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					         R M A A       N E W S L E T T E R      /    RV A V    N U U S B RI EF                JULY / AUGUST 2007


   ISSUE 16              STUNNING                                            LEARNERSHIP

                         Stunning of slaughter stock                         Learnerships were marketed to AgriSETA
INSIDE THIS                                                                  contributors who had not been accommodated
  ISSUE:                 Legislation governing the prevention of cru-        in the past. Alternative abattoirs were identi-
                         elty to animals specifically pertaining to          fied and offered the opportunity to participate.
STUNNING           1     transport, lairaging, stunning and sticking of
LEARNERSHIP              animals at abattoirs include:                       The final list of abattoirs who will be participat-
NEWSFLASH                                                                    ing in the learnerships for 2007/ 2008 is as
                         •     Animal Protection Act, 1962 (Act no. 71       follows:
IDENTIFIKASIE      2           of 1962)
VAN VARKE
                                                                             GAP 2007
IDENTIFICATION
OF PIGS                  •     Meat Safety Act, 2000 (Act No. 40 of          EPLA, Country Meat, Beefmaster
                               2000)                                         Upington, RTV, Vereeniging, Bull Brand
BEESVLEIS KAN      3     Regulation 73 under the Meat Safety Act,
MARK HERWIN
                                                                             ME 2007
RVAV STREEKS-            2000 (Act no. 40 of 2000) prescribes the            Chamdor, IMQAS
VERGADERINGS
                         following regarding stunning pistols:
RMAA REGIONAL
MEETINGS                                                                     Roelcor was allocated learnerships from FoodBev
                         •     the abattoir owner must ensure that the       SETA. They approached the RMAA and requested
                               captive bolt pistol is silenced, in a good    that we conduct the GAP learnesrhip on their be-
PATH PLASTICS      4           state of repair and that it is used accord-   half. 14 Learners at 2 venues are enrolled.
(ADVERTISEMENT)
                               ing to the methods approved by the na-
                               tional executive officer; and                 If you are interested in a learnership for 2008, you
PATH PLASTICS      5
(ADVERTISEMENT)                                                              need to submit an expression of interest as soon as
                         •     the correct grade of cartridge for the        possible. This will enable us to do thorough plan-
SALARY GUIDE-      6           type of animal must be used to ensure         ning for the next year.
LINES FOR THE
ABATTOIR
                               maximum bolt speed and penetration of
INDUSTRY                       the skull                                     Participation in a Learnership Program entitles you
                                                                             to a tax rebate of up to R 50 000 per learnership by
EXPRESSION OF      6     The RMAA is currently conducting tests of           SARS. The application form is available on the
INTEREST IN
TRAINING/                captive bolt pistols as part of routine training    SARS website and needs to be submitted at the
SERVICES
                         visits at abattoirs. Where stunning equip-          end of the financial year.
ABATTOIR           7
                         ment is found that do not comply with the
MEMBERSHIP               manufacturer’s specifications, this is com-         Skills programmes
APPLICATION
                         municated with the abattoir so that they can
                         take corrective actions.                            AgriSETA funding for skills programs was
FEED WITH-         8
DRAWAL AND                                                                   drastically cut for 2007/ 2008. The funding
ELECTRICAL
STIMULATION                                                                  may also only be used for AgriSETA levy pay-
OFF CATTLE
                                                                             ers. As a result, we had no alternative but to
FEED WITH-         9         Please contact the RMAA with regard to          implement some cost recovery measures. We
DRAWAL AND
ELECTRICAL                   training programmes offered and the             identified a number of abattoirs to receive
STIMULATION
OFF CATTLE                   current scheduling.                             training during 2007.
ANNEXURE A
                                                                             Remember that any training that your abattoir
                                  Tel: 012 349 1237/8/9
                                                                             pays for can be reported on your Workplace
                                  Fx: 012 349 1240                           Skills Plan. By submitting your Workplace
                                  E-mail: Gerhard@RMAA.co.za                 Skills Plan along with your Annual Training
                                                                             Report by the relevant date you will receive
                                                                             50% of your SDL contribution back.


                                                                                                                               1
     RMAA NEWSLETTER / RVAV NUUSBRIEF



IDENTIFIKASIE VAN VARKE                                IDENTIFICATION OF PIGS
                                                       The amendment of the Animal Identification Regu-
Die wysigings tot die Regulasies van die Diere         lations as published in Government Gazette No.
Identifikasiewet, soos gepubliseer in Government       29174 – R877 of 8 September 2006 requires all
Gazette No 29174 – R877 van 8 September 2006           animals to be identified. The main reason for these
vereis dat alle diere gemerk moet wees. Die hoof-      markings is to trace pigs back to the owner in the
rede vir die merk van diere is om die eienaar van      case of any swine disease outbreaks or theft.
‘n dier te vind in geval van ‘n dieresiekte uitbraak
of diefstal.
                                                       In the case of pigs, these animals must be tat-
                                                       tooed.
In die geval van varke, moet die diere getatoeer
wees. Die volgende uittreksels dien as verwys-
                                                       The following extracts serves as a reference:
ing:
SEKSIE 7 VAN DIE WET VEREIS DAT :                      SECTION 7 OF THE ACT PRESCRIBES THAT:

-      Alle eienaars van beeste, skape en bokke           - All owners of cattle, sheep and goats must
       'n identifikasiemerk registreer by die kan-          register an identification mark at the office
       toor van die Registrateur van Diere-                 of the registrar of animal identification – this
       identifikasie - hierdie merk kan op beeste,          mark can be used on cattle, sheep, goats and
       skape, bokke en varke gebruik word                   pigs (only the method of identification dif-
       (slegs die metode van identifikasie verskil)         fers).


                                                       PARTS ON WHICH ANIMALS MUST BE IDENTI-
LIGGAAMSDEEL VAN DIER WAAROP IDEN-                     FIED (Regulation 12)
TIFIKASIE AANGEBRING MOET WORD
(Regulasie 12)
                                                          (3) Pigs: the mark must be tattooed in the left
       (3) Varke: Die merk moet binne die linker-         or right ear
       of regteroor getatoeer word
                                                       The use of the hog slapper is also accepted as a
Die gebruik van die “hog slapper” is aan-              method to identify replacement sows and boars.
vaarbaar as metode van identifikasie vir
vervangingssoê en -bere. Hierdie “slab                 This slab mark must be applied on the neck.
mark” moet op die nek aangebring
word.                                                  Pork producers have been adviced by the
                                                       SA Pork Producers’ Organisation of these
Varkprodusente is deur die Suid-Afrikaans Vark-        requirements.
produsente Organisasie aangaande hierdie
vereistes ingelig.
                                                       Abattoirs are requested to take note of
Abattoirs word versoek om hierdie regulasies in        these regulations when accepting pigs
ag te neem wanneer varke vir slagting aanvaar          for slaughter.
word.




                                                                                                               2
BEESVLEIS KAN MARK HERWIN                                 RVAV STREEKSVERGADERINGS
NICO VAN BURICK
                                                          Neem asb kennis van die RVAV streeksver-
Die relatief hoë prys van skaapvleis teenoor dié van      gaderings wat in die verskillende streke gaan
bees-, vark- en hoendervleis skep die geleentheid vir     plaasvind. Ons hoop om u daar te sien!
beesvleis om markaandeel te herwin, veral in die lig
van besteebare vlakke van inkomste en 'n groeiende        RMAA REGIONAL MEETINGS
middelklas.
                                                          Please take note of the RMAA regional meet-
Só sê mnr. Marius Nel, bestuurder van risikobestuur       ings for the different areas scheduled to take
by Absa AgriBesigheid. Hy meen skaapvleispro-             place soon. We hope to see you there!
dusente sal al hoe meer op 'n nismark fokus. Hy het
op 'n landboudag in Lephalale oor ekonomiese
vooruitsigte gepraat. Volgens hom sal hoë vleispryse       20 September               Mpumalanga
vir die res van die jaar voortduur. "Weens die wis-        4 Oktober / October        Kwazulu/Natal
selkoers en lae invoerpariteitspryse sal die invoer van
                                                           9 & 11 Oktober / October   Noord-Kaap / Northern Cape
bees- en skaapvleis toeneem."
                                                           18 Oktober / October       Oos-Kaap / Eastern Cape
Die boereprys van graad A2/A3 beesvleis het op 'n
                                                           25 Oktober / October       Noord-Wes / North West
jaar-tot-jaar grondslag tot April vanjaar met gemiddeld
8,3 % verhoog, terwyl graad C2/C3 se prys met              8 November                 Wes-Kaap / Western Cape
gemiddeld 6,5 % verlaag het.

Volgens hom word die bemarking van rooivleis ook al       AGENDA
hoe belangriker weens die markaandeel wat aan
witvleis afgestaan word.                                  RMAA REGIONAL MEETING
                                                          Kindly sponsored by JohnsonDiversey
Nel sê weens die hoë mielieprys (wat hoog sal bly al      1.   WELCOME
reën dit goed omdat grondvog min is), is die gelyk-
breekprys vir speenkalwers R11/kg tot R11,50/kg.          2.   CONGRESS FEEDBACK:
"Waar die nasionale kudde verlede jaar in 'n groeifase    National standards of abattoirs : Establishment of a
was, sal die droogte vanjaar die teenoorgestelde uit-     National Evaluation System
werking hê. Die slag van diere gaan toeneem weens
'n tekort aan winterweiding."                             Improvac : Application for the dispensation of the M/D
                                                          Mark on immuno castrated pigs
Nel beveel aan dat boere moet kyk na die toevoeging       Statutory Measure : Compliance committee and ad-
van waarde, die ontwikkeling van nismarkte en beter       ministration costs Independent Meat Classification
tegnologie en vaardighede sodat meer kilogram per
hektaar geproduseer kan word.                             3.   RMAA TRAINING REPORT

                                                          4.   FEEDBACK: VETERINARY SERVICES
Ten opsigte van die algemene ekonomie vir die res
van die jaar, sê hy 'n verdere verhoging in die rente-    5.   SECURECHECK MICROBIOLOGICAL RISK AS-
koers is moontlik, ekonomiese groei kan bó 4,5 % ge-           SESSMENT TOOL AND HYGIENE
handhaaf word, inflasie sal matig toeneem tot 6 %, die         Peet Grobler : JohnsonDiversey
rand sal in 'n band van R7 tot R7,50 teenoor die dollar   6.   DISEASE OUTBREAKS: Status report
beweeg en die internasionale olieprys sal bó $50 per
                                                          7.   IDENTIFICATION OF PIGS
vat bly.
                                                          8.   RESTRICTIONS ON THE USE OF BLOOD AND
                                                               TALLOW FOR ANIMAL FEED
Landbouweekblad, 7 Julie 2007
                                                          9.   GENERAL




        FAO Manual on Meat Inspection for
        Developing Countries
        @ R450.00

        Get your copy now!
        (012) 349 1237/8/9

                                                                                                                   3
4
5
PATH PLASTICS was established in 1996 to fullfill a role as the supplier of high rotationally moulded
plastic products to industry in the Western Cape, with special emphasis on the Food Processing Indus-
tries, following the philosophy of supplying innovative, high quality solutions to its clients’ needs, ensuring
that products produced are well priced, meet the client’s exacting standards and are delivered on time.

The current product line, produced from tooling that have been designed and developed by Path, includes
a variety of products used in the general food processing, fishing, materials handling & pharmaceutical in-
dustries, and consist of a range of bulk bins, insulated bulk bins, crates, boxes and containers, as
well as pallets, trolleys, drums & tanks, floats, and the latest innovative additions to the range:-
PLASTIC LOCKERS and the ROLPAC - a unique mobile packing / shelving unit that is very robust, very
hygienic & modular with various configurations, to take the place of metal roll cages and storage units.



Tel:         021 551 9191/2/3
Fax:         021 551 9190
E-mail:      sales@pathplastics.co.za
Web:         www.pathplastics.co.za




The abattoir owner


SALARY GUIDELINES FOR THE ABATTOIR INDUSTRY

The RMAA board decided for the RMAA to investigate current salary structures in the abattoir industry and
to provide guidelines to member abattoirs in this regard. The purpose is mainly to assist abattoir owners
with salary negotiations. This information is requested in the format as attached hereto (Annexure A) on
a cost to company basis. Should you wish to provide any additional information or clarify personnel struc-
ture which might influence the salaries provided, these comments may be added in the space provided.
Please submit the attached information before 28 September 2007 in the format provided. All information
will be handled with the strictest confidentiality and will only be reported to members and in a summarized
format.




                                                                                                              6
      RMAA NEWSLETTER / RVAV NUUSBRIEF



                    EXPRESSION OF INTEREST IN TRAINING/ SERVICES

Please complete and fax back to RMAA (012) 349 1240.



Abattoir:          _________________________________________________________________________


Contact person:           ___________________________________________________________________


Telephone:         __________________ Cell: __________________ Fax: _____________________


E mail:            __________________________________________


Do you contribute Skills Development Levies (SDL)? ______________ To which SETA? _________



                                                                                     Number of
                                       Operational Training
                                                                                      workers

  Routine slaughter training
  Skills Programs
  Basic Introduction to the Abattoir Industry
  Animal Handling
  Beef Slaughter
  Hygiene Awareness
  Business Simulation
  GMP & HACCP
  HMS & HACCP
  Learnerships

  National Certificate in General Abattoir Processes
  National Certificate in Abattoir Slaughtering Processes
  National Certificate in Abattoir Supervision
  Further Education and Training Certificate in Meat Examination
  Further Education and Training Certificate in Meat classification

                                   Other training or information

  Operational support services




                                                                                                 7
Building No 4                                                                                           P O Box 35889
CSIR                                                                                                    Menlopark, 0102
Meiring Naudé Rd
Brummeria
                                                                                                        Tel: (012) 349 1237
                                                                                                        Fax: (012) 349 1240




                          ABATTOIR MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION

      New Application                                          Change of Details


      Abattoir Name                                            VAT No
                                                   Other
      Owner             Mr     Mrs      Ms                     Name & Surname
                                                   Other
      Contact           Mr     Mrs      Ms                     Name & Surname
      Person

      Designation of Contact Person                            Tel     (            )


      Cell ph                                                  Fax (                )


      E-Mail


      Physical Address                                                                              Code


      Postal Address                                                                                Code


      Abattoir Grade                                    CoR No

      Species                           Sheep
                         Bovine                         Pork         Ostrich       Other

      Please attach a copy of the abattoir’s Certificate of Registration as issued by the Provincial Veterinary
      Authority.




      Signature & Designation                                                     Date
                          High             High               High                Low               Low
                       Throughput       Throughput         Throughput          Throughput        Throughput
       Abattoir                                                                                                  Rural
                       100+ Units       50-99 Units        21-49 Units         11-20 Units        <10 Units
       grading:                                                                                                 Abattoirs
                           (A)              (B)                (C)                 (D)               (E)
       Annual Mem-
                             1 700.00        1 350.00            1 150.00               700.00         300.00       150.00
       bership
      Membership fee quoted is calculated pro rata per annum, in ZAR and VAT inclusive.


                        Absa                    Lynnwood Road
                        Branch Code             334 745
      Bank details
                        Account Number          540 157 065
                        Type                    Current

                                                                                                                              8
FEED WITHDRAWAL PERIOD PRE-SLAUGHTER AND THE CHOICE OF ELEC-
TRICAL STIMULATION TREATMENT ARE CRITICAL TO ENSURE OPTIMUM
BEEF COLOUR, TENDERNESS, AND JUICINESS.


Dr Lorinda Frylinck and Dr Phillip Strydorn

MEAT INDUSTRY CENTRE

ARC:LBD – ANIMAL PRODUCTION INSTITUTE, NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE

Private Bag X2, Irene, 0062

It was considered important for the red meat industry to know how current South African beef
processing practices influence meat quality in terms of colour, tenderness, and drip loss
(juiciness). The first phase of a large project funded by the Red Meat Research and Develop-
ment Trust of South Africa and the THRIP initiative of the Dept. of Trade and Industry managed
by the National Research Foundation was just completed at ARC-1RENE.


It is well known that the three critical time periods when meat tenderness, colour and drip
loss can be affected, are immediately pre-slaughter, during slaughter and immediately, post-
slaughter (Dransfield, 1995). The objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to 1) determine
the ideal pre- and post-slaughter procedures under typical South African conditions for South Af-
rican crossbred beef breeds and 2) to compare the meat tenderness (shear force measurements)
of these South African crossbred beef breeds under typical South African commercial abattoir
practices (chilling at 4 °C within 2 hours post-stunning).

Variations in pre-slaughter conditions and abattoir operations have a great effect on the mus-
cle energy status of the animal at point of slaughter. This could have major effects on initial ten-
derness and prolonged ageing. Many of the effects of processes that happen between the feed-
lot and abattoir are still not well established, e.g. time of feed withdrawal prior to slaugh-
ter. Consequently, problems such as dark, firm and dry meat (DFD) and poor ageing
(development of tenderness) experienced further down the chain are not understood and efforts
to rectify them are limited to the abattoir process instead of having a holistic approach through out
the production chain.

Due to the high cost of research and plainly because it is impractical to test all the possible pre
slaughter scenarios, the two most common pre-slaughter practices in South Africa were identified
and evaluated:

•   Feed withdrawal about 24 hours before slaughter and transportation for at least 50 km
    to abattoir, then offloaded, rested overnight at the abattoir (foreign place) and slaughtered early
    the next day.

•   Feed withdrawal 3 hours before slaughter, (feed withdrawal just before transport early in
    the morning), transportation for at least 50 km to abattoir (about 2 hours), then offloaded,
    rested 1.5 - 2 h and slaughtered within 3 hours after arrival at abattoir.




                                                                                        CONTINUE ON NEXT PAGE
                                                                                                            9
Post-slaughter electrical stimulation is often criticised for not giving the expected benefits and even as being
detrimental to meat quality (colour and drip loss). The reason is that operating procedures used might be
according to old advice, such as stimulating times that are too long (Thompson, 2002). On the other hand the
knowledge of the advantages that electrical stimulation can have, has not filtered through to all sectors of the
industry. New knowledge opened up renewed interest in establishing an optimum rate of glycolysis (formation
of lactic acid from glycogen and ATP – a process that ends in rigor mortis and an end pH of around 5.5). Fur-
ther studies on the optimal use of electrical stimulation are necessary and the following post-slaughter electrical
stimulation scenarios were tested: 120 sec electrical stimulation (the traditional procedure), 15 sec electrical stimu-
lation, and non-electrical stimulation (control group against which to measure the advantages if any).


One of the most advantageous aspects of electrical stimulation that was also evident in this study, is that breed
differences in tenderness of the loin muscle is reduced (became more tender) by electrical stimulation and the
beneficial effects of electrical stimulation are more evident in carcasses that tend to be genetically more tough
such as the Bos indicus breeds (Ferguson et al., 2000; Frylinck, 2003). The effect of beta agonists could
also be reduced by electrical stimulation. Thus, if you start of with a less tender carcass, for what ever reason, it is
advantageous to apply electrical stimulation under controlled circumstances. At 15 seconds electrical stimulation
the meat colour was enhanced compared to non-stimulated meat, which were darker. On the other hand
the meat from 120 seconds electrical stimulation carcasses tended to be very light in colour (Figure 4)
and had a too high drip loss and vacuum drip, and lower water binding capacity. None-electrical stimulated meat
had lower drip loss and vacuum drip and higher water binding capacity (Figure 5).

The conclusion is that careful consideration should be taken when deciding on which pre- or post-
slaughter treatment procedures to implement. Although feed withdrawal period did not significantly
affect meat tenderness or ageing, the stress and low muscle energy levels in the animals post
slaughter even at only 24 hours pre-slaughter lead to a higher incidence of DFD meat (Figure 2).
Although electrical stimulation is advantageous to meat tenderness, over–stimulation at 120 seconds
lead to pale, soft and watery meat that is less tender (Figure 3).


References
Dransfield, E_, 1999. Proc,45th ICOMST Yokohama,
Japan 44.2, 220.




                                                                          Figure 3. Incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) type
                                                                          phenomenon in carcasses stimulated for 120 seconds, 15 sec-
                                                                          onds or not stimulated at all.




Figure 4. Effect of post-slaughter electrical stimulation on the colour
characteristics of loin steaks measured at one day post-slaughter.




                                                                          Figure 5. Effect of duration of electrical stimulation post-
                                                                          slaughter on drip loss, vacuum drip and water holding capacity.


                                                                                                                                            10
ANNEXURE A




             11
ANNEXURE A (CONT)




                    12

				
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