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					        SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING
       PERFORMANCE OF TEACHERS IN OPEN AND
      DISTANCE EDUCATION OF MADURAI KAMARAJ
             UNIVERSTIY, MADURAI, INDIA
DR. NAGAPPAN NAMASIVAYAM
MADURAI KAMARAJ UNIVERSITY

Introduction:

Education is a powerful and pervasive agent for all round development, individual and
social transformation. Swami Vivekananda had proclaimed “We must have life-building
education”. The aim and objective of all education is to maintain, sustain and develop a
healthy mind in a healthy body. Thus the true meaning of education is harmonious
development of head, heart and hand.

Statement of the Problem:

Progress requires change. Change requires learning. Education is about learning to
learn. In the modern world, Distance Education plays a crucial and pivotal role in



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spreading education and knowledge to the door-step of the people. The 21st century is the
age of knowledge-based economy and the centre-stage of change. With a view to
providing life long and continuing education to enrich the lives of people, distance
learning programme has been launched in India. It leads to the democratization of higher
education in India.

Delimitation of the Study:

Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India is the pioneer in the distance learning
programme. It was started in 1971 with limited degree courses. At present, it is offering
not only arts and science degree courses but also professional, job-oriented courses and
research programmes leading to M.Phil degree through distance education. In this paper,
an earnest attempt is made by the writer to analyse the various socio-economic factors
influencing the quality and teaching performance of Teachers working in Distance
Education, Madurai Kamarj University, Madurai, India.

Objectives of the Study:

The following are the main objectives of the study. 1. To analyse the socio-economic
factors influencing teaching performance.       2. To offer suitable suggestions for the
enhancement of effective teaching performance.

Hypotheses:

The following hypotheses have been framed and tested trough 2 Test. 1. Age is the
influencing factor in the better performance of teaching. 2. Sex and marital status of
teachers are influencing factors. 3. The effectiveness of teaching depends upon the
designation of respondents (Teachers). 4. Income and experience of teachers play a
significant and influencing role in the teaching performance. 5. Effectiveness of teaching
performance depends upon the publication work and presentation of papers in seminars
and conferences; 6. Attending workshop and undergoing training /refresher course are
influencing factors; 7. Teaching performance is influenced by the active involvement of
teachers in research activities and guidance, and undertaking project works.



                                            2
Methodology:

Collection of Data:

The data for the study had been collected both from primary and secondary sources.
Primary data had been collected through well-drafted interview schedule.

Sampling:

The study area is confined to Teachers working in Directorate of Distance Education,
Madurai Kamarj University, Madurai, India. Two separate interview schedules had been
drafted. One is administered to students of the Distance Education and the other is
administered to teachers. A sample of 125 students out of 498 students attended in the
personal contact class programme which formed 25 per cent of the total had been selected
under proportionate stratified random sampling method. A sample of 30 teachers out of
33 teachers had been selected by the sample students on the basis of the teaching
performance of their teaching assignments.        These 30 teachers had been rated as
“Satisfied” by the sample students.        The second interview schedule had been
administered to these 30 teachers in order to ascertain those socio-economic factors play
a major and influencing role in the enhancement of their teaching performance. The
following Table shows the distribution of sample students.

                                       TABLE 1

                        DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE STUDENTS
Sl.No.                  Stratum                    Total      Random Sample Size 25%
  1.     Under-Graduate                            235                     58
  2.     Post-Graduate                             149                     39
  3.     Professional & M.Phil research            114                     28
         scholars
                                      Total        498                     125
Source: Primary Data.

Secondary Data:
Secondary data had been collected from the records, annual report of Madurai Kamarj
University and also from journals.


                                              3
Analytical Tools:
In order to analyse the socio-economic factors influencing teaching performance in Open
and Distance Education system, the writer has applied statistical tools such as Chi-square
Test (2 Test) and percentages.
Socio-Economic Factors:
Man lives amidst needs “such needs are not randomly or equally distributed among the
members of a given society but are crystallized in different ways among people
occupying different structural policies” These are major socio- economic factors that
influences teachers of distance learning programme in the enhancement of teaching
performance. Some of the socio-economic factors considered for analysis are Age, Sex,
Martial status, Designation, Income, Experience, Publications, Seminars & Conferences,
Workshop & Training, Research activities, and Project Work of the Teachers.
                                        TABLE 2
    SOCIO- ECONOMIC FACTORS AND VALUE OF X2 IN TEACHERS OF
 DISTANCE EDUCATION OF MADURAI KAMARAJ UNIVERSITY, MADURAI-
                            INDIA
                                    Value of 
                                                2   Degree of    Table Value     Source
Sl.No.           Factors
                                                    Freedom      at 5% Level    Table No.
 1.      Age                          24.52@            3            7.82         2.1
 2.      Sex                           6.67@            1            3.84         2.2
 3.      Marital Status               22.52@            1            3.84         2.3
 4.      Designation                   9.80@            2            5.99         2.4
 5.      Income                        5.86*            3            7.82         2.5
 6.      Experience                    2.79*            3            7.82         2.6
 7.      Publications                  3.34*            4            9.49         2.7
 8.      Seminars & Conference         7.68*            4            9.49         2.8
 9.      Workshop & Training           3.80*            2            5.99         2.9
 10.     Research Activities           5.01*            4            9.49         2.10
         & Guidance
 11.     Project Work                  3.00*            2            5.99         2.11
* Influencing Factors in the Better Performances of Teaching
 @ Not Influencing Factors
Testing of Hypothesis:
1. Age
Hypothesis:
“Age is the Influencing Factor in the Better Performance of Teaching.”




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                                       TABLE 2.1

                      AGE-WISE CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHER

Sl.No.               Age in (Years)                No. of Respondents      % To Total
  1.      Upto 30                                          2                   6.7
  2.      31 – 40                                          5                  16.7
  3.      41 – 50                                          7                  23.3
  4.      Above 50                                        16                  53.3
                                       Total              30                   100
Source: Primary Data
Chi-Square Value : 24.52; Table Value at 5 per cent Level :7.82
Since the X2 the value is greater than the Table value at 5 percent level, the hypothesis is
rejected. Hence it is ascertained that there is no relationship between the age of teachers
and the teaching performance. Therefore age of the respondents is not the influencing
factor.
2. Sex:
Hypothesis:
“Sex of the respondents is a influencing factor”

                                        TABLE 2.2

                                SEX OF THE RESPONDENTS

Sl.No.                    Sex                      No. of Respondents      % To Total
  1.      Male                                            22                  73.3
  2.      Female                                           8                  26.7
                                       Total              30                   100
Chi-Square Value : 6.66; Table Value at 5 per cent Level :3.84
Since the Chi-square (X2) value is greater than the Table value the hypothesis is rejected.
Hence, it is concluded that sex of the respondents is nothing to do with the teaching
performance.
3. Martial Status:
Hypothesis:
“ The teaching performance of the respondents is related to martial status”


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                                          TABLE 2.3

                                       MARTIAL STATUS

Sl.No.                Marital Status                 No. of Respondents    % To Total
  1.      Married                                           28                93.3
  2.      Unmarried                                          2                 6.7
                                         Total              30                100.0
X2 Value : 22.52; Table Value at 5 per cent Level 3.84.
Since the chi-square value is greater than the Table value the hypothesis is rejected.
Therefore martial status of the respondents is not a influencing factor.
4. Designation:
Hypothesis:
“ The effectiveness of teaching depends upon the designation of the respondents”

                                          TABLE 2.4

                                        DESIGNATION

Sl.No.                 Designation                   No. of Respondents    % To Total
  1.      Lecturer                                           5                16.7
  2.      Reader                                             7                23.3
  3.      Professor                                         18                60.0
                                         Total              30                100.0
Chi-square value : 9.80; Table Value at 5 per cent Level: 5.99
         From the analysis it is evident that teaching performance is not dependent on
designation of teachers (respondents). X2 test reveals that designation of respondents is
insignificant because chi-square value is greater Table value at 5 per cent level. Thus the
hypothesis in not accepted.
5. Income:
Hypothesis:
“ Income is a influencing factor”




                                                 6
                                          TABLE 2.5

                                          INCOME

Sl.No.           Income (per month)                  No. of Respondents   % To Total
  1.     Upto Rs.2,000                                       2                6.7
  2.     Rs.20,000 – Rs.25000                                8               26.7
  3.     Rs.25,001 – Rs. 30,000                              9               30.0
  4.     Above Rs.30,000                                    11               36.6
                                         Total              30               100.0
                      2
Chi-square Value (X Test) : 5.86
Table Value 5 at per cent Level :7.82
Since the chi-square value is lower than the Table value at 5 per cent level the hypothesis
is accepted.   Therefore income of the teachers is a influencing factor in teaching
performance.
6. Experience:
Hypothesis “Experience of teacher is a factor which enhances better teaching
performance”

                                          TABLE 2.6

                                         EXPERIENCE
Sl.No.           Experience (in years)               No. of Respondents    % To Total
  1.     Upto 10                                              4               13.3
  2.     11 – 15                                              7               23.3
  3.     16 - 20                                              9               30.0
  4.     Above 20                                            10               33.4
                                         Total               30               100.0
Chi-square Value : 2.79
Table value at 5 per cent level: 7.82
Table 2.6 discloses that experience of respondents is a significant factor which enhances
quality of teaching. Since the chi-square value is lower than the Table at 5 per cent
level, the hypothesis is accepted.



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7. Publication of Books / Articles:
Hypothesis “ Publication work of respondents is a influencing factor”

                                          TABLE 2.7

                                      PUBLICATION
Sl.No.              Publication                       No. of Respondents         % To Total
  1.     Upto 5                                               3                     10.0
  2.     6 – 10                                               9                    30.00
  3.     11 – 15                                              6                     23.3
  4.     16 – 20                                              6                    20.00
  5.     Above 20                                             5                     16.7
                                          Total              30                    100.0
 Chi-square Value: 3.34
 Table value at 5 per cent level : 9.49
Since the chi-square value lower than the Table value at 5 per cent level the hypothesis is
accepted. Thus publication work of teachers is a significant factor which enhances
quality of teaching performance.
8. Seminars & Conferences:
Hypothesis “ Presentation of papers in conferences in a influencing factor”

                                          TABLE 2.8

                             SEMINARS / CONFERENCES
Sl.No. No.of Seminars / Conferences Participated            No. of Respondents      % To Total
  1.     Upto 5                                                      4                 13.3
  2.     6 – 10                                                     11                 36.7
  3.     11 – 15                                                     8                 26.7
  4.     16 – 20                                                     4                 13.3
  5.     Above 20                                                    3                 10.0
                                           Total                    30                100.0
   2
 X Value: 7.68, Table Value at 5 per cent Level: 9.49
It is inferred form Table 2.8 that out of 30 respondents, 15 respondents have presented
papers in more an 10 seminars and conferences. The analysis further reveals that greater
number of conferences participated, greater is the quality of teaching assignments.


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9. Workshop/Training/Refresher Courses Attended:
Hypothesis:
“ Workshop and training attended by the respondents is a influencing factor”

                                        TABLE 2.9

                  WORKSHOP /TRAINING/ REFRESHER COURSE

Sl.No.   Number of Workshop /Training/ Refresher            No. of Respondents    % To Total
                    Course Attended

  1.     Upto 5                                                    15                 50.0

  2.     6 – 10                                                     8                 26.7

  3.     Above 10                                                   7                 23.3

                                                 Total             30                100.0
Chi-square Value (X2) : 3.80
Table value at 5 per cent level: 5.99
Table 2.9 discloses that out of 30 respondents, 15 respondents have attended more than 5
workshop/ training/refresher courses. Further it is ascertained that 7 respondents have
participated more than 10 workshop/ training/refresher course.          It is evident form the
analysis that workshop/ training attended by the respondents is a significant factor. As
the chi-square value in lower than Table value, the hypothesis is accepted. To conclude
that attending workshop/training is a influencing factor.
10. Research Activities and Guidance:
Hypothesis:
“Teaching performance of respondents is influenced by the               active involvement in
research activities”




                                             9
                                          TABLE 2.10

                         RESEARCH ACTIVITIES/ GUIDANCE

Sl.No.     No.of Research Guidance/ Activities            No. of Respondents      % To Total
  1.     Upto 5                                                   5                    16.7
  2.     6 – 10                                                   8                    26.7
  3.     11 – 15                                                  9                    30.00
  4.     16 – 20                                                  6                    20.00
  5.     Above 20                                                 2                     6.6
                                                  Total          30                    100.0
(X2 Value) Chi-square Value: 5.01
Table value at 5 per cent level:9.49
It is evident form the analysis that almost all the 30 respondents are engaged in research
activities . It is interesting to note that out of 30 respondents, 17 respondents (59.7% to
total) have supervised and guided more than ten research scholars. Further chi-square
value is lower than Table value the hypothesis is accepted . To conclude that, teaching
performance is influenced by the research activities of the respondents.
11. Projects Undertaken:
Hypothesis:
“ Project work is a influencing factor”

                                          TABLE 2.11

                              PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN

Sl.No.    No.of Project Work Undertaken               No.of              % To Total
                                                   Respondents
  1.     Upto 4                                           4                    66.7
  2.     5–8                                              1                    16.7
  3.     Above 8                                          1                    16.6
                                          Total           6                    100.0
                     2
Chi-square Value (X ): 3.0
Table value at 5 per cent level:5.99




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Out of 30 respondents,6 respondents alone have undertaken projects work. Out of 30,
two respondents have completed more than 5 project work. Since the chi-square value is
lower than the Table value at 5 per cent level, the hypothesis is accepted. Thus project
work of the respondents is a influencing factor in their teaching assignments.
Summary of Findings:
The following are the major findings of the study. 1. By applying chi-square test (X2 test)
it is found that the socio-economic factors such as Age, Sex, Martial status, and
Designation of the respondents (teachers) are insignificant in influencing the
effectiveness and better performance of teaching. These factor are nothing to do with the
enhancement of teaching performance. 2. At the same time, X2 test reveals that factors
such as Income, Experience, Workshop & Training, Research Guidance and Project work
of the respondents play a major and pivotal role in the enhancement of teaching
performance. These factor are significant, in influencing the effectiveness of teaching. 3.
From the analysis, it is found that teacher belonging to the age group of the above 50
years, that is 16 out the 30 respondents (53.3% of the total) do not have effective teaching
performance when compared to other age groups. 4. The analysis reveals that out of 30
respondents, 18 respondents are in professor cadre (60% to total). Out of 18 professors,
only 6 are in the first 10 ranks awarded by the students respondents on the basis of their
teaching performance. At the same time, out of 7 readers 4 respondents are in the first
ten ranks. Thus it is evident that designation of teacher is not at all related to the
betterment of teaching performance. 5. It is inferred form the analysis that out of 11
respondents earning more than Rs.30,000 per month, 7 respondents have been placed in
the first ten ranks on the basis of their teaching performance. Hence, it is evident that
higher income of the respondents is the influencing factor in the enhancement of teaching
performance. 6. It is evident form the analysis that teachers who have rich teaching
experience are in a position to impart effective teaching when compared to others. The
analysis reveals that out of 30 respondents, 10 respondents belong to above 20 years of
teaching experience (33.4%) Out of 10, 3 respondents have occupied first three ranks.
The student respondents strongly feel that these teachers are capable of teaching very
lucidly and clearly when compared to others. 7. The analysis discloses that out of 30
respondents, 5 respondents (teacher) have published more than 20 books/articles in the



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leading journals. Out of 5 respondents, 2 respondents have been placed in the first two
rank. Hence, it is strongly concluded that teachers who have more number of publication
work perform well in their teaching assignments. 8. It is found from the analysis that
respondents who have participated and presented papers in more number of seminars and
conferences are in the unique position to impart current affairs and exhaustive subjects
matters to the students. Out of 3 respondents who have participated and presented papers
in more than 20 national and international level conferences one respondent (teacher) has
been placed second rank in his teaching performance. 9. At the same time, teachers who
have undergone frequent training and attended workshop and refresher course are in a
better position   to impart effective and in depth teaching in their teaching assignments
when compared to others. Out of 7 respondents, 2 respondents who have attended more
than 10 training programmes and workshop have been placed the first five ranks. 10.
Finally research and guidance activities of teachers play a vital role in the enhancement
of teaching performance.     Out of 30 respondents, 17 respondents have guided and
supervised more than 10 M.Phil/Ph.D research scholars. At the same time, out of 17
teachers, 5 teachers have been placed in the first ten ranks. On the basis of their teaching
performance. The analysis also reveals that out of 30 teachers, only 6 teachers alone
have undertaken project work. One teacher who has undertaken more than 8 project
work is in a position to occupy second rank in his teaching assignments.
Suggestions:
On the basis of the findings of the study the following suggestions are offered. 1. In
order to encourage and motivate teachers to enhance their teaching standard and
performance, it is suggested that the institution may come forward to constitute “Best
Teacher Award” for each degree course separately. 2. Teachers should be motivated to
attended as many workshop and training programmes as possible through sponsorship.
This will go a long way in improving and imparting better and in-depth knowledge in
their subjects.   3. Merit promotion schemes for teachers may be introduced and
implemented systematically, periodically and scientifically.      This measure naturally
motivates teachers to involve themselves actively in publishing books and articles besides
research activities. As s result, teachers may be in a better position to acquire current
affairs and knowledge in their fields and to impart the same effectively to the learners. 4.



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The institution may come forward to provide adequate travel grants to those teachers who
are presenting papers in the national/international conferences and seminars.
Participating and presenting paper in the international conference would provide
extensive exposure to teachers which in turn will definitely enhance the teaching
performance for the betterment of the students community in particular and the society at
large in general. Teaching is an art, Every teacher is a life long student. In this contest, it
is suggested that the authorities of the institution may launch feed back system for each
degree course.    Self appraisal system and student teacher appraisal system may be
implemented effectively.      Through which efficient teachers may be identified and
appraised and others may be stimulated to achieve the desired standard. These measures
will go a long way in influencing the teaching performance of teachers working in open
an distance education system.
References:
1. BUCH M.B., (1997) “Third Survey of Research in Education” NCERT New Delhi.
2. BYTES “ New Ways to Learn” March, 1995.
3. FORSYTH, I (1996) “ Teaching and Learning Materials and the Internet”, London,
   Kogan Page.
4. SINHA, S.N.P 2001 “ Towards Inculcating Values in Education,” University News,
   Association of Indian Universities, New Delhi.


PROFESSOR & HEAD
DIRECTORATE OF DISTANCE EDUCATION
MADURAI KAMARAJ UNIVERSITY
MADURAI-625 021
INDIA
E. Mail: namasiva mdu @ Yahoo .com




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