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					       CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES
       CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE




CBO Publications
   January 2000 to December 2009
                   CBO         C




        CBO Publications
        January 2000 to December 2009




The Congress of the United States   O   Congressional Budget Office
Cover photograph by Maureen Costantino.
                                     Foreword

C        reated by the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, the
Congressional Budget Office (CBO) provides the Congress with budgetary information
and analyses of budgetary, economic, fiscal, and programmatic policies. The agency began
operation in February 1975 and published its first study in June of that year. This is a listing
of the agency’s major publications—sorted by topic—from 2000 through 2009. A companion
volume lists major publications from 1975 through 1999.

CBO’s publications are available to Members of Congress and their staff and to the general
public. Almost all of the publications throughout the agency’s history are available on its
Web site: www.cbo.gov.

Single copies of publications can be obtained free of charge from CBO’s Publications Office at
the following e-mail address or telephone number:

B   publications@cbo.gov or

B   (202) 226-2809.

Requests also may be sent by regular mail to the following address (but be aware that security
screening adds time to the delivery of mail): Publications Office, Congressional Budget
Office, Ford House Office Building, Second and D Streets SW, Washington, DC 20515.

Multiple copies of some CBO publications may be purchased online from the
U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), at http://bookstore.gpo.gov. The GPO Bookstore
may be reached by e-mailing ContactCenter@gpo.gov or by calling (1-866) 512-1800 or,
in the Washington, D.C., area, (202) 512-1800.

The collections of U.S. government depository libraries also include many CBO publications.
                            Contents
Agriculture 1
Budget and Economic Information 1
Computers and Information Sciences 9
Disaster Assistance 9
Education 9
Energy and Natural Resources 10
Environment 11
Federal Personnel 12
Financial Institutions 12
Government Management 13
Government-Sponsored Enterprises 13
Health 14
Homeland Security 16
Housing 16
Intergovernmental Relations 16
International Programs 17
Labor 18
Macroeconomic Analysis 19
National Security 21
Regulatory Analysis 26
Science and R&D 27
Social Security and Pensions 28
Taxes 29
Telecommunications 31
Trade 31
Transportation and Infrastructure 32
Welfare and Social Services 32
                               CBO Publications:
                        January 2000 to December 2009



Agriculture                                                    Budget and Economic Information
Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the United States
   (Paper), May 2009.                                          Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals
                                                               An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal
How CBO Estimates the Costs of Reducing Greenhouse-Gas            Year 2010 (Report), June 2009.
  Emissions (Background Paper), April 2009.
                                                               A Preliminary Analysis of the President’s Budget and an
The Impact of Ethanol Use on Food Prices and Greenhouse-          Update of CBO’s Budget and Economic Outlook
  Gas Emissions (Paper), April 2009.                              (Report), March 2009.
Agricultural Trade Liberalization (Brief ), November 2006.     An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal
                                                                  Year 2009 (Report), March 2008.
How Federal Policies Affect the Allocation of Water (Paper),
  August 2006.                                                 An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal
                                                                  Year 2008 (Report), March 2007.
The Effects of Liberalizing World Agricultural Trade:
  A Review of Modeling Studies (Paper), June 2006.             CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),
                                                                 November 2006.
The Effects of Liberalizing World Agricultural Trade:
  A Survey (Paper), December 2005.
                                                               An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal
Policies That Distort World Agricultural Trade:                   Year 2007 (Report), March 2006.
   Prevalence and Magnitude (Paper), August 2005.
                                                               Analyzing the Economic and Budgetary Effects of a
Limiting Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Prices Versus Caps            10 Percent Cut in Income Tax Rates (Brief ),
   (Brief ), March 2005.                                         December 2005.

Uncertainty in Analyzing Climate Change: Policy                CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),
  Implications (Paper), January 2005.                            October 2005.

Homeland Security and the Private Sector (Paper),              An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal
  December 2004.                                                  Year 2006 (Report), March 2005.

                                                               CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),
                                                                 September 2004.

                                                               An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal
                                                                  Year 2005 (Report), March 2004.
 2    CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                              BUDGET AND ECONOMIC INFORMATION



      CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),                     Intergovernmental Mandates in Federal Legislation (Brief ),
        October 2003.                                                    July 2009.

      How CBO Analyzed the Macroeconomic Effects of the               The Budgetary Treatment of Proposals to Change the
        President’s Budget (Paper), July 2003.                          Nation’s Health Insurance System (Brief ), May 2009.

      An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal   The Role of the 25 Percent Revenue Offset in Estimating the
         Year 2004 (Report), March 2003.                                Budgetary Effects of Legislation (Brief ), January 2009.

      An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal   Issues and Options in Infrastructure Investment (Paper),
         Year 2004: An Interim Report (Report), March 2003.               May 2008.

      CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),                     Capital Budgeting (Paper), May 2008.
        November 2002.
                                                                      Policy Options for the Housing and Financial Markets
      The President’s Proposal to Accrue Retirement Costs for            (Paper), April 2008.
        Federal Employees (Paper), June 2002.
                                                                      Federal Financial Guarantees Under the Small Business
      An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal      Administration’s 7(a) Program (Paper), October 2007.
         Year 2003 (Report), March 2002.
                                                                      A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2006 Under the Unfunded
      An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal      Mandates Reform Act (Report), April 2007.
         Year 2002 (Report), May 2001.
                                                                      Comparing Budget and Accounting Measures of the
      An Analysis of the President’s Mid-Session Review of the          Federal Government’s Fiscal Condition (Study),
         Budget for Fiscal Year 2001 (Corrected September 6,            December 2006.
         2000) (Report), July 2000.
                                                                      Valuing the Student Loan Consolidation Option
      An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal      (Background Paper), October 2006.
         Year 2001 (Report), April 2000.
                                                                      Factors That May Increase Future Spending from the
                                                                         Universal Service Fund (Paper), June 2006.
      Appropriations
      Subsidizing Infrastructure Investment with Tax-Preferred        A Review of CBO’s Activities Under the Unfunded Man-
        Bonds (Study), October 2009.                                     dates Reform Act, 1996 to 2005 (Report), March 2006.

      Alternatives for Future U.S. Space-Launch Capabilities          Subsidy Estimates for Guaranteed and Direct Student Loans
         (Study), October 2006.                                          (Paper), November 2005.

      A Budgetary Analysis of NASA’s New Vision for Space             The Risk Exposure of the Pension Benefit Guaranty
         Exploration (Study), September 2004.                           Corporation (Paper), September 2005.

      Paying for Iraq’s Reconstruction (Paper), January 2004.         Federal Funding for Homeland Security: An Update (Brief ),
                                                                         July 2005.
      Supplemental Appropriations in the 1990s (Study),
         March 2001.                                                  Third-Party Financing of Federal Projects (Brief ),
                                                                        June 2005.
      Budget Accounting and Process
      Subsidizing Infrastructure Investment with Tax-Preferred        Financing Universal Telephone Service (Paper),
        Bonds (Study), October 2009.                                     March 2005.


CBO
BUDGET AND ECONOMIC INFORMATION                                             CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009    3



A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2004 Under the Unfunded     The President’s Proposal to Accrue Retirement Costs for
   Mandates Reform Act (Report), March 2005.                  Federal Employees (Paper), June 2002.

Identifying Intergovernmental Mandates (Brief ),            A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2001 Under the Unfunded
   January 2005.                                               Mandates Reform Act (Paper), June 2002.

Estimating the Value of Subsidies for Federal Loans and     Accrual Budgeting for Military Retirees’ Health Care
   Loan Guarantees (Paper), August 2004.                       (Paper), March 2002.

Measures of the U.S. Government’s Fiscal Position Under     Preemptions in Federal Legislation in the 106th Congress
  Current Law (Paper), August 2004.                            (Paper), June 2001.

How CBO Analyzes the Sources of Lenders’ Interest Income    CBO’s Activities Under the Unfunded Mandates Reform
  on Guaranteed Student Loans (Background Paper),             Act, 1996–2000 (Paper), May 2001.
  June 2004.
                                                            Federal Subsidies and Housing GSEs (Study), May 2001.
A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2003 Under the Unfunded
   Mandates Reform Act (Report), April 2004.                Supplemental Appropriations in the 1990s (Study),
                                                               March 2001.
Federal Funding for Homeland Security (Brief ),
   April 2004.                                              Reforming the Federal Royalty Program for Oil and Gas
                                                               (Paper), November 2000.
Subsidy Estimates for FHA Mortgage Guarantees (Paper),
   November 2003.                                           Credit Subsidy Reestimates, 1993–1999 (Report),
                                                               September 2000.
Comparing Budgetary and Trust Fund Measures of the
  Outlook for Social Security and Medicare (Brief ),        The Budgetary Treatment of Personal Retirement Accounts
  October 2003.                                               (Paper), March 2000.

A Comparison of Tax-Credit Bonds, Other Special-Purpose     A Framework for Projecting Interest Rate Spreads and
   Bonds, and Appropriations in Financing Federal              Volatilities (Memorandum), January 2000.
   Transportation Programs (Report), June 2003.
                                                            Budget and Economic Outlook
A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2002 Under the Unfunded     Measuring the Effects of the Business Cycle on the Federal
   Mandates Reform Act (Report), May 2003.                    Budget: An Update (Report), September 2009.

The Budgetary Treatment of Leases and Public/Private        The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update (Report),
  Ventures (Paper), February 2003.                            August 2009.

Evaluating and Accounting for Federal Investment in         CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record: 2009 Update
   Corporate Stocks and Other Private Securities (Paper),     (Report), July 2009.
   January 2003.
                                                            The Treatment of Federal Receipts and Expenditures in the
The Impact of Social Security and Medicare on the Federal     National Income and Product Accounts (Report),
  Budget (Brief ), November 2002.                             June 2009.

The Impact of Trust Fund Programs on Federal Budget         The Troubled Asset Relief Program: Report on Transactions
  Surpluses and Deficits (Brief ), November 2002.             Through June 17, 2009 (Report), June 2009.

Federal Debt and the Commitments of Federal Trust Funds     Measuring the Effects of the Business Cycle on the Federal
   (Brief ), October 2002.                                    Budget (Report), June 2009.


                                                                                                                              CBO
 4    CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                          BUDGET AND ECONOMIC INFORMATION



      A Preliminary Analysis of the President’s Budget and an     The Treatment of Federal Receipts and Expenditures in the
        Update of CBO’s Budget and Economic Outlook                 National Income and Product Accounts (Report),
        (Report), March 2009.                                       August 2007.

      The Troubled Asset Relief Program: Report on Transactions   Labor Productivity: Developments Since 1995 (Paper),
        Through December 31, 2008 (Report), January 2009.            March 2007.

      The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2009 to       The Uncertainty of Budget Projections: A Discussion of Data
        2019 (Report), January 2009.                                and Methods (Paper), March 2007.

      The Outlook for Housing Starts, 2009 to 2012                The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budget Measures
        (Background Paper), November 2008.                          (Paper), February 2007.

      The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budget Measures    The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2008 to
        (Report), October 2008.                                     2017 (Report), January 2007.

      The Treatment of Federal Receipts and Expenditures in the   The Treatment of Federal Receipts and Expenditures in the
        National Income and Product Accounts (Report),              National Income and Product Accounts (Paper),
                                                                    January 2007.
        September 2008.
                                                                  CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),
      The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update (Report),
                                                                    November 2006.
        September 2008.
                                                                  The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budget Measures:
      The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budget Measures
                                                                    An Update (Paper), October 2006.
        (Web Only), April 2008.
                                                                  The Treatment of Federal Receipts and Expenditures in the
      Options for Responding to Short-Term Economic Weakness
                                                                    National Income and Product Accounts (Paper),
        (Paper), January 2008.                                      September 2006.
      Technological Change and the Growth of Health Care          The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update (Report),
         Spending (Paper), January 2008.                            August 2006.
      The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2008 to       How CBO Forecasts Income (Background Paper),
        2018 (Report), January 2008.                                August 2006.
      How CBO Projects the Real Rate of Interest on 10-Year       Projections of Net Migration to the United States (Paper),
        Treasury Notes (Background Paper), December 2007.            June 2006.

      The Long-Term Budget Outlook (Report),                      The Cost of the Consolidation Option for Student Loans
        December 2007.                                              (Paper), May 2006.

      CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),                 The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budget Measures
        November 2007.                                              (Report), March 2006.

      The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update (Report),        The Uncertainty of Budget Projections: A Discussion of Data
        August 2007.                                                and Methods (Paper), March 2006.

      The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budget Measures:   The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2007 to
        An Update (Report), August 2007.                            2016 (Report), January 2006.


CBO
BUDGET AND ECONOMIC INFORMATION                                              CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009    5



The Long-Term Budget Outlook (Report),                        A Summary of Alternative Methods for Estimating Potential
  December 2005.                                                 GDP (Background Paper), March 2004.

CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),                   The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2005 to
  October 2005.                                                 2014 (Report), January 2004.
The Treatment of Federal Receipts and Expenditures in the     The Long-Term Budget Outlook (Study), December 2003.
  National Income and Product Accounts (Report),
  September 2005.                                             The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budgets: Updated
                                                                Estimates (Report), October 2003.
The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budget Measures:
  Updated Estimates (Paper), September 2005.                  CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),
                                                                October 2003.
The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update (Report),
  August 2005.                                                The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update (Report),
What Is a Current-Law Economic Baseline? (Brief ),              August 2003.
  June 2005.
                                                              The Uncertainty of Budget Projections: A Discussion of Data
R&D and Productivity Growth (Background Paper),                 and Methods (Report), April 2003.
  June 2005.
                                                              The Standardized and Cyclically Adjusted Budgets
The Uncertainty of Budget Projections: A Discussion of Data     (Report), March 2003.
  and Methods (Report), February 2005.
                                                              The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years
The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budget Measures        2004–2013 (Report), January 2003.
  (Report), February 2005.
                                                              CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),
The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2006 to           November 2002.
  2015 (Report), January 2005.
                                                              The Standardized and Cyclically Adjusted Budgets: Updated
CBO’s Revised Method for Estimating and Projecting              Estimates (Report), September 2002.
  Potential TFP (Background Paper), January 2005.
                                                              The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update (Report),
The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update (Report),            August 2002.
  September 2004.
                                                              The Effect of Recent Changes in Labor Markets on the
The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budget Measures:
                                                                Natural Rate of Unemployment (Paper), April 2002.
  Updated Estimates (Report), September 2004.
                                                              The Standardized Budget and Other Adjusted Budget
CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),
  September 2004.                                               Measures (Paper), April 2002.

CBO’s Projections of the Labor Force (Background Paper),      CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),
  September 2004.                                               February 2002.

The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budget Measures      Uncertainties in Projecting Budget Surpluses: A Discussion
  (Report), May 2004.                                           of Data and Methods (Report), February 2002.

The Uncertainty of Budget Projections: A Discussion of        The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years
  Data and Methods (Report), April 2004.                        2003–2012 (Report), January 2002.


                                                                                                                               CBO
 6    CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                             BUDGET AND ECONOMIC INFORMATION



      The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update (Report),           How CBO Analyzes the Sources of Lenders’ Interest Income
        August 2001.                                                   on Guaranteed Student Loans (Background Paper),
                                                                       June 2004.
      CBO’s Method for Estimating Potential Output: An Update
        (Paper), August 2001.                                        Acquiring Financial Assets to Fund Future Entitlements
                                                                        (Brief ), June 2003.
      The Standardized Budget: Details of the Projections (Paper),
        April 2001.                                                  Budget Options (Report), March 2003.

      Uncertainties in Projecting Budget Surpluses: A Discussion     Budget Options (Report), February 2001.
        of Data and Methods (Paper), February 2001.
                                                                     Budget Options (Report), March 2000.
      The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years
        2002–2011 (Report), January 2001.                            Budget Options for National Defense (Report),
                                                                       March 2000.
      The Standardized Budget: Details of the Projections (Paper),
        August 2000.                                                 Long-Term Budgetary Issues
                                                                     How Slower Growth in the Labor Force Could Affect the
      The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update (Report),             Return on Capital (Background Paper), October 2009.
        July 2000.
                                                                     CBO’s Long-Term Projections for Social Security:
      The Standardized Budget: Revised Historical Estimates            2009 Update (Paper), August 2009.
        (Memorandum), June 2000.
                                                                     CBO’s Long-Term Model: An Overview (Background
      The Standardized Budget: Details of the Projections (Paper),     Paper), June 2009.
        February 2000.
                                                                     The Long-Term Budget Outlook (Report), June 2009.
      The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years
        2001–2010 (Report), February 2000.                           Updated Long-Term Projections for Social Security
                                                                       (Report), August 2008.
      The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years
        2001–2010 (Report), January 2000.                            Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy (Brief ),
                                                                        April 2008.
      Budget Options
      Budget Options, Volume 2 (Report), August 2009.                Technological Change and the Growth of Health Care
                                                                        Spending (Paper), January 2008.
      Budget Options, Volume 1: Health Care (Report),
        December 2008.                                               The Long-Term Budget Outlook (Study), December 2007.

      Key Issues in Analyzing Major Health Insurance Proposals       The Long-Term Outlook for Health Care Spending (Study),
         (Study), December 2008.                                       November 2007.

      The Deductibility of State and Local Taxes (Paper),            Potential Cost Savings from the Pre-Disaster Mitigation
        February 2008.                                                  Program (Paper), September 2007.

      Budget Options (Report), February 2007.                        Comparing Budget and Accounting Measures of the
                                                                       Federal Government’s Fiscal Condition (Paper),
      Budget Options (Report), February 2005.                          December 2006.

                                                                     Designing a Premium Support System for Medicare (Study),
                                                                        December 2006.


CBO
BUDGET AND ECONOMIC INFORMATION                                              CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009    7



Is Social Security Progressive? (Brief ), December 2006.     Baby Boomers’ Retirement Prospects: An Overview (Study),
                                                               November 2003.
Alternatives for Future U.S. Space-Launch Capabilities
   (Study), October 2006.                                    Comparing Budgetary and Trust Fund Measures of the
                                                               Outlook for Social Security and Medicare (Brief ),
Projections of Net Migration to the United States (Paper),     October 2003.
   June 2006.
                                                             Growth in Medical Spending by the Department of Defense
The Cost of the Consolidation Option for Student Loans          (Brief ), September 2003.
  (Paper), May 2006.
                                                             Growth in Medical Spending by the Department of Defense
Global Population Aging in the 21st Century and Its             (Study), September 2003.
   Economic Implications (Paper), December 2005.
                                                             The Future Growth of Social Security: It’s Not Just Society’s
The Long-Term Budget Outlook (Study), December 2005.           Aging (Brief ), July 2003.

Quantifying Uncertainty in the Analysis of Long-Term         Acquiring Financial Assets to Fund Future Entitlements
  Social Security Projections (Background Paper),               (Brief ), June 2003.
  November 2005.
                                                             Evaluating and Accounting for Federal Investment in
Long-Term Economic Effects of Chronically Large Federal         Corporate Stocks and Other Private Securities (Paper),
   Deficits (Brief ), October 2005.                             January 2003.

The Risk Exposure of the Pension Benefit Guaranty            Social Security Reform: The Use of Private Securities and the
  Corporation (Paper), September 2005.                          Need for Economic Growth (Brief ), January 2003.

Remittances: International Payments by Migrants (Paper),     The Impact of Social Security and Medicare on the Federal
  May 2005.                                                    Budget (Brief ), November 2002.

The Potential Cost of Meeting Demand for Veterans’ Health    The Impact of Trust Fund Programs on Federal Budget
  Care (Paper), March 2005.                                    Surpluses and Deficits (Brief ), November 2002.

Updated Long-Term Projections for Social Security (Paper),   Federal Debt and the Commitments of Federal Trust Funds
  March 2005.                                                   (Brief ), October 2002.

A Description of the Immigrant Population (Paper),           Social Security and the Federal Budget: The Necessity of
   November 2004.                                               Maintaining a Comprehensive Long-Range Perspective
                                                                (Brief ), August 2002.
A Budgetary Analysis of NASA’s New Vision for Space
   Exploration (Study), September 2004.                      The Looming Budgetary Impact of Society’s Aging (Brief ),
                                                               July 2002.
Measures of the U.S. Government’s Fiscal Position Under
  Current Law (Paper), August 2004.                          A 125-Year Picture of the Federal Government’s Share of the
                                                                Economy, 1950 to 2075 (Brief ), June 2002.
The Outlook for Social Security (Study), June 2004.
                                                             Uncertainty in Social Security’s Long-Term Finances:
Tax-Deferred Retirement Savings in Long-Term Revenue           A Stochastic Analysis (Paper), December 2001.
   Projections (Paper), May 2004.
                                                             The Long-Term Budget Outlook (Report), October 2000.
The Long-Term Budget Outlook (Study), December 2003.


                                                                                                                               CBO
 8    CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                          BUDGET AND ECONOMIC INFORMATION



      Sequestration Reports                                         Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
      Final Sequestration Report for Fiscal Year 2003 (Report),       Senate Version (Report), January 2007.
         December 2002.
                                                                    Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
      Sequestration Update Report for Fiscal Year 2003 (Report),      Appropriations Version (Report), January 2007.
         August 2002.
                                                                    Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
      Sequestration Preview Report for Fiscal Year 2003 (Report),     House Version (Report), January 2006.
         February 2002.
                                                                    Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
      Final Sequestration Report for Fiscal Year 2002 (Report),       Senate Version (Report), January 2006.
         January 2002.
                                                                    Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
      Sequestration Update Report for Fiscal Year 2002 (Report),      Appropriations Version (Report), January 2006.
         August 2001.
                                                                    Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
      Sequestration Preview Report for Fiscal Year 2002 (Report),     House Version (Report), January 2005.
         January 2001.
                                                                    Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
      Final Sequestration Report for Fiscal Year 2001 (Report),       Senate Version (Report), January 2005.
         December 2000.
                                                                    Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
      Sequestration Update Report for Fiscal Year 2001 (Report),      Appropriations Version (Report), January 2005.
         August 2000.
                                                                    Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
      Sequestration Preview Report for Fiscal Year 2001 (Report),     House Version (Report), January 2004.
         February 2000.
                                                                    Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
      Unauthorized Appropriations and                                 Senate Version (Report), January 2004.
      Expiring Authorizations
      Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,      Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
        House version (Report), January 2009.                         Appropriations Version (Report), January 2004.

      Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,      Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
        Senate version (Report), January 2009.                        House Version (Report), January 2003.

      Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,      Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
        Appropriations version (Report), January 2009.                Senate Version (Report), January 2003.

      Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,      Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
        House Version (Report), January 2008.                         Appropriations Version (Report), January 2003.

      Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,      Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
        Senate Version (Report), January 2008.                        House Version (Report), January 2002.

      Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,      Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
        Appropriations Version (Report), January 2008.                Senate Version (Report), January 2002.

      Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,      Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,
        House Version (Report), January 2007.                         Appropriations Version (Report), January 2002.


CBO
COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION SCIENCES                                            CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009    9



Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,      How Federal Policies Affect the Allocation of Water (Paper),
  House Version (Report), January 2001.                         August 2006.

Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,      Federal Terrorism Reinsurance: An Update (Paper),
  Senate Version (Report), January 2001.                         January 2005.

Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations,      Homeland Security and the Private Sector (Paper),
  (Report), January 2000.                                       December 2004.

                                                              Federal Reinsurance for Disasters (Study), September 2002.
Computers and Information Sciences
Evidence on the Costs and Benefits of Health Information
   Technology (Paper), May 2008.
                                                              Education
Factors That May Increase Future Spending from the            Subsidizing Infrastructure Investment with Tax-Preferred
   Universal Service Fund (Paper), June 2006.                   Bonds (Study), October 2009.

Small Bidders in License Auctions for Wireless Personal       Assigning Education Status in CBO’s Long-Term Microsim-
  Communications Services (Paper), October 2005.                 ulation Model (Background Paper), October 2008.

Financing Universal Telephone Service (Paper),                The Impact of Unauthorized Immigrants on the Budgets of
   March 2005.                                                  State and Local Governments (Paper), December 2007.

Copyright Issues in Digital Media (Paper), August 2004.       Changes in Low-Wage Labor Markets Between 1979 and
                                                                2005 (Paper), December 2006.
Is the United States Falling Behind in Adopting Broadband?
    (Brief ), February 2004.                                  Valuing the Student Loan Consolidation Option
                                                                 (Background Paper), October 2006.
Does the Residential Broadband Market Need Fixing?
  (Paper), December 2003.                                     The Cost of the Consolidation Option for Student Loans
                                                                (Paper), May 2006.
The Army’s Bandwidth Bottleneck (Study), August 2003.
                                                              The Role of Immigrants in the U.S. Labor Market (Paper),
The Role of Computer Technology in the Growth of                November 2005.
  Productivity (Paper), May 2002.
                                                              Subsidy Estimates for Guaranteed and Direct Student Loans
The Need for Better Price Indices for Communications             (Paper), November 2005.
  Investment (Paper), June 2001.
                                                              A Description of the Immigrant Population (Paper),
                                                                 November 2004.

Disaster Assistance                                           Estimating the Value of Subsidies for Federal Loans and
The National Flood Insurance Program: Factors Affecting          Loan Guarantees (Paper), August 2004.
  Actuarial Soundness (Paper), November 2009.
                                                              How CBO Analyzes the Sources of Lenders’ Interest Income
Potential Cost Savings from the Pre-Disaster Mitigation         on Guaranteed Student Loans (Background Paper),
   Program (Paper), September 2007.                             June 2004.

Value of Properties in the National Flood Insurance Program   Private and Public Contributions to Financing College
   (Paper), June 2007.                                           Education (Paper), January 2004.


                                                                                                                                CBO
 10   CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                                ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES



      Options to Expand Federal Health, Retirement, and             Value of Properties in the National Flood Insurance Program
        Education Activities (Memorandum), June 2000.                  (Paper), June 2007.

      An Economic Analysis of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997       Trade-Offs in Allocating Allowances for CO2 Emissions
         (Paper), April 2000.                                          (Brief ), April 2007.

                                                                    Evaluating the Role of Prices and R&D in Reducing Carbon
      Energy and Natural Resources                                     Dioxide Emissions (Paper), September 2006.
      The Costs of Reducing Greenhouse-Gas Emissions (Brief ),
        November 2009.                                              How Federal Policies Affect the Allocation of Water (Paper),
                                                                      August 2006.
      Subsidizing Infrastructure Investment with Tax-Preferred
        Bonds (Study), October 2009.                                The Economic Effects of Recent Increases in Energy Prices
                                                                      (Paper), July 2006.
      The Economic Effects of Legislation to Reduce Greenhouse-
        Gas Emissions (Report), September 2009.                     China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on
                                                                      U.S. Petroleum Markets (Paper), April 2006.
      How Regulatory Standards Can Affect a Cap-and-Trade
        Program for Greenhouse Gases (Brief ), September 2009.      Small Bidders in License Auctions for Wireless Personal
                                                                      Communications Services (Paper), October 2005.
      The Use of Offsets to Reduce Greenhouse Gases (Brief ),
                                                                    Limiting Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Prices Versus Caps
        August 2009.
                                                                       (Brief ), March 2005.
      Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the United States
                                                                    Uncertainty in Analyzing Climate Change: Policy
         (Paper), May 2009.
                                                                      Implications (Paper), January 2005.
      How CBO Estimates the Costs of Reducing Greenhouse-Gas
                                                                    Homeland Security and the Private Sector (Paper),
        Emissions (Background Paper), April 2009.
                                                                      December 2004.
      The Impact of Ethanol Use on Food Prices and Greenhouse-
                                                                    Fuel Economy Standards Versus a Gasoline Tax (Brief ),
        Gas Emissions (Paper), April 2009.
                                                                       March 2004.
      Using Pricing to Reduce Traffic Congestion (Study),
                                                                    The Economic Costs of Fuel Economy Standards Versus a
         March 2009.                                                  Gasoline Tax (Study), December 2003.
      Climate-Change Policy and CO2 Emissions from Passenger        Issues in the Design of a Cap-and-Trade Program for Carbon
         Vehicles (Brief ), October 2008.                               Emissions (Brief ), November 2003.
      Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity (Study),       Bonding for Reclaiming Federal Lands (Paper),
        May 2008.                                                     October 2003.

      Policy Options for Reducing CO2 Emissions (Study),            Prospects for Distributed Electricity Generation (Paper),
         February 2008.                                                September 2003.

      Effects of Gasoline Prices on Driving Behavior and Vehicle    Shifting the Cost Burden of a Carbon Cap-and-Trade
         Markets (Study), January 2008.                                Program (Paper), July 2003.

      The Potential for Carbon Sequestration in the United States   Addressing the Uncertain Prospect of Climate Change
        (Paper), September 2007.                                      (Brief ), April 2003.


CBO
ENVIRONMENT                                                                 CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009   11



The Economics of Climate Change: A Primer (Study),          Climate-Change Policy and CO2 Emissions from Passenger
  April 2003.                                                  Vehicles (Brief ), October 2008.

The Budgetary Treatment of Leases and Public/Private        Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity (Study),
  Ventures (Paper), February 2003.                            May 2008.

Reducing Gasoline Consumption: Three Policy Options         Policy Options for Reducing CO2 Emissions (Study),
   (Study), November 2002.                                     February 2008.

Causes and Lessons of the California Electricity Crisis     Effects of Gasoline Prices on Driving Behavior and Vehicle
  (Paper), September 2001.                                     Markets (Study), January 2008.

An Evaluation of Cap-and-Trade Programs for Reducing        The Potential for Carbon Sequestration in the United States
   U.S. Carbon Emissions (Study), June 2001.                  (Paper), September 2007.

Reforming the Federal Royalty Program for Oil and Gas       Value of Properties in the National Flood Insurance Program
   (Paper), November 2000.                                     (Paper), June 2007.

Who Gains and Who Pays Under Carbon-Allowance               Trade-Offs in Allocating Allowances for CO2 Emissions
  Trading? The Distributional Effects of Alternative           (Brief ), April 2007.
  Policy Designs (Study), June 2000.
                                                            Evaluating the Role of Prices and R&D in Reducing Carbon
                                                               Dioxide Emissions (Paper), September 2006.
Environment
The Costs of Reducing Greenhouse-Gas Emissions (Brief ),    How Federal Policies Affect the Allocation of Water (Paper),
  November 2009.                                              August 2006.

The National Flood Insurance Program: Factors Affecting     China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on
  Actuarial Soundness (Paper), November 2009.                 U.S. Petroleum Markets (Paper), April 2006.

Subsidizing Infrastructure Investment with Tax-Preferred    Limiting Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Prices Versus Caps
  Bonds (Study), October 2009.                                 (Brief ), March 2005.

The Economic Effects of Legislation to Reduce Greenhouse-   Uncertainty in Analyzing Climate Change: Policy
  Gas Emissions (Report), September 2009.                     Implications (Paper), January 2005.

How Regulatory Standards Can Affect a Cap-and-Trade         Fuel Economy Standards Versus a Gasoline Tax (Brief ),
  Program for Greenhouse Gases (Brief ), September 2009.       March 2004.

The Use of Offsets to Reduce Greenhouse Gases (Brief ),     The Economic Costs of Fuel Economy Standards Versus a
  August 2009.                                                Gasoline Tax (Study), December 2003.

Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the United States    Issues in the Design of a Cap-and-Trade Program for Carbon
   (Paper), May 2009.                                           Emissions (Brief ), November 2003.

How CBO Estimates the Costs of Reducing Greenhouse-Gas      Bonding for Reclaiming Federal Lands (Paper),
  Emissions (Background Paper), April 2009.                   October 2003.

The Impact of Ethanol Use on Food Prices and Greenhouse-    Prospects for Distributed Electricity Generation (Paper),
  Gas Emissions (Paper), April 2009.                           September 2003.


                                                                                                                              CBO
 12   CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                                          FEDERAL PERSONNEL



      Shifting the Cost Burden of a Carbon Cap-and-Trade          The Warrant Officer Ranks: Adding Flexibility to Military
         Program (Paper), July 2003.                                Personnel Management (Paper), March 2002.

      Addressing the Uncertain Prospect of Climate Change         Changes in Federal Civilian Employment: An Update
        (Brief ), April 2003.                                       (Paper), May 2001.

      The Economics of Climate Change: A Primer (Study),
        April 2003.                                               Financial Institutions
                                                                  The Troubled Asset Relief Program: Report on Transactions
      Future Investment in Drinking Water and Wastewater            Through December 31, 2008 (Report), January 2009.
         Infrastructure (Study), November 2002.
                                                                  Issues and Options in Infrastructure Investment (Paper),
      Reducing Gasoline Consumption: Three Policy Options             May 2008.
         (Study), November 2002.
                                                                  Policy Options for the Housing and Financial Markets
      Causes and Lessons of the California Electricity Crisis        (Paper), April 2008.
        (Paper), September 2001.
                                                                  Options for Responding to Short-Term Economic Weakness
      An Evaluation of Cap-and-Trade Programs for Reducing          (Paper), January 2008.
         U.S. Carbon Emissions (Study), June 2001.
                                                                  Federal Financial Guarantees Under the Small Business
      Reforming the Federal Royalty Program for Oil and Gas          Administration’s 7(a) Program (Paper), October 2007.
         (Paper), November 2000.
                                                                  Federal Reinsurance for Terrorism Risks: Issues in
      Who Gains and Who Pays Under Carbon-Allowance
                                                                     Reauthorization (Paper), August 2007.
        Trading? The Distributional Effects of Alternative
        Policy Designs (Study), June 2000.                        Value of Properties in the National Flood Insurance Program
                                                                     (Paper), June 2007.
      Federal Personnel                                           Valuing the Student Loan Consolidation Option
      A Review of the Department of Defense’s National Security
         Personnel System (Paper), November 2008.                    (Background Paper), October 2006.

      Characteristics and Pay of Federal Civilian Employees       The Cost of the Consolidation Option for Student Loans
        (Paper), March 2007.                                        (Paper), May 2006.

      Comparing the Pay of Federal and Nonfederal Law             Measuring the Capital Positions of Fannie Mae and Freddie
        Enforcement Officers (Paper), August 2005.                  Mac (Paper), June 2006.

      Comparing the Pay of Federal and Nonprofit Executives:      The Risk Exposure of the Pension Benefit Guaranty
        An Update (Paper), July 2003.                               Corporation (Paper), September 2005.

      Measuring Differences Between Federal and Private Pay       A Guide to Understanding the Pension Benefit Guaranty
        (Paper), November 2002.                                      Corporation (Paper), September 2005.

      The President’s Proposal to Accrue Retirement Costs for     Remittances: International Payments by Migrants (Paper),
        Federal Employees (Paper), June 2002.                       May 2005.

      Accrual Budgeting for Military Retirees’ Health Care        Federal Terrorism Reinsurance: An Update (Paper),
         (Paper), March 2002.                                        January 2005.


CBO
GOVERNMENT MANAGEMENT                                                           CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009   13



Estimating the Value of Subsidies for Federal Loans and         Issues and Options in Infrastructure Investment (Paper),
   Loan Guarantees (Paper), August 2004.                           May 2008.

The Effects of Tort Reform: Evidence from the States (Paper),   Value of Properties in the National Flood Insurance Program
  June 2004.                                                       (Paper), June 2007.

How CBO Analyzes the Sources of Lenders’ Interest Income        Characteristics and Pay of Federal Civilian Employees
  on Guaranteed Student Loans (Background Paper),                 (Paper), March 2007.
  June 2004.
                                                                The Cost of the Consolidation Option for Student Loans
Accounting for Employee Stock Options (Paper),                    (Paper), May 2006.
   April 2004.
                                                                Comparing the Pay of Federal and Nonfederal Law
Limiting Tort Liability for Medical Malpractice (Brief ),         Enforcement Officers (Paper), August 2005.
   January 2004.
                                                                Homeland Security and the Private Sector (Paper),
The Economics of U.S. Tort Liability: A Primer (Study),           December 2004.
  October 2003.
                                                                The Past and Future of U.S. Passenger Rail Service (Study),
Effects of Repealing Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s SEC           September 2003.
   Exemptions (Paper), May 2003.
                                                                Comparing the Pay of Federal and Nonprofit Executives:
Federal Reinsurance for Disasters (Study), September 2002.        An Update (Paper), July 2003.

Raising Federal Deposit Insurance Coverage (Paper),             The Budgetary Treatment of Leases and Public/Private
   May 2002.                                                      Ventures (Paper), February 2003.

U.S. Banks’ Exposure to Foreign Financial Losses (Paper),       Measuring Differences Between Federal and Private Pay
   May 2002.                                                      (Paper), November 2002.

Federal Reinsurance for Terrorism Risks (Paper),                The President’s Proposal to Accrue Retirement Costs for
   October 2001.                                                  Federal Employees (Paper), June 2002.

Federal Subsidies and the Housing GSEs (Study),                 Accrual Budgeting for Military Retirees’ Health Care
   May 2001.                                                       (Paper), March 2002.

Interest Rate Differentials Between Jumbo and Conforming        Credit Subsidy Reestimates, 1993–1999 (Report),
   Mortgages, 1995–2000 (Paper), May 2001.                         September 2000.

Personal Bankruptcy: A Literature Review (Paper),               The One-Courtroom, One-Judge Policy: A Preliminary
   September 2000.                                                Review (Paper), April 2000.


Government Management                                           Government-Sponsored Enterprises
The National Flood Insurance Program: Factors Affecting         The National Flood Insurance Program: Factors Affecting
  Actuarial Soundness (Paper), November 2009.                     Actuarial Soundness (Paper), November 2009.

Subsidizing Infrastructure Investment with Tax-Preferred        An Overview of Federal Support for Housing (Brief ),
  Bonds (Study), October 2009.                                    November 2009.


                                                                                                                                  CBO
 14   CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                                                      HEALTH



      Issues and Options in Infrastructure Investment (Paper),     Budget Options, Volume 1: Health Care (Study),
         May 2008.                                                   December 2008.

      Policy Options for the Housing and Financial Markets         Key Issues in Analyzing Major Health Insurance Proposals
         (Paper), April 2008.                                         (Study), December 2008.

      Options for Responding to Short-Term Economic Weakness       U.S. Policy Regarding Pandemic-Influenza Vaccines
        (Paper), January 2008.                                        (Paper), September 2008.

      Measuring the Capital Positions of Fannie Mae and Freddie    Increasing Transparency in the Pricing of Health Care
        Mac (Paper), June 2006.                                       Services and Pharmaceuticals (Brief ), June 2008.

      Estimating the Value of Subsidies for Federal Loans and      Accounting for Sources of Projected Growth in Federal
         Loan Guarantees (Paper), August 2004.                        Spending on Medicare and Medicaid (Brief ),
                                                                      May 2008.
      Effects of Repealing Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s SEC
         Exemptions (Paper), May 2003.                             Evidence on the Costs and Benefits of Health Information
                                                                      Technology (Paper), May 2008.
      The Budgetary Treatment of Leases and Public/Private
        Ventures (Paper), February 2003.                           Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy (Brief ),
                                                                      April 2008.
      Federal Subsidies and the Housing GSEs (Study),
         May 2001.                                                 Geographic Variation in Health Care Spending (Paper),
                                                                     February 2008.
      Interest Rate Differentials Between Jumbo and Conforming
         Mortgages, 1995–2000 (Paper), May 2001.                   Technological Change and the Growth of Health Care
                                                                      Spending (Paper), January 2008.

                                                                   The Health Care System for Veterans: An Interim Report
      Health                                                         (Paper), December 2007.
      Promotional Spending for Prescription Drugs (Brief ),
         December 2009.                                            The Impact of Unauthorized Immigrants on the Budgets of
                                                                     State and Local Governments (Paper), December 2007.
      Pharmaceutical R&D and the Evolving Market for Drugs
        (Brief ), October 2009.                                    Research on the Comparative Effectiveness of Medical
                                                                      Treatments: Issues and Options for an Expanded Federal
      Quality Initiatives Undertaken by the Veterans Health           Role (Paper), December 2007.
        Administration (Paper), August 2009.
                                                                   The Long-Term Outlook for Health Care Spending (Study),
      Effects of Changes to the Health Insurance System on Labor     November 2007.
         Markets (Brief ), July 2009.
                                                                   CBO’s Health Insurance Simulation Model: A Technical
      CBO’s Long-Term Model: An Overview (Background                 Description (Background Paper), October 2007.
        Paper), June 2009.
                                                                   The Impact of Medicare’s Payment Rates on the Volume of
      The Effects of Proposals to Increase Cost Sharing in           Services Provided by Skilled Nursing Facilities
        TRICARE (Paper), June 2009.                                  (Background Paper), July 2007.

      The Budgetary Treatment of Proposals to Change the           Factors Underlying the Growth in Medicare’s Spending for
        Nation’s Health Insurance System (Brief ), May 2009.          Physicians’ Services (Background Paper), June 2007.


CBO
HEALTH                                                                        CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009   15



Medicare Advantage: Private Health Plans in Medicare          CBO’s Analysis of Regional Preferred Provider Organizations
  (Brief ), June 2007.                                          Under the Medicare Modernization Act (Paper),
                                                                October 2004.
The State Children’s Health Insurance Program (Paper),
  May 2007.                                                   A Detailed Description of CBO’s Cost Estimate for the
                                                                 Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit (Paper), July 2004.
Prescription Drug Pricing in the Private Sector (Paper),
   January 2007.                                              The Effects of Tort Reform: Evidence from the States (Paper),
                                                                June 2004.
Consumer-Directed Health Plans: Potential Effects on
  Health Care Spending and Outcomes (Study),                  Financing Long-Term Care for the Elderly (Paper),
  December 2006.                                                 April 2004.

Designing a Premium Support System for Medicare (Study),      Would Prescription Drug Importation Reduce U.S. Drug
   December 2006.                                               Spending? (Brief ), April 2004.

Nonprofit Hospitals and the Provision of Community            Limiting Tort Liability for Medical Malpractice (Brief ),
  Benefits (Paper), December 2006.                               January 2004.

Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry       The Long-Term Budget Outlook (Study), December 2003.
   (Study), October 2006.
                                                              The Economics of U.S. Tort Liability: A Primer (Study),
The Sustainable Growth Rate Formula for Setting                 October 2003.
  Medicare’s Physician Payment Rates (Brief ),
  September 2006.                                             Comparing Budgetary and Trust Fund Measures of the
                                                                Outlook for Social Security and Medicare (Brief ),
Medical Malpractice Tort Limits and Health Care Spending        October 2003.
  (Background Paper), April 2006.
                                                              Growth in Medical Spending by the Department of Defense
The Long-Term Budget Outlook (Report),                           (Brief ), September 2003.
  December 2005.
                                                              Growth in Medical Spending by the Department of Defense
The Price Sensitivity of Demand for Nongroup Health              (Study), September 2003.
  Insurance (Background Paper), August 2005.
                                                              How Many People Lack Health Insurance and for How
Prices for Brand-Name Drugs Under Selected Federal              Long? (Brief ), May 2003.
   Programs (Paper), June 2005.
                                                              How Many People Lack Health Insurance and for How
High-Cost Medicare Beneficiaries (Paper), May 2005.             Long? (Paper), May 2003.

Changes in Participation in Means-Tested Programs (Brief ),   The Budgetary Treatment of Leases and Public/Private
  April 2005.                                                   Ventures (Paper), February 2003.

The Potential Cost of Meeting Demand for Veterans’ Health     The Impact of Social Security and Medicare on the Federal
  Care (Paper), March 2005.                                     Budget (Brief ), November 2002.

Medicaid’s Reimbursement to Pharmacies for Prescription       The Impact of Trust Fund Programs on Federal Budget
  Drugs (Paper), December 2004.                                 Surpluses and Deficits (Brief ), November 2002.

Homeland Security and the Private Sector (Paper),             Issues in Designing a Prescription Drug Benefit for Medicare
  December 2004.                                                  (Study), October 2002.


                                                                                                                                CBO
 16   CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                                            HOMELAND SECURITY



      Social Security and the Federal Budget: The Necessity of        Housing
         Maintaining a Comprehensive Long-Range Perspective           An Overview of Federal Support for Housing (Brief ),
         (Brief ), July 2002.                                           November 2009.

      Options to Expand Federal Health, Retirement, and               The Outlook for Housing Starts, 2009 to 2012
        Education Activities (Memorandum), June 2000.                   (Background Paper), November 2008.

      An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal   Policy Options for the Housing and Financial Markets
         Year 2001 (Report), April 2000.                                 (Paper), April 2008.

      Increasing Small-Firm Health Insurance Coverage Through         Options for Responding to Short-Term Economic Weakness
         Association Health Plans and Health Marts (Paper),             (Paper), January 2008.
         January 2000.
                                                                      Housing Wealth and Consumer Spending (Background
                                                                        Paper), January 2007.
      Homeland Security
      Federal Reinsurance for Terrorism Risks: Issues in              Taxing Capital Income: Effective Rates and Approaches to
         Reauthorization (Paper), August 2007.                           Reform (Paper), October 2005.

      Projections of Net Migration to the United States (Paper),      Estimating the Value of Subsidies for Federal Loans and
         June 2006.                                                      Loan Guarantees (Paper), August 2004.

      Immigration Policy in the United States (Paper),                Subsidy Estimates for FHA Mortgage Guarantees (Paper),
        February 2006.                                                   November 2003.

      Federal Funding for Homeland Security: An Update (Brief ),      Federal Subsidies and the Housing GSEs (Study),
         July 2005.                                                      May 2001.

      Comparing the Pay of Federal and Nonfederal Law                 Interest Rate Differentials Between Jumbo and Conforming
        Enforcement Officers (Paper), August 2005.                       Mortgages, 1995–2000 (Paper), May 2001.

      Remittances: International Payments by Migrants (Paper),
        May 2005.
                                                                      Intergovernmental Relations
      Federal Terrorism Reinsurance: An Update (Paper),               Subsidizing Infrastructure Investment with Tax-Preferred
         January 2005.                                                  Bonds (Study), October 2009.

      Homeland Security and the Private Sector (Paper),               Intergovernmental Mandates in Federal Legislation (Brief ),
        December 2004.                                                   July 2009.

      A Description of the Immigrant Population (Paper),              A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2008 Under the Unfunded
         November 2004.                                                 Mandates Reform Act (Report), March 2009.

      Federal Funding for Homeland Security (Brief ),                 A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2007 Under the Unfunded
         April 2004.                                                     Mandates Reform Act (Report), March 2008.

      The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years                   The Deductibility of State and Local Taxes (Paper),
        2003–2012 (Report), January 2002.                               February 2008.




CBO
INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS                                                     CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009   17



The Impact of Unauthorized Immigrants on the Budgets of    International Programs
  State and Local Governments (Paper), December 2007.      Options for Deploying Missile Defenses in Europe (Study),
                                                             February 2009.
A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2006 Under the Unfunded
   Mandates Reform Act (Report), April 2007.               How Changes in the Value of the Chinese Currency Affect
                                                             U.S. Imports (Paper), July 2008.
A Review of CBO’s Activities Under the Unfunded
   Mandates Reform Act, 1996 to 2005 (Report),             Agricultural Trade Liberalization (Brief ), November 2006.
   March 2006.
                                                           Projections of Net Migration to the United States (Paper),
A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2004 Under the Unfunded       June 2006.
   Mandates Reform Act (Report), March 2005.
                                                           The Effects of Liberalizing World Agricultural Trade:
Identifying Intergovernmental Mandates (Brief ),             A Review of Modeling Studies (Paper), June 2006.
   January 2005.
                                                           China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on
A Description of the Immigrant Population (Paper),           U.S. Petroleum Markets (Paper), April 2006.
   November 2004.
                                                           Immigration Policy in the United States (Paper),
A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2003 Under the Unfunded      February 2006.
   Mandates Reform Act (Report), April 2004.
                                                           The Effects of Liberalizing World Agricultural Trade:
Economic Issues in Taxing Internet and Mail-Order Sales      A Survey (Paper), December 2005.
   (Paper), October 2003.
                                                           Global Population Aging in the 21st Century and Its
Bonding for Reclaiming Federal Lands (Paper),                 Economic Implications (Paper), December 2005.
  October 2003.
                                                           The Role of Immigrants in the U.S. Labor Market (Paper),
The Economics of U.S. Tort Liability: A Primer (Study),      November 2005.
  October 2003.
                                                           Why Does U.S. Investment Abroad Earn Higher Returns
A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2002 Under the Unfunded      Than Foreign Investment in the United States? (Brief ),
   Mandates Reform Act (Report), May 2003.                   November 2005.

The President’s Proposal to Accrue Retirement Costs for    Policies That Distort World Agricultural Trade:
  Federal Employees (Paper), June 2002.                       Prevalence and Magnitude (Paper), August 2005.

A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2001 Under the Unfunded    Recent Shifts in Financing the U.S. Current-Account Deficit
   Mandates Reform Act (Paper), June 2002.                    (Brief ), July 2005.

Preemptions in Federal Legislation in the 106th Congress   Remittances: International Payments by Migrants (Paper),
   (Paper), June 2001.                                       May 2005.

CBO’s Activities Under the Unfunded Mandates Reform        A Description of the Immigrant Population (Paper),
  Act, 1996–2000 (Paper), May 2001.                           November 2004.

An Assessment of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act in       The Decline in the U.S. Current-Account Balance Since
   1999 (Paper), March 2000.                                 1991 (Brief ), August 2004.

                                                           Options for Changing the Army’s Overseas Basing (Study),
                                                             May 2004.


                                                                                                                             CBO
 18   CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                                                       LABOR



      Paying for Iraq’s Reconstruction (Paper), January 2004.       Is Social Security Progressive? (Brief ), December 2006.

      Addressing the Uncertain Prospect of Climate Change           Projecting Labor Force Participation and Earnings in CBO’s
        (Brief ), April 2003.                                          Long-Term Microsimulation Model (Background
                                                                       Paper), October 2006.
      The Economics of Climate Change: A Primer (Study),
        April 2003.                                                 CBO’s Online Guide to Tax Incentives for Retirement
                                                                      Saving (Report), June 2006.
      NATO Burdensharing After Enlargement (Paper),
        August 2001.                                                Projections of Net Migration to the United States (Paper),
                                                                       June 2006.
      Integrating New Allies into NATO (Paper), October 2000.
                                                                    Immigration Policy in the United States (Paper),
                                                                      February 2006.
      Labor
      Changes in the Distribution of Workers’ Annual Earnings       Global Population Aging in the 21st Century and Its
        Between 1979 and 2007 (Paper), October 2009.                   Economic Implications (Paper), December 2005.

      The Economic Effects of Legislation to Reduce Greenhouse-     The Role of Immigrants in the U.S. Labor Market (Paper),
        Gas Emissions (Report), September 2009.                       November 2005.

      CBO’s Long-Term Model: An Overview (Background                The Risk Exposure of the Pension Benefit Guaranty
        Paper), June 2009.                                            Corporation (Paper), September 2005.

      Factors Underlying the Decline in Manufacturing               A Guide to Understanding the Pension Benefit Guaranty
         Employment Since 2000 (Brief ), December 2008.                Corporation (Paper), September 2005.

      Assigning Education Status in CBO’s Long-Term Microsim-       Comparing the Pay of Federal and Nonfederal Law
         ulation Model (Background Paper), October 2008.              Enforcement Officers (Paper), August 2005.

      Recent Trends in the Variability of Individual Earnings and   Employment During the 2001–2003 Recovery
         Household Income (Paper), June 2008.                         (Background Paper), August 2005.

      Long-Term Unemployment (Paper), October 2007.                 Remittances: International Payments by Migrants (Paper),
                                                                      May 2005.
      Changes in the Economic Resources of Low-Income
        Households with Children (Paper), May 2007.                 The Effects of Reserve Call-Ups on Civilian Employers
                                                                      (Paper), May 2005.
      The Effect of Tax Changes on Labor Supply in CBO’s
        Microsimulation Tax Model (Background Paper),               A Description of the Immigrant Population (Paper),
        April 2007.                                                    November 2004.

      Characteristics and Pay of Federal Civilian Employees         Disability and Retirement: The Early Exit of Baby Boomers
        (Paper), March 2007.                                           from the Labor Force (Paper), November 2004.

      Labor Productivity: Developments Since 1995 (Paper),          What Is Happening to Youth Employment Rates?
         March 2007.                                                  (Background Paper), November 2004.

      Changes in Low-Wage Labor Markets Between 1979 and            CBO’s Projections of the Labor Force (Background Paper),
        2005 (Paper), December 2006.                                  September 2004.


CBO
MACROECONOMIC ANALYSIS                                                        CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009   19



Accounting for Employee Stock Options (Paper),                Macroeconomic Analysis
   April 2004.                                                Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvest-
                                                                 ment Act on Employment and Economic Output as of
Family Income of Unemployment Insurance Recipients               September 2009 (Report), November 2009.
  (Paper), March 2004.
                                                              How Slower Growth in the Labor Force Could Affect the
What Accounts for the Decline in Manufacturing                  Return on Capital (Background Paper), October 2009.
  Employment? (Brief ), February 2004.
                                                              The Economic Effects of Legislation to Reduce Greenhouse-
Is the United States Falling Behind in Adopting Broadband?      Gas Emissions (Report), September 2009.
    (Brief ), February 2004.
                                                              Will the Demand for Assets Fall When the Baby Boomers
Limiting Tort Liability for Medical Malpractice (Brief ),       Retire? (Background Paper), September 2009.
   January 2004.
                                                              Measuring the Effects of the Business Cycle on the Federal
Does the Residential Broadband Market Need Fixing?              Budget: An Update (Report), September 2009.
  (Paper), December 2003.                                     CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record: 2009 Update
                                                                (Report), July 2009.
The Economics of U.S. Tort Liability: A Primer (Study),
  October 2003.                                               The Treatment of Federal Receipts and Expenditures in the
                                                                National Income and Product Accounts (Report),
The Past and Future of U.S. Passenger Rail Service (Study),     June 2009.
  September 2003.
                                                              Did the 2008 Tax Rebates Stimulate Short-Term Growth?
Effects of Repealing Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s SEC         (Brief ), June 2009.
   Exemptions (Paper), May 2003.
                                                              Measuring the Effects of the Business Cycle on the Federal
Options to Extend the Duration of Unemployment Insurance        Budget (Report), June 2009.
  Benefits (Paper), September 2002.
                                                              A Preliminary Analysis of the President’s Budget and an
The Effect of Recent Changes in Labor Markets on the             Update of CBO’s Budget and Economic Outlook
  Natural Rate of Unemployment (Paper), April 2002.              (Report), March 2009.

The Warrant Officer Ranks: Adding Flexibility to Military     The Outlook for Housing Starts, 2009 to 2012
                                                                (Background Paper), November 2008.
  Personnel Management (Paper), February 2002.
                                                              The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budget Measures
Federal Reinsurance for Terrorism Risks (Paper),
                                                                (Report), October 2008.
   October 2001.
                                                              The Treatment of Federal Receipts and Expenditures in the
Causes and Lessons of the California Electricity Crisis
                                                                National Income and Product Accounts (Report),
  (Paper), September 2001.                                      September 2008.
An Economic Analysis of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997       How Changes in the Value of the Chinese Currency Affect
   (Paper), April 2000.                                         U.S. Imports (Paper), July 2008.

A Framework for Projecting Interest Rate Spreads and          Policy Options for the Housing and Financial Markets
   Volatilities (Memorandum), January 2000.                      (Paper), April 2008.




                                                                                                                                CBO
 20   CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                                     MACROECONOMIC ANALYSIS



      The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budget Measures      Analyzing the Economic and Budgetary Effects of a
        (Web Only), April 2008.                                       10 Percent Cut in Income Tax Rates (Brief ),
                                                                      December 2005.
      Options for Responding to Short-Term Economic Weakness
        (Paper), January 2008.                                      Why Does U.S. Investment Abroad Earn Higher Returns
                                                                      Than Foreign Investment in the United States? (Brief ),
      How CBO Projects the Real Rate of Interest on 10-Year
                                                                      November 2005.
        Treasury Notes (Background Paper), December 2007.
                                                                    Long-Term Economic Effects of Chronically Large Federal
      CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record: 2007 Update
        (Report), November 2007.                                       Deficits (Brief ), October 2005.

      The Cyclically Adjusted and Standardized Budget Measures:     CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),
        An Update (Report), August 2007.                              October 2005.

      The Treatment of Federal Receipts and Expenditures in the     The Treatment of Federal Receipts and Expenditures in the
        National Income and Product Accounts (Report),                National Income and Product Accounts (Report),
        August 2007.                                                  September 2005.

      Explaining the Consumer Price Index (Brief ), June 2007.      Employment During the 2001–2003 Recovery
                                                                      (Background Paper), August 2005.
      Will the U.S. Current Account Have a Hard or Soft
        Landing? (Brief ), June 2007.                               Recent Shifts in Financing the U.S. Current-Account Deficit
                                                                       (Brief ), July 2005.
      The Uncertainty of Budget Projections: A Discussion of Data
        and Methods (Paper), March 2007.                            R&D and Productivity Growth (Background Paper),
                                                                      June 2005.
      Labor Productivity: Developments Since 1995 (Paper),
         March 2007.                                                What Is a Current-Law Economic Baseline? (Brief ),
                                                                      June 2005.
      The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2008 to
        2017 (Report), January 2007.                                The Uncertainty of Budget Projections: A Discussion of
                                                                      Data and Methods (Report), February 2005.
      Housing Wealth and Consumer Spending (Background
        Paper), January 2007.
                                                                    CBO’s Revised Method for Estimating and Projecting
      CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),                     Potential TFP (Background Paper), January 2005.
        November 2006.
                                                                    A Description of the Immigrant Population (Paper),
      The Treatment of Federal Receipts and Expenditures in the        November 2004.
        National Income and Product Accounts (Web Only),
        September 2006.                                             CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),
                                                                      September 2004.
      How CBO Forecasts Income (Background Paper),
        August 2006.                                                CBO’s Projections of the Labor Force (Background Paper),
                                                                      September 2004.
      The Uncertainty of Budget Projections: A Discussion of Data
        and Methods (Paper), March 2006.                            The Decline in the U.S. Current-Account Balance Since
                                                                      1991 (Brief ), August 2004.
      The Economic Effects of Recent Increases in Energy Prices
        (Paper), July 2006.                                         Retirement Age and the Need for Saving (Brief ), May 2004.


CBO
NATIONAL SECURITY                                                               CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009   21



The Uncertainty of Budget Projections: A Discussion of          The Role of Computer Technology in the Growth of
  Data and Methods (Report), April 2004.                          Productivity (Paper), May 2002.

A Summary of Alternative Methods for Estimating Potential       The Effect of Recent Changes in Labor Markets on the
   GDP (Background Paper), March 2004.                            Natural Rate of Unemployment (Paper), April 2002.

The Retirement Prospects of the Baby Boomers (Brief ),          Uncertainties in Projecting Budget Surpluses: A Discussion
  March 2004.                                                     of Data and Methods (Report), February 2002.

What Accounts for the Decline in Manufacturing                  Economic Stimulus: Evaluating Proposed Changes in Tax
  Employment? (Brief ), February 2004.                             Policy (Paper), January 2002.

Baby Boomers’ Retirement Prospects: An Overview (Study),        Social Security: A Primer (Study), September 2001
  November 2003.                                                   (Released December 2001).

Comparing Budgetary and Trust Fund Measures of the              CBO’s Method for Estimating Potential Output: An Update
  Outlook for Social Security and Medicare (Brief ),              (Paper), August 2001.
  October 2003.
                                                                The Need for Better Price Indices for Communications
CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),                       Investment (Paper), June 2001.
  October 2003.
                                                                Uncertainties in Projecting Budget Surpluses: A Discussion
How CBO Analyzed the Macroeconomic Effects of the                 of Data and Methods (Report), February 2001.
  President’s Budget (Paper), July 2003.
                                                                The Long-Term Budget Outlook (Report), October 2000.
The Effects of NAFTA on U.S.–Mexican Trade and GDP
                                                                Personal Bankruptcy: A Literature Review (Paper),
  (Paper), May 2003.
                                                                   September 2000.
The Uncertainty of Budget Projections: A Discussion of Data
                                                                The Standardized Budget: Revised Historical Estimates
  and Methods (Report), April 2003.
                                                                  (Memorandum), June 2000.
Evaluating and Accounting for Federal Investment in
                                                                Causes and Consequences of the Trade Deficit: An Overview
   Corporate Stocks and Other Private Securities (Paper),
                                                                  (Memorandum), March 2000.
   January 2003.
                                                                A Framework for Projecting Interest Rate Spreads and
Social Security Reform: The Use of Private Securities and the      Volatilities (Memorandum), January 2000.
   Need for Economic Growth (Brief ), January 2003.

The Impact of Social Security and Medicare on the Federal       National Security
  Budget (Brief ), November 2002.
                                                                Defense Budgets
The Impact of Trust Fund Programs on Federal Budget             Options for Combining the Navy’s and the Coast Guard’s
  Surpluses and Deficits (Brief ), November 2002.                 Small Combatant Programs (Paper), July 2009.

CBO’s Economic Forecasting Record (Report),                     The Effects of Proposals to Increase Cost Sharing in
  November 2002.                                                  TRICARE (Paper), June 2009.

Federal Debt and the Commitments of Federal Trust Funds         An Analysis of the Army’s Transformation Programs and
   (Brief ), October 2002.                                        Possible Alternatives (Study), June 2009.


                                                                                                                                  CBO
 22   CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                                            NATIONAL SECURITY



      Options for Deploying Missile Defenses in Europe (Study),      Options for the Navy’s Future Fleet (Study), May 2006.
        February 2009.
                                                                     Alternatives for Long-Range Ground-Attack Systems
      Long-Term Implications of the Fiscal Year 2009 Future             (Study), March 2006.
         Years Defense Program (Paper), January 2009.
                                                                     The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans and
      The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:             Alternatives: Detailed Update for Fiscal Year 2006
        Detailed Update for Fiscal Year 2008 (Paper),                  (Paper), January 2006.
        March 2008.
                                                                     Logistics Support for Deployed Military Forces (Study),
      Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:                  October 2005.
         Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2008 (Paper),
         December 2007.                                              The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans and
                                                                       Alternatives: Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2006
      Modernizing the Army’s Rotary-Wing Aviation Fleet                (Paper), October 2005.
        (Paper), November 2007.
                                                                     Federal Funding for Homeland Security: An Update (Brief ),
      Crew Rotation in the Navy: The Long-Term Effect on                July 2005.
         Forward Presence (Paper), October 2007.
                                                                     Prices for Brand-Name Drugs Under Selected Federal
      Replacing and Repairing Equipment Used in Iraq and                Programs (Paper), June 2005.
         Afghanistan: The Army’s Reset Program (Paper),
         September 2007.                                             The Effects of Reserve Call-Ups on Civilian Employers
                                                                       (Paper), May 2005.
      Assessing Pay and Benefits for Military Personnel (Brief ),
         August 2007.                                                Options for Restructuring the Army (Study), May 2005.

      The All-Volunteer Military: Issues and Performance             The Future of the Navy’s Amphibious and Maritime
        (Study), July 2007.                                            Prepositioning Forces (Study), November 2004.

      Evaluating Military Compensation (Study), June 2007.           The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:
                                                                       Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2005 (Paper),
      Comparing Working-Capital Funding and Mission Funding            September 2004.
        for Naval Shipyards (Paper), April 2007.
                                                                     Options for Changing the Army’s Overseas Basing (Study),
      The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:             May 2004.
        Detailed Update for Fiscal Year 2007 (Paper),
        April 2007.                                                  Federal Funding for Homeland Security (Brief ),
                                                                        April 2004.
      Some Implications of Increasing U.S. Forces in Iraq (Paper),
        April 2007.                                                  Educational Attainment and Compensation of Enlisted
                                                                       Personnel (Paper), February 2004.
      Alternatives for Military Space Radar (Study),
         January 2007.                                               The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:
                                                                       Detailed Update for Fiscal Year 2004 (Paper),
      Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:                 February 2004.
         Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2007 (Paper),
         October 2006.                                               Military Compensation: Balancing Cash and Noncash
                                                                       Benefits (Brief ), January 2004.
      The Army’s Future Combat Systems Program and
        Alternatives (Study), August 2006.                           Paying for Iraq’s Reconstruction (Paper), January 2004.


CBO
NATIONAL SECURITY                                                              CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009   23



Growth in Medical Spending by the Department of Defense         Defense Systems
   (Brief ), September 2003.                                    Options for Combining the Navy’s and the Coast Guard’s
                                                                  Small Combatant Programs (Paper), July 2009.
Growth in Medical Spending by the Department of Defense
   (Study), September 2003.                                     An Analysis of the Army’s Transformation Programs and
                                                                  Possible Alternatives (Study), June 2009.
The Army’s Bandwidth Bottleneck (Study), August 2003.
                                                                Options for Deploying Missile Defenses in Europe (Study),
The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:              February 2009.
  Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2004 (Paper),
  July 2003.                                                    Long-Term Implications of the Fiscal Year 2009 Future
                                                                   Years Defense Program (Paper), January 2009.
Transforming the Navy’s Surface Combatant Force (Brief ),
   April 2003.                                                  The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:
                                                                  Detailed Update for Fiscal Year 2008 (Paper),
Transforming the Navy’s Surface Combatant Force (Study),          March 2008.
   March 2003.
                                                                Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:
The Budgetary Treatment of Leases and Public/Private               Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2008 (Paper),
  Ventures (Paper), February 2003.                                 December 2007.

The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans             Modernizing the Army’s Rotary-Wing Aviation Fleet
  (Study), January 2003.                                          (Paper), November 2007.

Accrual Budgeting for Military Retirees’ Health Care            Crew Rotation in the Navy: The Long-Term Effect on
   (Paper), March 2002.                                            Forward Presence (Paper), October 2007.

Increasing the Mission Capability of the Attack Submarine       Replacing and Repairing Equipment Used in Iraq and
   Force (Study), March 2002.                                      Afghanistan: The Army’s Reset Program (Paper),
                                                                   September 2007.
NATO Burdensharing After Enlargement (Paper),
  August 2001.                                                  Sea Basing and Alternatives for Deploying and Sustaining
                                                                   Ground Combat Forces (Study), July 2007.
The Effects of Aging on the Costs of Operating and
  Maintaining Military Equipment (Paper), August 2001.          Alternatives for Military Space Radar (Study),
                                                                   January 2007.
Budgeting for Naval Forces: Structuring Tomorrow’s Navy at
  Today’s Funding Level (Study), October 2000.                  Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:
                                                                   Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2007 (Paper),
Integrating New Allies into NATO (Paper), October 2000.            October 2006.

Budgeting for Defense: Maintaining Today’s Forces (Study),      The Army’s Future Combat Systems Program and
  September 2000.                                                 Alternatives (Study), August 2006.

An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal   Options for the Navy’s Future Fleet (Study), May 2006.
   Year 2001 (Report), April 2000.
                                                                Alternatives for Long-Range Ground-Attack Systems
Budget Options for National Defense (Study), March 2000.           (Study), March 2006.




                                                                                                                                 CBO
 24   CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                                           NATIONAL SECURITY



      The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans and      Infrastructure and Support
        Alternatives: Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2006          The Effects of Proposals to Increase Cost Sharing in
        (Paper), October 2005.                                       TRICARE (Paper), June 2009.

      Options for Strategic Military Transportation Systems        Long-Term Implications of the Fiscal Year 2009 Future
        (Study), September 2005.                                      Years Defense Program (Paper), January 2009.

      The Future of the Navy’s Amphibious and Maritime             A Review of the Department of Defense’s National Security
        Prepositioning Forces (Study), November 2004.                 Personnel System (Paper), November 2008.

      The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:         Contractors’ Support of U.S. Operations in Iraq (Paper),
        Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2005 (Paper),                 August 2008.
        September 2004.
                                                                   The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:
      Alternatives for Boost-Phase Missile Defense (Paper),          Detailed Update for Fiscal Year 2008 (Paper),
         July 2004.                                                  March 2008.

      The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:         Comparing Working-Capital Funding and Mission Funding
        Detailed Update for Fiscal Year 2004 (Paper),                for Naval Shipyards (Paper), April 2007.
        February 2004.
                                                                   Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:
      The Army’s Bandwidth Bottleneck (Study), August 2003.           Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2007 (Paper),
                                                                      October 2006.
      The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:
        Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2004 (Paper),               The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans and
        July 2003.                                                   Alternatives: Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2006
                                                                     (Paper), October 2005.
      Transforming the Navy’s Surface Combatant Force (Brief ),
         April 2003.                                               The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:
                                                                     Detailed Update for Fiscal Year 2005 (Paper),
      Transforming the Navy’s Surface Combatant Force (Study),       September 2004.
         March 2003.
                                                                   Options for Changing the Army’s Overseas Basing (Study),
      The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans            May 2004.
        (Study), January 2003.
                                                                   The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:
      Increasing the Mission Capability of the Attack Submarine      Detailed Update for Fiscal Year 2004 (Paper),
         Force (Study), March 2002.                                  February 2004.

      The Effects of Aging on the Costs of Operating and           Educational Attainment and Compensation of Enlisted
        Maintaining Military Equipment (Paper), August 2001.         Personnel (Paper), February 2004.

      Budgeting for Defense: Maintaining Today’s Forces (Study),   Military Compensation: Balancing Cash and Noncash
        September 2000.                                              Benefits (Brief ), January 2004.

      Budgetary and Technical Implications of the                  Growth in Medical Spending by the Department of Defense
        Administration’s Plan for National Missile                    (Brief ), September 2003.
        Defense (Paper), April 2000.
                                                                   Growth in Medical Spending by the Department of Defense
      Budget Options for National Defense (Study), March 2000.        (Study), September 2003.


CBO
NATIONAL SECURITY                                                            CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009   25



The Army’s Bandwidth Bottleneck (Study), August 2003.        The Health Care System for Veterans: An Interim Report
                                                               (Paper), December 2007.
The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:
  Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2004 (Paper),               Crew Rotation in the Navy: The Long-Term Effect on
  July 2003.                                                    Forward Presence (Paper), October 2007.

The Budgetary Treatment of Leases and Public/Private         Assessing Pay and Benefits for Military Personnel (Brief ),
  Ventures (Paper), February 2003.                              August 2007.

The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans          The All-Volunteer Military: Issues and Performance
  (Study), January 2003.                                       (Study), July 2007.

Accrual Budgeting for Military Retirees’ Health Care         Evaluating Military Compensation (Study), June 2007.
   (Paper), March 2002.
                                                             Some Implications of Increasing U.S. Forces in Iraq (Paper),
The Warrant Officer Ranks: Adding Flexibility to Military      April 2007.
  Personnel Management (Paper), February 2002.
                                                             Recruiting, Retention, and Future Levels of Military
The Effects of Aging on the Costs of Operating and              Personnel (Study), October 2006.
  Maintaining Military Equipment (Paper), August 2001.
                                                             Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:
Integrating New Allies into NATO (Paper), October 2000.         Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2007 (Paper),
                                                                October 2006.
Budgeting for Defense: Maintaining Today’s Forces (Study),
  September 2000.                                            The Army’s Future Combat Systems Program and
                                                               Alternatives (Study), August 2006.
Budget Options for National Defense (Study), March 2000.
                                                             Options for the Navy’s Future Fleet (Study), May 2006.
Military Forces
Quality Initiatives Undertaken by the Veterans Health        Alternatives for Long-Range Ground-Attack Systems
  Administration (Paper), August 2009.                          (Study), March 2006.

Options for Combining the Navy’s and the Coast Guard’s       Logistics Support for Deployed Military Forces (Study),
  Small Combatant Programs (Paper), July 2009.                  October 2005.

The Effects of Proposals to Increase Cost Sharing in         The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans and
  TRICARE (Paper), June 2009.                                  Alternatives: Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2006
                                                               (Paper), October 2005.
Alternatives for Modernizing U.S. Fighter Forces (Study),
   May 2009.                                                 Options for Restructuring the Army (Study), May 2005.

Long-Term Implications of the Fiscal Year 2009 Future        The Effects of Reserve Call-Ups on Civilian Employers
   Years Defense Program (Paper), January 2009.                (Paper), May 2005.

Contractors’ Support of U.S. Operations in Iraq (Paper),     The Future of the Navy’s Amphibious and Maritime
  August 2008.                                                 Prepositioning Forces (Study), November 2004.

The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:         The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:
  Detailed Update for Fiscal Year 2008 (Paper),                Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2005 (Paper),
  March 2008.                                                  September 2004.


                                                                                                                               CBO
 26   CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                                        REGULATORY ANALYSIS



      Options for Changing the Army’s Overseas Basing (Study),     Intergovernmental Mandates in Federal Legislation (Brief ),
        May 2004.                                                     July 2009.

      The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:         A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2008 Under the Unfunded
        Detailed Update for Fiscal Year 2004 (Paper),                Mandates Reform Act (Report), March 2009.
        February 2004.
                                                                   Increasing Transparency in the Pricing of Health Care
      The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans:            Services and Pharmaceuticals (Brief ), June 2008.
        Summary Update for Fiscal Year 2004 (Paper),
                                                                   Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity (Study),
        July 2003.
                                                                     May 2008.
      Transforming the Navy’s Surface Combatant Force (Brief ),
                                                                   A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2007 Under the Unfunded
         April 2003.
                                                                      Mandates Reform Act (Report), March 2008.
      Transforming the Navy’s Surface Combatant Force (Study),
                                                                   Potential Cost Savings from the Pre-Disaster Mitigation
         March 2003.                                                  Program (Paper), September 2007.
      The Long-Term Implications of Current Defense Plans          A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2006 Under the Unfunded
        (Study), January 2003.                                        Mandates Reform Act (Report), April 2007.
      Increasing the Mission Capability of the Attack Submarine    Measuring the Capital Positions of Fannie Mae and Freddie
         Force (Study), March 2002.                                  Mac (Paper), June 2006.

      Accrual Budgeting for Military Retirees’ Health Care         Medical Malpractice Tort Limits and Health Care Spending
         (Paper), March 2002.                                        (Background Paper), April 2006.

      The Warrant Officer Ranks: Adding Flexibility to Military    A Review of CBO’s Activities Under the Unfunded
        Personnel Management (Paper), February 2002.                  Mandates Reform Act, 1996 to 2005 (Report),
                                                                      March 2006.
      The Effects of Aging on the Costs of Operating and
        Maintaining Military Equipment (Paper), August 2001.       Freight Rail Transportation: Long-Term Issues (Paper),
                                                                      January 2006.
      Budgeting for Naval Forces: Structuring Tomorrow’s Navy at
        Today’s Funding Level (Study), October 2000.               Small Bidders in License Auctions for Wireless Personal
                                                                     Communications Services (Paper), October 2005.
      Integrating New Allies into NATO (Paper), October 2000.
                                                                   Freight Rail Transportation: A Review of the 2004
      Budgeting for Defense: Maintaining Today’s Forces (Study),      Experience (Paper), May 2005.
        September 2000.
                                                                   A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2004 Under the Unfunded
      Budget Options for National Defense (Study), March 2000.        Mandates Reform Act (Report), March 2005.

                                                                   Identifying Intergovernmental Mandates (Brief ),
      Regulatory Analysis                                             January 2005.
      The Economic Effects of Legislation to Reduce Greenhouse-
        Gas Emissions (Report), September 2009.                    Homeland Security and the Private Sector (Paper),
                                                                     December 2004.
      How Regulatory Standards Can Affect a Cap-and-Trade
        Program for Greenhouse Gases (Brief ), September 2009.     Copyright Issues in Digital Media (Paper), August 2004.


CBO
SCIENCE AND R&D                                                                 CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009   27



The Effects of Tort Reform: Evidence from the States (Paper),   CBO’s Activities Under the Unfunded Mandates Reform
  June 2004.                                                      Act, 1996–2000 (Paper), May 2001.

A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2003 Under the Unfunded         An Assessment of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act in
   Mandates Reform Act (Report), April 2004.                       1999 (Paper), March 2000.

Is the United States Falling Behind in Adopting Broadband?
    (Brief ), February 2004.                                    Science and R&D
                                                                The Costs of Reducing Greenhouse-Gas Emissions (Brief ),
Limiting Tort Liability for Medical Malpractice (Brief ),         November 2009.
   January 2004.
                                                                Pharmaceutical R&D and the Evolving Market for Drugs
Bonding for Reclaiming Federal Lands (Paper),                     (Brief ), October 2009.
  October 2003.
                                                                Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the United States
The Economics of U.S. Tort Liability: A Primer (Study),            (Paper), May 2009.
  October 2003.
                                                                How CBO Estimates the Costs of Reducing Greenhouse-Gas
The Past and Future of U.S. Passenger Rail Service (Study),       Emissions (Background Paper), April 2009.
  September 2003.
                                                                The Budgetary Implications of NASA’s Current Plans for
Prospects for Distributed Electricity Generation (Paper),
                                                                  Space Exploration (Report), April 2009.
   September 2003.
                                                                U.S. Policy Regarding Pandemic-Influenza Vaccines
Shifting the Cost Burden of a Carbon Cap-and-Trade
                                                                   (Paper), September 2008.
   Program (Paper), July 2003.
                                                                Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity (Study),
A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2002 Under the Unfunded
                                                                  May 2008.
   Mandates Reform Act (Report), May 2003.
                                                                Federal Support for Research and Development (Study),
Reducing Gasoline Consumption: Three Policy Options
                                                                   June 2007.
   (Study), November 2002.
                                                                Alternatives for Future U.S. Space-Launch Capabilities
A Review of CBO’s Activities in 2001 Under the Unfunded
   Mandates Reform Act (Paper), June 2002.                         (Study), October 2006.

Raising Federal Deposit Insurance Coverage (Paper),             Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry
   May 2002.                                                       (Study), October 2006.

U.S. Banks’ Exposure to Foreign Financial Losses (Paper),       Small Bidders in License Auctions for Wireless Personal
   May 2002.                                                      Communications Services (Paper), October 2005.

Causes and Lessons of the California Electricity Crisis         R&D and Productivity Growth (Background Paper),
  (Paper), September 2001.                                        June 2005.

An Evaluation of Cap-and-Trade Programs for Reducing            Limiting Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Prices Versus Caps
   U.S. Carbon Emissions (Study), June 2001.                       (Brief ), March 2005.

Preemptions in Federal Legislation in the 106th Congress        Uncertainty in Analyzing Climate Change: Policy
   (Paper), June 2001.                                            Implications (Paper), January 2005.


                                                                                                                                  CBO
 28   CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                                 SOCIAL SECURITY AND PENSIONS



      A Budgetary Analysis of NASA’s New Vision for Space          Global Population Aging in the 21st Century and Its
         Exploration (Study), September 2004.                         Economic Implications (Paper), December 2005.

      Copyright Issues in Digital Media (Paper), August 2004.      The Long-Term Budget Outlook (Study),
                                                                     December 2005.
      The Army’s Bandwidth Bottleneck (Study), August 2003.
                                                                   Quantifying Uncertainty in the Analysis of Long-Term
      The Economics of Climate Change: A Primer (Study),             Social Security Projections (Background Paper),
        April 2003.                                                  November 2005.

      The Budgetary Treatment of Leases and Public/Private         A Guide to Understanding the Pension Benefit Guaranty
        Ventures (Paper), February 2003.                              Corporation (Paper), September 2005.

                                                                   The Risk Exposure of the Pension Benefit Guaranty
      Social Security and Pensions                                   Corporation (Paper), September 2005.
      How Slower Growth in the Labor Force Could Affect the
        Return on Capital (Background Paper), October 2009.        Differences in Wage and Salary Income Included in Various
                                                                      Tax Bases (Background Paper), June 2005.
      CBO’s Long-Term Projections for Social Security:
        2009 Update (Paper), August 2009.                          Menu of Social Security Options (Web Only), May 2005.

      Assigning Education Status in CBO’s Long-Term Microsim-      Updated Long-Term Projections for Social Security (Paper),
         ulation Model (Background Paper), October 2008.             March 2005.

      Updated Long-Term Projections for Social Security            Disability and Retirement: The Early Exit of Baby Boomers
        (Report), August 2008.                                        from the Labor Force (Paper), November 2004.

      Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy (Brief ),             A Description of the Immigrant Population (Paper),
         April 2008.                                                  November 2004.

      Utilization of Tax Incentives for Retirement Saving:         A Model to Project Flows into and Out of Tax-Deferred
                                                                     Retirement Savings Accounts (Background Paper),
         Update to 2003 (Background Paper), March 2007.
                                                                     October 2004.
      Is Social Security Progressive? (Brief ), December 2006.
                                                                   How Pension Financing Affects Returns to Different
      Projecting Labor Force Participation and Earnings in CBO’s     Generations (Brief ), September 2004.
         Long-Term Microsimulation Model (Background
                                                                   The Outlook for Social Security (Study), June 2004.
         Paper), October 2006.
                                                                   Retirement Age and the Need for Saving (Brief ), May 2004.
      CBO’s Online Guide to Tax Incentives for Retirement
        Saving (Report), June 2006.                                Tax-Deferred Retirement Savings in Long-Term Revenue
                                                                      Projections (Paper), May 2004.
      Updated Long-Term Projections for Social Security (Web
        Only), June 2006.                                          Administrative Costs of Private Accounts in Social Security
                                                                     (Study), March 2004.
      Evaluating Benefit Guarantees in Social Security
         (Background Paper), March 2006.                           The Retirement Prospects of the Baby Boomers (Brief ),
                                                                     March 2004.
      Utilization of Tax Incentives for Retirement Saving:
         An Update (Background Paper), February 2006.              The Long-Term Budget Outlook (Study), December 2003.


CBO
TAXES                                                                           CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009   29



Measuring Changes to Social Security Benefits (Brief ),         Uncertainty in Social Security’s Long-Term Finances:
  December 2003.                                                  A Stochastic Analysis (Paper), December 2001.

Baby Boomers’ Retirement Prospects: An Overview (Study),        Social Security: A Primer (Study), September 2001
  November 2003.                                                   (Released December 2001).

Comparing Budgetary and Trust Fund Measures of the              Options to Expand Federal Health, Retirement, and
  Outlook for Social Security and Medicare (Brief ),              Education Activities (Memorandum), June 2000.
  October 2003.
                                                                An Economic Analysis of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997
Utilization of Tax Incentives for Retirement Saving (Paper),       (Paper), April 2000.
   August 2003.
                                                                An Analysis of the President’s Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal
CBO’s On-Line Guide to Tax Incentives for Retirement               Year 2001 (Report), April 2000.
  Saving (Report), August 2003.
                                                                The Budgetary Treatment of Personal Retirement Accounts
The Future Growth of Social Security: It’s Not Just Society’s     (Paper), March 2000.
  Aging (Brief ), July 2003.

Acquiring Financial Assets to Fund Future Entitlements          Taxes
   (Brief ), June 2003.                                         Federal Estate and Gift Taxes (Brief ), December 2009.

Social Security Reform: The Use of Private Securities and the   The Costs of Reducing Greenhouse-Gas Emissions (Brief ),
   Need for Economic Growth (Brief ), January 2003.               November 2009.

Evaluating and Accounting for Federal Investment in             An Overview of Federal Support for Housing (Brief ),
   Corporate Stocks and Other Private Securities (Paper),         November 2009.
   January 2003.
                                                                Subsidizing Infrastructure Investment with Tax-Preferred
The Impact of Social Security and Medicare on the Federal         Bonds (Study), October 2009.
  Budget (Brief ), November 2002.
                                                                Did the 2008 Tax Rebates Stimulate Short-Term Growth?
The Impact of Trust Fund Programs on Federal Budget               (Brief ), June 2009.
  Surpluses and Deficits (Brief ), November 2002.
                                                                Tax Preferences for Collegiate Sports (Paper), May 2009.
Federal Debt and the Commitments of Federal Trust Funds
   (Brief ), October 2002.                                      The Impact of Ethanol Use on Food Prices and Greenhouse-
                                                                  Gas Emissions (Paper), April 2009.
The Looming Budgetary Impact of Society’s Aging (Brief ),
  July 2002.                                                    Using Pricing to Reduce Traffic Congestion (Study),
                                                                   March 2009.
Social Security and the Federal Budget: The Necessity of
   Maintaining a Comprehensive Long-Range Perspective           The Role of the 25 Percent Revenue Offset in Estimating the
   (Brief ), July 2002.                                           Budgetary Effects of Legislation (Brief ), January 2009.

Accrual Budgeting for Military Retirees’ Health Care            Issues and Options in Infrastructure Investment (Paper),
   (Paper), March 2002.                                             May 2008.

A 125-Year Picture of the Federal Government’s Share of the     Sources of the Growth and Decline in Individual Income
   Economy, 1950 to 2075 (Brief ), June 2002.                      Tax Revenues Since 1994 (Paper), May 2008.


                                                                                                                                  CBO
 30   CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                                                    TAXES



      The Deductibility of State and Local Taxes (Paper),       Taxing Capital Income: Effective Rates and Approaches to
        February 2008.                                             Reform (Paper), October 2005.

      Options for Responding to Short-Term Economic Weakness    Effects of the Federal Estate Tax on Farms and Small
        (Paper), January 2008.                                     Businesses (Paper), July 2005.

      Historical Effective Federal Tax Rates: 1979 to 2005      Taxing the Untaxed Business Sector (Background Paper),
         (Web Only), December 2007.                                July 2005.

      The Impact of Unauthorized Immigrants on the Budgets of   What Is a Current-Law Economic Baseline? (Brief )
        State and Local Governments (Paper), December 2007.       June 2005.

      The Effect of Tax Changes on Labor Supply in CBO’s        Differences in Wage and Salary Income Included in Various
        Microsimulation Tax Model (Background Paper),              Tax Bases (Background Paper), June 2005.
        April 2007.
                                                                Changes in Participation in Means-Tested Programs (Brief ),
      Utilization of Tax Incentives for Retirement Saving:        April 2005.
         Update to 2003 (Background Paper), March 2007.
                                                                Historical Effective Federal Tax Rates: 1979 to 2002
      Nonprofit Hospitals and the Provision of Community           (Paper), March 2005.
        Benefits (Paper), December 2006.
                                                                Effective Tax Rates: Comparing Annual and Multiyear
      Computing Effective Tax Rates on Capital Income              Measures (Paper), January 2005.
        (Background Paper), December 2006.
                                                                A Model to Project Flows into and Out of Tax-Deferred
      Historical Effective Federal Tax Rates: 1979 and 2005       Retirement Savings Accounts (Background Paper),
         (Web Only), December 2006.                               October 2004.

      How CBO Forecasts Income (Background Paper),              Effective Federal Tax Rates Under Current Law, 2001 to
        August 2006.                                               2014 (Paper), August 2004.

      CBO’s Online Guide to Tax Incentives for Retirement       The Estate Tax and Charitable Giving (Paper), July 2004.
        Saving (Report), June 2006.
                                                                Tax-Credit Bonds and the Federal Cost of Financing Public
      Utilization of Tax Incentives for Retirement Saving:         Expenditures (Paper), July 2004.
         An Update (Background Paper), February 2006.
                                                                Tax-Deferred Retirement Savings in Long-Term Revenue
      Analyzing the Economic and Budgetary Effects of a            Projections (Paper), May 2004.
        10 Percent Cut in Income Tax Rates (Brief ),
        December 2005.                                          The Alternative Minimum Tax (Brief ), April 2004.

      Historical Effective Federal Tax Rates: 1979 to 2003      Effective Federal Tax Rates: 1979–2001 (Paper),
         (Paper), December 2005.                                   April 2004.

      Corporate Income Tax Rates: International Comparisons     The Taxation of Distributions from Retirement Savings
         (Paper), November 2005.                                  Plans (Background Paper), April 2004.

      Effective Marginal Tax Rates on Labor Income (Paper),     Fuel Economy Standards Versus a Gasoline Tax (Brief ),
         November 2005.                                            March 2004.


CBO
TELECOMMUNICATIONS                                                             CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009   31



Private and Public Contributions to Financing College          Economic Stimulus: Evaluating Proposed Changes in Tax
   Education (Paper), January 2004.                               Policy (Paper), January 2002.

The Economic Costs of Fuel Economy Standards Versus a          Effective Federal Tax Rates, 1979–1997 (Study),
  Gasoline Tax (Study), December 2003.                            October 2001.

Issues in the Design of a Cap-and-Trade Program for Carbon     An Evaluation of Cap-and-Trade Programs for Reducing
    Emissions (Brief ), November 2003.                            U.S. Carbon Emissions (Study), June 2001.

Economic Issues in Taxing Internet and Mail-Order Sales        Description of CBO’s Models and Methods for Projecting
   (Paper), October 2003.                                         Federal Revenues (Paper), May 2001.

CBO’s On-Line Guide to Tax Incentives for Retirement           Historical Effective Tax Rates, 1979–1997: Preliminary
  Saving (Report), August 2003.                                   Edition (Study), May 2001.

Effective Federal Tax Rates, 1997 to 2000 (Paper),             Who Gains and Who Pays Under Carbon-Allowance
   August 2003.                                                  Trading? The Distributional Effects of Alternative
                                                                 Policy Designs (Study), June 2000.
Utilization of Tax Incentives for Retirement Saving (Paper),
   August 2003.                                                Options to Cut Taxes (Memorandum), June 2000.

How CBO Analyzed the Macroeconomic Effects of the              An Economic Analysis of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997
  President’s Budget (Paper), July 2003.                          (Paper), April 2000.

Shifting the Cost Burden of a Carbon Cap-and-Trade             Telecommunications
   Program (Paper), July 2003.                                 Factors That May Increase Future Spending from the
                                                                  Universal Service Fund (Paper), June 2006.
A Comparison of Tax-Credit Bonds, Other Special-Purpose
   Bonds, and Appropriations in Financing Federal              Small Bidders in License Auctions for Wireless Personal
   Transportation Programs (Report), June 2003.                  Communications Services (Paper), October 2005.

Addressing the Uncertain Prospect of Climate Change            Financing Universal Telephone Service (Paper),
  (Brief ), April 2003.                                           March 2005.

The Economics of Climate Change: A Primer (Study),             Copyright Issues in Digital Media (Paper), August 2004.
  April 2003.                                                  Is the United States Falling Behind in Adopting Broadband?
                                                                   (Brief ), February 2004.
Effects of Allowing Nonitemizers to Deduct Charitable
   Contributions (Paper), December 2002.                       Does the Residential Broadband Market Need Fixing?
                                                                 (Paper), December 2003.
Revenue Projections and the Stock Market (Brief ),
   December 2002.                                              The Army’s Bandwidth Bottleneck (Study), August 2003.

Reducing Gasoline Consumption: Three Policy Options            The Need for Better Price Indices for Communications
   (Study), November 2002.                                       Investment (Paper), June 2001.

Capital Gains Taxes and Federal Revenues (Brief ),
  October 2002.                                                Trade
                                                               How Changes in the Value of the Chinese Currency Affect
Where Did the Revenues Go? (Brief ), August 2002.                U.S. Imports (Paper), July 2008.


                                                                                                                                 CBO
 32   CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009                                           TRANSPORTATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE



      Will the U.S. Current Account Have a Hard or Soft             Using Pricing to Reduce Traffic Congestion (Study),
        Landing? (Brief ), June 2007.                                  March 2009.

      Agricultural Trade Liberalization (Brief ), November 2006.    Issues and Options in Infrastructure Investment (Paper),
                                                                        May 2008.
      The Effects of Liberalizing World Agricultural Trade:
        A Review of Modeling Studies (Paper), June 2006.            Capital Budgeting (Paper), May 2008.

      China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on              Effects of Gasoline Prices on Driving Behavior and Vehicle
        U.S. Petroleum Markets (Paper), April 2006.                    Markets (Study), January 2008.
      The Effects of Liberalizing World Agricultural Trade:         Potential Cost Savings from the Pre-Disaster Mitigation
        A Survey (Paper), December 2005.
                                                                       Program (Paper), September 2007.
      Global Population Aging in the 21st Century and Its
                                                                    Trends in Public Spending on Transportation and Water
         Economic Implications (Paper), December 2005.
                                                                       Infrastructure, 1956 to 2004 (Paper), August 2007.
      Policies That Distort World Agricultural Trade:
                                                                    Freight Rail Transportation: Long-Term Issues (Paper),
         Prevalence and Magnitude (Paper), August 2005.
                                                                       January 2006.
      Recent Shifts in Financing the U.S. Current-Account Deficit
         (Brief ), July 2005.                                       Freight Rail Transportation: A Review of the 2004
                                                                       Experience (Paper), May 2005.
      The Decline in the U.S. Current-Account Balance Since
        1991 (Brief ), August 2004.                                 Tax-Credit Bonds and the Federal Cost of Financing Public
                                                                       Expenditures (Paper), July 2004.
      Would Prescription Drug Importation Reduce U.S. Drug
        Spending? (Brief ), April 2004.                             Does the Residential Broadband Market Need Fixing?
                                                                      (Paper), December 2003.
      The Pros and Cons of Pursuing Free-Trade Agreements
        (Brief ), July 2003.                                        The Past and Future of U.S. Passenger Rail Service (Study),
                                                                      September 2003.
      The Effects of NAFTA on U.S.–Mexican Trade and GDP
        (Paper), May 2003.                                          A Comparison of Tax-Credit Bonds, Other Special-Purpose
                                                                       Bonds, and Appropriations in Financing Federal
      Addressing the Uncertain Prospect of Climate Change
                                                                       Transportation Programs (Report), June 2003.
        (Brief ), April 2003.
                                                                    Future Investment in Drinking Water and Wastewater
      The Economics of Climate Change: A Primer (Study),
        April 2003.                                                    Infrastructure (Study), November 2002.

      Antidumping Action in the United States and Around the
         World: An Update (Paper), June 2001.
                                                                    Welfare and Social Services
                                                                    An Overview of Federal Support for Housing (Brief ),
      Causes and Consequences of the Trade Deficit: An Overview       November 2009.
        (Memorandum), March 2000.
                                                                    The Impact of Ethanol Use on Food Prices and Greenhouse-
                                                                      Gas Emissions (Paper), April 2009.
      Transportation and Infrastructure
      Subsidizing Infrastructure Investment with Tax-Preferred      Changes in the Economic Resources of Low-Income
        Bonds (Study), October 2009.                                  Households with Children (Paper), May 2007.


CBO
WELFARE AND SOCIAL SERVICES                                                   CBO PUBLICATIONS: JANUARY 2000 TO DECEMBER 2009   33



Changes in Low-Wage Labor Markets Between 1979 and            A Description of the Immigrant Population (Paper),
  2005 (Paper), December 2006.                                   November 2004.

Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry       Estimating the Value of Subsidies for Federal Loans and
   (Study), October 2006.                                        Loan Guarantees (Paper), August 2004.

Global Population Aging in the 21st Century and Its           Administrative Costs of Private Accounts in Social Security
   Economic Implications (Paper), December 2005.                (Study), March 2004.

Quantifying Uncertainty in the Analysis of Long-Term          Interest Rate Differentials Between Jumbo and Conforming
  Social Security Projections (Background Paper),                Mortgages, 1995–2000 (Paper), May 2001.
  November 2005.
                                                              Federal Subsidies and the Housing GSEs (Study),
The Role of Immigrants in the U.S. Labor Market (Paper),         May 2001.
  November 2005.
                                                              Options to Expand Federal Health, Retirement, and
Changes in Participation in Means-Tested Programs (Brief ),     Education Activities (Memorandum), June 2000.
  April 2005.

Disability and Retirement: The Early Exit of Baby Boomers
   in the Labor Force (Paper), November 2004.




                                                                                                                                CBO

				
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