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Update on Aquaculture Trends and Select USDA Aquaculture Programs

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Update on Aquaculture Trends and Select USDA Aquaculture Programs Powered By Docstoc
					   Update on Aquaculture Trends and
   Select USDA Aquaculture Programs


Gary Jensen
USDA Cooperative State Research, Education and
   Extension Service
Washington, DC
gjensen@csrees.usda.gov
Tel. 202-401-6802




                   Texas Aquaculture Association
                         Conference 2005
       Discussion Points


Changing landscape and trends
Effluent interagency initiative
Aquatic food labeling
Profile USDA research programs
Concluding remarks


               Texas Aquaculture Association
                     Conference 2005
Changing Landscape: Industry
    Structure and Issues


      Structure (size and numbers)
      New science-driven technologies and tools
      More federal assistance programs
      Higher cost for business
      Purchasing sector consolidating
      Import pressures mounting
      International trading standards tightening
      Anti-aquaculture campaigns



             Texas Aquaculture Association
                   Conference 2005
U.S. Per Capita Seafood Consumption –
          Japan >100 pounds


                                Pounds

   16.5

    16

   15.5

    15

   14.5

    14

   13.5
          1992   1994       1996        1998       2000   2002

                        Texas Aquaculture Association
                              Conference 2005
U.S. Aquaculture Production


Million lbs.
 1000                                              Misc.
  900                                              Shrimp
  800                                              Mollusks
  700                                              Crawfish
  600                                              Trout
  500
                                                   Tilapia
  400
                                                   St. Bass
  300
  200                                              Salmon
  100                                              Catfish
    0                                              Baitfish
    85


           95


                  97


                         99


                                  01


                                          03
  19


         19


                19


                       19


                                20


                                        20



                   Texas Aquaculture Association
                         Conference 2005
      U.S. Catfish: Farm Sales to
              Processors

                Million Pounds

700
600
500
400
                                             Sales
300
200
100
  0
  80
  82
  84
  86
  88
  90
  92
  94
  96
  98
  00
  02
  04
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
20
20
20
             Texas Aquaculture Association
                   Conference 2005
    U.S. Aquaculture Imports and
           Poultry Exports


                         Billion Dollars

4

3

                                                     Aquaculture
2
                                                     Poultry

1

0
    1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

                     Texas Aquaculture Association
                           Conference 2005
Media Impacts:
U.S. Atlantic
Salmon Imports

                         Million Pounds

450
400
350
300
250                                                       Total
200                                                       Fillets
150
100
 50
  0
      1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

                      Texas Aquaculture Association
                            Conference 2005
History: EPA Aquaculture ELGs

1979 National Research
Council recommends EPA
develop ELGs for
aquaculture
1997 EDF Murky Waters
similar recommendation
2004 EPA national ELGs
for aquaculture facilities
January 7, 2005 deadline
to file lawsuit
~25 year evolution!
                  Texas Aquaculture Association
                        Conference 2005
Court Order Consent
Decree Agreement

  Natural Resources Defense Council vs. EPA Jan.92
  EPA management replaced Industrial Container Cleaning with
  Aquaculture
  Systems - ponds, net pens, raceways and recirculation
  Consider: nutrients, total suspended solids, human and non-
  human pathogens, antibiotics, pesticides and biological
  impairments due to non-native species
  Last industry category in consent decree
  Timetable
     June 2004 (final)


               Texas Aquaculture Association
                     Conference 2005
Joint Subcommittee
on Aquaculture
  Federal interagency coordinating body
  Created by statute – National Aquaculture Act 1980
  Reports National Science and Technology Council
  Chair – USDA/CSREES
  Vice-chairs - DOC and DOI/FWS
  National task forces
        Aquaculture Effluents Task Force (USDA-NOAA)
        Working Group on Quality Assurance in Aquaculture
        Production
        National Aquatic Animal Health Task Force on
        Aquaculture
            Economics and Statistical Analysis Project

                  Texas Aquaculture Association
                        Conference 2005
AETF Limited Resources


 Human Resources (volunteers)
   ~ 120 technical subgroup participants
   ~ 50 task force members

 Financial Resources
     $20,000 USDA-CSREES
     $15,000 NOAA
     $15,000 EPA
     in-kind contributions > $550,000!

  EPA spent ~$2 million
           Texas Aquaculture Association
                 Conference 2005
        Observations on New
        National Effluent Rule

Aquaculture placed into a national regulatory framework
Divisive issues addressed with scientific approaches
Outcomes provide guidance beyond Best Professional
Judgement by permit writers
Diverse stakeholder participation resulted in broader public
awareness and education
Rule validated critical role of state and other federal authorities
Research and demonstration needed for measurable Best
Management Practices
Real test is implementation and actions by permit writers
All not pleased with outcome


                Texas Aquaculture Association
                      Conference 2005
Summary: EPA Final Effluent Rule

  First national effluent rule for aquaculture facilities
  BMP requirements rather than strict numeric limits
  Direct discharge facilities produce at least 100,000 lb annually
      Flow-through and recirculating systems discharge at least 30
      days a year
      Net pen or submerged cage systems
  National annual compliance costs (pre-tax 2003 dollars)
     Commercial flow-through/recirculation        $256,000
     Noncommercial FT/R                           $1,149,000
     Commercial net pen                           $36,000
  Annual monetized environmental benefit          $66,000-$99,000



                  Texas Aquaculture Association
                        Conference 2005
   New NPDES (Permit) Regulatory
            Options



   Facilities that meet definition of concentrated aquatic animal
   production facilities require NPDES permits
      New EPA national ELGs
      Existing BPJ of permit authorities (no change)
   Facilities under water quality based standards (no change)
      Technology-based standards
      Numeric limitations based on TMDL restrictions
   Facilities regulated by discretion of permit authorities (no
   change)

Permit authorities can establish stricter requirements than new EPA
   minimum national ELGs based on BPJ

                   Texas Aquaculture Association
                         Conference 2005
 Future Actions - 2005

  Assist EPA with post-rule training on
  implementation
  Provide input on development of Compliance
  Guide for permit writers and regulated facilities
  Address unintended consequences, cascade effect,
  or default actions by permit writers
  Support research, demonstration and education on
  environmental management and protection

DRAFT Compliance Guide will be posted by EPA for
  public review and comment
EPA will publish training schedule in Federal Register
              Texas Aquaculture Association
                    Conference 2005
Country of Origin Labeling

            Covered Commodities
  Wild fish and shellfish
  Farmed fish and shellfish

United States
    World’s second largest importer of seafood
    Imports from about 140 countries


                   Texas Aquaculture Association
                         Conference 2005
Country of Origin Labeling

 Consumer notification required at retail
 Country of origin
 Wild or farm-raised (fish and shellfish)
 Label or notice must be
    Legible
    Not interfere with other required information

   Consumers able to differentiate products and make
                choices based on preferences
ENGOs target origin of product rather than entire industry
                    Texas Aquaculture Association
                          Conference 2005
Country of Origin Labeling



                 Retailers
  USDA will identify retailers through PACA
  licenses
  ~ 4,500 licenses (37,000 stores)
  PACA definition excludes butcher shops, fish
  markets, and exporters


                Texas Aquaculture Association
                      Conference 2005
Country of Origin Labeling

For more information go to:
http://www.usda.ams.gov/cool/

Reminder: U.S. Congress passes bills, President
  signs bills into laws, and laws are implemented
  by regulations promulgated by federal agency
  with designated authority



                 Texas Aquaculture Association
                       Conference 2005
  Aquatic Food Labeling Lexicon


Country of Origin labeling (USDA authority)
mandatory in EU and US (select retailers)
  Farm-raised or wild-caught
  Fish and shellfish
Natural (FDA authority)
  No regulatory definition
  Policy not object term but product no color,
  artificial flavor, preservatives or synthetic
  ingredients
  i.e., ‘natural’ beef (no organic label until 1999)
                 Texas Aquaculture Association
                       Conference 2005
Aquatic Food Labeling Lexicon


 Fish Forever ecolabel (Marine Stewardship
 Council)
    Since 1996
    Fisheries certification program for
    ‘sustainability’
    Best environmental choice for seafood
 Organic (USDA authority)
    No national standards
    Independent certifiers
    Diverse standards mostly foreign certifiers
                 Texas Aquaculture Association
                       Conference 2005
Implications: No National Organic
Standards for Aquatic Animals:



  2005 federal dietary guidelines – fish only major food
  category without national organic standards
  Other category without standards – pet foods!
  Anyone can use organic label claim with no enforcement
  Eliminate pre-OFPA era (1990) market environment – low
  consumer trust
  Minimalist standards not acceptable to organic community
  Need define managed, controlled organic aquaculture
  systems based on sound organic principles and integrity
  of organic label
                   Texas Aquaculture Association
                         Conference 2005
 Anticipated Actions for National
        Organic Standards



NOSB create Aquatic Species Task Force with
Aquaculture Working Group (12 members) – solicitation
of nominations deadline Feb. 23
Charged to develop standards for formal rulemaking
process
National Organic Aquaculture Work Group formed in
2003 to mobilize credible expertise and scientific
information
Volunteerism and activism required



                Texas Aquaculture Association
                      Conference 2005
Highlights: USDA Aquaculture
     Research Programs

Agricultural Research Service
  In-house research arm
  USDA scientists (60) and facilities
Cooperative State Research, Education and
Extension Service
  Created 1994 merger two agencies
  Primary extramural funding arm
  Partnership with land grant universities >100

               Texas Aquaculture Association
                     Conference 2005
               ARS Aquaculture Program Growth
60
                    Current ~$37 million                                          35



                                                                                  30
50


          Scientists                                                              25
40        Locations
          Est. Funding (millions)
                                                                                  20

30
                                                                                  15

20
                                                                                  10


10
                                                                                  5


0                                                                                 0
     FY-1997       FY-1998        FY-1999        FY-2000      FY-2001   FY-2002
                              Texas Aquaculture Association
                                    Conference 2005
CSREES Aquaculture Investment
from 1987-2003

                     CSREES Aquaculture
                    Funding from 1987 - 2003
                40,000
  Thousands $




                30,000
                20,000
                10,000
                    0
                         1987

                                 1989

                                        1991

                                                1993

                                                       1995

                                                                1997

                                                                       1999

                                                                              2001

                                                                                     2003
                                                Year
                                Texas Aquaculture Association
                                      Conference 2005
           Aquaculture Funding by
            CSREES and Partners


                                    $(1,000)
                       FY 83                   FY 2003

CSREES              $3,130                     $27,864
Partners            $5,780                     $32,000*
Total                $8,820                    $59,864

              Texas Aquaculture Association
                    Conference 2005
Generic Options for Aquaculture




Be the low cost producer and compete on
price (commodity products).
Be the most consumer responsive and
compete on benefits delivered (preferred
value packaging).
Take non-business action, e.g., protectionism
or subsidy (federal government programs).


              Texas Aquaculture Association
                    Conference 2005
   Concluding Summary

U.S. aquaculture will continue to grow and diversify
Producers should target specific markets
Overall seafood consumption will grow, but slowly
Imports will continue to pressure domestic producers
Industry leadership and engagement essential to
minimize crises
Support more regional integrated research-extension-
industry partnerships
Global competitors seek new technologies and
information as emerges for quick adoption – short
cut approach
                Texas Aquaculture Association
                      Conference 2005

				
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