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Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt Republican 26th President-1901-1909 October 27, 1858- January 6, 1919 Childhood • When Roosevelt was a child, he was small, weak, and had asthma. His father helped him overcome the asthma by getting him into sports such as weightlifting, gymnastics, horseback riding, swimming, hiking, wrestling, boxing, and judo. • By the time he was in college, he was an average human being with exceptional stamina. Family • Theodore’s parents were Theodore Roosevelt Sr. and Martha Bulloch Roosevelt. • Theodore Sr. was a rich New Yorker who got his money from a family business started when Cornelius Van Schaack Roosevelt converted the family hardware company into a glass importation business. Also, the company later changed into an investment firm. This switch made the company even richer, providing Roosevelt with a lifetime income. Theodore Roosevelt Sr. Family (Cont.) • Roosevelt had two sisters, Anna(Bamie) and Corinne, and one brother, Elliott. • Anna was the oldest in the family. She was 3 years older than Theodore and suffered from Pott’s disease, which caused weakening in the bones. College • Roosevelt entered Harvard University at the age of 18. • He graduated with Phi Beta Kappa honors in 1880. • He played tennis and boxed. Also, he started writing novels his senior year. • Here is where he became interested in politics. Roosevelt’s First Wife • After graduating, Roosevelt married Alice Hathaway Lee of Massachusetts in 1880. • Soon after the marriage, he began studying law at Columbia University. • In 1881, he gave up law when he was elected into the New York State Assembly. Tragedy for Roosevelt • He served three terms in the New York State Assembly. In the third term, Roosevelt’s mother died. A few hours later, his wife died after giving birth to Alice. Roosevelt would give Alice to his oldest sister Anna for the time being. • The coming summer, in 1883, he went to the Dakota Territory to become a cowboy on Elkhorn Ranch on the Little Missouri River. Western Life • While living in the West, Roosevelt became a sheriff, and wrote books and magazine articles. • In 1885, he fell in love with one of his life-long friends Edith Kermit Carow. • In the fall of 1886, he ran for mayor of New York. He came in third place out of three. • In the winter of 1886 and 1887, most of his cattle were killed by continual blizzards. He decided to move back to the East. Roosevelt’s Second Marriage • On December 2, 1886, he finally married Edith Carow in London. • They moved to Sagamore Hill in Long Island. • They later had four sons and one daughter and took care of Alice. Pre-Presidential Positions • In 1889, Roosevelt was appointed to the United States Civil Service Commission and served there for 6 years. • He resigned in 1895 and became the president of the New York Police Board. • After serving 2 years, he resigned from the Police Board and became the Assistant Secretary of the Navy. • While Assistant Secretary of the Navy, he urged the U.S. to build up its fleet, drive Spain from the Western Hemisphere, to acquire colonies of its own. Rise of the Rough Riders • The Spanish- American war broke out in 1898 and in response, Roosevelt quit as the Assistant Secretary of the Navy and organized the First United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment known as the Rough Riders. • Leonard Wood, a good friend of Roosevelt and the physician of William McKinley, was named Colonel of the regiment and Roosevelt became Lieutenant Colonel. Rough Riders • The Rough Riders consisted of 1,250 men who were cowboys, Indians, and Ivy League athletes from the East. • They first assembled at San Antonio, Texas in the May of 1898 and left for Cuba on June 14, 1898. Battle of San Juan Heights • The troops landed in Cuba on June 22 and fought in the Battle of Las Guasimas on June 24. • On July 1, 1898, Roosevelt led the Ninth Cavalry to the San Juan hills, a mountain ridge east of Santiago. The Spanish were on top of Kettle Hill shooting down on the Americans. Roosevelt, on horse, led the troops up the hill and the Spanish fled. • Later, Roosevelt led his troops to San Juan Hill, but the Tenth Cavalry had already captured it. Coming Back to the U.S. • Soon after the battle of San Juan Heights, Santiago surrendered. • The war became very close to coming to an end. • On September 16, 1898, the Rough Riders were shipped to Montauk Point, New York. About 1 out of every 3 Rough Rider had been killed, wounded, or stricken by disease. These statistics made them the highest casualty rate of any American unit that participated in the Spanish- American War campaign. Medal of Honor • Once Roosevelt and the Rough Riders came home, Roosevelt was nominated for a Medal of Honor, but he was denied. • On January 16, 2001, he was finally awarded the Medal of Honor. Theodore’s great grandson Tweed Roosevelt accepted the award on behalf of the Roosevelt family. Theodore became the 1st president to receive the Medal of Honor. New York Governor • He was elected governor of New York in 1899. His political bosses found him difficult to manage and headstrong. • As governor, Roosevelt immediately looked at reform including a tax on corporation franchises, regulation of sweatshops, a raise in school teachers salaries, and a conservation program. • To get Roosevelt out of office in New York, the political bosses devised a plan to get him to the Vice Presidency and out of their way. Roosevelt with Capitol press corps Republican Convention • At the Republican convention, Roosevelt wore a western- style cowboy hat that made him stand out. • A chant that circulated the convention was “we want Teddy.” • William McKinley won the Republican nominee for president and Roosevelt was his vice president running mate. They would be facing off against William Jennings Bryan, a Democrat still arguing for the free coinage of silver. Election of 1900 • In the election of 1900, McKinley safely campaigned from his front porch. Roosevelt on the other hand toured the country with revolver shooting cowboys. • The results were in favor of the Republicans again, with McKinley winning with 7,218,491 to 6,356,734 in popular votes and 292 to 155 in the electoral votes. Tragedy Strikes Washington • President William McKinley only served 6 months into his second term until an anarchist murdered him in Buffalo, New York in September of 1901. • At the time, Roosevelt was at a campsite in the Adirondacks and rode a buckboard to take the oath of office in 1901. When he took the oath, he was only 42 years old. This made him the youngest president up until this point in American history. Roosevelt’s Attributes • Roosevelt had squinty eyes, a mustache, and a piercing voice. • He had very high energy, especially when making speeches. • He would was a philanthropist who would shake hands with 6 thousand people at one time and rode by horse many miles in a single day to prove an example for cavalry officers. Big Stick Policy • Roosevelt was a champion of naval and military preparedness, so he adopted the famous saying, “Speak softly and carry a big stick, [and] you will go far.” • He used this policy in many events, including the building of the Panama Canal. Views of the President • Roosevelt believed that a president should have full control of the country and hated the checks and balances among the three branches of the government. Beginning of a Latin American Canal • Roosevelt figured that a canal in Latin America would strengthen the Navy by giving them more mobility, and it would provide protection for newly acquired Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippians. Obstacles • An obstacle that arose that prevented the immediate building of a canal was the Clayton- Bulwer Treaty of 1850 with Britain. It said that the United States couldn’t secure exclusive control over an isthmian route. • In 1901, Britain was in the South African Boer War and gave in to the demands of the U.S. Britain and the United States signed the Hay- Pauncefote Treaty. The treaty not only gave the U.S. a free hand to build the canal but granted the right to fortify it as well. Where was the Canal to go? • There was much debate whether the canal was going to go in Nicaragua or Panama. • Agents from the old French Canal Company wanted to build it in the S-shaped Panama. • Philippe Bunau-Varilla was a part of the New Panama Canal Company. Panama Chosen but Refused Money Offer • In 1902, Congress decided that the canal was going to be in Panama. • At this time, Panama was a part of Colombia. When the United States offered Colombia $10 Million and a yearly payment of $250 thousand for a 6 mile wide zone across Panama, the Colombian Senate rejected the offer. Panama Rebellion • Furious Panamanians, feeling that the building of the canal in Panama would bring prosperity, feared that the U.S. would switch to building the canal in Nicaragua. • Bunau-Varilla, in fear of losing his company’s $40 million, helped spark a rebellion on November 3, 1903. • U.S. Naval forces prevented Colombian troops from crossing the isthmus to stop the rebellion. Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty • In 1903,Bunau-Varilla, who had been promoted to the Panamanian minister, signed the Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty in Washington. • The treaty kept the price of the canal at $10 million, but the 6 mile zone of the canal was extended to 10 miles. Canal Construction • The construction of the Panama canal finally began in 1904, but problems suddenly broke out. • The two main problems in the construction of the canal was landslides and tropical diseases. • Colonel William C. Gorgas, notorious for exterminating yellow fever in Havana, made the canal zone “as safe as a health resort” by installing $90 thousand into getting rid of all yellow fever in the area. Colonel William C. Gorgas Finishing the Canal • In 1914, the Panama Canal was finally finished. Colonel George Washington Goethals, a West Point engineer, finished the Canal just as World War 1 was starting. • The price to build the entire canal was about $639 million. Debt in Latin America • Debt in a few of the Latin Venezuela America countries led Roosevelt into getting involved in the affairs. • Venezuela and the Dominican Republic were the 2 main countries that were behind on their payments to European creditors. • In 1903, Germany bombed a town in Venezuela in anger at the unpaid dues. Dominican Republic European Powers Needed To Leave • Roosevelt didn’t want the European bill collectors to stay in Latin America. • If they did stay in Latin America, major world powers would be close to the U.S. Also, it would be a violation of the Monroe Doctrine. • Roosevelt came up with a policy to get the cross ocean enemies out of Latin America. Monroe Doctrine Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine • Roosevelt’s policy was known as “preventive intervention,” or the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. • This doctrine stated that if the Latin American countries failed to repay any of the European nations, the U.S. would intervene, take over customhouses, pay off the debts, and keep the troublesome Europeans on their side of the Atlantic. Start of the “Bad Neighbor” Policy • Roosevelt’s doctrine came into effect in 1905 when the U.S. took over the management of tariff collections in the Dominican Republic. • This made the United States act like the “policeman of the Caribbean.” • Also, the doctrine promoted the “bad neighbor” policy at this time by strangling the Latin American countries. Other Foreign Affairs • Another major foreign affair broke out in Europe in 1904. There was war between Russia and Japan over the ice-free ports of Manchuria, China that Russia wanted to take over. • Japan felt that if a Communist country was able to take control of the major port of Port Arthur, they were doomed. Japanese Ask For Help • Later on in 1904, the Japanese planned a sneak attack on the Russian fleets at Port Arthur. • At first, the Russians were caught off guard and humiliated, but soon the Japanese ran out of men and yen. • To respond to their weakness, Tokyo officials secretly asked Roosevelt to help come up with fair peace negotiations. The Treaty of Portsmouth • Roosevelt agreed to the plea, but wanted to keep Russia strong enough to counterweigh Japan’s growing power. • In 1905, the two country’s leaders met in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and Roosevelt made a treaty between the two countries known as the Treaty of Portsmouth. • Roosevelt’s settlement forced Japan to drop its demands for a cash guarantee. He did give Japan Korea and Southern Manchuria. • Russia was forced to evacuate Sakhalin Island. Results from the Portsmouth Treaty • Japan became resentful to the United States because they believed that they had won the battle. This resentment led to a rival Rivals between the two countries. • Russia believed that Roosevelt had robbed them of military victory. The Nobel Peace Prize • In 1906, Roosevelt helped arrange an International Conference at Algeciras, Spain to mediate North African disputes. • With the combination of this arrangement and the peace settlements made between Japan and Russia, Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906. Square Deal • Roosevelt’s main drive was to balance economic interests. He believed that he should represent farmers, laborers, and workers such as businessmen. • This program was known as the “Square Deal” and it was enacted for capital, labor, and the public at large. • The program embraced 3 C’s: Control of the corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. Northern Securities Company • In 1902, Roosevelt ordered an antitrust suit on the Northern Securities Company. The company was a railroad holding company organized by J.P. Morgan and James J. Hill. • The two were planning to create a monopoly of all railroads in the Northwest. • In 1904, the Supreme Court sided with the president and ordered the Northern Securities Company to be dissolved. Trusts • In 1905, the Supreme Court made beef trust illegal, and the monopolies controlling sugar, fertilizer, harvesters, and other products were dissolved. • Roosevelt brought down major trusts to prove that the government, not private business, ruled the country. • Also, he believed in good and bad trusts. He wanted to regulate the major businesses instead of fragment them. Newlands Reclamation Act • The Newlands Reclamation Act was signed on June 17, 1902. This act gave Washington the authority to collect money from the sale of public lands in the western states and then use this money for the development of irrigation projects. • The accomplishments of the Reclamation Act: 1. More than 125 million acres were added to national forests. 2. The number of National Parks doubled. 3. 16 National monuments created. 4. 51 wildlife refuges were established. 5. Roosevelt Dam was constructed on Arizona’s Salt River in 1911. Anthracite Coal Strike • In 1902, the Square Deal was tested by a strike that broke out in the Anthracite coal mines of Pennsylvania. • 140 thousand workers, many of them immigrants, demanded a 20 percent increase in pay and a reduction of the working day from 10 hours to 9. • These demands were not fulfilled, and the state was feeling it. Factories and schools were shut down due to the lack of coal in the wintery months. Results of the Strike • Roosevelt summoned representatives of the striking miners and the mine owners to the White House. • He threatened to seize the mines and to operate them with federal troops. This marked the first time that the president threatened to use federal bayonets against capital, rather than labor. • The mine owners agreed to the proposition, and the miners got a 10 percent pay increase and the work day was changed to 9 hours. New Department of Commerce and Labor • Roosevelt, aware of the rivalry between capital and labor, urged Congress to create the New Department of Commerce and Labor. • In 1903, this goal was achieved. 10 years later, the agency was split in two. One major arm of this department was the Bureau of Corporations. This was authorized 1913 to probe business engaged in interstate commerce. • The newly formed Bureau was able to break monopolies and cleared the road for “trust busting.” Railroad Strength • At this time, the railroad business was unstoppable by the Interstate Commerce Commission created in 1887. Congress started to change this with the signing of the Elkins Act of 1903. • The Elkins Act was aimed at the rebates of the railroad industry. Rebates were when the railroads returned part of their payment to favored customers. • When the Elkins Act was passed, heavy fines could be imposed on both the railroads that gave rebates and the shippers that accepted them. Election of 1904 • In the election of 1904, Roosevelt faced off against the Democrat Alton B. Parker. Parker supported the gold standard and wanted to get away from the silver issue. • Roosevelt won with 336 electoral votes to 140 and 7,623,486 to 5,077,911 in the popular vote. Beginning the Second Term • Near the beginning of his second term, Roosevelt forced conservative Republicans into line by threatening to lower the tariff on imports. This action won conservative support for later reforms in 1906. • Also in his second term, Roosevelt turned away from Imperialism and concentrated more on protecting the Philippines, supporting a balance of power in the East, and building up a friendship with the Japanese. Conservation • Roosevelt, with his chief forester Gifford Pinchot, pushed for conservation. Roosevelt believed that natural resources belonged to all people, scientific forestry would provide a constant supply of timber, and River Valleys should be developed as entire units. • Their beliefs were strongly opposed by small lumber companies, electric power corporations, and states’ righter's. National Monuments Act • Many new Acts were signed in 1906. The first of many was the Antiquities or National Monuments Act signed on June 8. • This act enabled Roosevelt to establish the first 18 National Monuments. • Some of these monuments include Devils Tower, Grand Canyon, and Mount Olympus. Forest Homestead Act • The Forest Homestead Act occurred in 1906. This act opened agricultural lands in forest reserves to settlement. Hepburn Act of 1906 • Even more successful than the Elkins Act when looking at the railroad industry, the Hepburn Act of 1906 restricted free passes that resembled bribery. • Also, the Interstate Commerce Commission was expanded to include express companies, sleeping-car companies, and pipelines. • The Interstate Commerce Commission was given the power to regulate the railroad rates for the first time. Tainted Meat • In 1906, large meatpackers were shut out of certain European markets because some American meat was tainted. Foreign governments threatened to ban all U.S. meat. • Also in 1906, Upton Sinclair wrote a novel known as The Jungle. He was trying to draw attention to the workers in the big canning factories, but the public responded to it’s description of unsanitary Chicago slaughterhouses. Investigation • In response, Roosevelt hired a special investigating commission to look into the validity of Sinclair’s book. • The commission found out that piles of poisoned rates, rope ends, splinters, and other debris were canned as potted ham. Meat Inspection Act • Roosevelt urged Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act of 1906. This act said that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection. Food and Drug Act • Another monumental Act of the time was the Food and Drug Act passed on June 30, 1906. • This act: 1. Created the Food and Drug Administration, which tested foods and drugs intended for humans. 2. A requirement of a prescription from a licensed physician before a patient could buy certain drugs. 3. Label warnings on certain habit- forming drugs • This act was supported by the Department of Agriculture’s chief chemist Harvey W. Wiley. Final Years as President • In Roosevelt’s final two years as president, Congress hated his leadership and progressive policies. They refused to do what he wanted. • On January 31, 1908, Roosevelt sent Congress a message calling for better conditions for workers and for the arrest of businessmen who broke the law. Progressive Era • Muckraking Journalists such as Ida Tarbell wrote of the corruptions in the country. Some of these included child labor, corruption in city governments, horrors of lynching, and the corrupt business practices. • The Progressives wanted economic, political, social, and moral reforms. They wanted to eliminate corruption in the government, regulate business practices, address health hazards, improve working conditions, and give the public more direct control over the government. Election of 1908 • Roosevelt announced in his second term that he would not be a candidate for a third term. • Instead, he decided to support one of his friend and Secretary of War William Howard Taft. • Taft won the 1908 election, and Roosevelt left for Africa in 1909 to hunt big game and to collect specimens for the Smithsonian Institution. New Nationalism • While Roosevelt was in Africa, progressivism was being held back by William H. Taft. This put Taft on the side with the Republican conservatives who opposed Roosevelt’s policies. • In 1910, Roosevelt returned to the United States and tried not to hurt his friend about his policies. Unable to keep silent, Roosevelt made speeches in the Midwest about his own views, which he called New Nationalism. Running for President • This New Nationalism extended his views that he had in the last years of his presidency. It called for graduated income and inheritance taxes and other social and political reforms. • In 1912, he fulfilled the pleas of the progressive Midwestern Republicans and challenged Taft for the presidency. • The Republican Convention did not nominate Roosevelt even though he had a two-to-one victory over him in the primary elections. The Bull Moose Party • After being denied the Republican nomination, Roosevelt organized the Progressive Party, or the Bull Moose Party. The party was supported by most social workers, intellectuals, and progressive-minded citizens. • The movement stirred the conscience of middle-class America. Election of 1912 • The three major candidates in the Election of 1912 were the Democrat Woodrow Wilson, the Republican William H. Taft, and the Bull Moose Theodore Roosevelt. • While campaigning, Roosevelt was shot by John Schrane. He did not see a doctor until after his hour and a half long speech. He was not seriously injured. • Woodrow Wilson won with about 42 percent of the popular vote. Roosevelt finished well ahead of Taft. • In 1916, Wilson showed support for Roosevelt when he wrote a great deal of Roosevelt’s New Nationalism into law. Life After the Presidency • After losing the election, Roosevelt wrote his autobiography in 1912. • In 1913, he went to explore a South American river known as the River of Doubt. • He almost died of an injury that he received when trying to save two capsized boats. He also received malaria while in South America. The Loss of a Former President • He continued to stay active in politics up until 1919. He published editorials and wrote manuscripts. • On January 6, 1919, Theodore Roosevelt passed away in his sleep at Sagamore Hill. • He was buried at Young’s Cemetery in Sagamore Hill, Long Island. Interesting Facts • 1st president to: – leave the United States while in office(Panama). – ride in an automobile and airplane. – have a telephone in his home. • 1st U.S. citizen to win the Nobel Peace Prize. Interesting Facts (Cont.) • Today, he is on Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. The Teddy Bear • Theodore Roosevelt inspired the creation of plush toys when he was hunting in Mississippi in 1902. After an unsuccessful day of hunting, the group brought back a small bear cub for the president to shoot. He refused because the bear didn’t have a chance to defend itself. In honor of that day, the world has adopted the word “teddy bear.” • www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/img/tr.jpg Sources • http://www.spanamwar.com/tr.htm • http://www.theodoreroosevelt.com/trbioqf.html • http://www.theodoreroosevelt.org/life/biofampic2.htm • http://www.trthegreatnewyorker.com/Familyman/his_childhood_years.htm • http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9017881/buckboard • http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/canal/canal-history.htm • http://gardenofpraise.com/ibdtheod.htm • http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/spanam/gillet3/pic65.jpg • http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/images/en/exploitation_shambala-mongolia_map.gif • http://www.dartmouth.edu/~vox/0506/0822/images/harpers.jpg • www.cosmicbuddha.com/.../rjwar-jiujitsu.jpg • www.tparents.org/.../Cta/Korea-J/bury.jpg • http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/01746/Japan%20flag.gif • gaap.georgetown.edu/us-flag-stars-top-r2.jpg • www.portsmouthpeacetreaty.com/ • www.nndb.com/people/420/000031327/ • www.nysl.nysed.gov/mssc/tr/sld005.htm • www.hudsonlibrary.org/.../political-pins.htm • kohm.org/blog/?p=3596 • http://www.answers.com/topic/presidency-of-theodore-roosevelt • http://www.transitionsabroad.com/listings/work/volunteer/volunteerprogramslatinamerica.shtml • http://www.contourstravel.com.au/centralamerica/index.html • www.historicaldocuments.com/MonroeDoctrine.htm • www.iri.org/lac/venezuela.asp • http://www.instrumentsofmercy.org/project-dominicanrep.htm • http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=a2025690-h • http://www.theodoreroosevelt.org/life/Rough_Riders.htm • http://www.theodoreroosevelt.net/ • http://www.gutenberg.org/files/22352/22352-h/22352-h.htm • http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/trhtml/tr1.html • http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/hh/thro/throi.htm • http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/splendid.html • http://www.theodoreroosevelt.org/life/medalofhonor.htm • www.theodore-roosevelt.com/trpy.html • www.bartleby.com/51/10.html • http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1998/spring/roosevelt-and-medal-of-honor-2.html • http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h832.html • www.presidentelect.org/images/e1904_ecmap.GIF • http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h917.html • http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/mmh/1912/trusts/NorthernSecurities.cfm • http://encarta.msn.com/media_461551308/Theodore_Roosevelt_Dam.html • http://www.vw.vccs.edu/vwhansd/his122/Teddy/TR_Lion.html • http://www.depweb.state.pa.us/heritage/cwp/view.asp?a=3&Q=444216 • http://www.dochemp.com/grandcanyon.html • http://lexicon.ci.anchorage.ak.us/guides/teens/reviews/index.html • http://www.asmalldoseof.org/historyoftox/1900-1930s/divchemstaff.jpg • http://kids.americancorners.or.kr/ENG/05_history/history_0819.asp?pageid=8&subpage=19 • http://www.nps.gov/archive/thri/EdRTRBio.htm • http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/progressivism/index.cfm • http://www.fda.gov/oc/history/makinghistory/sugar.html • http://www.aliciapatterson.org/APF1804/Weinberg/Weinberg.html • http://oredazac.tripod.com/photos.html • http://www.old-picture.com/american-history-1900-1930s/CARPATHIA-TITANIC-boats-life.htm • http://www.wingitproductions.org/electionpress.html • http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/fi/00000116.htm • http://www.gutenberg.org/files/21261/21261-h/21261-h.htm • http://www.nps.gov/history/logcabin/html/tr6.html • http://www.bearhollow.net/teddy_roosevelt.htm • http://www.mindfully.org/Water/2003/Nicaragua-Canal23oct03.htm • http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Panama.htm • http://www.publiclands.org/museum/story/story10.htm • http://www.priestlake.org/history.html • http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/imperialism/southamerica.cfm • http://www.dol.gov/oasam/doljobs/MBA_Outreach_Program/mba_outreach_page1.htm • http://pnt.gov/membership/doc-large.jpg
"Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt Republican 26th President"