VIEWS: 23 PAGES: 45 POSTED ON: 2/17/2011
BAC Factors BAC & factors Types of drinks Different weights Male VS Female 5 reasons people choose to drink • Peer pressure • Parents or siblings drink • Have a good time • Relieve stress/anxiety • Our culture accepts & encourages it At what age is Drinking & Driving Legal??? NEVER! • Legal limit VA over 21 = .08 • Teens = .02 (zero tolerance) • Most DUI’s are right at the legal limit, not drunk • Social drinkers Blood Alcohol Concentration Factors BAC is the mathematical ratio of the percentage of alcohol in the blood stream. Factors affecting BAC Liquor • Weight (blood volume) • Time Spent Drinking • Gender Wine • Food • Alcohol Content and Size of Drink Beer 100 proof = 50% alcohol Proof = Half .042 % - 12 oz. Beer = .50 oz .045 % - 16 oz. Beer = .72 oz Are all alcoholic .035 % - 12 oz. Lt Beer = .42 oz drinks the 80 proof – 1 oz. Whiskey = .40 oz. same? 80 proof – 1.5 oz. Whiskey = .60 oz. NO, but .12 % - 5 oz. Wine = .60 oz. similar .077 % - 12 oz Malt Liquor = .92 oz. .051 % - 12 oz. Wine Cooler = .61 oz. Are They The Same ? • Beer • Whiskey • Wine Liquor • Cooler • Margarita Myth A “DRINK” is: Wine •a 12-ounce beer, Fact •a 4- to 6-ounce glass A “DRINK” is ½ an of wine, or ounce of alcohol. Beer •a shot of liquor. T – 7.7 What two factors are responsible for the differences in alcohol content? • The size of the drink • Percentage of alcohol in the drink 200 LBS vs. 150 LBS Men & Women • 22oz-200 lb Male • 18oz-200 lb Female • 17oz-150 lb Male • 13oz- 150 lb Female BAC Factors Weight **Heavier people have more blood and other body fluids to dilute alcohol consumed. **Their BAC level will be lower 0.08 0.04 than the BAC of a smaller 110 lbs person who drank the same 220 lbs volume of alcohol. Gender Women process alcohol at a slower rate than men. This is because they usually weigh less and produce less of the enzyme dehydrogenase needed by the liver to break down alcohol. *Men also have a higher percentage of body fluids which dilutes the alcohol. •Food in your stomach does very little to Food reduce the effect alcohol has on the brain and liver. •However, food coats the lining of the stomach and slows (some) absorption into the blood stream. Note: When alcohol is mixed with carbonated beverages the absorption rate is faster because gases are absorbed faster than liquids. Time Spent Drinking On average, a person’s BAC is oxidized at a rate of 0.015 per hour 90% of the alcohol detoxified is oxidized (burned up) by the liver 10% is eliminated in breath, urine, and sweat NOTE: Alcohol is toxic to the liver and brain. Hence, the term intoxication denotes the toxic effect alcohol has on these organs. Elimination Rate Myth The average person can tolerate one drink per hour without substantial impairment. Facts •Sobriety returns ONLY with time. •Alcohol is eliminated at approximately .015 BAC per hour. Titanic Principle If you take in more than your system can pump out, sooner or later you’ll sink! Elimination of Alcohol ELIMINATION PROCESS } Breath Urine Sweat 10% LIVER 90% An adult male with normal liver function eliminates about 0.015 BAC per hour. Therefore: BAC of 0.05 = 3.5 hours for removal BAC of 0.07 = 5.0 hours for removal BAC of 0.10 = 7.0 hours for removal BAC of 0.15 = 10.0 hours for removal Elimination Rate BAC Stops Drinking at 12:30am 0.2 .16 = BAC Peak at 1 am Still legally INTOXICATED (.08) at 6 am 0.15 0.1 0.05 Still IMPAIRED (.05) at 9:30AM 0 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 HRS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 ABSORPTION ELIMINATION Tolerance • Consume more of a drug to reach a given effect. Or body to eliminate the drug faster. – Many drinkers develop an ability to mask the effects alcohol has on their brain and body. – This ability, however, has NO affect on their intoxication level. Mood & Alcohol One of two things: • Existing mood intensifies (upset to angry) • Completely alters mood (happy to mad) Alcohol affects the heart: • Reduces contractibility • Increased blood pressure • Congestive heart failure Alcohol affects the stomach • Irritates the lining of the stomach • Increases acidity • Causes ulcers Alcohol affects the Brain: • Kills brain cells • Causes memory loss Attention • Reduced ability to comprehend several sources of info at the same time (multi- task) • Significant for driving, especially at night Memory • Reduced ability to store and retain info with BAC’s as low as .03. • Excessive use causes Blackouts Emotions • Emotional control is diminished • Honesty • Crying • Loving (I love you, man!) Aggression • Aggressive behavior is enhanced. Especially when combined with competition • Deadly when combined with road rage. • I bet you cant… Alcohol & Other Drugs • Synergistic effect • Chemical reaction that produces much greater effect than one drug alone. • Can even cause death BAC Levels Affect the Brain .01 - .05 .20 - .35 Reduces Inhibitions Physical Abilities Become Impairs Judgment Severely Impaired Gives a False Sense of Confidence Mental Confusion Weakens Willpower Unconsciousness, Blackouts or Stupor are .05 - .10 Common Slows Reaction Time .35 - higher Reduces Coordination and Balance Subnormal Temperature Affects All Driving Skills Little or No Reflexes .10 - .20 Breathing May Stop Slurred Speech DEATH Blurred Vision •NOTE: “Chugging” large Impaired Judgment, Memory and Self- amounts of alcohol in a short Control period of time can result in respiratory paralysis and death. How does alcohol affect vision? • Eye Focus – Delayed ability to change focus close to far, the faster the worse. • Double Vision – impairs ability of eyes to work together. Closing eye would help, but no peripheral vision. • Distance – Can’t do it accurately. • Side Vision – As alcohol increases, side vision decreases. • Night Vision – Eyes dilate. Can’t control amount of light entering the eyes—intensifies glare. BAC’s BAC form .015-.049 produce risk taking .03 diminish multi- tasking 16-19 .015 is 2.5 times more likely to be killed 16-19 .08 40 times more likely to be killed Drugs and Driving Perception Judgment Coordination Vision Mood Marijuana and Driving Marijuana The active ingredient THC (delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol) impairs memory and learning perception (sight, sound, time, touch) problem-solving ability motor coordination tracking ability concentration Other Types of Drugs and Driving Over the Counter Medications That Affect Driving Ability •Antihistamines •Cold Medications Prescription Medications • Tranquilizers • Stimulants • Narcotics • Blood Pressure • Insulin DUI for: Alcohol Illegal drugs Prescription medication OTC medications DUI • Criminal offense (Jail), not traffic At arrest you will: • Lose license for one week (7 days) • Spend the night in jail • Post bail Definition of Fatigue Fatigue: The Body’s “Downtime” Follows a Period of: • Extended mental activity • Extended physical activity Characterized by: • Reduced capacity for work • Reduced efficiency of brain function Examples of Fatigue • Not enough sleep— several days. • Burnt out • SAT/ACT test • AP tests. Circadian Rhythm • Body’s natural ―down time‖ • 1-5 PM • Normal bedtime—Night time Delaying Fatigue Onset Avoid Long Drives Avoid Leaning Forward or Backward Keep Your Eyes Moving Get Plenty of Fresh Air Three Types of Aggressive Drivers Quiet Road-Rage: Verbal Road-Rage: Epic Road-Rage: • complaining • yelling • cutting off • rushing • cussing • blocking • competing • staring • chasing • resisting • honking • fighting • insulting • shooting AAAAAGHH!!! YOU’RE TOO SLOW~ What’s the hold up!!! MOVE!!! Come on, HURRY UP LET’S GO!!! Aggressive Driving/Road Rage Most Crashes are NOT Accidents •They are often the result of drivers who •speed; •tailgate; •run red lights; •weave in and out of traffic; or •vent frustrations or emotions in the vehicle. Signs of an Aggressive Driver • Tailgating to pressure a driver to go faster or get out of the way • Flashing lights to signal the driver to move out of the way • Weaving in and out of traffic • Cutting people off • Racing to beat a yellow light Signs of an Aggressive Driver • Behaving impatiently with slower drivers • Honking the horn or screaming • Speeding • Not coming to a complete stop at stop signs • Making gestures • Passing on shoulder or unpaved areas Factors Leading to Aggressive Driving/Road Rage •More Traffic Congestion •More Cars •More Frustration •More Stress •More Hostility •More Violence Factors Leading to Aggressive Driving/Road Rage Did you know? In the past 30 years in the US: • population has increased 30% • number of licensed vehicles has increased 87% • vehicle miles traveled increased 130% • highway capacity has only increased 5% Preventing Road Rage • Don’t Respond -- Stay COOL. Don’t react to other drivers’ aggressive actions. • Don’t Engage -- Stay away from vehicles driving recklessly. • Don’t Up the Ante -- Don’t take traffic problems personally. • Swallow Your Pride -- Take a courteous and helpful attitude toward other drivers. • Choose the Road “LESS Traveled” -- Avoid aggressive drivers by traveling less congested roadways. Useful Attitudes DRIVING IS A COOPERATIVE VENTURE: NOT A COMPETITIVE SPORT! Preventing Road Rage How will you respond?
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