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Overtraining Prevention and Recovery Enhancement

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									Overtraining Prevention and Recovery Enhancement




                      Dr. Michael Kellmann
                      Faculty of Sport Science
                      Ruhr-University of Bochum, Germany



        http://sposerver.sportdekanat.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/sportpsych/
        Email: Michael.Kellmann@ruhr-uni-bochum.de
                  Athletes’ statements

German Gymnast

who shook his head almost imperceptibly at the European
Championships, closed his eyes briefly and left the arena withou
looking up; he was fatigue personified.

    “Suddenly, I coudn’t do any more. I just wanted to rest.”


Schedule for 1996
March:   Two international competitions
April:   World Championships
May:     European Championships; Olympic selection trials
June:    National Championships and additional selection trials
”.... in this way the athlete is rushed from one peak to the
other and the recovery phases become too short in today’s
limits of human performance"



                                              (Hollmann, 1989)
                  Athletes’ statements


Professional cyclist
“I am better this year, because I train less; in other years, I
was already tiered before the race.”
                              (Süddeutsche Zeitung, 27 October, 1995




Professional tennis player
“My recent successes are due to less tennis, more regeneration
and the enforced break (due to injuries); I am less exhausted
and burnt out than the other players.”
                                 (Neue Züricher Zeitung, 28 May, 1995
                Features of recovery

Recovery is a process in time and is dependent on
the type of and duration of stress.
Recovery depends on a reduction of stress, a change
of stress, or a break from stress.
Recovery is individually specific and depends on
individual appraisals.
Recovery can be passive, active and pro-active.

Recovery can be described on various levels (e.g.,
physical, psychic, behavioral, social).
Recovery is closely tied to situational conditions (e.g.,
                Recovery as ...


• Opposite to fatigue / over demanding
  -> Recovery through activity reduction


• Opposite to under demanding
  -> Recovery through activity increase


• Variation of stressed levels / systems
  -> Recovery through activity change
“Scissors-model” of the interrelation of
 stress-states and recovery demands

                             Stress-states



                    individual performance
                           optimum
  Stress capacity




  Resources limit




                         Recovery demands
         Balance model of recovery




stress                                  recovery
                      health



              Recovery-stress balance
  Balance model of recovery




stress
                                   recovery



                 health



         recovery-stress balance
    Balance model of recovery




    ss                             reco
stre                                      very




         recovery-stress balance
 Consequences of underrecovery


Burnout (Smith, 1986)
Reaction on chronic stress.


Overtraining (Lehmann et al., 1999).
Consequence of a stress - > recovery -
imbalance.


Performance stagnates or declines
Influencing factors on performance abilities


               Training


 Life-       Performance          State of
 style         abilities           health



             Environment
  Influencing factors on performance abilities


Life-style                  Environment
Sleep, daily schedule   •   Family
Nutrition               •   Sharing an apartment
Alcohol- and smoking    •   Social contacts
Housing conditions      •   Job / school
Leisure activities      •   Coach
                        •   Staff (e.g., physical trainer)
                        •   Leisure options
                        •   Jet lag
  Influencing factors on performance abilities


State of health       Training
Cold with fever       • Stress/recovery relationship
Gastric sickness      •   Frequency/intensity of stimulus
Intestinal sickness   •   Training volume
Infections            •   Training intensity
                      •   Training methods
                      •   Technique training
                      •   Competitions
Pe rformance ability   Fatigue through training




                                                  Time
                           Fatigue
              Sometimes less is more




  Optimal performance is only achievable if athletes

• recover following competition

• optimally balance training stress and adequate recovery

                              Rowbottom, Keast, & Morton (1998)
Pe rformnce ability   Optimale change of stress and recovery




                                                       Time
               Overtraining



Stress > recovery (regeneration) imbalance


Too much stress combined with too little
regeneration.


Stress includes all training, competition, and
non-training stress factors.
                    Overreaching



An accumulation of training and non-training
stress resulting in a short-term decrement in
performance capacity with or without related
physiological   and    psychological   signs   and
symptoms of overtraining in which restoration of
performance capacity may take from several days
to several weeks.
               Overreaching




              Supercompensation
Performance




                                      Time


                           Recovery
                   Overtraining



An accumulation of training and non-training
stress resulting in a long-term decrement in
performance capacity with or without related
physiological   and   psychological   signs   and
symptoms of overtraining in which restoration of
performance capacity may take from several
weeks to months.
Performance   Overtraining




                                   Time


                     „accumulative“ fatigue
    Selected indicators of overtraining

•   Impaired performance
•   Lack of supercompensation
•   Increased resting heart rate
•   Weight loss
•   Loss of appetite
•   Increased vulnerability to injuries
•   Hormonal changes
•   Feeling of depression
•   General apathy
•   Decreased self-esteem, emotional instability
•   Restlessness, irritability
    Treatment / rehabilitation of overtraining

• Break from competition
  – Depending on the seriousness of overtraining 2 - 6 weeks
    (sometimes longer)


• Changes of training
  – Reduction of training volume
  – Change of intensity
  – Change of technique training
      Treatment / rehabilitation of overtraining

• Doctor’s visit
  – Diagnostic of injuries and overstrain damages
  – Treatment with electrolytes


• Active Recovery
  –   Gymnastics / physical exercise
  –   Games
  –   Regenerative runs
  –   Swimming
  –   Balanced food
  –   Environment and climate change
              Pschoregulative techniques



               Accelerating Recovery
Performance




                                           time
      Overtraining prevention



Elimination of all factors which increase
the likelihood of overtraining

Use of psychoregulative techniques

Early detection of overtraining through
diagnostic tools
            Research on Overtraining




 Goal: Determine indicators that sensitively predict
             such a negative development



Physiological indicators: unstable

Psychological indicators: relatively stable
the German Junior National Rowing Team


                    Coach


     Biomechanic               Sport
                               physiologist
                   Athlete

    Sport                         Physician
    psychologist   Physical
                   therapist
Psychological testing


Interviews
Standardized Instruments

Why questionnaires?
 Objectivity
 Validity
 Reliability
 Economic
 Norm
            What is it all about?




• Education for athletes and coaches

• Self-responsibility

• Honesty first
RE        Recovery-



ST        Stress-



Q         Questionnaire



- Sport   for Athletes
        RESTQ-Sport scales and sample items

Scale                      Example
1    General Stress        ... I felt down
2    Emotional Stress      ... I was in a bad mood
3    Social Stress         ... I was angry with someone
4    Conflicts/Pressure    ... I felt under pressure
5    Fatigue               ... I was overtired
6    Lack of Energy        ... I was unable to concentrate well
7    Physical Complaints   ... I felt uncomfortable

8    Success               ... I finished important tasks
9    Social Recovery       ... I had a good time with my friends
10   Physical Recovery     ... I felt at ease
11   General Well-being    ... I was in a good mood
12   Sleep Quality         ... I had a satisfying sleep
        RESTQ-Sport scales and sample items


Scale                              Example
13      Disturbed Breaks           ... too much was demanded of me during
                                       the breaks
14      Emotional Exhaustion       ... I felt that I wanted to quit my sport
15      Injury                     ... my performance drained me physically

16      Being in Shape          ... I was in a good condition physically
17      Personal Accomplishment ... I dealt very effectively with my
                                    teammates’ problems
18      Self-Efficacy           ... I was convinced that I had trained well
19      Self-Regulation         ... I prepared myself mentally for
                                    performance
   Training load per day of the
German Junior National Rowing Team 1998



                              T1: arrival at training camp
                              T2, T3, T4: during training camp
                              T5: two days before preliminaries
                              T6: day after preliminaries
Median and quartiles for creatine kinase throughout the
                 1998 training camp
                 RESTQ-Sport scale Fatigue for the
              German Junior National Rowing Team 1998




0 = never ; 6 = always
    RESTQ-Sport scale Fitness/Being in Shape for the
       German Junior National Rowing Team 1998




0 = never ; 6 = always
  RESTQ-Sport profile for a female rower
and the area of tolerance for the total group

   General Stress
   Emotional Stress
   Social Stress
   Conflicts/Pressure
   Fatigue
   Lack of Energy
   Physical Complaints
   Success
   Social Recovery
   Physical Recovery
   General Well-being
   Sleep Quality
   Disturbed Breaks
   Emotional Exhaustion
   Injury
   Being in Shape
   Personal Accomplishment
   Self-Efficacy
   Self-Regulation
 Recovery-stress state for two rowers at
T4 (broken line) and at time T5 (solid line)


                General Stress
                Emotional Stress
                Social Stress
                Conflicts/Pressure             rowe
                Fatigue
                Lack of Energy
                Physical Complaints
                Success
                Social Recovery
                Physical Recovery
                General Well-being
                Sleep Quality
                Disturbed Breaks
                Emotional Exhaustion
                Injury
                Being in Shape
                Personal Accomplishment
                Self-Efficacy
                Self-Regulation

								
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