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Status Paper Water and Sanitation in Uttar Pradesh

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									             Status Paper
Water and Sanitation in Uttar Pradesh

                         Yogesh Bandhu Arya
                          Centre for Contemporary
                          Studies & Research

I am thankful to Fresh Water Action Network for South Asia (FANSA) and Parmarth for
conveying this study to me.
The present work is an effort to consolidate the situation of Water and Sanitation in Uttar
Pradesh and its present status. The report is based on analysis of secondary data available
through various sources. In this course, Information available on WebPages and documents
from related government’s department and organizations especially Central Ground Water
Board (Lucknow) and Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam are found very useful. Their data sources are
valuable and highly appreciable. Informations from many other sources e.g. Uttar Pradesh
Planning Department, Central Ministry of Rural Development, Asian Development Bank, Water
Aid, World Bank, Total Sanitation Campaign, Swajal Dhara Project are used in shaping this
Discussion with Sri Utkarsh Sinha (Member FANSA), Sri Sanjay Singh (Parmarth) Dr. Neelam
Nigam (Senior Scientist - Central Ground Water Board, Lucknow) and Dr. Indu Saxena
(Department of Chemistry, Lucknow University) was insightful.
I am thankful to all these departments, organizations and individuals for sharing their
Hope this report will provide an insight for understanding the current situation of Water and
Sanitation in Uttar Pradesh for further programs, action and advocacy.

November 30th, 2009                                                      Dr. Yogesh Bandhu Arya
                                                Centre for Contemporary Studies and Research
                                                                             2/205 Vivek Khand,   1
                                                                          Gomati Nagar Lucknow
Title:                                                    Page No.

Uttar Pradesh: A Brief Profile                               4

Water Availability and Consumption in Uttar Pradesh:         6

Ground Water Availability in Uttar Pradesh:                  9

Water and Sanitation in Uttar Pradesh: A Brief History:      12

Water Demand for Different Sector:                           13

Water Supply Status in Urban Areas:                          14

Drinking Water in Rural Area:                                16

Sanitation Situation in Uttar Pradesh:                       18

References:                                                  25

T ABLES :                                                                P AGE N O .
T ABLE 1: S ECTOR WISE W ATER R EQUIREMENT IN I NDIA                         8


            (B ASED ON U LTIMATE I RRIGATION P OTENTIAL )                    11


T ABLE 4: STATUS OF R URAL W ATER S UPPLY (AS ON 31.03.2007)                 18

Table 5: Status of sanitation in the state                                   21

Figure 1: Major Rivers of Uttar Pradesh and drainage basins                  10

F IGURE 2: W ATER D EMAND FOR D IFFERENT U SES                               15


Box-1: Norms for Coverage:                                                   17


                 P OTENTIAL OF U TTAR P RADESH                               27



                 G OALS TO BE A CHIEVED BY 2012                              31

    Water and Sanitation in Uttar Pradesh
                                       Yogesh Bandhu Arya
Uttar Pradesh: A Brief Profile:
Uttar Pradesh is a versatile land where the multi-hued Indian Culture has blossomed from times
immemorial. Variety of geographical land and cultural diversities are main characteristics of the
state. Rich and tranquil expanses of meadows, perennial rivers, dense forests and fertile soil of
Uttar Pradesh have contributed numerous golden chapters to the annals of Indian History. The
state is located in the north-western part of the country. It spreads over a large area, and the
plains of the state are quite distinctly different to the high mountains in the north.

Uttar Pradesh is India's fifth largest and the most populous state accounting for 16.4 per cent of
the country’s and covering 9.0 per cent of the country’s geographical area, encompassing 2,
36,286 square kilometers and comprising of 70 districts, 813 development blocks and total
1,07,327 inhabited villages. The density of population in the state is 690 people per square
kilometers as against 274 for the country. Average household size is 6.5 persons. The total
population size of the state was 8.8 crores in 1971. It increased to 11.1 crores in 1981 and then
reported to be 13.9 crores in 1991. In the last census of 2001 it becomes 16.6 crores. The
increase, in population in these two decades was almost identical at 25 per cent. As against
this, the national population shows a declining trend from 25 per cent in 1971-81 to 23.8 per
cent in 1981-91. Since 1971-81 the decadal variation of U.P. population in percentage forms has
remained higher than that of the national. U.P. has the largest urban area and population
having 20.8 % Urban Population to Total Population, rest 79.2 percent people are living in rural
areas. It has the largest number of million-plus cities (at least seven) in the country and sixteen
metro cities. By the size of economy Uttar Pradesh is the second largest economy in India after

The Gross state Domestic product (GSDP) of the state at current prices1 was Rs. 235678 Crore
and the Gross state Domestic product (GSDP) at constant price2 was Rs 127560 Crore. The Net
State Domestic Product (NSDP) of the state at Current Prices3 was Rs. 205249 Crore and the Net        4
State Domestic Product at Constant Prices4 Rs. 109768 Crore Per Capita Income of the state at

current prices5 stand at Rs.11477. Which was Rs. 4787 in 1993-94 is one of the lowest in the

   Honorary Fellow, Centre for Contemporary Studies and Research, Lucknow
Cover Photo Courtesy: http://www.indiawaterportal.org
  in 2004-2005 (as of Feb 2006)
  ibid, base year are(1993-94)
  In 2004-05
country except Orissa (Rs. 4726) and Bihar (Rs. 3620). The per capita of the state in 1950-51 at
Rs. 259 was very close to the national per capita income of Rs. 267, short by only Rs. 8 i.e. 3 per
cent only. In 1995-96 this shortfall stood at Rs. 35.8 and is likely to go up. The average annual
growth in total income of the state in the period between 1951-74 was always far less than the
country. However, the population growth in the state being lower in the country during the
period, the gap in the per capita income between the state and the country was constructed to
some extent. The increasing trend of growth in income in the period following 1974 is likely to
be replaced by an average annual growth of even less than 3 percent which is much lower that
the country’s growth rate of almost six per cent. This means that the shortfall in the states per
capita income, which was 35 percent in 1994-95, is unlikely to change in recent time.

Work participation ration in Uttar Pradesh is very low at 32.5 percent. The structure of state
income shows that the contribution of primary sector has declined to 41 in 1991 to only 31.8
percent of the state income having 73 percent of the total working force. This shows the
continued pressure of working population in the primary sector. The share of secondary sector,
on the other hand, has gone up to 20 percent of the total state income which now employ 9
percent of the total workers in the state. This percentage is the lowest among all the major
Indian states except Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa6. The share of tertiary sector has been
more impressive from 25 percent in 1970-71 to 37 percent in 1994-95 and 45.9 percent in
2007-08. The percentage share of workers employed by this sector has risen from 15 percent to
18 percent in 1991. It thus shows that the U.P.'s growth has been more capital intensive than
labour intensive, more urban based than rural based and the shift income from primary to
other sectors is not accompanied by corresponding change in employment pattern.

Distinguishing feature of Uttar Pradesh's economy is its regional imbalances. In terms of
economic indicators like agricultural productivity, infrastructural facilities, industrial growth, the
Uttar Pradesh's economy can be categories into four regions; Western, Eastern, Central, and
Bundelkhand. The Western Uttar Pradesh is agriculturally prosperous. It is relatively
industrialized and has seen greater degree of urbanisation. At the other end is Bundelkhand
with Low agricultural growth, less number of industrial units, lesser gross value of industrial
products marks tout his region as the least developed in the state.
Almost all social indicators of the state show that the state stands in very lower ranks among

the sixteen major States. Bihar and in some cases Orissa, are the only two states which lag
behind U.P. in terms of social development indicators like medical facilities, teacher-pupil ratio
in primary schools, birth rate, death rate, infant mortality rate, literacy, per capita income,
electrification of villages, per capita power consumption etc. Uttar Pradesh is often seen as a
case study of development in a region of India that currently lag behind other parts of the

6                                                        nd
    http://upgov.nic.in/upinfo/up_eco.html,as on November 2 2009.
country in terms of a number of important aspects of well being and social progress. Their
region consists of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. There are important
differences between these four states. But the cause of social backwardness in these four
different States, never the less, appear to have much in common and recent comparative
research have pointed to many similarities in the social, cultural and even political makeup of
these states which have contributed to their backwardness.

Life in Uttar Pradesh is short and uncertain. Life expectancy is just 63.5 for male and 64.1 for
female and the under-five mortality rate is as high as 141 per thousands. In these respects Uttar
Pradesh resembles Saharan Africa for with 53 years of life expectancy and 160 under five
mortality rates. Among all major Indian states, Uttar Pradesh has the highest under five
mortality rate, the second highest crude death rate and the third lowest life expectancy figure.
The number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in the state estimated to be 931 in the
mid 1980s. If a girl is born in Kerala she can expect to live 20 years longer than if she is born in
Uttar Pradesh. The probability that she will die before the age of one is more than six times as
high in Uttar Pradesh as in Kerala. According to the recent National Family Health survey, Uttar
Pradesh comes second to Bihar among the major Indian states in terms of the incidence
of under nutrition among children below the age of five. These corroborate as well as explain to
a large extent the lower possibility of child survival in Uttar Pradesh. Further, the demographic
transition of U.P. has been slow. Among all the major Indian states, Uttar Pradesh has the
highest birth rate and the highest fertility rate.

The pace of urbanisation has been lower in the state. The level of urbanisation has also been
lower than most other states. The numbers of urban centres with more than one lakh
population have grown slowly over last thirty years. The growth of urban centres with
population less than five thousand have, on the other hand, have grown more significantly and
these centres have grown in larger numbers in the western part of the state.

Water Availability and Consumption in Uttar Pradesh:

Uttar Pradesh is a very fertile region and a major contributor to the national food grain stock.
Partly this is due to the fertile regions of the Indo-Gangetic plain, and partly owing to irrigation   6

measures such as the Ganga Canal. It is also home to 78% of national livestock population.
Uttar Pradesh is endowed with natural wealth in abundance 7. This wealth lies hidden below a
variety of rocks of different ages found in lofty mountain ranges of the Himalayas in the North
and Vindhyan ranges in the South. The diversity of flora and fauna displayed here due to vast

    Department of Irrigation, Government of Uttar Pradesh
area, big and small rivers, varieties of climatic conditions, and different kinds of soil are hard
to find elsewhere.

As it is already mentioned above, the State of UP has a total population of 16.61crores as per
Census figures of year 2001. Urban population of 3.46 crore is located in 627 towns of varying
population sizes. Rural population of 13.15 crore is scattered in 97069 habited villages of the
State. These villages comprise of about 260110 habitations8. It has been observed that the
choice of settlement of human agglomerations has prominently been dominated by easy
availability of water for drinking and agricultural purposes. It is also a fact that such
agglomerations when developed along perennial source of water have grown rapidly in shape
and size. The larger agglomerations were subsequently termed as urban agglomerations.

Water is a prime natural resource, a basic human need and a precious asset. Fresh Water is a
basic requisite of life on mother earth, and is available in aquifers under the ground and on
surface as rivers and lakes. The underground water generally is of high quality and requires
little or no treatment to make it fit for consumption – one of the reasons for its important role
in human settlement from ages. The state is endowed with bountiful water resources which
were considered abundant but because of increasing demand for various purposes namely
irrigation, drinking and domestic, power (thermal and hydro), industrial and other uses, its
scarcity is becoming apparent which shall get more pronounced with increasing population.

With the rise in human population, more food consumption on a per person basis and
continued industrialization, groundwater today is the world’s most extracted raw material and
the deep extraction is credited to the advancements of drilling and digital mapping
technologies. The global fresh water consumption has raised six folds between 1900 and 1995,
which is more than twice the rate of population growth. For India, it is the cornerstone of Green
Revolution that brought self-sufficiency in food grain production for the nation9. Groundwater
brought huge benefits to India due to better quality (minimal treatment), drought reliability
(food security) and sustaining mega cities and major economic centers. The human
consumption is usually segmented by agriculture, industry & domestic use and varies by regions
depending upon overall topography and economic development. India accounts for 2.45% of
land area and 4% of water resources of the world but represents 16% of the world population.                   7
With the present population growth-rate (1.9 per cent per year), the population is expected to

cross the 1.5 billion mark by 2050.

According to a Government of India Data for 1997-98, total water consumption in India was 629
BCM, 83.3% (524 BCM) in Irrigation and underground water represented about 46% in

 Census 2001.
 Underground Water Development in India – Trends, Crops Prepared by: Prashant Gupta, Faculty Guidance: Prof.
Benjamin Jones, Year 2005, Kellogg School of Management.
Irrigation Use. Domestic & Industry represented approx. 4.8% each and rest is in Power
Generation (1.4%) and evaporation losses. Table one below shows sector wise projected water
demand for India. The Planning Commission of Government of India estimates water demand
to increase from 710 BCM in 2010 to almost 1180 BCM in 2050 (shown below) with domestic
and industry water consumption expected to increase almost 2.5 to 3.0 times, in both low and
high demand scenario. It is estimated that the highest water demand will be for irrigation

                            T ABLE 6: S ECTOR WISE W ATER R EQUIREMENT IN I NDIA

     Sector Wise Water                     2010                    2025                  2050
                                  Low              Low
                                                  High         High                Low      High
Irrigation                        543              561
                                                  557          611                 628      807
Domestic                           42               55
                                                   43           62                  90      111
Industries                         37               67
                                                   37           67                  81       81
Power                              18               31
                                                   19           33                  70       70
Inland Navigation                                   Not Available
Flood Control                                       Not Available
Afforestation              7           7            10          10                 15        15
Environment/Ecology        5           5            10          10                 20        20
Evaporation Losses        42           42           50          50                 76        76
Total (BCM)               694         710          784         843                 980      1180
Source: Prashant Gupta, Faculty Guidance: Prof. Benjamin Jones

This growing demand indicates the increasing importance of groundwater resource. For
irrigation, the water is pumped from underground through 15 million (data on next page)
motorized dug wells and tube wells. Shallow-zone within 50-meter depth is mostly a private
effort and deeper zone (50 to 300 meter) is usually in the public sector for community
irrigation. The overall development of groundwater withdrawal structures clearly indicates that
its increasing importance for irrigation in last 50 years. In addition to varying irrigation
development, there are also concerns on water utilization in many of high irrigation                   8
development areas. According to an estimate by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), only

45% of water is effectively used in crop yield and the rest is lost in transmission to farm (15%),
field application losses (25%) and farm distribution losses (15%)10.

On domestic front, groundwater is the most important backbone (80%) of water supply in
India’s rural population of 740 Million out of total of 1 billion as well as major urban cities. The
needs of Urban Household vary, usually greater than the rural needs and so urbanization is

     http://www.fao.org/Water Charging in Irrigation Agriculture
pushing the demand. Similarly, the industry demand for water is also increasing with opening
up of new enterprises driven by decade-old economic reforms.

Ground Water Availability in Uttar Pradesh:

Groundwater is a dependable resource that is contained and transmitted through the
interstices in rock materials below the earth surface. It is considered and rather used to be a
cheap and easily extractable commodity. However, with a rapid growth of population and all
round development, there is incessant pressure on the ground water withdrawal resulting
compulsive awakening in terms of both the quality and quantity. As of hydrogeological point of
view, the States can be divided into five units i.e. Bhabher, Tarai, Central Ganga plains, Marginal
alluvial plains and Southern Peninsular zone. The first one is in the extreme north followed
successively by the rest southwardly11.

Bhabher occurs south of Sub-Himalayan zone. To the south of Bhabher, Tarai belt of variable
width (8-15 km) runs from north-west to south-east. Here, swampy conditions are found due to
shallow ground water and spring line with fine-grained fluvial sediments. The ground water
occurs under unconfined state in shallow zone, while the deeper aquifers below 50m depth are
under confinement. Auto flow conditions are common in the belt. The Central Ganga Plain
hydrogeological unit is confined between Tarai zone in the north and marginal alluvial plain in
the south. The Ganga Plain is characterized by low relief and enormous fluvial features. The
average slope ranges between 15 to 50 cm/km. The shifting of rivers has been a common
phenomenon. The extensive high land between the two rivers forms the older alluvial plains
while the younger alluvial plain are confined to present day drainage network. Extensive
exploration studies have indicated the presence of four aquifer groups within a depth of 700m
below ground. The first shallow phreatic aquifer, within 50m depth is being utilized by the
marginal farmers to construct tubewells / borewells. The ground water is present under
confined to semi-confined state in shallow aquifer while in the deeper aquifer, it occurs under
confined state. All along the northern border of southern Plateau Region lies the marginal
alluvial plain, spread over in parts of Mathura, Agra, Etawah, Jalaun, Hamirpur, Banda,
Allahabad and Mirzapur district. This zone constitutes the alluvial sediments brought down by
northerly flowing rivers originating from the Plateau Region. The thickness of marginal alluvial
plain is variable ranging between 50 and 200m. It comprises admixture of Kankar and clay with

sand and gravel lenses. Ground water occurs under water table and semi-confined conditions.
The marginal alluvial aquifer is capable of yielding 60-1500 lpm of fresh water at a draw down
of 6 to 15m. The ground water quality poses a problem in localised patches. The Southern
Plateau Region region occupies extreme southern part of the state and is characterised by table
land punctuated with variety of land forms. The region is underlain mostly by Vindhyan
sediments. The Precambrian crystallines are exposed over Betwa Basin. The ground water

mostly occurs in the secondary porosity of hard rocks under unconfined state. The ground
water in alluvial sediments occurs under unconfined state. Ground water prospects are rather



The yield of tubewells tapping Bhabar and Tarai zones ranges between 100-300 m3/hr and 100-
200 m3/hr, respectively. The water level is deep in Bhabar where as in Tarai auto flow
conditions are noticed with piezometric head of 6-9 magl. The Central Ganga plain is
characterized by low relief and numerous alluvial features. There are four major aquifers in the
depth range of 700 mbgl. The yield of these tubewells ranges from 90 to 200 m3/hr. The
thickness of sediments in Marginal alluvium is 50-300 m and yield of tubewells is between 35 to
70 m3/hr. The yield prospects of Vindhyan & crystalline rocks in the southern peninsular region
are limited12.

Ground water is a major contributor in many States. Some of the states depend upwards of 50
percent on groundwater, while the all-India average itself is 45.78 percent. The precipitation,
consisting of snowfall, south-west and north-east monsoons, is 4,000 billion cubic meters on
Indian landmass. Of this, the estimated run-off (amount of rainfall carried off an area by
streams and rivers) is 1,869 billion cubic meters. As shown in Table -2, Uttar Pradesh is among
the states which are heavily dependent on groundwater.

                                  T ABLE 7: D EPENDENCE ON G ROUNDWATER
                                 (B ASED ON U LTIMATE I RRIGATION P OTENTIAL )

                     State                      Dependence on Ground Water        Rank
          Manipur                                  61.09 %                         1
          Uttar Pradesh                            55.08 %                         2
          Madhya Pradesh                           54.27 %                         3
          Jammu & Kashmir                          52.13 %                         4
          Tamil Nadu                               51.19 %                         5
          Punjab                                   48.80 %                         6
          All India                                45.78 %                         **
         (Source: MOWR, Annual Report 2002-03)

Total replenish able ground water resource of the state is 84 BCM (68.1 maf.) Out of which 72
BCM (58.4 maf.) is exploitable for irrigation purposes which is 85.7% of the replenishable
resource. Out of the total replenishable resource, present total extraction is about 40.95 BCM
(33.2 maf.) and the net exploitation is 27 BCM (21.9 maf.) which is 65.9% of total extraction.
Thus the ground water resource available for future exploitation is about 43.95 BCM (34.9
maf.). District wise ground water resource potential is is unevenly distributed in space
(Annexure 1). The regional breakup of this available resource for future development in              11
western, central, eastern, Bundelkhand and foot hill regions is 14.8 BCM (12 maf.) 8.5 BCM (6.9

maf.) 16 BCM (13 maf.) 2.5 BCM (2 maf.) and 1.25 BCM (1 maf.) respectively which apparently
shows that ample amount of ground water is yet to be exploited but uneven spacial distribution
and the present state of exploitation has resulted in regional ground water imbalances. Out of
819 blocks, there are 85 " Dark" block, 214 "Grey" blocks in the state, of which 67 " Dark" & 86 "

Grey" blocks are in western region, 15 dark & 38 grey blocks in central region 12 dark & 90 grey
block in eastern region and 1 dark block in Bundelkhand region13.

State has a total of about 20 mha. of culturable land out of which about 17.4 mha. is presently
under agriculture. For a projected population of 270 million by the year 2020 the food grain
requirement has been assessed as 63 million tones. With the present irrigation and other
inputs productivity level of about 1.7 t/ha. has been achieved. A productivity level of 3.4 t/ha.
will have to be achieved to meet the projected food grain requirements. In order to achieve
this target, in addition to other inputs, irrigation facilities shall have to be adequately provided
by harnessing the untapped potential and also by bringing about improvement in the
management of water resources. In Irrigation sector, which has so far been the principal
consumptive user, about 43.8 BCM (35.5 m.a.f.) of surface water and about 27 BCM (21.9
m.a.f.) (net) of ground water has been utilized out of the total of about 161.70 BCM (131.0
m.a.f.) of surface water and about 72 BCM (58.4 m.a.f.) exploitable (Total replenish able 84
BCM or 68.1 m.a.f.) ground water resource of the state. Another about 27.8 BCM (22.5 m.a.f.)
of surface water shall get utilised after completion of on-going projects. 43.2 BCM (35 m.a.f.) is
the quantity which can not be utilized at present. Thus there remains only about 22.2 BCM
(18.0 m.a.f). Which can be utilized for future irrigation projects after reserving about 24.7 BCM
(20 m.a.f.) for drinking industrial and pollution control.

Water and Sanitation in Uttar Pradesh: A Brief History:

U.P. Municipalities Act was enacted In the Year 1916. In this Act public duties of the Municipal
Boards were defined and detailed procedure was laid down giving effect to various matters of
public interest. Sources of raising Board's revenues were also prescribed. In the year 1920,
Secretary of State for India sent out a number of specialist officers on the basis of covenanted
service, to introduce health schemes on more up to date lines based on western model, as was
recommended by the Royal Sanitary Commission. In 1943 Bhore Health Survey and
Development Committee was formed to carry out detailed investigations as to the cause of
existing unhealthy conditions and prevalence of various diseases. The Committee Report was
published in 1946 and as one of the measures to reduce incidence of diseases, the Committee
recommended installation of protected water supply and proper drainage system. Till the time

of independence piped water supply was provided in 28 towns of the State.

Realising the necessity and urgency of safe & potable drinking water, a separate department in
the name of Local Self Government at Secretariat Level was created in the year 1949. In
consequence to this Public Health Engineering Department was christened as Local Self
Government Engineering Department in the year 1949. The State Government promulgated an

ordinance in February 1975 and converted Local Self Government Engineering Department into
a corporation by the name of Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam. This ordinance was subsequently
converted into an Act named as Uttar Pradesh Water Supply & Sewerage Act, 1975 (Act N0 43
of 1975). In pursuance of this Act, Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam came into existence with effect from
18th June 197514.

Water Demand for Different Sector:

It is estimated that in Uttar Pradesh for domestic, industrial and irrigation needs of growing
population, the level of ground water exploitation will increase from 27 BCM (21.9 maf.) to 64
BCM (51.9 maf.) by 2025 i.e. requirement of ground water will be more than double the
present level. Due to this the number of over-exploited blocks may increase from 14 to 17715
by the year 2025. Presently the consumption in urban and rural sectors is about 1.7 BCM (1.4
maf.) and 2.6 BCM (2.1 maf.) respectively. The projected requirements are about 3.2 BCM (2.6
maf.) and 4.6 BCM (03.7 maf.) for urban and rural population. The allocation to meet these
requirements shall be the first charge on the water resources of the state16. Drinking water
and domestic needs of all the urban and rural population is to be fully met by the year 2025.
The domestic & industrial needs have been assessed as about 4.4 BCM (3.6 maf.) up to 2025
Adequate allocation of water resources shall be made to meet domestic and industrial
requirements to ensure that there is no impediment on this account in developing the
industrial status of the state to the desired level17.

Besides these hydro and thermal power projects in state needs a large amount of water
cooling and production purposes. Presently the state has a thermal installed capacity of 11624
mw out which 5775 mw is in UPSEB and 5849 mw is in central sector. The share of U.P. in
Central sector projects is 2600 mw. In addition U.P. has an atomic power installation of 440
mw in which the state's share is 154 mw. The hydro installation of UPSEB is 1504 mw and it
gets a share of 236 mw out of an installation of 945 mw in the Central sector. Thus the total
installation available to U.P. from thermal and Hydro sector is 8529 mw and 1740 mw
respectively resulting in about 85:17 thermal hydro mix. The present consumptive requirement
for cooling water in thermal stations is about 12.46 cumes (440 cusecs) i.e. about 0.37 BCM


     These represent the blocks where the drawls are more than recharge.


  The industries, barring some selected industries, shall be required to bear the development cost of the resource
and its maintenance along with the cost of water to reflect the scarcity value of this resource which shall be fixed
from time to time.
(0.3 maf.) though the total draft is much more. The projected requirement up to 2020 for
consumptive use in thermal power is estimated as 50.97 cumes (1800 cusecs) i.e. about 1.60
BCM (1.3 maf) which would correspond to an installation of about 45000 mw (including
Central and Private Sectors)

Water for drinking and domestic use has the highest priority while allocating the water
resource of the state. The state has to provide adequate drinking water facilities (both for
people and livestock) to the entire population in both urban and rural areas up to the year
2025. Sanitation facilities for entire population in urban areas and most of the rural areas
should also be provided.

Water Supply Status in Urban Areas:

According to GoI, India has extended access to urban water supply to 90% of urban households
in 2001; this means that an estimated eight million people have been provided access to a safe
source of water every year during the period 1990-2000, a very commendable progress.
However, data related to water supply that are available in the Census and the National Sample
Survey Organization (NSSO) are limited and mostly focused on access to infrastructure; there
are no comprehensive data quantities of water produced, distributed and sold, quality of water
produced and distributed and overall quality of the WSS service provided. For example, GoI and
States typically rely on a liter per capita per day. lpcd. Indicator as a proxy for access, but there
is no indication of the number of hours the service is provided per day or per week.
in 2001: . Kerala, Manipur, Nagaland, and Mizoram, had coverage below 60%, significantly
lower than the national average of 90%, mostly reflecting the availability of shallow aquifers
and the use of open wells, that cannot really be considered a .safe. source of water in an urban
environment; . Mega-cities, including Bangalore, Delhi, Chennai, Hyderabad, Calcutta, and
Mumbai, claimed that all urban households had access to safe water either through a piped
system, a handpump, or a tubewell; . Access to piped water infrastructure decreases with the
size of ULBs; 73% of the population living in Class I cities had access to piped water against only
58% in Class IV to VI.
In 2001, nearly 74% of the urban population had access to piped water supply, a figure to be
compared with about 50% in 1991. But States such as Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh,                       14
Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, and Utter Pradesh seem to have experienced decline in access to

piped water during this decade. However, the 2001 Census does not distinguish between water
available within and outside of premises. Based on other surveys, it is estimated that about
approximately 50% of the urban population had a direct connection to piped water in 2001. The
trend of other types of service (handpumps, tubewells, wells) is more difficult to track because
the 1991, the Census did not distinguish between hand pump and tube well18.
In Uttar Pradesh only 31 percent towns have full water supply as per demand. These estimates
are based on the norms that in urban areas, an individual needs on an average 40 liter water a
day19. However these estimates are very conservative, but still even this standard are unfilled
for 79 percent towns. It is an imperative fact that out of total daily requirement 60 percent
water is needed for hygienic (bathing and ablution) purposes. Water demand for different
purposes is shown below in figure two.
                      F IGURE 5: W ATER D EMAND FOR D IFFERENT U SES

                                Water Deamand for Different Uses
                                      Ablution              7%        Cooking
                                        25%                             12%


        Data Source: Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam, 2009

The urban population is 3.26 crore, which constitute about 20 percent of the population of the
State. There are 623 towns in the state, all 623 towns have been covered20 with piped water
supply, but still a very large number of towns either do not have water supply as per the
prescribed standards or they lack in terms of storage capacity or distribution system. Besides,
the old distribution system in big towns has already outlived its useful life and needs to be

   World Bank (January 2006) INDIA: Water Supply and Sanitation Bridging the Gap Between Infrastructure and          15
Service, Background Paper on Urban Water Supply and Sanitation.

   As per government of India Norms
   With normal output of 12 litres per minute, one hand pump or stand post is provided for every 250 persons. In
case of an independent habitation/ hamlet/ Tola/ Majra etc, if their population is less than 250 persons and there
is no potable water source within its location, one source may be provided. A rural habitation not having any safe
water source with a permanently settled population of 20 households or 100 persons, whichever is more, may be
taken as the unit for coverage with funds under the Accelerated Rural Water Supply Program (ARWSP). However,
the State Govt. could cover any habitation regardless of its size/population/ number of households with funds
under the Minimum Need Program (MNP). DDP areas and SC/ST habitations with less than 100 persons can,
however, be covered under the ARWSP.
replaced immediately. Table three below provides details regarding water supply coverage in
Uttar Pradesh.


               Availability of Water                             Number of Towns

             Less than 25% of demand                                     20

              25% to 50% of demand                                       96
              50% to 75% of demand                                      153
             75% to 100% of demand                                      161

           more than 100% of demand                                     193

Drinking Water in Rural Area:

The necessity of safe and potable water supply to the people in rural areas was recognized by
BHORE Committee whose report was published in 1946. The report was based on census
population of the year 1941 for the State of UP. According to this census, population in 107000
villages was about 493 lacs. The committee recommended that protected water supply should
be provided within 35 years to the entire populations, 53 % of the population to be covered in
first 20 years and the remaining in the next 15 years further protected water supply in the rural
areas being almost unknown, the Committee recommended that the amenity of pure water
supply should be extended to every inhabitant of the town or the village within a period of 35

After independence sincere effort to provide safe & potable drinking water to rural population
of the State was initiated with the launch of 1 st Five Year Plan in the year 1951.It was planned
that safe drinking water would be provided in 1000 villages. This task was completed by 31
March 1956.                                                                                         16

In the same decade of 1960 some more piped water supply schemes for groups of villages in
the water scarcity prone rural areas were taken up. In 1970 the GOI launched rural water
supply program in a big way. To assess the need, a detailed village wise survey was carried out
in the year 1972 in the entire State. Norms were laid down to identify water scarcity villages,
which being:
      Village in which water source does not exist within 1.6 Km. or up to 15 m. depth in
       plains and 100 m. elevation in hills.
      Village which has water source affected by quality problem such as excess salinity, iron,
       fluoride, arsenic or other toxic elements.
      Village which has water source that causes water borne diseases.

In the survey carried out in 1972, a total
number of 35,506 villages were identified as      Box-1: Norms for Coverage -
scarcity villages. In a re-survey carried out in  A. 40 liters per capita per day (lpcd) of safe
                                                      drinking water for human beings.
1985 another 42,544 villages were identified
                                                  B. 30 lpcd additional for cattle in the
as scarcity villages. Thus out of 1,12,566            Desert Development Programme Areas.
revenue villages of the State as per 1981         C. One hand pump or stand post for every
census, 78,050 villages were identified as            250 persons.
problem villages which included 66,408            D. The water source should exist within 1.6
villages of plains and 11,642 villages of             km in the plains and within 100 meters
Uttaranchal State. Priority was given to cover        elevation in the hilly areas.
the scarcity villages first. Development of       (Source: Bharat Nirman, Government of India, 2005)
special type of hand pumps India Mark-II
has been a breakthrough in rural water
supply. Installation of India Mark-II hand pumps based upon the one developed by UNICEF was
introduced in Uttar Pradesh in the decade of 1980.

Technology Mission on Drinking Water initiated in 1986 has been another Philip to the cause.
This program was rechristened as Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission in 1991. A
survey was carried out between 1991-1993 in which 'habitation' was considered the unit rather
than 'revenue village'. According to this survey the total no. of habitations of undivided UP was
found to be 274,641. Status of coverage as on March 1995 was 1, 48,704 FC (Fully covered by
water supply), 95,411 PC (partially covered by water supply) and 30,526 NC (without safe
drinking water source)22. This survey was again repeated during 2003-0423. In this repeated


   Developed by UNICEF                                                                                                17
  Habitations which have a safe drinking water source/point (either private or public) within 1.6 km. in plains and

100 meter in hill areas but the capacity of the system ranges between 10 lpcd to 40 lpcd, the habitation could be
categorized as "Partially Covered (PC)". These habitations would, however, be considered as "Safe Source (SS)"
habitations, subject to the water quality parameters. A habitation which fulfills the following criteria may be
categorized as a Not Covered (NC)/ No Safe Source (NSS) habitation:

(a.) The drinking water source/point does not exist within 1.6 km of the habitations in plains or 100 meter
elevation in hilly areas. The source/point may either be public or private in nature. However, habitations drawing
water from a private source may be deemed as covered only when the water is safe, of adequate capacity and, is
accessible to all. (b.) Habitations which have a water source but are affected with quality problems such as excess
survey the total no. of habitations of UP was found to be 274,641. Status of coverage was 2,
33,34124 FC habitations (Fully covered habitations by water supply), 18,776 PC habitations
(partially covered habitations by water supply) and 7,993 NC habitations (habitations without
safe drinking water source). Further progress of rural water supply program up to December
2006 is given in detail in Annexure four.

As per the same survey of 2004 1302.95 lacs rural population out of 1318.86 lacs have been
provided with safe drinking water which makes the coverage as 98.8 percent. 92 including rural
water supply schemes of Bundelkhand region comprising of district Banda, Chitrakoot,
Hamirpur, Mahoba, Jhansi, Jalaun and Lalitpur are being maintained by Chitrakoot and Jhansi
Jal Sansthans. In the year 2006-07, 1, 68205 India Mark II hand pumps have been installed.
During the year 2006-07, 2380 NC and 7170 PC habitations have been covered. In the year
2006-07 as many as 150 piped water supply schemes have been completed.

                  T ABLE 9: STATUS OF R URAL W ATER S UPPLY (AS ON 31.03.2007)

     No. of Piped water supply schemes being maintained by Jal Nigam                              1037

                        Habitations covered by 1037 PWS                                          28,923
                   No. of India Mark-II hand pumps installed                                    1656033
          Balance Habitations affected with Water Quality Problem                                 5043
             No. of Quality Problem Habitations covered by PWS                                    7160
Source: Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam

Sanitation Situation in Uttar Pradesh:

In 2001, about 62% of the urban population had access to toilets, either
connected to sewers or septic tanks or to pit latrines and serviced latrines (Box 3).
Depending on soil condition and maintenance, septic tanks and pit latrines can be
considered as safe disposal. But poorly maintained septic systems often

salinity, iron, fluoride, arsenic or other toxic elements or biologically contaminated. (c.) Habitation where the      18
quantum of availability of safe water from any source is not enough to meet drinking and cooking needs. Hence, in

case of quality affected habitations, even if they are fully covered as per the earlier norms it would be considered
as a NSS habitation if it does not provide safe water at least for the purpose of drinking and cooking. All the
remaining habitations may be categorized as "Fully Covered (FC)".

   During the year 2000-01 the Govt. of India revised the guidelines for Hand Pumps from 250 persons per hand
pump to 150 persons per hand pump based on a Demand Driven Approach with the community to share 10 % of
capital cost and full responsibility of O&M.
   This coverage was based on old GOI norm of 40 lpcd i.e. one hand pump for every 250 person out of total
260110 habitations.
contaminate ground and surface water, as do pit latrines located near sources of
water supply. Serviced latrines are problematic, because servicing of these
latrines is done manually, a task often delegated to socially disadvantaged groups.
According to NSSO 2002, nearly 18% of the urban population had no access to
Estimations for access to toilets range from 46% to 71%, with Gujarat having the
highest coverage (71%), followed by Maharashtra (49%) and Punjab (44%). In
Orissa and Rajasthan, as much as 80% of toilets are connected to septic tanks.
Despite a higher proportion of slum areas, mega-cities have good access rates to
toilets, ranging from 52% in Delhi to 90% in Hyderabad (Table 4). Access to
sewerage is far lower than that of toilets; an average of 28% of the surveyed
population had access to sewerage facilities26.
An estimated 55% of all Indians, or close to 600 million people, still do not have access to any
kind of toilet27. Among those who make up this shocking total, Indians who live in urban slums
and rural environments are affected the most. In rural areas, the scale of the problem is
particularly daunting, as 74% of the rural population still defecates in the open. In these
environments, cash income is very low and the idea of building a facility for defecation in or
near the house may not seem natural. And where facilities exist, they are often inadequate. The
sanitation landscape in India is still littered with 13 million unsanitary bucket latrines, which
require scavengers to conduct house-to-house excreta collection. Over 700,000 Indians still
make their living this way28.
The situation in urban areas is not as critical in terms of scale, but the sanitation problems in
crowded environments are typically more serious and immediate. In these areas, the main
challenge is to ensure safe environmental sanitation. Even in areas where households have
toilets, the contents of bucket-latrines and pits, even of sewers, are often emptied without
regard for environmental and health considerations. Sewerage systems, if they are even
available, commonly suffer from poor maintenance, which leads to overflows of raw sewage.
Today, with more than 20 Indian cities with populations of more than 1 million people,
including Indian megacities, such as Kolkata, Mumbai, and New Delhi, antiquated sewerage
systems simply cannot handle the increased load. In New Delhi alone, existing sewers originally

   World Bank (January 2006) INDIA: Water Supply and Sanitation Bridging the Gap Between Infrastructure and
Service, Background Paper on Urban Water Supply and Sanitation
   Bonu, Sekhar and Hun Kim. May 2009. Sanitation in India: Progress, Differentials, Correlates, and Challenges.
ADB. Based on author’s analysis of the 2005 National Family Health Survey.
       Dueñas,   Christina,  April     2008.    Crusading    for    Human     and     Environmental     Dignity.
built to service a population of only 3 million cannot manage the wastewater produced daily by
the city’s present inhabitants, now close to a massive 14 million29.
According to the National Family Health Survey 3 (NFHS -3) (2005-2006) the coverage of rural
sanitation is 26%. The urban sanitation coverage according to the NFHS-3 is 83.2%. The all India
coverage of sanitation, according to the survey is 44.6 in 2005-06 which is 8.9% increase from
1998-99 survey of NFHS-2. However, field studies have pointed out to low levels of latrine
usage because of lack of awareness of the importance of sanitation, water scarcity, poor
construction standards and the governments’ past emphasis on expensive standardized latrine
designs. Initial indications of an evaluation by the GoI (Government of India) and UNICEF’s Child
Environment Programme show that significant numbers of people, especially in below poverty
line (BPL) households, are not using their latrines. If variables such as usage are also included in
a definition of sanitation coverage, the national picture is likely to be worse with a
corresponding impact on the number of people who need to be reached to meet the MDG
target30. There is a direct relationship between water, sanitation and health. Individual Health
and hygiene is dependent largely on adequate availability of drinking water and proper
sanitation. High infant mortality rate is also attributed largely to poor sanitation.
As per 2001 census 35 percent of the households have no drainage connectivity for waste
water disposal leading to waste water stagnation which results in a breeding ground for
mosquitoes and vector-borne diseases. As given below in figure



  Tigno, Cezar. April 2008. Country Water Action: India, Toilet Technology for Human Dignity. ADB.
  Briefing paper for World Toilet Day November 19, 2007 Water Aid India, Sanitation in India: How to take the Bull
by the Horns.
The IMR in UP is 83 and deaths of children under 5 years in 125 per 1000 live birth, which is
much higher than the all India average. The efforts that are being made in RWSS sector will
provide a long term base for achieving better health indicators in the state of U.P. The toilet
coverage in rural U.P. is much lower compared to the national coverage. The health indicators
like IMR, U5M are also higher than the national average.

Rural people are in the habit of going for defecation in their own fields or on public land, while
children defecate on the roadside and women go in-groups in the dusk. This is true even now,
despite the significant overall development in the country. The general rural population is of
the opinion that owning and using a toilet is not a household priority but is a luxury.
As per census 2001, there are about 2.58 crore households in the State and only 28 per cent
households have individual house hold toilets. Open defecation continuous to be the norm in
large parts of the State especially in the rural areas. Faecal matter constitutes a major source
for bacteriological contamination of water. Studies have shown that about 70 per cent
reduction in deaths due to diarrohea can be achieved by focusing on improved hygiene and
through safe disposal of human excreta. Problem of sanitation is not confined to rural areas
alone. Even in urban areas of the State, there is frequent out break of diarrohea and reports of
diarroheal deaths keep pouring in. This can be checked if source of contamination of drinking
water supply is checked and provision for safe disposal of excreta is made apart from improved
hygiene practices such as washing of hands with soap after defecation.
                       Table 10: Status of sanitation in the state

  1       Total No. of Rural Families as per base line survey          2.55 Crore

  2       Toilet Coverage                                              0.64 Crore

  3       Without Toilet                                               1.91 Crore

                                           BPL                         0.77 Crore                    21
                                           APL                         1.14 Crore

  4       Target for 2005-06                                           0.25 Crore (BPL+APL)

  5       Target for 2006-07                                           0.25 Crore (BPL+APL
In 1999-2000, UP introduced the TSC in 4 districts, and in remaining districts, implementation of
outlay based programme under the RCRSP continued. In 2000-01, 8 more districts were
selected under TSC followed by 16 additional districts in 2001-02, 13 districts in 2002-03 and 29
districts in 2003-04. The TSC is now being implemented in all 70 districts with support from the
GOI and the State Government.

Total sanitation Campaign in Uttar Pradesh:

At the time of its inception in the year 1999 Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) programme rural
sanitation coverage in U.P. was only 19.23 per cent31, which also includes some unsanitary
toilets. Baseline survey conducted in 2003 under TSC shows that the state’s rural sanitation
coverage was only 17 per cent. Current coverage status is 40 per cent and state is targeting for
Open Defecation Free (ODF) state by the end of 11th Five Year Plan (March 2012). TSC projects
have been scaled up and till now about 5.05 million families have adopted individual household
latrines of which about 2.23 millions are from APL category. To make the State ODF it has been
planned to construct about 3.0 million individual toilet units annually at a growth rate of about
12 per cent per annum. Of which 1.04 lakh schools have at least one toilet unit up to March
2007. At present about 9000 schools are still uncovered with sanitary facilities. As per
guidelines of GoI, all coed school must have separate sanitary toilet units for boys and girls.
Keeping this in mind the state has planned to provide extension urinal units in approximately
68,000 school toilets constructed under SSA / DPEP because they are without urinal facilities.
Schools are being treated as main focal point for behavior change communication
All school toilets were provided with Force lift Hand Pump, Over Head Water Storage Tank and
running water supply in toilets and urinals. Replicating models have been constructed in all the
districts for scaling up SSHE through out the state including hygiene education.
The state Anganwadi Sanitation component was introduced in the year 2005 – 2006 in Uttar
Pradesh. Replicable models for Anganwadi Toilet unit have already been constructed in almost
all the districts. State has planned to provide all Anganwadi Centre operating from Government
building with a Baby Friendly Toilet (BFT) unit by the year 2008-2009. IEC in State is mainly
focused on demand generation for toilets and behavioural change especially concentrating on
Hand washing at critical times, safe disposal for child excreta and use of toilets. District Specific
Communication Plans are already in place. A comprehensive operational guideline from state              22
level has been issued which includes IEC strategy, HRD Activity, Funding patterns for hardware,

activities under SSHE and Anganwadi Sanitation, Role of RSMs and different technical options
for IHHL, School Toilets, Incinerator, Community Complex, etc. Demand generation for toilet in
the State is totally based on Behavioural Change Communication (BCC). In BCC State is not only
creating awareness about water borne diseases, technological options of toilet but also creating

     As per census 2001.
a supporting environment through trained masons at GP level and strengthening the supply
chain. IEC activities are mainly operationized at State, District and GP level.
Even though manual scavenging is a punishable offence but it is still very common in rural as
well as urban areas of the state especially in the western part. State has made sincere efforts to
abolish this inhumane practice. With effective IPC, the scenario changed very fast and people
adopted water seal pour flush latrines in almost all the GPs. Of the 2095 Gram Panchayats
having practice of manual scavenging more than 15 percent32.
Still the toilet coverage in rural U.P. is much lower compared to the national coverage. The
health indicators like IMR, U5M are also higher than the national average. Nearly 80 percent of
the state population lives in rural areas and a majority of them go to the open fields for
defection, there by polluting the environment with human excreta causing a health hazard with
many water and feacal borne diseases. Presently out 624 town (including Noida) only 55 Towns
has Sewerage facility, rest 569 Towns are without Sewerage. To combat the environmental
degradation and health hazards many salient measures were proposed in the sewerage sector
during the Tenth Five year Plan Period. Government proposes rehabilitation and strengthening
of sewerage systems in 55 towns and introduction of sewerage system in remaining towns
having population (Year 2001) of more than 1lakh.

A budgetary provision of Rs. 230 crore, made in the budget for 2009-10 under the Basic
Services for Urban Poor Scheme for basic facilities, including housing, for 7000 persons in the
cities of the state with more than 10 lakh population. Target to convert 2 lakh dry latrines into
sewer latrines in 2009-10 under the scheme for conversion/construction of dry latrines into
sewer latrines. An amount of Rs. 142 crore provided for the development of cities and
sanitation in all urban bodies of the state33.

As we studied the current state of underground fresh water development and emerging trends,
its very clear that given the growing demand of water for domestic and industry use, better
management of underground aquifers and citizen participation is becoming important in
correcting the water-related problems. Water is a life force that demands respect otherwise
unabated human desires will lead to catasphrope of unimaginable size, as nature has its own
Keeping in view the current situations it is clear to build and implement an integrated plan,                 23
combining policy and grass-root action, to secure fresh water in order to sustain economic,

social and environmental progress - key for future prosperity. For the proper management of
ground water resource which should ensure optimal utilization and avoid over exploitation.

  Asian Development Bank (2009) India’s Sanitation for All: How to Make it Happen, Series 18.
  Uttar Pradesh Budget 2009-2010 Salient Features Press Information Bureau Information and Public Relations
Department Uttar Pradesh.
The current status of Urban and Rural Water and Sanitation sector are not very encouraging in
Uttar Pradesh. The currently on-going reform processes in the Water and Sanitation sector are
important policy steps in the right direction. These should be sustained, and where necessary,
augmented by more reform measures. It is also important to continue to build the capacities of
state to better appreciate and better implement and the devolution of powers, including
financial to PRIs.
Terminology such as NC, PC and FC need to re-examined and redefined to take into account the
rapid demographic changes. Use of other ‘norms’ such as ‘poverty line’ also needs to be
seriously re-examined34. These are more often than not rather flawed, one sided, and do not
reflect reality. There needs to be a rethinking of poverty norms based on access to and control
of resources.
The high degrees of systemic and non-economic inequities that exist in state present a problem
to ensure equitous distribution of benefits.
Along with the reforms agenda, it is important to start developing and using frameworks for
minimum standards and benchmarking.
There is an urgent need for a comprehensive, reliable, cross-sectoral, continually updated
system for collection and analysis of water supply and sanitation metadata, including on
financial information. There is also a need to increase investments into the UWSS and RWSS
sector. While fiscal reforms in the sector are underway, the disparity in terms of plan
allocations for sanitation also needs to be corrected. There also needs to be increased
investments in social and civic awareness generation, such as the need to reduce the quantum
of solid waste generated, separation of organic and inorganic wastes, etc. A better
understanding of water supply and sanitation needs is very important in this direction.



     India Assessment (2002) Water Supply and Sanitation, Planning Commision, GoI, WHO-UNICEF.

  1. Anitha Sampath et al, Water Privatization and Implications in India, Association for
     India’s Development,* 1 University Station A6220, SOC #108, Austin, TX, 78712 USA
  2. Asian Development Bank (2009) India’s Sanitation for All: How to Make it Happen,
     Series 18.
  3. Baseline Survey of UNICEF-DFID Assisted Districts: A Summary, Water Environment
     Sanitation Section UNICEF, New Delhi (2007).
  4. Bharat Nirman A time-bound plan for rural infrastructure by the Government of India in
     partnership with State Governments and Panchayat Raj Institutions, 2005-2009.
  5. Bonu, Sekhar and Hun Kim. May 2009. Sanitation in India: Progress, Differentials,
     Correlates, and Challenges. ADB. Based on author’s analysis of the 2005 National Family
     Health Survey.
  6. Bridging The Gap Between Infrastructure and Service, Background Paper
  7. Briefing paper for World Toilet Day November 19, 2007 Water Aid India, Sanitation in
     India: How to take the Bull by the Horns.
  8. Census 2001.
  9. Community Contracting in Rural Water and Sanitation: The Swajal Project, Uttar
     Pradesh, India, Water and Sanitation Program (2006)
  10. Community Contracting in Rural Water and Sanitation: The Swajal Project, Uttar
     Pradesh, India, Water and Sanitation Program- South Asia, New Delhi
  11. Department of Irrigation, Government of Uttar Pradesh
  12. Dileep Mavalankar and Manjunath Shankar (2004) SANITATION AND WATER SUPPLY:
     THE FORGOTTEN INFRASTRUCTURE India Infrastructure Report 2004.
  13. Drinking water quality in rural India: Issues and approaches Background Paper            25

  14. Dueñas, Christina, April 2008. Crusading for Human and Environmental Dignity.
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     Programme (2006) Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission Department of
     Drinking Water Supply Ministry of Rural Development Government of India New Delhi
16. How to take the Bull by the Horns (2007) Briefing paper for World Toilet Day November
   19, 2007, Water Aid India.
17. http://cgwb.gov.in/gw_profiles/st_up.htm
18. http://upgov.nic.in/upinfo/up_eco.html,
19. http://www. ielrc.org
20. http://www.fao.org/Water charging in Irrigation Agriculture
21. http://www.indiawaterportal.org
22. http://www.upjn.org
23. http//www.adb.org/Water/Champions/pathak.asp.
24. India Water Supply And Sanitation January 2006
25. India’s water crisis: avenues for policy and institutional reform, TERI Information
   Monitor on Environmental Science 2(1): 1–6
26. PIB (2009) Uttar Pradesh Budget 2009-2010 Salient Features Press Information Bureau
   Information and Public Relations Department Uttar Pradesh.
27. Planning Commission (2002) India Assessment - Water Supply and Sanitation, Planning
   Commission, GoI, WHO-UNICEF.
28. Prashant Gupta (2005) Underground Water Development in India – Trends, Crops
   Prepared by, Kellogg School of Management, US.
29. Rakesh Kumar, R. D. Singh and K. D. Sharma (2006) Water resources of India, National
   Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee
30. Report Of Sub-Committee On More crop and income per drop of water Advisory Council
   on Artificial Recharge of Ground Water Ministry of Water Resources Government of
   India October 2006.
31. Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (RWSS): Select Assignments                            26

32. Tigno, Cezar (2008) Country Water Action: India, Toilet Technology for Human Dignity.
33. Uttar Pradesh State Water Policy, www.ielrc.org/content/e9904.pdf
34. Vishal Narain (2007) Why Some Village Water and Sanitation Committees are Better
   than Others: A Study of Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh,TERI Indian Habitat Centre, New
35. Water and Sanitation: A Baseline Survey (1998) A Consolidated Report, Rajiv Gandhi
   National Drinking Water Mission New Delhi.
36. Water Policy Briefing , Issue 4 IWMI-Tata Water Policy Program Putting research
   knowledge into action, IWMI-TATA Water Policy Program.
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   Between Infrastructure and Service, Background Paper on Urban Water Supply and
38. http//www.adb.org/Water/Champions/pathak.asp.


                    (AS ON 01/04/2000) (B ASED ON 01/04/2000 GW DRAFT )

S. NO                                                     Ground Water           Level of
                                        Ground Water
                                                          Draft (All Uses)     Development
                   DISTRICS              Availability
                                                                   (As on 01/04/2000)
                                            (Ham)              (Ham)                 (%)
   1     AGRA                                109269.50           78875.33           72.18
   2     ALIGARH                             104588.60           80173.17           76.66
   3     ALLAHABAD                           154252.68           68986.08           44.72
   4     AMBEDKAR NAGAR                       84361.83           51793.69           61.39
   5     AURAIYA                              75791.11           27793.55           36.67
   6     AZAMGARH                            154318.17           80026.20           51.86
   7     BAGPAT                               50348.41           40849.53           81.13
   8     BAHRAICH                             94425.32           45288.80           47.96
   9     BALLIA                              114713.02           51994.66           45.33
  10     BALRAMPUR                           113782.63           38904.72           34.19
  11     BANDA                               102238.94           23184.88           22.68
  12     BARABANKI                           251266.77           59272.56           23.59
  13     BAREILLY                            139714.95           95524.76           68.37
  14     BASTI                               106047.99           60581.12           57.13
  15     BIJNOR                              138262.57           87650.82           63.39
  16     BUDAUN                              124193.63          108578.29           87.43
  17     BULAND SHAHAR                       159608.39          102522.98           64.23
  18     CHANDAULI                            93281.25           19983.71           21.42
  19     CHITRAKUT                            36353.26            7589.53           20.88
  20     DEORIA                               92357.11           58635.27           63.49
  21     ETAH                                132761.82          101344.52           76.34
  22     ETAWAH                               76234.11           26068.31           34.20
  23     FAIZABAD                            113525.68           57612.12           50.75
  24     FARRUKHABAD                          77053.75           53020.56           68.81
  25     FATEHPUR                            155605.92           64240.64           41.28
  26     FIROZABAD                            73762.87           53475.88           72.50    28
  27     GAUTAM BUDDHA NAGAR                  61436.42           29239.98           47.59

  28     GHAZIABAD                            94611.68           53178.09           56.21
  29     GHAZIPUR                            143069.08           59489.22           41.58
  30     GONDA                               149847.48           97215.75           64.88
  31     GORAKHPUR                           118320.48           68419.92           57.83
  32     HAMIRPUR                             81041.44           19280.26           23.79
  33     HARDOI                              196654.40           93615.23           47.60
  34     HATHRAS                              66010.66           43540.53           65.96
  35     JALAUN                              104779.23           19784.17           18.88
36   JAUNPUR                162357.02     90024.27   55.45
37   JHANSI                  61470.82     26993.91   43.91
38   JYOTIBA PHULE NAGAR     68554.55     54128.68   78.96
39   KANNAUJ                 70003.24     40843.55   58.35
40   KANPUR DEHAT           109882.22     59345.57   54.01
41   KANPUR NAGAR           179474.60     98654.28   54.97
42   KAUSHAMBI               60286.37     20028.12   33.22
43   KUSHI NAGAR            152362.42     35965.23   23.61
44   LAKHIMPUR KHERI        307346.85    240357.56   78.20
45   LALITPUR                52343.88     27305.57   52.17
46   LUCKNOW                 86765.45     43467.37   50.10
47   MAHARAJGANJ            148032.82     37377.25   25.25
48   MAHOBA                  33654.25      8454.93   25.12
49   MAINPURI                98139.64     65902.06   67.15
50   MATHURA                 99041.30     62258.86   62.86
51   MAUNATH BHANJAN         57637.99     33493.98   58.11
52   MEERUT                 137338.66     73605.72   53.59
53   MIRZAPUR               103235.85     19103.21   18.50
54   MORADABAD               99059.85     75514.48   76.23
55   MUZAFFAR NAGAR         191763.81    116245.34   60.62
56   PILIBHIT               131112.74     74944.77   57.16
57   PRATAPGARH             137792.30     42633.15   30.94
58   RAIBARELI              147713.83     77806.86   52.67
59   RAMPUR                 102757.93     59456.79   57.86
60   SAHARANPUR             152580.60    103236.77   67.66
61   SANT KABIR NAGAR        58001.57     27502.67   47.42
62   SANT RAVIDAS NAGAR      43492.11     22144.58   50.92
63   SHAHJAHANPUR           140974.03     83111.52   58.96
64   SHRAWASTI               61693.40     31972.13   51.82
65   SIDDHARTH NAGAR        109067.80     47988.88   44.00
66   SITAPUR                279770.84    195055.78   69.72
67   SONBHADRA               89211.87     19324.21   21.66
68   SULTANPUR              170385.72     76735.18   45.04
69   UNNAO                  178412.57     79625.34   44.63   29
70   VARANASI                56650.73     30651.57   54.11

     TOTAL                 8082260.77   4228994.96   52.32

Time              Advancement                                                          Coverage
Up to 1900        Separate Sanitary Engineering Branch was created in 1894-95 in       8 Towns
                  Provincial Public Works Department
Between 1901      Public Health Engineering Department                                 9 Towns
and 1927          was created in 1927
Between 1927      when II World War was expected                                       6 Towns
and 1938
Between 1938      When India became independent in 1947                                5 Towns
and 1947
Total up to independence                                                                Towns


 The works of rural water supply are being implemented under the following program:

                        This program is centrally sponsored since the year 1977-78 and it
                        is essential for the States to provide matching fund from its own
ARWSP                   resources. State of U.P. has been doing so under a program
                        named as PMGY (Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojna) renamed as
                        Rural Water Supply-Sewerage implemented under District Plan.

                        Due to large-scale extraction of ground water for irrigation,
                        industrial and domestic purposes, concentration of chemical
                        contents in ground water is gradually increasing. On account of
                        this more and more villages/habitations are falling in the "Quality
QPV Water Supply
                        Problem village (QPV)" / "No Safe Source (NSS)" category. As an
                        alternative to HPs, Tube Wells with Piped Water Supply systems
                        are being provided in these NSS habitations under Rajiv Gandhi
                        National Drinking Water Mission. The cost of such projects is

                        shared in the ratio of 75:25 by the Centre and the State.
                    Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojna was introduced in the year
                    2000-01 by the GOI. The finances made available by the GOI to
Pradhan Mantri
                    the State Govt. under this program are allowed to be used by the
Gramodaya Yojna
                    State Govt. in the District Plan as State resource to meet the
                    needs of matching grant against ARWSP. This program has been
                    merged with Rural Water Supply- Sewerage program.

                    This State sponsored program was started in year 1974-75. The
Minimum Needs       program has been merged with PMGY since year 2002-03. From
Program (MNP)       current financial year (2005-06) this has been changed to Rural
                    Water Supply- Sewerage.

                    This is a State sponsored program which is intended to benefit
Water Supply        the SC/ST community especially. Hand pumps to be installed in
Program in SC/ST    this program are identified by District Authorities. This program
Habitations         has been merged with SCP/TSP component of Rural Water

                    To promote community involvement in the execution, operation
                    and maintenance of water supply systems, community
Human Resources
                    mobilization program are carried out at different levels. Funds
Development (HRD)
                    under this program are received from GOI under Rajiv Gandhi
                    National Drinking Water Mission.


                    This is a centrally sponsored program launched on 25th
                    December 2002. The key elements of this scheme are that the
                    rural people should feel the ownership and, therefore, contribute
                    al least 10 % of the capital-expenditure of the Scheme upfront;
                    and the communities and their Gram Panchayats must shoulder
                    the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) responsibility of the
                    Schemes. This program is being implemented under the State          31
                    Water Supply & Sanitation Mission.

                    This is 100% centrally sponsored program started during Seventh
Border Area         Plan with the objective of special development need of people
Development         living in remote and inaccessible areas adjoining international
                    border of India

   Complete household latrines / sanitary complexes / institutional latrines targets in TSC

   Rehabilitate all dilapidated community latrine complex as sanitary latrines with 24 hours
    water supply and rainwater harvesting structure

   Rehabilitate all institutional latrines with 24 hours water supply and rainwater harvesting

   Rehabilitate all latrines at GP office with 24 hours water supply and rainwater harvesting

   All household latrines which are not in use to be made functional
   Strengthen GP, VWSCs, CBOs to establish Rural Sanitary Marts to procure sanitaryware
    as per GOI specifications from sanitaryware manufactures. The gradient of the pan
    should be between 25-28 degrees.
   All APL households having space to have latrines as per TSC norms.
   All primary health centres / health sub centres should have required number of latrines
    with 24 hours water supply and rainwater harvesting structure.
   All BPL households having space should have latrines as per TSC norms
   All educational institutions upto higher secondary should have required number of
    urinals and latrines as per students’ strength with 24 hours water supply and rainwater
    harvesting structure.
   Households not having space to construct latrine should have access to group latrine
    with individual ownership or sanitary complex


                                             PHYSICAL PROGRESS

Name of                                                                                       HABITATIONS COVERAGE (BY
                                               HAND PUMPS
Program                                                                                                 PIPE)
                       TARGET                                     ACHIEVEMENT                     TARGET      ACHIEVEMENT
           New Hand Pumps              Re bore         New Hand Pumps        Re bore
                                                            Balan             Balan
                  Balan                Balan                                                         TOTAL           TOTAL
           200            Tot   200              Tot   Ne ce of Tot Ne ce of           Tot
                  ce of                ce of                                                 NSS    (Normal   NSS   (Normal
           5-06            al   5-06              al    w    last    al   w    last     al
                  04-05                04-05                                                         +NSS)           +NSS)
                                                            years             years
 SC/ST                    204                                       160
            0     2040           0      789      789    0   1606          0    731     731    0        0       0      1
 RWS                       0                                         6
PMGY/R     540            556   281              292   278          291 181            195
                  1566                  1072                1354              1354            5       155      6      55
  WS        66             32    75               47    03           57   86            40
           771    1885    960                          216          306
 ARWSP                           0      932      932        8986         167 495       662   495      615     43      49
            45     7       02                           49           35
PRIMARY                   228                                       166
            0     2281           0       0        0     0   1660          0     0       0
 SCHOOL                    1                                         0
ECONOMI    160            265                          112          217
                  1050           0       0        0          1050         0     0       0
  C DEV.    3              3                            9            9

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