Questions for discussion Food poisoning EPISODE 21 11TH AUGUST 2009 Mary MacKillop Wind farms Digital radio Forgotten goats Focus Questions EPISODE 21 11TH AUGUST 2009 Learning Area Science Key learning Students will explore the significance of wind power as an energy source. Is wind power essential to our future? Reflection Further investigation Related Research Links Focus Questions EPISODE 21 11TH AUGUST 2009 Learning Area Society and Environment Key learning Students will gain Digital radio an understanding of radio - the past, present and future. Reflection Related Research Links BtN: Episode 21 Transcripts 11/08/09 On this week's Behind the News: What makes a saint a saint? Why some people are wound up about wind farms And are goats the forgotten heroes of history? Hi I'm Nathan Bazley welcome to another week of Behind the News. Also on the show today – how going digital brought rival radio stars together. But first let’s get to our top story. Food Poisoning Reporter: Sarah Larsen INTRO: Can a piece of chicken ruin someone's life? Well that's what the family of an 11-year old girl are saying. They say she got food poisoning in 2005, leaving her in a wheelchair and with serious intellectual disabilities. They're blaming KFC and they're taking the fast food company to court, but the company says its food wasn't to blame. But that got Sarah wondering - what exactly is food poisoning? SARAH LARSEN, REPORTER: Sitting around at the table eating dinner, you'd think you were pretty safe right. Wrong! In a few hours, or even a few days, these guys could be in a bad way. Think - stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, or worse. They could end up in hospital. REPORTER: Food poisoning! It can turn a meal like this into your worst nightmare! And all because of something really really small hiding in your food. Most food poisoning is caused by these; bacteria. They're tiny, simple little creatures that eat just about anything and multiply by the millions. You'd never know it, but bacteria are all around us; in the air, on our skin, in our hair and even in our mouths. REPORTER: I know that sounds totally gross but it's ok, most bacteria won't hurt you. In fact, some are helpful. But there are a few that can make you really sick if too many get into your system, and unfortunately they like the same sorts of food we do. You might have heard of a few of them, like salmonella, E. coli and listeria. They can make people sick for a few days or a week but occasionally it can be much more serious. Kelly Owen was just a kid when she ate a piece of mettwurst infected with E. coli. It caused an infection in her kidneys. She had to have a transplant and she'll be taking medicine for the rest of her life. KELLY OWEN: I have the first three meds which are my anti rejection medications, I take four of these a day, 12 of these a day. This scar is from my initial fistula. Serious cases of food poisoning can be fatal. Fighting off the bacteria can put huge pressure on your internal organs and in rare cases they can shut down. Now I'm probably putting you off your lunch right about now but don't panic! There are things you can do to avoid food poisoning. Lots of nasty bacteria love raw meat so it's important to keep it away from other food. That means using separate knives and chopping boards for the meat and the veggies, and keeping them separate in the fridge. A lot of bacteria are pretty fussy about temperature -they like things not too hot and not too cold so keeping things in the fridge and cooking them thoroughly can protect you. Keep the kitchen clean and wash fruit and veggies before you eat them. And last but not least, wash your hands, especially if you've touched raw meat or your pets. It might seem obvious but a proper wash with soap and water is one of the best ways to protect yourself from nasty bacteria. Food businesses also have to follow these rules. They're inspected regularly and if anything's dodgy they can get into big trouble. Food is should be something we enjoy and a feast like this shouldn't be something to fear. Presenter: Now as we've said before KFC is opposing the family's claim. It says it’s sympathetic to the girl's problem but it doesn't believe its food was the cause. It says its stores follow strict health guidelines to make sure their food is safe and no-one else got food poisoning from its store that day. The Wire Now that's just one of the weeks headline stories - let's see what else has been around in the Wire. ************* A huge typhoon has hit Taiwan and China, destroying hundreds of buildings and flooding big areas of farmland. A typhoon is the name people in Asia give to what we call a cyclone, so they're storms with very powerful winds. Some people have been killed in the storms - authorities are sending in aid to help the survivors. ************* It's thought a man who's disappeared while diving off Sydney's northern beaches may have been taken by a shark. The man was spear-fishing with three friends but hasn't returned. Police searched the area but only found some of his diving equipment. ************* And a kids' toy could be banned because of fears it could cause fires. These scooters create sparks with a cartridge behind their back wheel. The idea was dreamed up by a 15 year old in an American school science project and taken up by a manufacturer. FYNN: It's a great thing to ride and it's great to have fun but you've just really got to be careful because it is a fire hazard with the sparks coming out the back you've got to be very careful because it may catch on fire to something But this video shows what can happen in less responsible hands. Firefighters want them banned, but some kids are against the idea. KID: I think that's very unfair actually because many kids are responsible and they can ride properly and lots of them don't want their country to have bushfires The distributors have agreed to stop supplying them until a decision is made. Poll What do you think about that? With the Victorian bushfires earlier this year it's a big issue, so we'll make it this week's poll. The question is 'Should spark scooters be banned?' If you want to vote, go to our website. Quiz 1 Before you race off to vote thought, let’s check out our first quiz. Which church has the most followers in Australia? 1. Anglican 2. Catholic 3. Uniting Answer: Catholic. Mary MacKillop Reporter: Nathan Bazley INTRO: In the last census over 5 million Australians said they were Catholics and on the weekend many would have gone to special church services to mark the life of Mary MacKillop, who might become Australia's first saint. But the process involved in getting there is harder than you would ever believe! So what does it take to become one of these special religious figures? And why does Mary deserve to make the grade? NATHAN BAZLEY, REPORTER: The Saints - they're an exclusive bunch who are said to have performed miracles, helped people in trouble, and generally been pretty special. Becoming one is like taking the world's hardest entrance exam. But one Aussie woman, who died 100 years ago, isn't far from making the cut. She even has the PM pushing her case! Her name is Mary MacKillop and she really had a remarkable life. But some say her work after that has been what makes her stand apart! Mary was born in Melbourne in 1842; into an Australia very different than it is today. School was only available to the rich, so after becoming a nun, Mary worked with a priest to open Australia's first free catholic school. Any kid was accepted and this made her pretty popular. From there she travelled to different areas opening school after school, mostly called St. Joseph's. By the time of her death in 1909, there were St Joseph's schools all over the country. Many more schools on top of that have since been named in her honour as well. Giving education to poor kids, not to mention her other work with underprivileged people, is certainly an amazing achievement. But it takes a whole lot more than that to be called a Saint! The reason it's so hard to be recognised as a Saint is because they're seen in the Catholic Church as those closest to God and worthy of special honour. Many people pray to the Saints, as well as celebrating their lives. To get to that point, the Catholic Church has a huge process to follow, called Canonisation, and sometimes it can take hundreds of years for someone to make the grade. The first step is for special experts to examine the person's whole life, to make sure they were very close to God and did good work. And Mary MacKillop passed that one easily! The next two steps are a lot more difficult though. Before Mary can be called a Saint, she has to be credited with two miracles -which are acts which defy any possible scientific or medical reasoning. And that's a whole lot harder to prove! So far, Mary MacKillop's supporters have got one on the board. A woman who was dying of cancer prayed to her and seemed to be healed nearly instantly. After years of investigation, the Vatican, which is like the highest government of the Catholic Church, officially recognised the miracle and Mary was Beatified. But that's still one step off being called a Saint worldwide, so church investigators are trying to confirm one more miracle. If the Vatican officially recognises another, it would make Mary MacKillop Australia's first Saint. But until that dream becomes a reality, Mary will always be remembered at masses like this across the country, as an exceptional woman who did great things, not only for her church, but for thousands of kids around Australia. Wind Farms Reporter: Sarah Larsen INTRO: With so much talk about climate change, a lot of pollies and scientists are looking for ways of getting power without burning up fossil fuels. One of these alternative energy sources is wind power. It's renewable, and a lot cleaner than coal. But it does have its critics. So why are people opposed to something that might help save the planet? Sarah looks for the answer. SARAH LARSEN, REPORTER: Turning turbines of stark white metal up to 20 storeys high. They kind of look like they're from another planet. But this isn't war of the worlds, it's a wind farm. In the 16 years since the first Australian wind farm was built they've sprung up all over the country. And this is the biggest so far. It's here at Bungendore near Lake George in NSW and has only just been finished. So how does it work? Well, the secret is in the spinning. Most sorts of power plants generate electricity by spinning turbines in a generator. Coal plants do it with steam, hydro-electric plants do it with falling water, and wind farms do it with wind. REPORTER: It's the same principle behind my bike light here. I spin the wheel, the wheel spins a little generator, the light comes on! So the energy I put out here becomes another sort of energy here. Wind farms convert the wind's energy into electricity. The down side to wind power is it only works when the wind is blowing and it can't create anywhere near as much power as coal, gas or nuclear energy. But the upside is it's a lot cleaner. While the wind farm is operating it's not letting off greenhouse gasses and the wind will never run out so it's a renewable resource. But not everyone's such a fan. LOCAL: I think they're ugly they should be painted another colour like blue at the top and green at the bottom LOCAL: We love 'em. We think they're a great idea. It would only be silly people that would think there's something wrong with them. LOCAL: Tell you the truth I wouldn't like to have it in the backyard or in your own property. LOCAL: Personally I think they're lovely. REPORTER: This is the problem! In many places where they've sprung up, wind farms have split communities into the people that love them and the people that hate them. Some critics say they're noisy BILL HOORWEG, Bungendore resident: They say it's like on old shoe in a tumble drier And some worry about birds being caught in the rotors. Others say they're inefficient. LOCAL: I understand that the energy required to build a wind farm takes about more than five years. And some just reckon they stand out like a sore thumb in the countryside. But not everyone thinks that's a bad thing. CODY: I think they're great, they're good for the environment and they're tourist attractions. Cody can see this wind farm from his house but he likes the look of it. And so do his school mates. BEN & JAKE : I think they're great, and they're good for the environment EBONY, CATHERINE & REBECCA: When you look up at them on the hill when it's a cloudy day they look like ghosts because they're white and the clouds are grey. It looks a lot better than just a bare hill. Love them or hate them, wind farms have transformed hills like this in the Aussie countryside and with more, even bigger farms planned, this isn't a debate that'll blow over any time soon. Quiz 2 Ok, we might do a wind power quiz. How much electricity does one wind generator produce? Is it enough to provide a year’s power to: 1. 2 houses 2. 100 houses 3. 800 houses Answer: 800 houses. That's a lot of power but do you think wind farms should be allowed anywhere? Tell us what you think on the website. Digital Radio Reporter: Nathan Bazley INTRO: In the last few months we've told you all about digital TV, the new type of TV signals that give you more channels and better quality. Well now radios are getting the same treatment. Digital radio was officially launched last week, but what does it actually mean for you sitting in your car or listening in at home? Let's take a look at what's happening to radio in the 21st century and where it's come from. NATHAN BAZLEY, REPORTER: It started off with such humble beginnings. Huge machines picking up a very crackly signal, and very few stations to choose from. But back in the 1920's, this new form of entertainment captured everyone's attention! Radio provided people with live entertainment in their homes, the likes of which they'd never imagined. Now they could get up-to-date news and weather, as well as other entertainment like radio dramas. Sporting matches were quickly added to the schedule, but because the technology wasn't available to broadcast live from other countries, sound effects were faked up to make people believe they were hearing the real thing. NATHAN BAZLEY: Radios were the latest must-have gadget of the 20's, but because many families couldn't afford the big clunky ones, designs were released for people to make their own. And you can still get similar kits today. See, it only takes a few parts and no power source at all, but here you have a very weak AM signal! In the following decades, radio became the centre of home entertainment and the number of stations expanded rapidly. But in the 70's it was given its first facelift - the FM band was introduced! NATHAN: Sitting in your car and flicking between AM and FM, you can instantly tell the difference. FM gives you stereo sound and a cleaner signal. But what's next for the evolution of radio? Well just like its younger brother TV, radio is headed for a digital revolution! So what can you expect? Digital radio provides even clearer sound than FM and better reception. That means old AM stations will sound just as good as every other station. Digital also offers heaps of extra features, like the ability to rewind and pause live radio, view pictures and album covers, find out the name of tracks playing, check out scrolling news and weather, as well as a digital program guide. It also allows radio stations to broadcast more channels. New commercial channels you can listen out for are Radar, for unsigned artists. and NovaNation, a 24 hour dance music station. The ABC is also offering new stuff. Expect a contemporary music station, a country music station and a jazz station. NATHAN: Now all this sounds great, but before you race out to your car to check out these new features, think again. You actually need a new radio that has DAB+ on it to pick up the digital signals. But once you have one, like this, you can really hear and see the difference. It's the national lunch of digital radio, so all the stations have come together to let people check it out. And while it might be a while before most people switch over, the potential of this radio innovation seems to have everyone talking. Presenter: And if you want to see some more of the launch it's on our website. The Score Time for some sports news now - here's Catherine with the Score. ******* Australia has squared the Ashes cricket series against England at 1-all, after winning the fourth test by an innings and 80 runs.. The Aussies took ‘til just after lunch on the third day to bowl England out for 263 - Mitchell Johnson claimed 5 wickets and Ben Hilfenhaus 4. The blockbuster fifth and final test starts next week with Australia only needing a draw to retain the urn. ****** It was a double blow for Australia in the Tri-Nations Series. The Wallabies lost to South Africa 29 to 17 and captain Stirling Mortlock had to be taken to hospital because they think he may have broken his leg. Quiz 3 Let’s hit up our last quiz of the day now. What is the most widely consumed meat in the world? 1. Lamb 2. Beef 3. Goat Answer: Goat. It's surprising considering we don't eat that much here - but it's true! And we hear more about goats in our next story. Forgotten Goats Reporter: Catherine Ellis INTRO: There are dozens of museums, libraries and school lessons devoted to helping us learn about Australia's history and those who've contributed to making the country what it is today. But some feel there's a very important group that's been left out - goats! That's right! And now there's a push to create a museum especially for them. Here's Catherine. CATHERINE ELLIS, REPORTER: Kids mucking around on goats. It looks silly to us, but back when this was filmed in the 1920’s it was pretty common. Goats were a huge part of daily life and had been for ages - since white settlement in Australia. In fact 19 goats arrived with the First Fleet in 1788. And one came even earlier than that. FAYE, HISTORIAN: Captain Cook had a pet goat on the Endeavour that circumnavigated the world twice with him. As well as pets and companions, goats were an important source of milk and meat. They were great for helping move things around - like water and firewood. They coped well in droughts which made them handy in the outback, and were cheap to feed because they're not as fussy eaters as sheep and cows. Goats will eat dry crusty bushes - even newspaper! FAYE, HISTORIAN: The worker's friend they used to be called by a lot of people, and the poor man's cow or the poor man's horse. They were also great fun - in the form of goat racing! It was a popular sport all over the country and some cities and there were often prizes. In the 1920’s there was even a movie called Kid Stakes with a big race scene. But as cars and refrigeration were invented, goats weren't needed as much anymore and they began to disappear from everyday life. CATHERINE: Goats are still farmed though for lots of products like goats cheese, milk, fibre like cashmere and mohair and of course meat. Australia is actually the largest exporter of goat meat in the world! And where does most of it go - the US! Now believe it or not there is also one place in Oz that still holds goat races. Every year on Labour Day in the Queensland town of Barcaldine the De Groot Cup is held. It's named after this guy - John De Groot. He and his son won it the first year. John's a big city lawyer now, but he grew up in Barcaldine and was a successful rider even back then. JOHN: My goat was a big one he was a cross between an Angora and a St. Anne which seemed to make him very big and a little on the hairy side. A wonderful nature, he could go like a rocket. His hairy friend was a big part of his childhood and many other Australians, but he reckons its contribution seems to have been left out of our history books. Sheep, cattle and other animals feature a lot so why has the goat been forgotten? John and other supporters are now pushing for a goat museum to be built in Barlcaldine. JOHN: And the idea is that we would have a museum that really showed all that goats have contributed and continued to contribute to Australian life. And it would finally allow the humble goat to take its place in history. Presenter: Finally, some recognition for the poor misunderstood goat! Closer That's it for another show. Don't forget you can watch any of those stories again on our website and leave a comment about them as well, and we'll be back with all the latest next week! See you then.