How to Shepardize Cases by heatherrhunt

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									                                                            Shepard’s Federal Citations for Selected Law                  Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pacific
  WHY SHEPARDIZE CASES                                      Reviews.                                                      Indiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Northeastern
                                                                                                                          Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Northwestern
Shepardize cases to trace their history and              To shepardize a case decided by a federal circuit                Kansas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pacific
determine their status.                                  or district court (the reporter abbreviation will                Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Southwestern
! Shepard’s allows you to trace a case’s history         look like F. or F. Supp.) use Shepard’s Federal                  Louisiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Southern
   by giving references to proceedings in the same       Citations.                                                       Maine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlantic
   case.                                                 ! Note, to find law review articles which have                   Maryland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlantic
! In addition, the first time Shepard’s cites a case,       cited a federal case you may also use Shepard’s               Massachusetts . . . . . . . . . . . Northeastern
   Shepard’s provides parallel cites (a reference to        Federal Citations for Selected Law Reviews.                   Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Northwestern
   the same case, printed in a different reporter) for                                                                    Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Northwestern
   the case.                                             To shepardize a case decided by an Arizona,                      Mississippi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Southern
! Shepard’s also tells you if a case is still good       California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Illinois,                  Missouri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Southwestern
   law, has been overruled, or if legal principles       Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, New York,                           Nebraska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Northwestern
   established by the case have been affected by         Texas, Utah, Washington or Wyoming court:                        New Hampshire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlantic
   later cases.                                          ! choose either the state Shepard’s or the                       New Jersey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlantic
                                                            appropriate regional Shepard’s. For example, to               North Carolina . . . . . . . . . . Southeastern
Shepardize cases to find other sources.                     shepardize a Utah case you may usually use                    North Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . Northwestern
! Shepard’s may give you references to later                either Utah Citations or Pacific Citations.                   Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Northeastern
   cases, attorney general opinions, articles and        ! Results will vary depending on whether you                     Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pacific
   other sources which have cited a case.                   choose the state or regional Shepard’s. For                   Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pacific
                                                            example,                                                      Pennsylvania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlantic
Note that in addition to Shepard’s Citators for                                                                           Rhode Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlantic
cases, there are Shepard’s Citators for statutes,        Utah Citations shows Pacific Citations shows                     South Carolina . . . . . . . . . . Southeastern
regulations, court rules, law review articles and        if a case was cited by:     if a case was cited by:              South Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . Northwestern
more. You can use these Shepard’s to find cases,         -The U.S. Supreme Ct.       -The U.S. Supreme Ct.                Tennessee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Southwestern
attorney general opinions, articles, etc. which have     -Federal Courts             -Federal Courts                      Vermont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlantic
cited these other sources. Shepard’s also publishes      -Utah cases in the          - All cases in regional              Virginia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Southeastern
a few subject citators which you can use to                 Pacific or Utah Reporters reporters                           West Virginia . . . . . . . . . . . Southeastern
shepardize cases, agency decisions, law review           -Recent American Law        -Recent American Law                 Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Northwestern
articles and other sources.                                  Reports annotations        Reports annotations
                                                         -Over twenty journals                                         Step 2: Decide which report of the case to
                                                                                                                       shepardize.
  HOW TO SHEPARDIZE                                      To shepardize cases decided by state courts other
                                                                                                                       If the same case is reported in more than one
                                                         than those listed above, you must use regional
CASES                                                    citators. On the right is the regional citator to use
                                                                                                                       reporter, you may have to decide which report of the
                                                                                                                       case to shepardize.
                                                         when you want to shepardize cases decided by
                                                                                                                       ! For example, U.S. Supreme Court cases are
Step 1: Choose the appropriate Shepard’s                 courts of the states on the left.
                                                                                                                           reported in the U.S. Supreme Court Reports
Citator set.                                                                                                               (U.S.); U.S. Lawyer’s Edition (L. Ed.); and the
To shepardize a case decided by the U.S.                    Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Southern
                                                                                                                           Supreme Court Reporter (S. Ct.). To
Supreme Court (the reporter abbreviation will               Alaska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pacific
                                                                                                                           shepardize a Supreme Court case you must
look like U.S., L. Ed. or S. Ct.) use Shepard’s             Arkansas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Southwestern
                                                                                                                           select one of the
United States Citations.                                    Connecticut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlantic
                                                                                                                           three reporter cites to shepardize in United
! Note, to find law review articles that have cited a       Delaware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlantic
                                                                                                                           States Shepard’s Citations.
   Supreme Court case, you may also use                     Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Southeastern
! Results may vary depending on the cite
  shepardized.                                              Book, located at the northeast end of the
  < For example, if you shepardize a U.S.                   Shepard’s Citators, to find parallel cites.
     Reports cite, you will see references to U.S.        ! Letters in front of a citation, tell you about a


                                                                                                                  SHEPARDIZING
     Reports citations, but not Lawyer’s Edition            case’s history and subsequent treatment of the
     citations, because Shepard’s only lists                case.
     citations from the reporter of the case being          < For example, an “a” in front of a cite
     shepardized.                                              suggests that the case was affirmed on

Step 3: Make sure your Shepard’s set is
complete.
                                                               appeal; an “o” in front of a cite suggests that
                                                               the citing case overruled the case you are
                                                               shepardizing.
                                                                                                                     CASES
You will have to check more than one Shepard’s              < For a list explaining other letters, look for the
volume to do a complete search. To do a complete               list of history and treatment abbreviations in
search:                                                        the first pages of the citator volume.
! Locate the most recent supplement (usually at           ! A raised number to the right of a reporter’s
   the end of the set), then look at the section on the     abbreviated name tells you that the citing case
   front cover which states, “What Your Library             discusses the same legal principle as the
   Should Contain.”                                         headnote, corresponding to the raised number, of
! That section tells you the Shepard’s volumes              the case you are shepardizing.
   you must look in to do a complete search.                < Head notes summarize the points of law
                                                               discussed in a case and are listed
Step 4: Locate the case’s cite (the reporter’s                 consecutively by number at the beginning of
volume number, followed by the reporter’s                      a case.
abbreviated name and the first page of the case)            < Make sure that you are shepardizing the
in the Shepard’s volumes.                                      correct report (for example, if your case is
                                                               reported in Lawyer’s Edition then you should
! Look for the volume number on the top corner of
                                                               shepardize the Lawyer’s Edition cite) as
    the citator’s pages.
                                                               Head notes vary from reporter to reporter.
! Look for the first page number of the case in
                                                          ! Within each citation column, Shepard’s
    bold in the columns on the citator’s pages.
                                                            identifies the court by circuit, district or state
    Beneath this number will probably be a list of
                                                            where the case was decided.
    cases or articles which have cited the case.
                                                            < Exception--Shepard’s initially lists decisions
                                                               from the court, without identifying the court,
Step 5: Decipher Shepard’s symbols.                            which decided the case you are shepardizing.
Shepard’s uses parentheses, letters, numbers and               Then, Shepard’s identifies other courts and
court identifiers to give you information about                lists the citing cases decided by those courts.
the cite you are shepardizing.
! Parentheses tell you that the cite is a parallel        Shepard’s also abbreviates court, reporter,
   cite (a reference to the same case, printed in a       journal and other names.
   different reporter) to the case you are                ! If you do not recognize an abbreviation, look it
   shepardizing.                                             up in the abbreviation lists, located in the first
   < Note that Shepard’s only gives parallel cites           pages of the citator volume.
       the first time Shepard’s cites a case.
   < You can also use the National Reporter Blue                                                                     DECEMBER 1997

								
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