BAC Factors by liwenting

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									BAC Factors
 BAC & factors
Types of drinks
Different weights
Male VS Female
    5 reasons people choose to drink
•   Peer pressure
•   Parents or siblings drink
•   Have a good time
•   Relieve stress/anxiety
•   Our culture accepts
    & encourages it
 At what age is Drinking & Driving
            Legal???
NEVER!


• Legal limit VA over 21 = .08
• Teens = .02 (zero tolerance)
• Most DUI’s are right at the legal limit, not
  drunk
• Social drinkers
         Blood Alcohol Concentration Factors
          BAC is the mathematical ratio of the percentage of
          alcohol in the blood stream.

          Factors affecting BAC
Liquor
          • Weight (blood volume)

          • Time Spent Drinking

          • Gender
Wine
          • Food

          • Alcohol Content and
            Size of Drink
Beer
100 proof = 50% alcohol
Proof = Half

.042 % - 12 oz. Beer = .50 oz
.045 % - 16 oz. Beer = .72 oz           Are all
                                        alcoholic
.035 % - 12 oz. Lt Beer = .42 oz        drinks the
80 proof – 1 oz. Whiskey = .40 oz.      same?

80 proof – 1.5 oz. Whiskey = .60 oz.
                                        NO, but
.12 % - 5 oz. Wine = .60 oz.            similar
.077 % - 12 oz Malt Liquor = .92 oz.
.051 % - 12 oz. Wine Cooler = .61 oz.
                  Are They The Same ?
         • Beer
         • Whiskey
         • Wine
Liquor
         • Cooler
         • Margarita
         Myth
         A “DRINK” is:
Wine
         •a 12-ounce beer,
                                  Fact
         •a 4- to 6-ounce glass   A “DRINK” is ½ an
         of wine, or              ounce of alcohol.
Beer     •a shot of liquor.
                                                T – 7.7
  What two factors are responsible
   for the differences in alcohol
               content?




• The size of the drink

• Percentage of alcohol in the drink
    200 LBS vs. 150 LBS Men &
             Women
• 22oz-200 lb Male

• 18oz-200 lb Female

• 17oz-150 lb Male

• 13oz- 150 lb Female
                BAC Factors
  Weight                **Heavier people have more blood
                        and other body fluids to dilute
                        alcohol consumed.
                        **Their BAC level will be lower
             0.08
0.04                    than the BAC of a smaller
             110 lbs    person who drank the same
   220 lbs              volume of alcohol.

  Gender            Women process alcohol at a
                    slower rate than men. This is
                    because they usually weigh less
                    and produce less of the enzyme
                    dehydrogenase needed by the liver
                    to break down alcohol.
                *Men also have a higher percentage of body
                fluids which dilutes the alcohol.
                   •Food in your stomach does very little to
Food               reduce the effect alcohol has on the brain
                   and liver.
                  •However, food coats the lining of the stomach and
                  slows (some) absorption into the blood stream.
                 Note: When alcohol is mixed with carbonated beverages the
                 absorption rate is faster because gases are absorbed faster
                 than liquids.

                   Time Spent Drinking
                   On average, a person’s BAC is oxidized at a
                   rate of 0.015 per hour
                    90% of the alcohol detoxified
                    is oxidized (burned up) by the
                    liver
                    10% is eliminated in breath,
                    urine, and sweat
NOTE: Alcohol is toxic to the liver and brain. Hence, the term intoxication
denotes the toxic effect alcohol has on these organs.
    Elimination Rate

                    Myth
The average person can tolerate one drink per
hour without substantial impairment.

                    Facts
•Sobriety returns ONLY with time.
•Alcohol is eliminated at approximately .015 BAC
per hour.

              Titanic Principle
If you take in more than your system can pump
out, sooner or later you’ll sink!
               Elimination of Alcohol
                ELIMINATION PROCESS



          }
     Breath
     Urine
     Sweat
                10%                  LIVER 90%

An adult male with normal liver function eliminates
               about 0.015 BAC per hour.
              Therefore: BAC of 0.05 = 3.5 hours for removal
                         BAC of 0.07 = 5.0 hours for removal
                         BAC of 0.10 = 7.0 hours for removal
                         BAC of 0.15 = 10.0 hours for removal
                    Elimination Rate

BAC                 Stops Drinking at 12:30am
0.2
       .16 = BAC Peak at 1 am                Still legally INTOXICATED
                                             (.08) at 6 am
0.15


 0.1


0.05
                            Still IMPAIRED (.05) at
                                    9:30AM
  0
       9 10 11 12 1         2   3   4   5     6   7   8   9 10 11 12 1
HRS    1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9    10 11 12 13 14 15 16

           ABSORPTION                       ELIMINATION
                Tolerance

• Consume more of a drug to reach a given
  effect. Or body to eliminate the drug
  faster.
  – Many drinkers develop an ability to mask the
    effects alcohol has on their brain and body.


  – This ability, however, has NO affect on their
    intoxication level.
             Mood & Alcohol




One of two things:
• Existing mood intensifies (upset to angry)

• Completely alters mood (happy to mad)
Alcohol affects the heart:
             • Reduces
               contractibility
             • Increased blood
               pressure
             • Congestive heart
               failure
      Alcohol affects the stomach




• Irritates the lining of the stomach
• Increases acidity
• Causes ulcers
Alcohol affects the Brain:
             • Kills brain cells

             • Causes memory loss
                 Attention
• Reduced ability to comprehend several
  sources of info at the same time (multi-
  task)
• Significant for driving, especially at night
Memory
   • Reduced ability to
     store and retain info
     with BAC’s as low as
     .03.
   • Excessive use causes
     Blackouts
                 Emotions



•   Emotional control is diminished
•   Honesty
•   Crying
•   Loving (I love you, man!)
Aggression
     • Aggressive behavior
       is enhanced.
       Especially when
       combined with
       competition
     • Deadly when
       combined with road
       rage.

     • I bet you cant…
 Alcohol & Other Drugs



• Synergistic effect
• Chemical reaction that produces much greater
  effect than one drug alone.
• Can even cause death
                 BAC Levels Affect the Brain
.01 - .05
                                           .20 - .35
     Reduces Inhibitions
                                                Physical Abilities Become
     Impairs Judgment                           Severely Impaired
     Gives a False Sense of Confidence          Mental Confusion
     Weakens Willpower                          Unconsciousness,
                                                Blackouts or Stupor are
.05 - .10
                                                Common
     Slows Reaction Time
                                           .35 - higher
     Reduces Coordination and Balance
                                                Subnormal Temperature
     Affects All Driving Skills
                                                Little or No Reflexes
.10 - .20
                                                Breathing May Stop
     Slurred Speech
                                                DEATH
     Blurred Vision
                                           •NOTE: “Chugging” large
     Impaired Judgment, Memory and Self-   amounts of alcohol in a short
     Control                               period of time can result in
                                           respiratory paralysis and death.
How does alcohol affect vision?
• Eye Focus – Delayed ability to change focus
  close to far, the faster the worse.
• Double Vision – impairs ability of eyes to work
  together. Closing eye would help, but no
  peripheral vision.
• Distance – Can’t do it accurately.
• Side Vision – As alcohol increases, side vision
  decreases.
• Night Vision – Eyes dilate. Can’t control amount
  of light entering the eyes—intensifies glare.
BAC’s
   BAC form .015-.049
    produce risk taking
   .03 diminish multi-
    tasking
   16-19 .015 is 2.5
    times more likely to
    be killed
   16-19 .08 40 times
    more likely to be killed
           Drugs and Driving


 Perception

 Judgment

 Coordination

 Vision

 Mood
Marijuana and Driving
                 Marijuana

The active ingredient THC (delta-9-
tetrahydrocannabinol) impairs
   memory and learning
   perception (sight, sound, time,
     touch)
   problem-solving ability
   motor coordination
   tracking ability
   concentration
 Other Types of Drugs and Driving

Over the Counter Medications That Affect
 Driving Ability
    •Antihistamines
   •Cold Medications


           Prescription Medications
            •   Tranquilizers
            •   Stimulants
            •   Narcotics
            •   Blood Pressure
            •   Insulin
DUI for:
     Alcohol

     Illegal drugs

     Prescription
      medication

     OTC medications
DUI
 • Criminal offense
   (Jail), not traffic
 At arrest you will:
 • Lose license for
   one week (7 days)
 • Spend the night in
   jail
 • Post bail
              Definition of Fatigue


Fatigue:
  The Body’s “Downtime”
  Follows a Period of:
    • Extended mental activity

    • Extended physical activity
  Characterized by:
    • Reduced capacity for work

    • Reduced efficiency of brain
    function
Examples of Fatigue

          • Not enough sleep—
            several days.
          • Burnt out
          • SAT/ACT test
          • AP tests.
           Circadian Rhythm




• Body’s natural ―down time‖

• 1-5 PM
• Normal bedtime—Night time
       Delaying Fatigue Onset




 Avoid Long Drives

 Avoid Leaning Forward or Backward
 Keep Your Eyes Moving
 Get Plenty of Fresh Air
           Three Types of Aggressive Drivers

Quiet Road-Rage:       Verbal Road-Rage:       Epic Road-Rage:
•   complaining          • yelling              • cutting off
•   rushing              • cussing              • blocking
•   competing            • staring              • chasing
•   resisting            • honking              • fighting
                         • insulting            • shooting
      AAAAAGHH!!!
    YOU’RE TOO SLOW~   What’s the hold up!!!
        MOVE!!!          Come on, HURRY UP
                           LET’S GO!!!
  Aggressive Driving/Road Rage

Most Crashes are NOT Accidents
 •They are often the result of drivers who
    •speed;
    •tailgate;
    •run red lights;
    •weave in and out of traffic; or
    •vent frustrations or emotions in the
    vehicle.
        Signs of an Aggressive Driver


• Tailgating to pressure a driver to go faster or get out

  of the way

• Flashing lights to signal the driver to move out of the

  way

• Weaving in and out of traffic

• Cutting people off

• Racing to beat a yellow light
      Signs of an Aggressive Driver
• Behaving impatiently with
  slower drivers

• Honking the horn or screaming

• Speeding

• Not coming to a complete stop
  at stop signs

• Making gestures

• Passing on shoulder or unpaved
  areas
Factors Leading to Aggressive Driving/Road
                   Rage

        •More Traffic Congestion
        •More Cars
        •More Frustration
        •More Stress
        •More Hostility
        •More Violence
Factors Leading to Aggressive Driving/Road
                   Rage

Did you know?
In the past 30 years in the US:
   • population has increased 30%
   • number of licensed vehicles has
   increased 87%
   • vehicle miles traveled increased 130%
   • highway capacity has only increased
   5%
                Preventing Road Rage

• Don’t Respond -- Stay COOL. Don’t react to other
  drivers’ aggressive actions.

• Don’t Engage -- Stay away from vehicles driving
  recklessly.

• Don’t Up the Ante -- Don’t take traffic problems
  personally.

• Swallow Your Pride -- Take a courteous and helpful
  attitude toward other drivers.

• Choose the Road “LESS Traveled” -- Avoid
  aggressive drivers by traveling less congested roadways.
       Useful Attitudes



DRIVING IS A COOPERATIVE
     VENTURE: NOT A
   COMPETITIVE SPORT!
   Preventing Road Rage


How will you respond?

								
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