November 2003 Centre News November 2003 Franklyn

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					                                    Centre News                                                            November 2003

                                      Franklyn Griffiths (Political Science; former CREES Director) is a specialist in inter-
                                      national security issues and circumpolar politics. His expertise in these areas led him
Munk Centre for                       to accompany the Governor General on her recent state visit to Russia. Professor
International Studies
                                      Griffiths provided CREES with these field notes.
University of Toronto
1 Devonshire Place
Toronto, Ontario
M5S 3K7                             As many will know, Governor General Adrienne Clarkson recently traveled on a state visit
                                    to the Russian Federation, and thence to Finland and Iceland. A further trio of visits is
Peter H. Solomon, Jr.               planned for next year, to Sweden, Norway, and Denmark/Greenland.The aim throughout is
Director                            to encourage an exchange of ideas and experience among northern countries who govern,
                                    utilize, study, enjoy, and also cooperate in a shared Arctic region which is inhabited by
Tel.:   (416) 946-8938              indigenous peoples with a special claim on the awareness and respect of their fellows to the
Fax:    (416) 946-8939
                                    south. In making these visits the Governor General lends support to the “Northern Di-              mension” of Canadian foreign policy which the Department of Foreign Affairs and Interna-
                                    tional Trade has been pursuing for some years now. Knowing something about the circumpolar
                                    North as well as Russia, I had the good fortune to be invited to take part in the visit to
In this issue:
                                          Some 30 of us made up a delegation which included aboriginal leaders, parliamentar-
   Civic Education and              ians, writers, filmmakers, and persons with special knowledge in matters of the environ-
   Democracy in Russia          3   ment, development, governance, children and youth, and language policy.The visit took us to
   Innovative Curriculum        4   Moscow, up to Salekhard, which is on the Arctic Circle near where the Ob opens onto salt
                                    water, and then down and out through St. Petersburg, all over a period of ten days ending
   SPECQUE Success              5
                                    October 1.
   Update on Baturyn Dig        6         Contrary to the nay-saying in Canada which I observed before leaving and also heard
   Member News                  7   about while in Russia, this trip was entirely justified. A state visit offers a marvellous oppor-
   Upcoming Conferences         8   tunity to capture the attention of influentials in the host country, especially when one has a
                                    bit more to talk about than exports and the bottom line. My sense of what happened is that
   Events Past                  9
                                    we got their attention. Not merely was there a spike in press coverage during the visit, but
   Soviet & Kosher          15      leaders from President Putin on down to pace-setters in a wide range of endeavours found
                                    themselves conversing with Canadian counterparts on matters of common concern. New
                                    awareness was created. Some of it will be more than momentary. Some of it may inform and
                                    enrich future cooperation between our two countries. Governor General Clarkson’s origi-
                                    nality is to turn the honour and the prestige which are associated with the state visit into
Centre News is published
quarterly, in September,
                                    instruments for the achievement of heightened foreign access and recognition for Canada
November, January, and April.       and Canadian ambitions. I say more power to her.
Edited by Janet Hyer, (416)               My impressions were too many and diverse to be rendered with any great coherence
946-8994 or                         in a short note such as this. Protocol officers shepherded us constantly from ceremonial to             substantive events, and then back again to ceremony including receptions to the point of
                                    receptionitis. The substantive events we took part in included panel and round table ses-
                                    sions on everything from the modern novel to dismantlement of derelict Russian nuclear
                                    submarines. As to receptions, they could be lavish. During the Brezhnev era it used to be
                                    said that Soviet Russia ran on alcohol, protocol, and Geritol. If what happened on this visit
                                    is any guide, Russia has got down to protocol and alcohol in that order.

Centre News                                                    1                                                 November 2003
      Otherwise, two main impressions stand out: a state din-           feigned confidentiality: “They exaggerate Canada’s significance.”
ner in the Kremlin, and a helicopter visit to now long-aban-            I had a very good laugh at such adroitness.
doned forced labour camp 501 in the Yamalo-Nenets autono-                     At camp 501 we saw remains of the work of earlier siloviki
mous okrug west of Salekhard.                                           who would not have been all that good as dinner companions.
      A couple hundred of us dined in St. Alexander’s Hall on           On Stalin’s order, they had brought prisoners in to construct
Tuesday, September 23. The space is vast and the mania for              a trans-Arctic railway on permafrost. This was in 1947 and in
gilding is unrestrained. Near the entrance was the head table           response to the demonstrated vulnerability of the Northern
to which their various excellencies and other dignitaries came          Sea Route to German submarines during World War II. Camps
and sat once the main body of guests had taken their places.            were set up every ten or so kilometres along the proposed
The whole scene was quite splendid. And when dinner was                 line. 501 was one of them. All in all, some 40,000 persons are
over President and Mrs. Putin escorted the Governor Gen-                said to have died before the entire undertaking came to an
eral and John Ralston Saul down the length of the hall and out          abrupt end following the dictator’s death in 1953. So it was to
through two immense doors into yet another cavernous hall               a scene of previous horror that we descended in ancient heli-
lit this time in radiant blue and suggesting elevation to heaven.       copters on a late September morning in 2003.
      As was to be expected, placement for the dinner was in                  Relics of horror there were, but great natural beauty as
Russian hands. I found they had sat me at the head of a small           well.To anyone with the faintest idea of the cruelty that went
table up at the front. On my left was Sergei Lebedev, the head          on in places like this, there was plenty to ponder: roofs fallen
of Russia’s foreign intelligence service. To my right was Yuri          in and chimneys toppled, barbed wire all but rusted away and
Gagarin’s daughter, who is in charge of all Kremlin antiquities.        a watchtower now in serious decline, and at the heart of it all
I regarded this as considerate placement. It certainly made for         long sleeping platforms one above the other on both sides of
interesting and agreeable conversation. Conversation, be it             a few decrepit structures in the middle of nowhere. And yet
noted, with highly civil siloviki (the term today for people in         there was more.
the Russian security and defence apparatus).                                  We were in a shallow valley, so there was a bit of protec-
      Lebedev told me, twice, that he had very good working             tion. Birch trees had grown, as had larch now with golden
relations with Ward Elcock, the head of CSIS. Since CSIS reads          needles.The moss was springy underfoot. Lichens abounded.
everything and since Lebedev apparently wanted a message                Cloudberries were to be had, as was wild cranberry and the
to get through to him, I hereby relay it via this newsletter. For       odd snowflake in air of extraordinary freshness. The physical
my part, I told Lebedev that people around the Canadian se-             handiwork of Stalin’s siloviki was and is being undone by na-
curity intelligence establishment claimed Russia spied on               ture, indeed by northern nature. Before too long, camp 501
Canada. He had an excellent reply which he delivered with               will be obliterated. This is both an excellent prospect and a
                                                                        fitting note on which to end these impressions.

                                                                             Sleeping platforms and watchtower from camp 501

November 2003                                                       2                                                    Centre News
Civic Education and Democracy in Russia
A new CREES project, “Civic Education and Democracy in                the educational system whose means of interaction are simi-
Russia,” was recently awarded a grant from the University of          lar to those inherent to subjects of a civil society. This “disci-
Calgary/Gorbachev Foundation Program, funded by the Ca-               pline of respect,” as we call it, is based on the recognition of
nadian International Development Agency.The project is a col-         the participants’ civil rights and stands in contrast to the “dis-
laborative initiative on the part of a CREES-based team (Pro-         cipline of coercion” characteristic of Soviet times.
fessor Peter Solomon, Dr. Olga Glagoleva, and Dr. Boris                     The action plan will take place in two countries. First, we
Sergeev) in partnership with a team (Professor Karen Mundy,           want to analyse the best trends in the pedagogical traditions
Dr. Cathy Bickmore, Dr. Mark Evans, and Terezia Zoric) from           of civic education and the educational change which took place
the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of         in Canada in the twentieth century, and develop a summary
Toronto (OISE), and a team from L.N.Tolstoy State Pedagogi-           of key studies in political socialization and civic education car-
cal University,Tula, Russia (TSPU) consisting of Professor Olga       ried out in Canada and the USA. With the help of our OISE
V. Zaslavskaia, Leading Specialist of the Institute of Pedagogical    partners we will bring a group of Tula educators to Canada
Innovations of the Russian Academy of Education, Professor            for a ten-day training program at OISE to introduce them to
Nadezhda A. Shaidenko, Rector of TSPU, and Dr. Olga E.                the most advanced relevant practices in Ontario schools.
Sal’nikova. The project is focused on improving regional sec-               Secondly, we need to investigate the prerevolutionary edu-
ondary education, with the educational system in Tula region          cational system in Tula as the historical background and source
to produce an integrative model for innovative programming            of the tradition most useful for the current situation. Com-
and policy development. We                                                                                parative analysis of the best
believe that the democratic                                                                               Canadian and Western peda-
transformation of Russian                                                                                 gogical theories and practices,
society in the post-Soviet                                                                                along with Russian national
period calls for an educational                                                                           democratic traditions in edu-
system adhering to principles                                                                             cation, will allow us to build
of democracy and human                                                                                    an innovative democracy-ori-
rights.                                                                                                   ented model for regional edu-
     Tula region, one of the                                                                              cation with an individual im-
central industrial regions in                                                                             plementation trajectory.
Russia, combines strong edu-                                                                                  To apply our theoretical
cational traditions with a very                                                                           findings and use the knowl-
peculiar present political situ-                                                                          edge acquired by the Russian
ation. Before the Revolution,                                                                             educators in Canadian
many innovative pedagogical                                                                               schools during their stay in
ideas and experiences origi-                                                                              Toronto, we plan to conduct
nated here, including Vassily                                                                             an experiment in Public
Zhukovsky’s concept of the                                                                                School No. 14 in Tula. We
education of a citizen and his                                                                            hope that the students and
experiments in girls’ educa-                                                                              teachers participating in this
                                   L-R: Olga Zaslavskaia, Olga Glagoleva, and four members of
tion; Konstantin Ushinsky’s                                                                               experiment will gain useful
                                   the "Spirit of Democracy" project from Moscow and the Moscow
theory of the democratiza- oblast: Elena Novikova (Gymnasium No. 16 of Mytishchi, Vice- exposure to the basics of the
tion of education; Leo Tol- Director), Tat'iana Ivanova and Galina Smirnova (Gymnasium civic society culture, such as
stoy’s anthropocentric educa- No. 2 of Ramenskoe, history teachers), and Andrei Ioffe civic relations, team work,
tional paradigm and his (Association "For Civic Education," Moscow, Vice-President)                       leadership, fair social prac-
school for peasant children.                                                                              tices, and conscious civil
In Soviet times, these demo-                                                                              choices. And we hope that
cratic tendencies in regional education were replaced with            this exposure will spill over into the students’ life outside the
totalitarian and class-oriented approaches. Today, Tula is part       school. This amounts to developing a new paradigm for the
of the so-called “red belt” where the tradition of the Com-           organization of school life. In order to promote our ideas and
munist past remains strong. Accordingly, democratic changes           the results of the experiment, we plan to convene a regional
in education are rather slow, and the regional educational sys-       teachers and education professionals conference in Tula. Both
tem largely preserves Soviet-era practices in management and          teams, Canadian and Russian, will participate in preparing prac-
everyday school life.                                                 tical recommendations and manuals aimed at the implemen-
     Our project aims to develop a management strategy based          tation of the civil-legal component in schools, designing pro-
upon the innovative concept of the civil-legal educational space      grams for retraining regional school educators, and develop-
of a school. We define this concept as the aggregate of the           ing an innovative education management model for the re-
activities of and relationships between the components of             gion.

Centre News                                                       3                                                   November 2003
     The participants in “Civic Education and Democracy in            experience can be very beneficial in Russia. Also, having stud-
Russia” will collaborate with another project on education            ied the history of the Tula region and Russian education for
funded under the University of Calgary/Gorbachev Founda-              many years, I hope to contribute my professional expertise as
tion— “Spirit of Democracy,” a joint initiative of the Univer-        an historian. I know the people involved in this project per-
sity of New Brunswick and the Institute of Pedagogical Sys-           sonally as highly qualified specialists, and I am quite optimistic
tems, Moscow, Russia, with co-directors Professor Andrew              that our project will succeed in bringing about democratic
Hughes (UNB) and Professor Natalia Voskresenskaia in Mos-             change to the educational system in Tula.
cow. While in Russia in October, I met with Professor                                                       Dr. Olga E. Glagoleva, CREES
Voskresenskaia and other Russian members of “Spirit of De-
mocracy” at the editorial board of the Teacher Newspaper in             A good start to “Civic Education and Democracy in Rus-
Moscow. And an orientation seminar in Tula on October 17                sia” took place even before the beginning of its formal
and 18 took place for all the Russian specialists working on            funding. In April 2003, CREES hosted Visiting Scholar Olga
the CREES project and the team of four specialists from “Spirit         V. Zaslavskaia, who came here to work on the project
of Democracy.” Participants exchanged ideas, discussed the              proposal with the CREES team. Her presentation on “Rus-
main activities and results of the two projects, and developed          sian Schools in the New Millennium: Contributing to De-
detailed plans for implementing “Civic Education and Democ-             mocracy” analysed the current situation in Russian edu-
racy in Russia” and collaborating with “Spirit of Democracy.”           cation, dwelled on recent Russian government docu-
The participants visited Iasnaia Poliana, Leo Tolstoy’s memo-           ments—Conception of the Modernization of Education and
rial museum near Tula, where they discussed the educational             National Doctrine of Education—which reflect the demo-
ideas of the writer and their relevance for current educa-              cratic transformation of Russian society and articulate
tional needs.                                                           demand for educational change at the national level. Pro-
     Personally, I am very excited about this project. A gradu-         fessor Zaslavskaia also described the innovative activities
ate of Public School No. 14 in Tula (the pilot school for our           “from below” in Tula region, i.e., those of local educators
project) and of the Tolstoy Pedagogical University, where I             and teachers, such as the experimental educational
later worked for several years as a professor, I know the re-           projects “School for Individual Education,” “Gifted Chil-
gional system well enough to understand its pressing need               dren’s Programme,” “School for Self-Education,” and “Peas-
for democratic change. Having come to Canada ten years ago              ants’ School.” Yet, she argued, the region continues to
and learned first-hand about the Canadian educational sys-              preserve old totalitarian practices, particularly in educa-
tem (as a former student of George Brown college; mother                tional management, and only joint efforts by regional edu-
of a secondary-school and then U of T student; and, of course,          cators, along with assistance from outside, can lead to
from my teaching at CREES), I am sure that the Canadian                 democratic developments.

Aid Extended: Lessons from Canadian Aid
to the Graduating Countries of Central                                economies). These countries will soon join the European
                                                                      Union and make the transition from net recipients to net
and Eastern Europe                                                    donors of international aid. The lessons learned from CIDA’s
This year 14 graduate students from the University of To-             experience will no doubt prove invaluable for Canada and the
ronto will participate in a research seminar that gives them          countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
the opportunity to work with Canadian government Program-                  The other important component of this project is the
ming Assessment reports. These reports have been contracted           central role of the students’ participation and involve-
by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)               ment. According to Professor Eddie, the multi-ethnic back-
to assess Canadian aid in Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, the Czech        ground of this dynamic group makes the project even more
Republic, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. Students choose one         interesting and challenging. The majority of the students have
of these countries and, under the guidance of Professors Scott        different ethnic and professional backgrounds, mainly from
Eddie and Robert Austin, produce a contextual analysis of             Central and Eastern Europe. Natalia Smalyuk, who was born
CIDA’s programming results in these countries since the fall          in Belarus, has worked in the Professional Media Program of
of the Soviet Union.                                                  the International Research Exchanges Board in Belarus be-
     This project was designed and initiated by CIDA to de-           fore coming to Canada in 2001. Vanessa Podgurny born in
termine the effectiveness of Canadian development assistance          Canada of Ukrainian origin, worked with CIDA before re-
to the graduating countries of Central and Eastern Europe             turning to university for graduate studies. Martin Hrobsky, born
(graduating in this case means that CIDA activities will be           in Canada of Czech origin, has studied in Prague and did an
terminated, in recognition of the progress made by these coun-        internship as a journalist at the international service of Czech
tries in establishing democratic political systems and market         radio, Radio Praha. Others, like Sarah Caldwell, who became

November 2003                                                     4                                                     Centre News
involved after having participated in the Canada World Youth           “at the end of analyzing the CIDA reports, they will be going
programme in Estonia, has extensive experience with Estonia,           back to the government as response to official reports,” drew
Russia, Ukraine, and Poland through travel and study abroad.           Sarah Caldwell to the project. Ziva Kokolj chose this pro-
     This project provides students with the privilege to work         gram primarily because of its “practical aspect,” and Anna
with original government sources from CIDA. Both “the                  Djuricic, who found the material and the substance of this
chance to explore Canada’s role in the Central and East Eu-            project most striking, seconds this view. All in all, students are
ropean transition through the eyes of CIDA” and the fact that          anxious to receive reports from CIDA and to begin their work.
                                                                                         Helen Ho, UofT, and Vanessa Podgurny, CREES

SPECQUE—Europe Heads East
Once again SPECQUE (Simulation Parlement européen—
Canada, Québec, Europe) has come to a successful and tri-
umphant conclusion. Held in Krakow, Poland from September
7-12, U of T was proudly represented with a seven-member
delegation. This year’s team consisted of undergraduate and
graduate students from numerous colleges and faculties in-
cluding three CREES students: Kate Barrette, Sarah Caldwell,
and Igor Tchoukarine. This make-up was timely due to the
fact that this year marked the first time the simulation was
held in an Eastern EU candidate country.
      Now in its sixth year, SPECQUE is an entirely student-
run organization that meets annually for a week in order to
simulate the proceedings of the European Parliament. This
year over 110 university students from Canada and Europe
came together as “Eurodeputies” to debate, legislate, and vote
on a series of propositions and Commission reports—all in
French, a second or third language for over half of the partici-
pants.The principal topics for debate this year concerned the          Back (l-r): Nick Herman, Arek Aniolowski, Igor Tchoukarine
                                                                       Front (l-r): Alexandra Madolciu, Kate Barrette, Sarah
environment and maritime safety, a new role for the Commit-
                                                                       Caldwell, Cecilia Fantoni
tee of the Regions, access to public documents, and a com-
mon internal security policy. While working in commission              tional, to CREES, the Centre for International Studies, the
groups and political parties and during plenary sessions, all          School of Graduate Studies, the Joint Initiative in German and
participants seized the opportunity to develop and hone their          European Studies, the Vice-Provost of Students, the Faculty of
skills in such things as bargaining, public speaking, time man-        Arts and Science, and numerous colleges. These institutions
agement, and working under pressure. The lessons learned,              joined with institutional partners such as the Department of
along with the friendships made, over the course of the week           Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), the Govern-
will serve as valuable experiences and international networks          ment of Québec and Université de Laval to support a unique
in the future.                                                         and worthwhile event. We hope that these partnerships can
      The week ended on another high point when it was an-             be maintained and expanded over the coming year in order
nounced that the U of T bid to host SPECQUE 2004 had                   to keep U of T’s presence strong and in order to host the
been successful. Members of last year’s delegation are already         most successful SPECQUE to date.
hard at work preparing to host 130 people from around the                   For further information about SPECQUE check out the
world from August 29-September 4. The simulation will be               web site at or contact Sarah Caldwell at
held in the legislature at Queen’s Park, with Commission     
meetings being hosted by the Munk Centre. Also of note,                                                          Sarah Caldwell, CREES
two of Toronto’s delegates were elected to SPECQUE’s gov-                          Vice-chair and Administrator SPECQUE Toronto 2004
erning bodies. Igor Tchoukarine was elected to the Adminis-
trative council, where he will be taking on roles related to
participant recruitment, fund raising, and budgetary control;            CREES MA student Sarah Caldwell was incorrectly identified in
Cecilia Fantoni (Trinity) will act as Vice-president of the Ex-          the September issue of Centre News as being on exchange at
ecutive committee and will be spearheading the logistics for             CEU in Budapest. As you can see above, Ms. Caldwell is busy in
SPECQUE 2004.                                                            Toronto with European Parliament simulations past and future.
      The delegation’s success as well as the bid to host the                 Mary Korica is the fourth CREES MA student at CEU.
simulation owe a lot to the support, both financial and emo-
Centre News                                                        5                                                  November 2003
Excavations at Baturyn, Ukraine: The 2003 Season
Baturyn is located on the lower Seym River in the Chernihiv                 The expedition excavated the basement of the so-called
region northeast of Kyiv. It was founded in the 11th century as        Kochubei House to explore its construction technique. It was
a frontier outpost of the Chernihiv principality. The Mongols          built by Hetman Dem’ian Mnohohrishnyi (1669-72) as a court
destroyed it in the mid-13th century but it slowly revitalized.        and a jail for prisoners of the Hetman state. The team also
In 1669-1708 and in 1750-64 it served as the capital of the            excavated the brick foundations of Mazepa’s country palace
Cossack Hetman State. In 1708, after Hetman Ivan Mazepa                which fell victim to Peter’s forces. Archaeological data and
(1687-1708) joined the Swedes, Peter I the Great sent a puni-          drawings of the palace’s ruins made in 1744 will help to re-
tive force to destroy the Cossack capital.                             construct graphically its design and architectural forms.While
      The 2003 season of the Canada-Ukraine expedition was             investigating the remnants of the palace constructed by
the third sponsored by the Kowalsky Program for the Study              Mnohohrishnyi and Hetman Ivan Samoilovych (1672-87) the
of Eastern Ukraine of the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Stud-        archaeologists uncovered ruins of its brick walls and fragments
ies (CIUS), the Shevchenko Scientific Society of America (SSS-         of sophisticated glazed ceramic tiles from interior embellish-
A), the University of                                                                                           ments. Moreover, on
Chernihiv (UC), the                                                                                             the grounds of the for-
Pontifical Institute of                                                                                         tress they unearthed a
Mediaeval Studies                                                                                               grain-storage substruc-
(PIMS), and by other                                                                                            ture used by the garri-
institutional and private                                                                                       son. The brick founda-
donors.Around 70 stu-                                                                                           tions of one wing of the
dents and scholars                                                                                              palace endowed by
from universities in                                                                                            Hetman Kyrylo Rozu-
Chernihiv, Nizhyn,                                                                                              movs’kyi (1750-64)
Luhans’k, and the Kyiv                                                                                          were also discovered.
Mohyla Academy par-                                                                                             The extant parts of this
ticipated under the                                                                                             magnificent complex
leadership of Dr.                                                                                               are currently being re-
Volodymyr Kovalenko                                                                                             stored.
(UC). Dr. Volodymyr                                                                                                  Other finds in-
Mezentsev (U of T)                                                                                              clude four silver and
represented PIMS and                                                                                            copper neck crosses, six
CIUS. Prof. Martin                                                                                              Polish and Russian coins,
                                L-R: Volodymyr Mezentsev (UofT), Volodymyr Kovalenko (University
Dimnik (PIMS) oversaw                                                                                           fragments of glass
                                of Chernihiv), leader of the expedition, Martin Dimnik (PIMS), Yurii Sytyi
the funding and publi-                                                                                          dishes, and glazed ce-
                                (University of Chernihiv)
cizes the expedition’s                                                                                          ramic tiles (kakhli) for
findings. Dr. Zenon                                                                                             decorating heating
Kohut, Director of CIUS, and Dr. Larysa Onyshkevych, Presi-            stoves. The tiles, works of Ukrainian Baroque folk art bearing
dent of SSS-A, served as advisers.                                     floral, wattle, and geometric relief ornamentation, were prob-
      The excavations yielded important discoveries.The team           ably produced in Baturyn, which was a leading centre of ce-
unearthed remnants of semi-subterranean dwellings of the               ramic production during Mazepa’s reign. Thus, the 2003 sea-
Kyivan Rus’ era.These provide additional proof that the terri-         son yielded valuable data on the development of trade, crafts,
tory was settled in the 11th –12th century.Twelve graves dated         construction techniques, architecture, and art.To publicize its
to the late 17th or early 18th centuries were discovered on the        findings, the expedition is preparing a collection of articles on
citadel near the former Church of the Resurrection commis-             the history, archaeology, architecture, and art of the Hetman
sioned by Ivan Mazepa but destroyed by Peter’s troops. A               capital. The Ukraine-Canada expedition plans to continue its
number of the skeletons were from casualties of the massa-             excavations at Baturyn in the summer of 2004.
cre. The grave of an elite Cossack who had been buried in a                             Prof. Martin Dimnik and Dr.Volodymyr Mezentsev
wooden crypt underground was among those plundered fol-                     ( and
lowing the razing of Baturyn. A local priest performed a me-
morial service over the graves before they were filled in.

                                       Please visit the CREES web site for a gallery of
                                                photos from the Baturyn dig:

November 2003                                                     6                                                      Centre News
Member News                                                              CREES is pleased to welcome back Dr. Nikolai Krementsov,
                                                                         who has a long association with the Stalin-Era Research and
                    !!! Kudos !!!                                        Archives Project. Dr. Krementsov is on the faculty of the
Congratulations to this year’s crop of newly minted CREES                Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Tech-
MAs: Karlo Basta, Kate Davis, Mike Leach, Alexander                      nology at UofT.
Milinkovic, Natalia Nemyliwska, Igor Tchoukarine,
James Thompson, and Esma Trejic.                                         In July 2003, Dr. Anna Makolkin (CREES Resident Fellow)
                                                                         presented a paper “On the Sartorial Iconography and Global
And congratulations to Dr. Julia Kinnear (History), who de-              Gender Entrapment.” She was invited to the international
fended her dissertation in August on “Childhood, Family and              conference on “The Iconography of Gender” by the Centre
Obshchestvennost’ in Late Imperial Russia: P.F. Kapterev, the            of American Studies of the University of Szeged, Hungary.
St. Petersburg Parents’ Circle and the Question of Family Edu-                 In August, Dr. Makolkin was conducting research in Odessa,
cation, 1884-1914.”                                                      Ukraine, studying the Italian collection at the Museum of
                                                                         Western and Oriental Art, where she was invited for the com-
Congratulations are also in order for Dr. Jean Levesque                  piling of the Italian art catalogue. The project was funded the
(History). Dr. Levesque defended his dissertation—“ The Post-            School of Graduate Studies, UofT, as a partial SSHRC grant.
WWII Stalinist Order in the Countryside”—this summer and                 The Juzhno-Russkii Zhurnal in Odessa solicited a contribution,
is now teaching at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas.              and Dr. Makolkin’s article entitled “The Discovery of Italian
                                                                         America in Odessa” will appear in its November issue.
                    Ð          Ð          Ð                                    Also in August, Dr. Makolkin presented a paper “Going
                                                                         beyond Faith: Kierkegaard’s Ultimate Reality” at the 12th Bien-
Professor Martin Dimnik (Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval               nial Conference of the Philosophical Society of URAM, which
Studies) published the book The Dynasty of Chernigov 1146-               took place at University College, UofT (August 13-17). She
1246 (Cambridge, 2003), and the article “Was Oleg                        also chaired a session on René Girard and the Scapegoating.
Svyatoslavich the First Prince of Novgorod Severskiy?”, in               The journal of URAM, a referred publication put out by the
Druzhynni starozhytnosti Tsentral’no-Skhidnoi Ievropy VIII-XI st.,       UofT Press and the Canadian Catholic Historical Association,
(Chernihiv, 2003), pp. 26-32.                                            has appointed Dr. Makolkin to serve as a co-editor in charge
                                                                         of the section on semiotics and cultural studies.
Congratulations to Dr. Sara Ginaite (Senior Fellow), Mr.                       In September, Dr. Makolkin took part in the conference
Frank Hylands and Mr. George Hylands, and Professor                      “The Europe of the Future,” organized by the Embassy of
Horst Wittmann, who brought to fruition a volume of es-                  Italy, the Italian Cultural Institute, and Glendon College of York
says on the poet Marija Aukstaite—Marija Aukstaite: Literary             University.
Legacy and Humanistic Life in Lithuania and Canada (Vilnius,To-                On October 31, Dr. Makolkin presented a paper “Italians
ronto: 2003). Mr. Frank Hylands and Mr. George Hylands are               Bringing the Mediterranean World into Russia: Odessa, the
the surviving sons of Marija Aukstaite and have worked to                Last Italian Colony” at the international conference on “Mo-
secure their mother’s legacy, in part by establishing the Marija         dernity and Modernism in the Mediterranean World.” The
Aukstaite Graduate Student Fund to support Lithuanian studies            conference was sponsored by St. Michael’s and Victoria Col-
at UofT. The Fund is directed by Professor Wittmann.                     leges and the Emilio Goggio Chair of Italian Studies at UofT.
                                                                               New publication: Review of Presenze femminili nella
New publications by Dr. Olga Glagoleva (CREES Resident                   letteratura russa (Eurasiatica 57), edited by Emilia Magnanini,
Fellow):                                                                 Canadian Slavonic Papers, vol. 45, nos. 1-2 (March-June 2003).
• “Imaginary World: Reading in the Everyday Life of Russian              Andrew Shipilov, a Rotman School of Management PhD can-
Provincial Noblewomen, 1750-1825” in Wendy Rosslyn, ed.,                 didate and a CREES instructor, recently received a Special
Women and Gender in Eighteenth-Century Russia (Ashgate, 2003),           Supplementary Research Award from the Joint Initiative in
pp. 129-146                                                              German and European Studies. This award enabled him to
• “Archival Research in Russia: How to Make It Successful,”              conduct interviews of European investment bankers as part
NewsNet:The Newsletter of the AAASS, vol. 42, no. 5 (December            of the data collection for his doctoral dissertation entitled
2002): 13-21                                                             “Investment Banks’ Network Strategies in the International
• “Nezakonnorozhdennye deti v XVIII v.: Novye materialy                  M&A Advisory Industry.” In November 2003 his dissertation
o poluchenii V.A. Zhukovskim dvorianskogo statusa” (Illegiti-            proposal has been recognized as the only Canadian finalist at
mate Children in Russia in the 18th Century: V.A. Zhukovskii’s           the INFORMS College on Organization Science international
case) with N.K. Fomin, Otechestvennaia Istoriia, 2002, No. 6:            dissertation proposal competition held at the University of
163-75.                                                                  Pennsylvania Wharton School of Management.

Centre News                                                          7                                                 November 2003
Upcoming Conferences                                                    but remain uneasy about the policy frameworks that will now
                                                                        constrain them. For Canadian business operating or aspiring
Modern Kazakhstan: Between East and West                                to operate in the New Europe, both the opportunities and
December 5, 2003                                                        challenges are considerable.The enlarged EU represents one
                                                                        of the world’s most promising investment targets, with a mar-
The aim of this conference is to provide a discussion forum             ket size and wealth that rivals that of the US. At the same
open to students, academics, professionals, politicians, and dip-       time, the investment landscape remains clouded by political
lomats.The conference will allow panelists and participants to          rivalries, international tensions, and economic turbulence.
improve their knowledge and understanding of modern
Kazakhstan. Discussions will address the current state of af-           This conference is aimed at the Canadian business commu-
fairs and consider what the future holds for Kazakhstan by              nity and represents an exceptional opportunity to hear from
focusing on a number of important questions, including:                 a variety of high-level policymakers, scholars, and senior Ca-
• Kazakhstan’s role and position in the changing geopoliti-             nadian investors currently doing business in the region.Very
cal context and international system;                                   limited seating will allow for a frank and informal exchange of
                                                                        ideas and experiences, designed to encourage debate and
• The development path has Kazakhstan—a post-Soviet oil-                foster opportunities for networking. A limited number of
rich country—that chosen to follow;                                     spaces will be available for free to students on a first-come-
• The current state of democracy in Kazakhstan.                         first-served basis.
Information:;                      Info:; 416-946-8942;; 647-886-1552.                   

The Russian Federation 12 Years On:                                     Exploring Ukrainian Identity:
Moving Beyond Transitology                                              Gender, Ethnicity, and Statehood
February 5-7, 2004                                                      March 12-13, 2004
Twelve years after the collapse of the Soviet Union the time            This interdisciplinary symposium is intended to provide an
has come for a critical reappraisal of transitology, one that           invigorating experience for researchers shaping the future of
challenges many of the key assumptions that underlie the study          Ukrainian scholarship, as well as an opportunity for graduate
of post-Soviet society.                                                 students to become better acquainted with future colleagues
This interdisciplinary graduate student conference on the topic         in the profession. Leading scholars in the field will participate
of Russia's economic and democratic transition is interested            and respond to student presentations.
in papers dealing with any of the following broad issue areas:          Graduate students at both the MA and PhD levels and recent
• Federalism and Governance                                             PhD recipients are encouraged to submit proposals. Submis-
• Democracy and Civil Society                                           sions can focus on a wide variety of topics including, but not
• Foreign Relations of the Russian Federation                           limited to, the following:
                                                                        • national identity in an era of globalization
Please send a CV and a 300 word abstract by email (attach-
ment in .doc or .RTF) to; by
                                                                        • nation-building and civil society
fax to (416) 946-8939; or by mail to Moving Beyond                      • contestation of national identity and foreign policy
Transitology, c/o CREES, MCIS, University of Toronto, 1 Dev-                 making
onshire Place, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3K7.                        • language and identity
Applications should be received by December 1, 2003. Par-               • ethnicity and culture
ticipants are strongly encouraged to seek funding to cover              • Ukrainian identity in Diaspora
their travel costs.Accommodation will be provided subject to            • gender and nationalism
availability.                                                           • construction of a gender identity in mass culture
Info: or                     • role of media in shaping Ukrainian identity                                           • quest for identity in contemporary Ukrainian literature
                                                                        • historizing national identity
Canadian Business in the New Europe:
                                                                        Please submit a one-page abstract outlining the paper's thesis,
Opportunities and Prospects
                                                                        scope, and potential conclusions, as well as a curriculum vitae
February 26-27, 2004                                                    by January 15, 2004. Submissions must be made via email to
In the spring of 2004, the European Union will be fundamen-    Presenters should seek ex-
tally transformed, as ten new members join the existing part-           ternal funding. Limited travel grants may be available for par-
nership. The ascendant states are eager for the economic                ticipants who cannot obtain full external funding.
opportunity that EU membership appears to hold in store,                Info:;
November 2003                                                       8                                                    Centre News
Events Past
The history of mankind has been written many times for po-             This led to the official proclamation of the autocephaly of the
litical reasons, yet nothing need be forgotten. This was the           Ukrainian Church.
main theme of the lecture given at CREES on September 15                     Dr. Isichenko placed strong emphasis on the prominence
by Roman Krutsyk, the Head of the Kyiv City Organization               and importance of Ukrainian translations of sacred texts. Of
of the All-Ukrainian Society “Memorial” in the name of Vasyl           particular note was the second full translation of the Bible
Stus. The main purpose of Mr. Krutsyk’s lecture was to pro-            into Ukrainian by Professor Ogienko, or Metropolitan Ilarion,
vide information about the work that has been done by “Me-             Head of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church in Canada in 1939.
morial” to destroy the historical and political myths created          A prominent scholar, Ivan Khomenko, later became the au-
during the previous political regime.                                  thor of the third translation of the Bible into Ukrainian.
      The restoration of history is indeed an extremely de-                  The introduction of Ukrainian into public worship and
manding process. It takes a lot of time, effort, and courage.          private prayer, in the form of regular reading of the Bible in
“Memorial” created the first permanent museum exhibition               Ukrainian at home, was invaluable in the fight to overcome
in Ukraine entitled “Not to be Forgotten: The Chronicle of             the Ukrainian national inferiority complex.The Ukrainian Bib-
the Communist Inquisition in Ukraine.” Through the com-                lical Association, founded in 1991, is now the only non-gov-
bined efforts of the “Memorial” Society and the Ukrainian              ernmental organization that supports the bridging of Chris-
diaspora in North America a poster version of the exposition           tian churches and denominations of various traditions on the
was created to commemorate the 70th Anniversary of the                 basis of common respect for biblical heritage. Ukrainian-speak-
Ukrainian Famine of 1932-1933. More than 700 copies of this            ing parishes of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church,
poster exhibition are on display in museums, libraries, and            Ukrainian Greco-Catholic Church, and Ukrainian Catholic
teaching institutions in many Ukrainian cities. Mr. Krutsyk in-        Church played a significant role in the formation of national
formed us about the obstacles that “Memorial” faces. These             community.
include the indifference of the current Ukrainian government,                Dr. Isichenko defined contemporary relations between
challenges working with archives, and limited financial re-            the church and state in Ukraine as generally positive. He noted
sources.                                                               that affiliation with a church has become an important politi-
      Mr. Krutsyk’s lecture and the following discussion was           cal tool for parliamentarians and state officials in modern
not only extremely informative, but also very heartfelt and            Ukraine.While the discord and hardship that are affecting the
enlightening.                                                          Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church were touched
                                       Nadia Zavorotna, CREES          upon in the talk, the Archbishop emphasized that the future
                                                                       of any church depends on its ability to remain independent
On September 16, the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Stud-             and separate from politics.
ies,Toronto Office, and the Petro Jacyk Program for the Study                                                       Liliya Volovik, CREES
of Ukraine hosted a talk in Ukrainian by Yuri Isichenko (Arch-
bishop Ihor of Kharkiv and Poltava, Ukrainian Autocephalous            On September 25, in the first lecture this season of the CREES
Orthodox Church) on “Translation of the Bible and Religious            Faculty Speakers’ Series, Leonid Livak (Slavic Languages and
Self-Identification of Ukrainians in the 20th Century.”                Literatures) presented the findings of his ongoing research on
      The first attempts to translate the Bible have their roots       the image of the Jewish persona in Russian literature. In the
in the mid-16th century. In the 17th century, during the Coun-         first part of his lecture, Professor Livak discussed the meth-
ter-Reformation, these endeavours faded away. It was not un-           odology of his investigations. Unlike other researchers of the
til the 19th century that Ukrainian writers returned to the            Jewish image in Russian literature, Dr. Livak has been less in-
Bible—they employed biblical subjects and images in their              terested in detecting trends and patterns of historical
works, derived their poetical inspiration from scripture, and,         development. Nor is his study preoccupied with juxtaposing
finally, made renewed efforts to translate the Bible into the          and comparing the literary image of the Jew with its real-life
Ukrainian language.The latter was first accomplished by Pante-         archetypes. Rather, Professor Livak’s novel approach treats the
leimon Kulish, Ivan Puluy, and Ivan Nechuy-Levyts’ky in 1902           image of the Jew in Russian fiction as a holistic and self-con-
and was published in Vienna.This translation reflected the early       tained entity, divorcing objective research from the
stage of forming a Ukrainian theological terminology.                  subjectivities of compare-contrast analogies and temporal value
      Dr. Isichenko emphasized that Ukrainian translations of          biases.
the Bible were a powerful incentive for the Ukrainian Ortho-                 This detachment from moral judgments, Professor Livak
dox Church to consolidate its national identity and in par-            contends, is essential for a study seeking to explore the image
ticular to strive for recognition of modern Ukrainian as a theo-       of the Jew from a literature point of view, and avoid slipping
logical language. The tradition of conducting church services          into the realm of sociology or social history. It is this latter
in Ukrainian was established in May 1919 at St. Michael’s Ca-          tactic, he further argues, that has time and again pushed re-
thedral in Kyiv. The Church’s next step towards national self-         searchers into pharisaical evaluations of the image of the Jew
identification was its severance from the ethnically Russian           in literary fiction against the backdrop of contemporaneous
hierarchy of the All-Ukrainian Orthodox Council in May 1920.           commonsense logic. Detecting a gaping mismatch between
Centre News                                                        9                                                  November 2003
the Jew in the literature and the Jew of the real world, these                   Post-communist Eastern Europe, Professor Fabian ob-
scholars have then invariably proceeded to dismiss this liter-            serves, is in the process of acknowledging the phenomenon
ary image as ludicrous and appalling. Thus, while serving his-            of domestic violence, but the underlying change in public val-
torical truth well, these investigations have nevertheless done           ues and legislation has been slow and difficult. To be sure, the
little to further our understanding of the literary imports of            unmistakable signs of progress are there.The traditional view,
the Jewish persona in Russian fiction. In fact, so genuinely              aptly summarized in the painful phrase “if he beats you, he
tempting are these pitfalls, that in order to avoid falling into          loves you,” has been emphatically rejected in all Eastern Euro-
the same trap, throughout his research Professor Livak has                pean countries. But if that arcane view is definitely gone, there
chosen to distinguish between the literary image of the Jew               is little scholarly agreement over what perceptual framework
and the Jew of the real world by altering the words spelling: jew         has taken hold in its stead. On the one hand, there is the
as opposed to Jew.                                                        political rhetoric of various women’s rights movements, gain-
      Building on this methodological foundation, Dr. Livak ex-           ing in impact within the broader context of the pan-European
amined the many aspects of the jew as a figment of the imagi-             crusade against sexual discrimination. On the other, the very
nation of a succession of Russian and other European                      conceptualization of such key notions as “gender equality”
writers. Professor Livak’s study suggests that those scholars             has been undergoing a fundamental evolution from the class-
who treat the image of the jew from the cumulative progres-               centred dogmas of the communist era to the resurgent indi-
sion perspective of art history may be missing important                  vidualism in the post-communist world.
points. Indeed, the very applicability of this analytical approach               The main thrust of Professor Fabian’s study is to identify
is predicated on the availability of real-world historical                the ways in which the governments of Poland, Hungary, Slovakia,
archetypes. But that has not always been the case. Invariably             and the Czech Republic have responded to the demands of
we find the literary image of the jew employed as an expedi-              national women’s rights movements and the pressures of in-
ent personification of the antagonist in historical settings where        ternational expectations to prioritize the issues of domestic
the authors may or may not have had exposure to real-world                violence. The principal conclusion she draws is that, as the
Jews. In addition to the ease with which the figure of the jew            “third wave” of global democratization establishes only mini-
has been used to construct quintessentially negative charac-              mal procedural standards for democratic governance (the so-
ters, the formative content of this image has been remarkably             called “low intensity democracy”), women’s organizations can
constant over time and geographic locale.                                 work from below to broaden its base and transform such a
      In their treatment of the Jews, Russian religious books,            political system into a more comprehensive “high intensity
for example, were heavily influenced by the Byzantine and                 democracy.” Indeed, many Central European NGOs working
Latin Catholic religious traditions. The very history of the se-          in these issue areas have developed cultural and political ar-
mantic transmogrifications of the word Jew—from its Biblical              guments to reflect both the lessons in gender politics learned
prototype, through the sketchy figure of the antagonist, to the           from the communist experience and the contemporary dis-
everyday Russian word yudei, whose phonetics seems to equate              course in feminist thought.
Jews with Judas—is indicative of this tendency. Irrespective of                  Professor Fabian’s research entails a number of signifi-
the particular historical milieu, Professor Livak concluded, the          cant implications for several related fields of social science. She
image of the jew has been regularly morphed to reflect cul-               explores the intricate interactions of social and political phe-
tural bias and suit the needs of the specific literary plot.  As          nomena, illuminating important aspects of the interplay of
the case has required, the jew has been reeking, old, ugly or all         democratic theory, gender studies, human rights, and public
three at once; she has been a heathen, a vampire or an                    policy dialogue. Professor Fabian also asks tough questions,
undead. And it is precisely this conflation of (sometimes con-            such as whether only women can be the victims of domestic
flicting) negative characteristics within the composite image             violence.
of the jew that attests to the strong religious and folklore                     In the final analysis, Professor Fabian concludes that wom-
influences on its content and literary use.                               en’s issues in Central Europe are not yet enjoying the full
                              Nick Roudev, International Relations        attention they deserve, overshadowed as they are by more
                                                                          highly publicized and sensationalized debates. Most Central
Political scientist Katalin Fabian (Lafayette College, PA) de-            European studies of “women and politics,” for example, have
livered her lecture on the “Changing Attitudes and Laws on                focused exclusively on women in government, failing to ex-
Domestic Violence in Central Europe” on the eve of a day of               plore the many other subtler but far more important ramifi-
symbolic significance, October 6, the International Day of                cations of that topic. Many women’s rights NGOs, like the
Violence. Throughout her eventful academic career in Cen-                 wittily-named “NaNE!” women’s network in Hungary, have
tral Europe and North America, Professor Fabian has pub-                  been trying to change that by sponsoring trenchant public
lished and researched extensively on civil society and gender             awareness campaigns and initiating heated debates on a number
studies. The October 3 lecture, as the title suggests, offered a          of “taboo” domestic violence issues. Despite all financial and
progress report on her most recent study on the dynamics of               regulatory obstacles, many of the 20 women’s NGOs Dr. Fa-
domestic violence in four Central European countries: Hun-                bian surveyed have succeeded in introducing the rhetoric of
gary, Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic.                           “gender” in the political dialogue surrounding such seminal

November 2003                                                        10                                                       Centre News
public policy issues as the 1992 abortion bills in Hungary; the          In his October 20, lecture, “Explaining Success and Failure in
raising of the retirement age there; and the 1995 redefinition           Transition: Uncharted Waters, Pirate Raids and Safe Havens,”
of maternity benefits.                                                   Oleh Havrylyshyn (Director, East European Division, IMF)
                             Nick Roudev, International Relations        discussed the progress of his ongoing research on an explana-
                                                                         tory model for the successes and failures of post-communist
On October 20, H.E. Jeremy Kinsman, Ambassador of                        transition in Eastern Europe. An eminent Canadian scholar of
Canada to the European Union, spoke on “Europe—Old and                   Ukrainian origin, Dr. Havrylyshyn has had a long-standing aca-
New: Big Implications for Canadian Business and Canada’s Place           demic interest and extensive professional experience in
in the World,” co-sponsored by the Munk Centre for Interna-              analyzing the pattern and process of East European transi-
tional Studies, the Centre for International Studies, the York-          tions.The central question Dr. Havrylyshyn poses in his latest
UofT Institute of European Studies, and CREES. Ambassador                study—how to measure transition success and explain the
Kinsman focused on recent developments in Europe and the                 factors which facilitate or impede it—has traditionally been
impact they will have on relations between Canada and Eu-                the subject of much debate in post-1990 political economy
rope and between Canada and the USA.                                     scholarship.
     The Ambassador maintains that Europe is a political and                  There have been several competing approaches for de-
economic success. It has managed to pull together diverse                fining success in the transitions from central planning to free
nationalities and cultures around the values of prosperity, so-          markets in the East European economies. The EBRD-coined
cial welfare, and egalitarianism. Now the biggest single market          “Index of Transition” is probably the most popular of those,
in the world, the European Union has a 60 per cent share in              but—Dr. Havrylyshyn argues—its largely subjective construc-
global foreign direct investment, compared to 22 per cent for            tion is a serious drawback. Then, there has been the “growth
the USA and 2.3 per cent for Canada. Although European                   performance” approach, which builds directly on the classical
growth according to a number of measures such as economic                economic relationship between stable economic growth and
growth and proportion of GDP invested in research and de-                rising national income on the one hand and an improving stand-
velopment is slower than that of Canada and the USA, Eu-                 ard of living on the other. Numerous arguments have been
rope’s economic achievements are nonetheless impressive.                 made recently that using the GDP growth rate as a proxy
     Using a rigid regulatory culture as an example, the Am-             measure for human welfare may be grossly misleading. The
bassador drew attention to certain problems that exist in                problem is that in many economies in transition, it is difficult
Europe. It takes 61 days on average to incorporate a business            to tell whether the observed economic growth is “genuine”—
in Europe, in contrast to four days in Toronto and just 24               and, hence, sustainable—or brought about by artificial “boost-
hours in Vancouver. Europe’s shrinking and aging population              ers,” such as fluctuations in the international oil prices. Finally,
presents another problem: by 2050 it will dwindle below its              the third major approach, the one espoused by the IMF, em-
current level, and people over 65 will amount to 65 per cent             phasizes the role of economic stability for attracting stable
of the working population. There is a similar tendency in the            and sizeable foreign direct investment.
North America, but, particularly in Canada, population decline                Dr. Havrylyshyn’s methodology introduces a more com-
is offset by effective immigration policies, something that Mr.          prehensive approach. His first step is to compile an “encyclo-
Kinsman pointed out is almost nonexistent in Europe.                     pedic” list of candidate causal factors drawn from a wide range
     The Ambassador stressed that there have always been                 of issue areas. These candidate variables reflect the “immuta-
close ties between Europeans and North Americans, saying                 ble” initial endowments of the transition countries (natural
“A lot less divides Europe and us, than Europe, us, and every-           resources), their “remediable” conditions (human resources),
body else.” In his view, American and European values with               and the socio-political policies of their post-Soviet govern-
regard to governance, ethics, education, and market largely              ments. It is from this initial compilation that Dr. Havrylyshyn
coincide.The differences that do exist between Europe, Canada,           selected the three causal factors underpinning his parsimoni-
and the United States are often related to methods rather                ous model for transition success.
than fundamental beliefs, and these countries are finding ways
to work together. The degree of multilateral cooperation on              Charts
issues of foreign policy, such as antiterrorism and rebuilding           The first problem post-communist policymakers in the nas-
Afghanistan and Iraq, is unprecedented.                                  cent East-European democracies faced was the choice of a
     One constant theme that Ambassador Kinsman returned                 roadmap for economic change—in his model, Dr. Havrylyshyn
to was his optimism for the future of Canadian-European and              calls this the “chart” for navigating the stormy waters of tran-
European-American relations, suggesting that the European                sition. The principal difficulty was that, at the time, the charts
project does not mean the end of the American era, but, rather,          for transition were many, ranging from relatively simple pre-
the successful continuation of a European-American theme.                scriptions (import-substitution or even slogans like “just get
                                         Natalia Smalyuk, CREES          rid of the old stuff”), to immensely sophisticated schemes
                                                                         drawing on liberal institutionalism and the Washington Con-
                                                                         sensus. In those post-communist countries where the initial

Centre News                                                         11                                                   November 2003
choice of a transition “chart” was delayed by debate or inde-                  The current EU member states have set forth to manage
cision, transition itself was delayed and success was limited.            labour migration flows that would benefit Western Europe.
                                                                          They plan to attract the people with the right skills who will
Pirate Raids                                                              work in certain specific areas and return home once their
But the long-term implications of this delayed start ran deeper           services are no longer needed. In general, West Europeans
than that. In the countries where such temporizing took place,            are reluctant to deal with increased migration, expecting that
the top echelons of the former communist parties used this                immigrants will threaten their jobs and bring along criminal
unexpected respite to regroup and assume more palatable                   and other problems. According to Dr. Lado, these social fears
political forms. The former-communist-apparatchiks-turned-                contradict economic necessity. The aging EU population and
capitalists availed themselves of the initial economic chaos,             labour shortages already create significant welfare problems
hyperinflation, and weak institutions to appropriate much of              that will only get worse with time unless mitigated by attract-
the state’s resources. Once in control of the economy, Dr.                ing immigrants.
Havrylyshyn argues, these “new capitalists” then proceeded                     Though the effects of migration for the future EU mem-
to consolidate their hold by capturing the state political ma-            bers will be minimal, they may suffer from the “youth and
chinery and using it to further their interests.                          brain drain.” According to Dr. Lado, two to three per cent of
                                                                          young people and the same percentage of educated people
Safe Havens                                                               from the new member states will migrate to Western Europe.
The consequences of these pirate raids were grim: ravaged                 Another issue is legal restrictions: the citizens of the new
economies, depleted treasuries, and “phony” privatizations.The            members will not be allowed to take jobs in the current mem-
only way out of this vicious cycle of powerful vested interests           ber states within two to seven years of EU entry.This is more
obstructing reforms, and the lack of economic reforms rein-               a question of equal rights than actual need, stressed Dr. Lado.
forcing the positions of the new oligarchs was the presence                    Dr. Lado concluded her presentation with a discussion of
of what Dr. Havrylyshyn calls “safe havens.” The carrot of po-            two opposite views on the migration effects of the EU en-
tential access to a rich capitalist club—the European Union—              largement. The first view envisages a lose-lose outcome: for
obviated the agonizing debate over a transition “chart” in the            the new members, the limited migration will not be enough
first place. The prospect of EU membership, and the need to               to solve their labour and welfare problems; at the same time,
adopt the Acquis Communautaire, itself offered an obvious and             young people from Eastern Europe will be disappointed to
appealing course for transition. This, Dr. Havrylyshyn posits,            find they will always be somewhat disadvantaged in West Eu-
may in part explain the relatively better performance of the              ropean labour markets. Proponents of the other view predict
Central and East European countries over the states of the                a win-win outcome for both current and future EU members:
former Soviet Union.                                                      the former will manage targeted migration and keep out the
                              Nick Roudev, International Relations        unwanted immigrants, while the young generation from the
                                                                          new member states will have better work and travel oppor-
On October 30, Maria Lado (General Director, European                     tunities.
Integration Department, Hungarian Ministry of Employment                                                          Natalia Smalyuk, CREES
and Labour; President, Hungarian Industrial Relations Asso-
ciation) spoke on the potential dynamics of migration in the
enlarged European Union and their effects on the current
and future member states. Her talk was co-sponsored by the
Hungarian Research Institute of Canada, the Joint Initiative in
German and European Studies, the York-UofT Institute of
European Studies, the Centre for Industrial Relations, and
     The European Union has a long tradition of limited immi-
gration. In 2000, non-EU nationals represented only four per-
cent of the EU population. By comparison, the percentage of
non-nationals in the USA in 2002 exceeded ten.
     Dr. Lado stressed that migration will neither decline after
the new members enter the EU nor significantly increase. She
estimated the potential immigration flows to be 200,000-
350,000 persons per year, predicting that the pull factors, such
as changes in the labour markets, will take precedence over
the push factors. East Europeans will no longer migrate be-
cause of political pressures or a lack of democratic rights. On
the other hand, more mobile and well-prepared young adults
will move to West European states in search of higher in-
comes and new experiences.                                                            Labour relations expert Maria Lado.

November 2003                                                        12                                                    Centre News
The study of labour-management relations (LMR) has tradi-                can foreign direct investment. The state of the employer or-
tionally been conducted within the context of national char-             ganizations in Central and Eastern Europe is just as bleak, Dr.
acter and socio-economic development. Does it make sense                 Lado continues, and the causes for their structural infirmity
to talk about LMR at the European level and, if so, how does             closely resemble the problems facing labour organizations
this question pertain to the accession of the new member-                there.
states from Central and Eastern Europe? Dr. Maria Lado, a                     In conclusion, Dr. Maria Lado outlined the principal short
senior Hungarian policy-maker and a seasoned EU accession                and long-term challenges facing East European organizations
negotiator, offered her take on this and other related ques-             and regulators in the field of LMR. If they are to integrate
tions in an informative talk on October 31 on “Labour-Man-               successfully in the EU milieu, the trade unions and employer
agement Relations in the Future EU Member States—How                     organizations in the future member-states must buttress their
do They Fit in the European Scenery?” This was the second in             credibility and legal positions, expand their membership,
her series of talks co-sponsored by the Hungarian Research               streamline their institutional structure and increase efficiency.
Institute of Canada, the Joint Initiative in German and Euro-            Above all, however, if it is to be successful in a united Europe,
pean Studies, the York-UofT Institute of European Studies, the           East European trade-unionism has to first rediscover its societal
Centre for Industrial Relations, and CREES.                              role.
     Next year’s enlargement will be a unique moment in the                                             Nick Roudev, International Relations
history of the European Union, because for the first time the
admission of new member-states will be dictated almost ex-
clusively by political rather than economic considerations.The           On October 22, prominent journalist and political analyst
accession of the ten new members from Central and Eastern                Remzi Lani (Director, Albania Media Institute,Tirana) deliv-
Europe will crown these countries’ economic and political                ered a talk on issues in Southeastern European media.
transitions to free market economies and liberal democra-                     Over the past decade, all aspects of Albanian media have
cies. But the 2004 enlargement will also present new chal-               undergone dramatic changes. Mr. Lani discussed their positive
lenges before the EU, and the most critical of these will be the         developments and challenges in a broader framework of the
“convergence challenge.” According to present-day estimates,             “post-communist, post-conflict, and globalization agendas”
even the most developed of the newly acceding countries will             currently facing the country.
need between ten and twenty-five years to reach, for exam-                    The Albanian media scene seems to display remarkable
ple, the average EU GDP levels. Convergence in the field of              pluralism. In a country of fewer than 3.5 million people, there
LMR is likely to be just as challenging.                                 are 21 daily newspapers and close to 100 television and radio
     Dr. Lado opened her talk with a broad overview of the               broadcasters. In fact, it has the highest per capita rate of me-
state of LMR in the European Union today, but the core of                dia in Europe.“This is no longer a region of shut mouths,” Mr.
her presentation centred around the more interesting—and                 Lani said. “We have a journalistic spectrum of all orientations
less explored—comparative question of the state of LMR in                and colours, in print and broadcast.”
Central and Eastern Europe on the eve of the EU enlarge-                      Paradoxically, the Albanian press does not have a strong
ment. Dr. Lado’s research framework compares and contrasts               readership base among the public. Despite the highest per
LMR in the current and new member-states, and illuminates                capita rate of media, Albania hits another European record in
several causes and explanations for the existing differences.            lowest media penetration. In a country of over three million,
     In comparison to their EU counterparts, both trade un-              the total circulation of all publications amounts to just around
ions and employer organizations in the Central and East Eu-              100,000 copies. Along with purely economic reasons, such as
ropean countries appear institutionally deficient and financially        poverty and poor distribution systems, the extremely low
weak. In stark contrast to the high EU averages, the trade-              penetration of print media may be attributed to their nega-
union membership in the countries of Central and Eastern                 tive perception by the readers. Few newspapers function as
Europe is low and sporadic. Whereas both community-level                 successful businesses—thus the majority of the papers have
and national trade unions and employer organizations within              another agenda, which could be political or to promote the
the EU enjoy a significant political and economic clout, this is         interests of another business. As a result, readers are pre-
clearly not the case in the acceding Central and East Euro-              sented with abundant information on politicians, but can hardly
pean countries.The big exceptions to these trends, of course,            find coverage of important realities of their life and real diver-
are the Mediterranean candidate-states, where the pattern of             sity of public opinion. In essence, the media scene is still domi-
LMR has more or less mirrored that of the Union, albeit on a             nated by the old traditions of party press. Mr. Lani called it
smaller scale.                                                           “revolver journalism.”
     In light of this fact, Dr. Lado’s model seeks to explain the             A dangerous tendency to use conflict rather than dia-
institutional weakness and low membership of the trade un-               logue is still common to Albanian media, and the media in
ions in Eastern Europe by looking at such factors as the trade-          Southeastern Europe could regain their role as instruments
unions’ association with the discredited past, the processes             of nationalistic forces. Mr. Lani unequivocally responds to the
of privatization, the increasing self-employment, and the sud-           question on who is to blame for stirring up racial hatred in
den opening of the region to West European and North Ameri-              the region—“media, media, media.”

Centre News                                                         13                                                   November 2003
                                                                              Another challenge is the controversial legal environment.
                                                                         New media legislation declares free access to information. At
                                                                         the same time, defamation laws reminiscent of the first stages
                                                                         of transition are still there.“There are no journalists in prison
                                                                         in Albania,” Lani said, but he warned that ideological pressures
                                                                         are now succeeded by economic ones. While journalists in
                                                                         the Balkans are no longer afraid that the police will knock at
                                                                         the door, they still could face an unpleasant and politically
                                                                         inspired visit from the tax police.
                                                                              Albanian media are undergoing a complex transition from
                                                                         post-communist and authoritarian realities to democracy.
                                                                         Among their many dilemmas, the major one probably relates
                                                                         to the role of journalists in society. Shall they identify them-
                                                                         selves as patriots, using media for political struggles? Or, shall
                                                                         they provide the public with informative and responsible jour-
                                                                         nalism? Mr. Lani has resolved this dilemma for himself—he
                   Media expert Remzi Lani                               chose to be a professional.
                                                                                                                  Natalia Smalyuk, CREES

On October 23, Taras Koznarsky (Slavic Languages and Lit-                site of what he had imagined. But Gogol was not alone. The
eratures) delivered a very analytical but also accessible pres-          image of Kyiv in the 19th century was a largely a sentimental
entation entitled “Discovering/Reinventing Kyiv in the 19th              product of writers most of whom had never been to the city.
Century.” This was the second in the CREES Faculty Speak-                      Professor Koznarsky discussed why such a myth was so
ers’ Series, whose focus this year is on newer members of the            easily absorbed by Russian culture. Kyiv became a centre of
CREES community.                                                         Orthodoxy in Imperial Russia, causing the city to expand. By
     Professor Koznarsky’s work was mainly focused on the                the late 1800s, Kyiv had a population of 250,000 and such
uniqueness of Kyiv as a city torn between the cultures of                infrastructure as a network of electric streetcars (an innova-
Russian Empire, Ukraine, and Poland. In the 1830s, distinct              tion in Eastern Europe at that time!). Professor Koznarsky
borders between Russian and Ukrainian began to appear, and               concluded with a summary of the process of the creation of
this stimulated great interest in Ukrainian literature. It was           Kyiv’s identity, addressing factors such as Russian, Ukrainian,
during this decade that one of the fathers of Russian classic            and other foreign cultural influences, the Orthodox Church,
literature, Nikolai Gogol, wrote about Kyiv: “It’s ours, not             and important historical events like the Communist Revolu-
theirs!”                                                                 tion of November 7, 1917.With its long and colourful history,
     Gogol’s description of Kyiv spread throughout the main              it is no surprise that Kyiv is the capital of modern Ukraine.
Russian literary circles.Along with his good friend Maksimovich,                                Aleksandr Livshits, Commerce and Finance
he glorified the city. In their letters, Kyiv was called “Russian
Athens,” “Garden of Eden,” and “Second Jerusalem.” At the
time, the capital of Russia was St. Petersburg, and Moscow
was considered to be the centre of Russian culture. By the
1850s, Kyiv had gained the status of a respectable city, even
though its population was only around 50,000 people.Through
Gogol’s works, Kyiv became a beautiful myth, with gorgeous                   Keep up to date on events in Russian and East
views and an abundance of cheap produce and housing. Peo-                    European Studies by joining the CREES
ple in the Russian Empire dreamed of visiting this magical city,             listserv and by consulting the events page on
so much more interesting and exciting than the grey streets                  the CREES web site:
of Moscow or St. Petersburg.                                                 events.htm.
     It was almost impossible not to smile when Professor
Koznarsky mentioned that Gogol had not actually visited Kyiv                 To join the listserv, contact Janet Hyer at
until 1835. And when Gogol saw the city, his crush was over.       
Kyiv turned out to be an unwelcome place. The lack of hous-
ing, unclean and narrow streets—everything was the oppo-

November 2003                                                       14                                                      Centre News
Soviet & Kosher
On October 26 and 27, CREES presented the interdiscipli-                      Edna Nahshon (Jewish Theological Seminary of America)
nary symposium Soviet & Kosher: A Century of Jewish Culture in          in her paper “Habimah’s The Dybbuk (1922): Synthesizing He-
Russia as a part of the University of Toronto’s Chancellor              brew Words, Jewish Folklore, and Russian Stagecraft” found a
Jackman Program for the Arts.The participants explored ques-            rather more fruitful example of the interaction of two strands
tions relating to retaining and developing a Jewish identity            in Russian Jewish heritage with the majority culture at an ear-
within the context of the cultural policies of the Soviet state,        lier stage of Soviet history. This famous Moscow production
as the latter attempted to forge an identity of its own.                in Hebrew of Shalom An-Ski’s play originally written in Yid-
     Gennady Estraikh (New York University), surveying the              dish, directed by an Armenian pupil of Konstantin Stanislavsky
“Yiddish Literary Milieu in Post-Stalinist Soviet Union,” traced        (Evgeny Vakhtangov), came at the propitious intersection of
the history of Yiddish writers’ groups within the Soviet Writ-          three developments: the Russian revolution, the upswing in
ers’ Union from the 1930s to the 1980s. He concluded that               Hebrew Zionist activities temporarily accepted by the new
the Soviet state fostered a “token national culture for an as-          Bolshevik government, and the theatrical revolution in the
similated ethnic group.” This token culture was to be both a            new Soviet capital. Using the techniques of the Russian theat-
showcase for Soviet policies regarding national “minorities,”           rical avant-garde, and a language non-native to them and their
and a source of “high art” in the minority language. Even though        audience (whether Jewish or non-Jewish), the Jewish actors
this officially sponsored Yiddish literary culture developed a          of the Habimah troupe were able to express their essential
degree of vibrancy in the 1960s, it made a minimal impact on            Jewishness in ways that stunned and appealed to the wide
the larger strata of the audiences of Russian language Soviet           strata of Moscow’s theatre public, regardless of their ethnic
literary culture.                                                       background. (continued on following page)

                                                                        Three Generations of Vocal Masterworks
    Soviet & Kosher was also a mini-festival of                         Clockwise from top left-hand corner: Louis Danto, Yana
    music.The two concerts—Three Generations                            Ivanilova, Ilona Karan, Inna Golsband
    of Vocal Masterworks and The Red Army                               Centre: Raisa Nakhmanovich
    Klezmer Band—featured very different types                          Not pictured: Sterling Beckwith, Alexander Kats, Natalya
    of music.                                                           Tyomkina, and Senya Trubashnik
         The celebration was capped by an evening
    of film. Thomas Lahusen (History and Com-
    parative Literature), in the role of both film-
    maker and commentator, explored the Jew-
    ish theme in Soviet film.

The Red Army Klezmer Band
L-R: German Goldenshteyn, Jeffrey Wollock, and Michael Alpert
Not pictured: Eduard Kagansky

Centre News                                                        15                                                November 2003
     Similarly, Alice Stone Nakhimovsky (Colgate University)             were the melancholy first parts of these songs recalling the
went looking for traces of an “essential Jewishness” in the              old Jewish life and problems, rather than the optimistic Soviet
comic routines of “Mikhail Zhvanetsky:The Last Jewish Joker.”            conclusions, celebrating the new perspectives opening up for
While this Odessa-born stand-up comedian of the Brezhnev                 Soviet Jewry.
and perestroika eras satirized the experience of life in the USSR             The organizers of the symposium engaged in their own
with few overtly Jewish references, Stone found plenty of “hid-          brand of oral history by inviting several speakers with per-
den Jewishness” in his images, lan-                                                                     sonal ties to the Soviet Jewish cul-
guage patterns, use of archetypal                                                                       tural milieu. Dov-Ber Kerler (Indi-
personalities, and construction of a                                                                    ana University) gave the audience
once-upon-a-time Odessa as an                                                                           an engaging tour, centred around his
ideal home, contrasted to the alien-                                                                    writer father, through his personal
ated Soviet space.                                                                                      photo-albums and library contain-
     In contrast to Nahshon’s and                                                                       ing memorabilia of the Soviet Yid-
Stone Nakhimovsky’s essentialist                                                                        dish literary circles of the 1960s.
arguments, David Shneer (University                                                                     German Goldenshteyn reminisced
of Denver) argued that for the most                                                                     about his experience as a musician
part the “Soviet Photojournalists                                                                       in the Red Army during the 1950s.
Photographing World War II” did not                                                                     He felt that he was able to preserve
consciously chronicle the Holocaust.                                                                    and continue elements of tradi-
Mostly they recorded the Jewish                                                                         tionalYiddish musical culture within
suffering within the official Soviet                                                                    the confines of this Soviet spon-
framework of constructing the                                                                           sored institution. Such personal ex-
“Great Patriotic War” in terms of                                                                       periences added further to the
Nazi atrocities against the larger                                                                      complicated picture of interactions
populations of the USSR and other                                                                       between a marginalized ethnic
invaded countries and the eventual                                                                      group (always at danger for being
Soviet victory over the German barbarity. Nevertheless, to-              persecuted because of their ethnicity) and an authoritarian
day we understand their shocking images to be a part of our              state.
cultural memory of the Holocaust.                                             Zvi Gitelman (University of Michigan) gave the audience
     Anna Shternshis (University of Toronto) turned to oral              a sense of where this dialectic has left the Jewish community
history to examine how memory creates identity. She pre-                 in Russia today. The Jewish population of Russia has declined
sented evidence that Soviet Jews appropriated the official Soviet        dramatically through the twentieth century, as a result of po-
popular culture of the 1930s to boost their own pride in                 groms, revolutions, wars, and emigration. At the present time
their ethnicity. She gathered this information by interviewing           most Russian Jews do not practice their religion, do not live in
elderly members of New York’s Russian-Jewish emigre com-                 distinct communities, and share the culture and values of the
munity about their memories of such genuinely popular en-                mainstream Russian society. Nevertheless, they still exhibit a
tertainers with Jewish background of the pre-war Stalin era              distinct set of attitudes. In a large-scale study of Russian and
as Dmitry Utyosov. They remembered fondly Utyosov’s sev-                 Ukrainian Jews that Gitelman has been conducting since 1966,
eral Russian-language songs on Jewish themes.Their melodies              he has found that they see themselves as urbanized and edu-
(which reminded them of “Jewish songs” they would sing at                cated (and so different from say Central Asian Jews), share the
home), presence of Jewish characters and names, and use of               historical memory of persecution, feel they have better val-
positive Jewish images made Utyosov a Jewish artist in the               ues than the ethnic Russian community (less substance abuse,
memories of these assimilated Jews.What remained with them               stronger family structure), see Jews as survivors capable of
                                                                         adapting to the centuries of diaspora, and feel themselves
                                                                         members of the same group, tied together by unspoken broth-
                                                                         erhood.This suggests that the Soviet state did not succeed in
    Soviet & Kosher was presented by the Chancellor                      assimilating the Jewish community entirely, since they still share
    Jackman Program for the Arts, the Centre for Rus-                    a set of common assumptions about their Jewish identity.
    sian and East European Studies (Andrew Mellon                                 Jiri Smrz, History, with help from Zachary Lefaive, CREES
    Fund), the Jewish Studies Program (The Moyshe and
    Esther Menachovsky Memorial Fund in Jewish Stud-
    ies), the Department of Germanic Languages and
    Literatures, and the Department of Slavic Languages
    and Literatures.

November 2003                                                       16                                                       Centre News