
            workers, intellectuals, and
            progressive-minded citizens.
          • The movement stirred the
            conscience of middle-class
            America.
                        Election of 1912

•   The three major candidates in the
    Election of 1912 were the Democrat
    Woodrow Wilson, the Republican
    William H. Taft, and the Bull Moose
    Theodore Roosevelt.
•   While campaigning, Roosevelt was shot
    by John Schrane. He did not see a
    doctor until after his hour and a half
    long speech. He was not seriously
    injured.
•   Woodrow Wilson won with about 42
    percent of the popular vote. Roosevelt
    finished well ahead of Taft.
•   In 1916, Wilson showed support for
    Roosevelt when he wrote a great deal
    of Roosevelt’s New Nationalism into
    law.
Life After the Presidency
            • After losing the election,
              Roosevelt wrote his
              autobiography in 1912.
            • In 1913, he went to explore
              a South American river
              known as the River of Doubt.
            • He almost died of an injury
              that he received when trying
              to save two capsized boats.
              He also received malaria
              while in South America.
    The Loss of a Former President

• He continued to stay active
  in politics up until 1919. He
  published editorials and
  wrote manuscripts.
• On January 6, 1919,
  Theodore Roosevelt passed
  away in his sleep at
  Sagamore Hill.
• He was buried at Young’s
  Cemetery in Sagamore Hill,
  Long Island.
             Interesting Facts
• 1st president to:
  – leave the United States while in office(Panama).
  – ride in an automobile and airplane.
  – have a telephone in his home.
• 1st U.S. citizen to win the Nobel Peace Prize.
       Interesting Facts (Cont.)
• Today, he is on Mount Rushmore in South
  Dakota.
              The Teddy Bear
• Theodore Roosevelt inspired the creation of
  plush toys when he was hunting in Mississippi
  in 1902. After an unsuccessful day of hunting,
  the group brought back a small bear cub for
  the president to shoot. He refused because
  the bear didn’t have a chance to defend itself.
  In honor of that day, the world has adopted
  the word “teddy bear.”
•   www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/img/tr.jpg
                                                                      Sources
•   http://www.spanamwar.com/tr.htm
•   http://www.theodoreroosevelt.com/trbioqf.html
•   http://www.theodoreroosevelt.org/life/biofampic2.htm
•   http://www.trthegreatnewyorker.com/Familyman/his_childhood_years.htm
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•   http://pnt.gov/membership/doc-large.jpg

								
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