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Centre News November 2003 Franklyn Griffiths (Political Science; former CREES Director) is a specialist in inter- national security issues and circumpolar politics. His expertise in these areas led him Munk Centre for to accompany the Governor General on her recent state visit to Russia. Professor International Studies Griffiths provided CREES with these field notes. University of Toronto 1 Devonshire Place Toronto, Ontario M5S 3K7 As many will know, Governor General Adrienne Clarkson recently traveled on a state visit to the Russian Federation, and thence to Finland and Iceland. A further trio of visits is Peter H. Solomon, Jr. planned for next year, to Sweden, Norway, and Denmark/Greenland.The aim throughout is Director to encourage an exchange of ideas and experience among northern countries who govern, utilize, study, enjoy, and also cooperate in a shared Arctic region which is inhabited by Tel.: (416) 946-8938 indigenous peoples with a special claim on the awareness and respect of their fellows to the Fax: (416) 946-8939 south. In making these visits the Governor General lends support to the Northern Di- www.utoronto.ca/crees/ mension of Canadian foreign policy which the Department of Foreign Affairs and Interna- tional Trade has been pursuing for some years now. Knowing something about the circumpolar North as well as Russia, I had the good fortune to be invited to take part in the visit to Russia. In this issue: Some 30 of us made up a delegation which included aboriginal leaders, parliamentar- Civic Education and ians, writers, filmmakers, and persons with special knowledge in matters of the environ- Democracy in Russia 3 ment, development, governance, children and youth, and language policy.The visit took us to Innovative Curriculum 4 Moscow, up to Salekhard, which is on the Arctic Circle near where the Ob opens onto salt water, and then down and out through St. Petersburg, all over a period of ten days ending SPECQUE Success 5 October 1. Update on Baturyn Dig 6 Contrary to the nay-saying in Canada which I observed before leaving and also heard Member News 7 about while in Russia, this trip was entirely justified. A state visit offers a marvellous oppor- Upcoming Conferences 8 tunity to capture the attention of influentials in the host country, especially when one has a bit more to talk about than exports and the bottom line. My sense of what happened is that Events Past 9 we got their attention. Not merely was there a spike in press coverage during the visit, but Soviet & Kosher 15 leaders from President Putin on down to pace-setters in a wide range of endeavours found themselves conversing with Canadian counterparts on matters of common concern. New awareness was created. Some of it will be more than momentary. Some of it may inform and enrich future cooperation between our two countries. Governor General Clarksons origi- nality is to turn the honour and the prestige which are associated with the state visit into Centre News is published quarterly, in September, instruments for the achievement of heightened foreign access and recognition for Canada November, January, and April. and Canadian ambitions. I say more power to her. Edited by Janet Hyer, (416) My impressions were too many and diverse to be rendered with any great coherence 946-8994 or in a short note such as this. Protocol officers shepherded us constantly from ceremonial to email@example.com. substantive events, and then back again to ceremony including receptions to the point of receptionitis. The substantive events we took part in included panel and round table ses- sions on everything from the modern novel to dismantlement of derelict Russian nuclear submarines. As to receptions, they could be lavish. During the Brezhnev era it used to be said that Soviet Russia ran on alcohol, protocol, and Geritol. If what happened on this visit is any guide, Russia has got down to protocol and alcohol in that order. Centre News 1 November 2003 Otherwise, two main impressions stand out: a state din- feigned confidentiality: They exaggerate Canadas significance. ner in the Kremlin, and a helicopter visit to now long-aban- I had a very good laugh at such adroitness. doned forced labour camp 501 in the Yamalo-Nenets autono- At camp 501 we saw remains of the work of earlier siloviki mous okrug west of Salekhard. who would not have been all that good as dinner companions. A couple hundred of us dined in St. Alexanders Hall on On Stalins order, they had brought prisoners in to construct Tuesday, September 23. The space is vast and the mania for a trans-Arctic railway on permafrost. This was in 1947 and in gilding is unrestrained. Near the entrance was the head table response to the demonstrated vulnerability of the Northern to which their various excellencies and other dignitaries came Sea Route to German submarines during World War II. Camps and sat once the main body of guests had taken their places. were set up every ten or so kilometres along the proposed The whole scene was quite splendid. And when dinner was line. 501 was one of them. All in all, some 40,000 persons are over President and Mrs. Putin escorted the Governor Gen- said to have died before the entire undertaking came to an eral and John Ralston Saul down the length of the hall and out abrupt end following the dictators death in 1953. So it was to through two immense doors into yet another cavernous hall a scene of previous horror that we descended in ancient heli- lit this time in radiant blue and suggesting elevation to heaven. copters on a late September morning in 2003. As was to be expected, placement for the dinner was in Relics of horror there were, but great natural beauty as Russian hands. I found they had sat me at the head of a small well.To anyone with the faintest idea of the cruelty that went table up at the front. On my left was Sergei Lebedev, the head on in places like this, there was plenty to ponder: roofs fallen of Russias foreign intelligence service. To my right was Yuri in and chimneys toppled, barbed wire all but rusted away and Gagarins daughter, who is in charge of all Kremlin antiquities. a watchtower now in serious decline, and at the heart of it all I regarded this as considerate placement. It certainly made for long sleeping platforms one above the other on both sides of interesting and agreeable conversation. Conversation, be it a few decrepit structures in the middle of nowhere. And yet noted, with highly civil siloviki (the term today for people in there was more. the Russian security and defence apparatus). We were in a shallow valley, so there was a bit of protec- Lebedev told me, twice, that he had very good working tion. Birch trees had grown, as had larch now with golden relations with Ward Elcock, the head of CSIS. Since CSIS reads needles.The moss was springy underfoot. Lichens abounded. everything and since Lebedev apparently wanted a message Cloudberries were to be had, as was wild cranberry and the to get through to him, I hereby relay it via this newsletter. For odd snowflake in air of extraordinary freshness. The physical my part, I told Lebedev that people around the Canadian se- handiwork of Stalins siloviki was and is being undone by na- curity intelligence establishment claimed Russia spied on ture, indeed by northern nature. Before too long, camp 501 Canada. He had an excellent reply which he delivered with will be obliterated. This is both an excellent prospect and a fitting note on which to end these impressions. Sleeping platforms and watchtower from camp 501 November 2003 2 Centre News Civic Education and Democracy in Russia A new CREES project, Civic Education and Democracy in the educational system whose means of interaction are simi- Russia, was recently awarded a grant from the University of lar to those inherent to subjects of a civil society. This disci- Calgary/Gorbachev Foundation Program, funded by the Ca- pline of respect, as we call it, is based on the recognition of nadian International Development Agency.The project is a col- the participants civil rights and stands in contrast to the dis- laborative initiative on the part of a CREES-based team (Pro- cipline of coercion characteristic of Soviet times. fessor Peter Solomon, Dr. Olga Glagoleva, and Dr. Boris The action plan will take place in two countries. First, we Sergeev) in partnership with a team (Professor Karen Mundy, want to analyse the best trends in the pedagogical traditions Dr. Cathy Bickmore, Dr. Mark Evans, and Terezia Zoric) from of civic education and the educational change which took place the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of in Canada in the twentieth century, and develop a summary Toronto (OISE), and a team from L.N.Tolstoy State Pedagogi- of key studies in political socialization and civic education car- cal University,Tula, Russia (TSPU) consisting of Professor Olga ried out in Canada and the USA. With the help of our OISE V. Zaslavskaia, Leading Specialist of the Institute of Pedagogical partners we will bring a group of Tula educators to Canada Innovations of the Russian Academy of Education, Professor for a ten-day training program at OISE to introduce them to Nadezhda A. Shaidenko, Rector of TSPU, and Dr. Olga E. the most advanced relevant practices in Ontario schools. Salnikova. The project is focused on improving regional sec- Secondly, we need to investigate the prerevolutionary edu- ondary education, with the educational system in Tula region cational system in Tula as the historical background and source to produce an integrative model for innovative programming of the tradition most useful for the current situation. Com- and policy development. We parative analysis of the best believe that the democratic Canadian and Western peda- transformation of Russian gogical theories and practices, society in the post-Soviet along with Russian national period calls for an educational democratic traditions in edu- system adhering to principles cation, will allow us to build of democracy and human an innovative democracy-ori- rights. ented model for regional edu- Tula region, one of the cation with an individual im- central industrial regions in plementation trajectory. Russia, combines strong edu- To apply our theoretical cational traditions with a very findings and use the knowl- peculiar present political situ- edge acquired by the Russian ation. Before the Revolution, educators in Canadian many innovative pedagogical schools during their stay in ideas and experiences origi- Toronto, we plan to conduct nated here, including Vassily an experiment in Public Zhukovskys concept of the School No. 14 in Tula. We education of a citizen and his hope that the students and experiments in girls educa- teachers participating in this L-R: Olga Zaslavskaia, Olga Glagoleva, and four members of tion; Konstantin Ushinskys experiment will gain useful the "Spirit of Democracy" project from Moscow and the Moscow theory of the democratiza- oblast: Elena Novikova (Gymnasium No. 16 of Mytishchi, Vice- exposure to the basics of the tion of education; Leo Tol- Director), Tat'iana Ivanova and Galina Smirnova (Gymnasium civic society culture, such as stoys anthropocentric educa- No. 2 of Ramenskoe, history teachers), and Andrei Ioffe civic relations, team work, tional paradigm and his (Association "For Civic Education," Moscow, Vice-President) leadership, fair social prac- school for peasant children. tices, and conscious civil In Soviet times, these demo- choices. And we hope that cratic tendencies in regional education were replaced with this exposure will spill over into the students life outside the totalitarian and class-oriented approaches. Today, Tula is part school. This amounts to developing a new paradigm for the of the so-called red belt where the tradition of the Com- organization of school life. In order to promote our ideas and munist past remains strong. Accordingly, democratic changes the results of the experiment, we plan to convene a regional in education are rather slow, and the regional educational sys- teachers and education professionals conference in Tula. Both tem largely preserves Soviet-era practices in management and teams, Canadian and Russian, will participate in preparing prac- everyday school life. tical recommendations and manuals aimed at the implemen- Our project aims to develop a management strategy based tation of the civil-legal component in schools, designing pro- upon the innovative concept of the civil-legal educational space grams for retraining regional school educators, and develop- of a school. We define this concept as the aggregate of the ing an innovative education management model for the re- activities of and relationships between the components of gion. Centre News 3 November 2003 The participants in Civic Education and Democracy in experience can be very beneficial in Russia. Also, having stud- Russia will collaborate with another project on education ied the history of the Tula region and Russian education for funded under the University of Calgary/Gorbachev Founda- many years, I hope to contribute my professional expertise as tion Spirit of Democracy, a joint initiative of the Univer- an historian. I know the people involved in this project per- sity of New Brunswick and the Institute of Pedagogical Sys- sonally as highly qualified specialists, and I am quite optimistic tems, Moscow, Russia, with co-directors Professor Andrew that our project will succeed in bringing about democratic Hughes (UNB) and Professor Natalia Voskresenskaia in Mos- change to the educational system in Tula. cow. While in Russia in October, I met with Professor Dr. Olga E. Glagoleva, CREES Voskresenskaia and other Russian members of Spirit of De- mocracy at the editorial board of the Teacher Newspaper in A good start to Civic Education and Democracy in Rus- Moscow. And an orientation seminar in Tula on October 17 sia took place even before the beginning of its formal and 18 took place for all the Russian specialists working on funding. In April 2003, CREES hosted Visiting Scholar Olga the CREES project and the team of four specialists from Spirit V. Zaslavskaia, who came here to work on the project of Democracy. Participants exchanged ideas, discussed the proposal with the CREES team. Her presentation on Rus- main activities and results of the two projects, and developed sian Schools in the New Millennium: Contributing to De- detailed plans for implementing Civic Education and Democ- mocracy analysed the current situation in Russian edu- racy in Russia and collaborating with Spirit of Democracy. cation, dwelled on recent Russian government docu- The participants visited Iasnaia Poliana, Leo Tolstoys memo- mentsConception of the Modernization of Education and rial museum near Tula, where they discussed the educational National Doctrine of Educationwhich reflect the demo- ideas of the writer and their relevance for current educa- cratic transformation of Russian society and articulate tional needs. demand for educational change at the national level. Pro- Personally, I am very excited about this project. A gradu- fessor Zaslavskaia also described the innovative activities ate of Public School No. 14 in Tula (the pilot school for our from below in Tula region, i.e., those of local educators project) and of the Tolstoy Pedagogical University, where I and teachers, such as the experimental educational later worked for several years as a professor, I know the re- projects School for Individual Education, Gifted Chil- gional system well enough to understand its pressing need drens Programme, School for Self-Education, and Peas- for democratic change. Having come to Canada ten years ago ants School. Yet, she argued, the region continues to and learned first-hand about the Canadian educational sys- preserve old totalitarian practices, particularly in educa- tem (as a former student of George Brown college; mother tional management, and only joint efforts by regional edu- of a secondary-school and then U of T student; and, of course, cators, along with assistance from outside, can lead to from my teaching at CREES), I am sure that the Canadian democratic developments. Aid Extended: Lessons from Canadian Aid to the Graduating Countries of Central economies). These countries will soon join the European Union and make the transition from net recipients to net and Eastern Europe donors of international aid. The lessons learned from CIDAs This year 14 graduate students from the University of To- experience will no doubt prove invaluable for Canada and the ronto will participate in a research seminar that gives them countries of Central and Eastern Europe. the opportunity to work with Canadian government Program- The other important component of this project is the ming Assessment reports. These reports have been contracted central role of the students participation and involve- by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) ment. According to Professor Eddie, the multi-ethnic back- to assess Canadian aid in Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, the Czech ground of this dynamic group makes the project even more Republic, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. Students choose one interesting and challenging. The majority of the students have of these countries and, under the guidance of Professors Scott different ethnic and professional backgrounds, mainly from Eddie and Robert Austin, produce a contextual analysis of Central and Eastern Europe. Natalia Smalyuk, who was born CIDAs programming results in these countries since the fall in Belarus, has worked in the Professional Media Program of of the Soviet Union. the International Research Exchanges Board in Belarus be- This project was designed and initiated by CIDA to de- fore coming to Canada in 2001. Vanessa Podgurny born in termine the effectiveness of Canadian development assistance Canada of Ukrainian origin, worked with CIDA before re- to the graduating countries of Central and Eastern Europe turning to university for graduate studies. Martin Hrobsky, born (graduating in this case means that CIDA activities will be in Canada of Czech origin, has studied in Prague and did an terminated, in recognition of the progress made by these coun- internship as a journalist at the international service of Czech tries in establishing democratic political systems and market radio, Radio Praha. Others, like Sarah Caldwell, who became November 2003 4 Centre News involved after having participated in the Canada World Youth at the end of analyzing the CIDA reports, they will be going programme in Estonia, has extensive experience with Estonia, back to the government as response to official reports, drew Russia, Ukraine, and Poland through travel and study abroad. Sarah Caldwell to the project. Ziva Kokolj chose this pro- This project provides students with the privilege to work gram primarily because of its practical aspect, and Anna with original government sources from CIDA. Both the Djuricic, who found the material and the substance of this chance to explore Canadas role in the Central and East Eu- project most striking, seconds this view. All in all, students are ropean transition through the eyes of CIDA and the fact that anxious to receive reports from CIDA and to begin their work. Helen Ho, UofT, and Vanessa Podgurny, CREES SPECQUEEurope Heads East Once again SPECQUE (Simulation Parlement européen Canada, Québec, Europe) has come to a successful and tri- umphant conclusion. Held in Krakow, Poland from September 7-12, U of T was proudly represented with a seven-member delegation. This years team consisted of undergraduate and graduate students from numerous colleges and faculties in- cluding three CREES students: Kate Barrette, Sarah Caldwell, and Igor Tchoukarine. This make-up was timely due to the fact that this year marked the first time the simulation was held in an Eastern EU candidate country. Now in its sixth year, SPECQUE is an entirely student- run organization that meets annually for a week in order to simulate the proceedings of the European Parliament. This year over 110 university students from Canada and Europe came together as Eurodeputies to debate, legislate, and vote on a series of propositions and Commission reportsall in French, a second or third language for over half of the partici- pants.The principal topics for debate this year concerned the Back (l-r): Nick Herman, Arek Aniolowski, Igor Tchoukarine Front (l-r): Alexandra Madolciu, Kate Barrette, Sarah environment and maritime safety, a new role for the Commit- Caldwell, Cecilia Fantoni tee of the Regions, access to public documents, and a com- mon internal security policy. While working in commission tional, to CREES, the Centre for International Studies, the groups and political parties and during plenary sessions, all School of Graduate Studies, the Joint Initiative in German and participants seized the opportunity to develop and hone their European Studies, the Vice-Provost of Students, the Faculty of skills in such things as bargaining, public speaking, time man- Arts and Science, and numerous colleges. These institutions agement, and working under pressure. The lessons learned, joined with institutional partners such as the Department of along with the friendships made, over the course of the week Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), the Govern- will serve as valuable experiences and international networks ment of Québec and Université de Laval to support a unique in the future. and worthwhile event. We hope that these partnerships can The week ended on another high point when it was an- be maintained and expanded over the coming year in order nounced that the U of T bid to host SPECQUE 2004 had to keep U of Ts presence strong and in order to host the been successful. Members of last years delegation are already most successful SPECQUE to date. hard at work preparing to host 130 people from around the For further information about SPECQUE check out the world from August 29-September 4. The simulation will be web site at www.specque.qc.ca or contact Sarah Caldwell at held in the legislature at Queens Park, with Commission firstname.lastname@example.org. meetings being hosted by the Munk Centre. Also of note, Sarah Caldwell, CREES two of Torontos delegates were elected to SPECQUEs gov- Vice-chair and Administrator SPECQUE Toronto 2004 erning bodies. Igor Tchoukarine was elected to the Adminis- trative council, where he will be taking on roles related to Erratum participant recruitment, fund raising, and budgetary control; CREES MA student Sarah Caldwell was incorrectly identified in Cecilia Fantoni (Trinity) will act as Vice-president of the Ex- the September issue of Centre News as being on exchange at ecutive committee and will be spearheading the logistics for CEU in Budapest. As you can see above, Ms. Caldwell is busy in SPECQUE 2004. Toronto with European Parliament simulations past and future. The delegations success as well as the bid to host the Mary Korica is the fourth CREES MA student at CEU. simulation owe a lot to the support, both financial and emo- Centre News 5 November 2003 Excavations at Baturyn, Ukraine: The 2003 Season Baturyn is located on the lower Seym River in the Chernihiv The expedition excavated the basement of the so-called region northeast of Kyiv. It was founded in the 11th century as Kochubei House to explore its construction technique. It was a frontier outpost of the Chernihiv principality. The Mongols built by Hetman Demian Mnohohrishnyi (1669-72) as a court destroyed it in the mid-13th century but it slowly revitalized. and a jail for prisoners of the Hetman state. The team also In 1669-1708 and in 1750-64 it served as the capital of the excavated the brick foundations of Mazepas country palace Cossack Hetman State. In 1708, after Hetman Ivan Mazepa which fell victim to Peters forces. Archaeological data and (1687-1708) joined the Swedes, Peter I the Great sent a puni- drawings of the palaces ruins made in 1744 will help to re- tive force to destroy the Cossack capital. construct graphically its design and architectural forms.While The 2003 season of the Canada-Ukraine expedition was investigating the remnants of the palace constructed by the third sponsored by the Kowalsky Program for the Study Mnohohrishnyi and Hetman Ivan Samoilovych (1672-87) the of Eastern Ukraine of the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Stud- archaeologists uncovered ruins of its brick walls and fragments ies (CIUS), the Shevchenko Scientific Society of America (SSS- of sophisticated glazed ceramic tiles from interior embellish- A), the University of ments. Moreover, on Chernihiv (UC), the the grounds of the for- Pontifical Institute of tress they unearthed a Mediaeval Studies grain-storage substruc- (PIMS), and by other ture used by the garri- institutional and private son. The brick founda- donors.Around 70 stu- tions of one wing of the dents and scholars palace endowed by from universities in Hetman Kyrylo Rozu- Chernihiv, Nizhyn, movskyi (1750-64) Luhansk, and the Kyiv were also discovered. Mohyla Academy par- The extant parts of this ticipated under the magnificent complex leadership of Dr. are currently being re- Volodymyr Kovalenko stored. (UC). Dr. Volodymyr Other finds in- Mezentsev (U of T) clude four silver and represented PIMS and copper neck crosses, six CIUS. Prof. Martin Polish and Russian coins, L-R: Volodymyr Mezentsev (UofT), Volodymyr Kovalenko (University Dimnik (PIMS) oversaw fragments of glass of Chernihiv), leader of the expedition, Martin Dimnik (PIMS), Yurii Sytyi the funding and publi- dishes, and glazed ce- (University of Chernihiv) cizes the expeditions ramic tiles (kakhli) for findings. Dr. Zenon decorating heating Kohut, Director of CIUS, and Dr. Larysa Onyshkevych, Presi- stoves. The tiles, works of Ukrainian Baroque folk art bearing dent of SSS-A, served as advisers. floral, wattle, and geometric relief ornamentation, were prob- The excavations yielded important discoveries.The team ably produced in Baturyn, which was a leading centre of ce- unearthed remnants of semi-subterranean dwellings of the ramic production during Mazepas reign. Thus, the 2003 sea- Kyivan Rus era.These provide additional proof that the terri- son yielded valuable data on the development of trade, crafts, tory was settled in the 11th 12th century.Twelve graves dated construction techniques, architecture, and art.To publicize its to the late 17th or early 18th centuries were discovered on the findings, the expedition is preparing a collection of articles on citadel near the former Church of the Resurrection commis- the history, archaeology, architecture, and art of the Hetman sioned by Ivan Mazepa but destroyed by Peters troops. A capital. The Ukraine-Canada expedition plans to continue its number of the skeletons were from casualties of the massa- excavations at Baturyn in the summer of 2004. cre. The grave of an elite Cossack who had been buried in a Prof. Martin Dimnik and Dr.Volodymyr Mezentsev wooden crypt underground was among those plundered fol- (email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org) lowing the razing of Baturyn. A local priest performed a me- morial service over the graves before they were filled in. Please visit the CREES web site for a gallery of photos from the Baturyn dig: www.utoronto.ca/crees/nov03/nov03.htm November 2003 6 Centre News Member News CREES is pleased to welcome back Dr. Nikolai Krementsov, who has a long association with the Stalin-Era Research and !!! Kudos !!! Archives Project. Dr. Krementsov is on the faculty of the Congratulations to this years crop of newly minted CREES Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Tech- MAs: Karlo Basta, Kate Davis, Mike Leach, Alexander nology at UofT. Milinkovic, Natalia Nemyliwska, Igor Tchoukarine, James Thompson, and Esma Trejic. In July 2003, Dr. Anna Makolkin (CREES Resident Fellow) presented a paper On the Sartorial Iconography and Global And congratulations to Dr. Julia Kinnear (History), who de- Gender Entrapment. She was invited to the international fended her dissertation in August on Childhood, Family and conference on The Iconography of Gender by the Centre Obshchestvennost in Late Imperial Russia: P.F. Kapterev, the of American Studies of the University of Szeged, Hungary. St. Petersburg Parents Circle and the Question of Family Edu- In August, Dr. Makolkin was conducting research in Odessa, cation, 1884-1914. Ukraine, studying the Italian collection at the Museum of Western and Oriental Art, where she was invited for the com- Congratulations are also in order for Dr. Jean Levesque piling of the Italian art catalogue. The project was funded the (History). Dr. Levesque defended his dissertation The Post- School of Graduate Studies, UofT, as a partial SSHRC grant. WWII Stalinist Order in the Countrysidethis summer and The Juzhno-Russkii Zhurnal in Odessa solicited a contribution, is now teaching at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. and Dr. Makolkins article entitled The Discovery of Italian America in Odessa will appear in its November issue. Ð Ð Ð Also in August, Dr. Makolkin presented a paper Going beyond Faith: Kierkegaards Ultimate Reality at the 12th Bien- Professor Martin Dimnik (Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval nial Conference of the Philosophical Society of URAM, which Studies) published the book The Dynasty of Chernigov 1146- took place at University College, UofT (August 13-17). She 1246 (Cambridge, 2003), and the article Was Oleg also chaired a session on René Girard and the Scapegoating. Svyatoslavich the First Prince of Novgorod Severskiy?, in The journal of URAM, a referred publication put out by the Druzhynni starozhytnosti Tsentralno-Skhidnoi Ievropy VIII-XI st., UofT Press and the Canadian Catholic Historical Association, (Chernihiv, 2003), pp. 26-32. has appointed Dr. Makolkin to serve as a co-editor in charge of the section on semiotics and cultural studies. Congratulations to Dr. Sara Ginaite (Senior Fellow), Mr. In September, Dr. Makolkin took part in the conference Frank Hylands and Mr. George Hylands, and Professor The Europe of the Future, organized by the Embassy of Horst Wittmann, who brought to fruition a volume of es- Italy, the Italian Cultural Institute, and Glendon College of York says on the poet Marija AukstaiteMarija Aukstaite: Literary University. Legacy and Humanistic Life in Lithuania and Canada (Vilnius,To- On October 31, Dr. Makolkin presented a paper Italians ronto: 2003). Mr. Frank Hylands and Mr. George Hylands are Bringing the Mediterranean World into Russia: Odessa, the the surviving sons of Marija Aukstaite and have worked to Last Italian Colony at the international conference on Mo- secure their mothers legacy, in part by establishing the Marija dernity and Modernism in the Mediterranean World. The Aukstaite Graduate Student Fund to support Lithuanian studies conference was sponsored by St. Michaels and Victoria Col- at UofT. The Fund is directed by Professor Wittmann. leges and the Emilio Goggio Chair of Italian Studies at UofT. New publication: Review of Presenze femminili nella New publications by Dr. Olga Glagoleva (CREES Resident letteratura russa (Eurasiatica 57), edited by Emilia Magnanini, Fellow): Canadian Slavonic Papers, vol. 45, nos. 1-2 (March-June 2003). Imaginary World: Reading in the Everyday Life of Russian Andrew Shipilov, a Rotman School of Management PhD can- Provincial Noblewomen, 1750-1825 in Wendy Rosslyn, ed., didate and a CREES instructor, recently received a Special Women and Gender in Eighteenth-Century Russia (Ashgate, 2003), Supplementary Research Award from the Joint Initiative in pp. 129-146 German and European Studies. This award enabled him to Archival Research in Russia: How to Make It Successful, conduct interviews of European investment bankers as part NewsNet:The Newsletter of the AAASS, vol. 42, no. 5 (December of the data collection for his doctoral dissertation entitled 2002): 13-21 Investment Banks Network Strategies in the International Nezakonnorozhdennye deti v XVIII v.: Novye materialy M&A Advisory Industry. In November 2003 his dissertation o poluchenii V.A. Zhukovskim dvorianskogo statusa (Illegiti- proposal has been recognized as the only Canadian finalist at mate Children in Russia in the 18th Century: V.A. Zhukovskiis the INFORMS College on Organization Science international case) with N.K. Fomin, Otechestvennaia Istoriia, 2002, No. 6: dissertation proposal competition held at the University of 163-75. Pennsylvania Wharton School of Management. Centre News 7 November 2003 Upcoming Conferences but remain uneasy about the policy frameworks that will now constrain them. For Canadian business operating or aspiring Modern Kazakhstan: Between East and West to operate in the New Europe, both the opportunities and December 5, 2003 challenges are considerable.The enlarged EU represents one of the worlds most promising investment targets, with a mar- The aim of this conference is to provide a discussion forum ket size and wealth that rivals that of the US. At the same open to students, academics, professionals, politicians, and dip- time, the investment landscape remains clouded by political lomats.The conference will allow panelists and participants to rivalries, international tensions, and economic turbulence. improve their knowledge and understanding of modern Kazakhstan. Discussions will address the current state of af- This conference is aimed at the Canadian business commu- fairs and consider what the future holds for Kazakhstan by nity and represents an exceptional opportunity to hear from focusing on a number of important questions, including: a variety of high-level policymakers, scholars, and senior Ca- Kazakhstans role and position in the changing geopoliti- nadian investors currently doing business in the region.Very cal context and international system; limited seating will allow for a frank and informal exchange of ideas and experiences, designed to encourage debate and The development path has Kazakhstana post-Soviet oil- foster opportunities for networking. A limited number of rich countrythat chosen to follow; spaces will be available for free to students on a first-come- The current state of democracy in Kazakhstan. first-served basis. Information: www.utoronto.ca/crees/kazakhstan.htm; Info: www.utoronto.ca/mcis/neweurope/; 416-946-8942; email@example.com; 647-886-1552. firstname.lastname@example.org. The Russian Federation 12 Years On: Exploring Ukrainian Identity: Moving Beyond Transitology Gender, Ethnicity, and Statehood February 5-7, 2004 March 12-13, 2004 Twelve years after the collapse of the Soviet Union the time This interdisciplinary symposium is intended to provide an has come for a critical reappraisal of transitology, one that invigorating experience for researchers shaping the future of challenges many of the key assumptions that underlie the study Ukrainian scholarship, as well as an opportunity for graduate of post-Soviet society. students to become better acquainted with future colleagues This interdisciplinary graduate student conference on the topic in the profession. Leading scholars in the field will participate of Russia's economic and democratic transition is interested and respond to student presentations. in papers dealing with any of the following broad issue areas: Graduate students at both the MA and PhD levels and recent Federalism and Governance PhD recipients are encouraged to submit proposals. Submis- Democracy and Civil Society sions can focus on a wide variety of topics including, but not Foreign Relations of the Russian Federation limited to, the following: national identity in an era of globalization Please send a CV and a 300 word abstract by email (attach- ment in .doc or .RTF) to email@example.com; by nation-building and civil society fax to (416) 946-8939; or by mail to Moving Beyond contestation of national identity and foreign policy Transitology, c/o CREES, MCIS, University of Toronto, 1 Dev- making onshire Place, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3K7. language and identity Applications should be received by December 1, 2003. Par- ethnicity and culture ticipants are strongly encouraged to seek funding to cover Ukrainian identity in Diaspora their travel costs.Accommodation will be provided subject to gender and nationalism availability. construction of a gender identity in mass culture Info: www.utoronto.ca/crees/beyondtransition.htm or role of media in shaping Ukrainian identity firstname.lastname@example.org. quest for identity in contemporary Ukrainian literature historizing national identity Canadian Business in the New Europe: Please submit a one-page abstract outlining the paper's thesis, Opportunities and Prospects scope, and potential conclusions, as well as a curriculum vitae February 26-27, 2004 by January 15, 2004. Submissions must be made via email to In the spring of 2004, the European Union will be fundamen- email@example.com. Presenters should seek ex- tally transformed, as ten new members join the existing part- ternal funding. Limited travel grants may be available for par- nership. The ascendant states are eager for the economic ticipants who cannot obtain full external funding. opportunity that EU membership appears to hold in store, Info: www.utoronto.ca/jacyk/; firstname.lastname@example.org November 2003 8 Centre News Events Past The history of mankind has been written many times for po- This led to the official proclamation of the autocephaly of the litical reasons, yet nothing need be forgotten. This was the Ukrainian Church. main theme of the lecture given at CREES on September 15 Dr. Isichenko placed strong emphasis on the prominence by Roman Krutsyk, the Head of the Kyiv City Organization and importance of Ukrainian translations of sacred texts. Of of the All-Ukrainian Society Memorial in the name of Vasyl particular note was the second full translation of the Bible Stus. The main purpose of Mr. Krutsyks lecture was to pro- into Ukrainian by Professor Ogienko, or Metropolitan Ilarion, vide information about the work that has been done by Me- Head of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church in Canada in 1939. morial to destroy the historical and political myths created A prominent scholar, Ivan Khomenko, later became the au- during the previous political regime. thor of the third translation of the Bible into Ukrainian. The restoration of history is indeed an extremely de- The introduction of Ukrainian into public worship and manding process. It takes a lot of time, effort, and courage. private prayer, in the form of regular reading of the Bible in Memorial created the first permanent museum exhibition Ukrainian at home, was invaluable in the fight to overcome in Ukraine entitled Not to be Forgotten: The Chronicle of the Ukrainian national inferiority complex.The Ukrainian Bib- the Communist Inquisition in Ukraine. Through the com- lical Association, founded in 1991, is now the only non-gov- bined efforts of the Memorial Society and the Ukrainian ernmental organization that supports the bridging of Chris- diaspora in North America a poster version of the exposition tian churches and denominations of various traditions on the was created to commemorate the 70th Anniversary of the basis of common respect for biblical heritage. Ukrainian-speak- Ukrainian Famine of 1932-1933. More than 700 copies of this ing parishes of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, poster exhibition are on display in museums, libraries, and Ukrainian Greco-Catholic Church, and Ukrainian Catholic teaching institutions in many Ukrainian cities. Mr. Krutsyk in- Church played a significant role in the formation of national formed us about the obstacles that Memorial faces. These community. include the indifference of the current Ukrainian government, Dr. Isichenko defined contemporary relations between challenges working with archives, and limited financial re- the church and state in Ukraine as generally positive. He noted sources. that affiliation with a church has become an important politi- Mr. Krutsyks lecture and the following discussion was cal tool for parliamentarians and state officials in modern not only extremely informative, but also very heartfelt and Ukraine.While the discord and hardship that are affecting the enlightening. Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church were touched Nadia Zavorotna, CREES upon in the talk, the Archbishop emphasized that the future of any church depends on its ability to remain independent On September 16, the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Stud- and separate from politics. ies,Toronto Office, and the Petro Jacyk Program for the Study Liliya Volovik, CREES of Ukraine hosted a talk in Ukrainian by Yuri Isichenko (Arch- bishop Ihor of Kharkiv and Poltava, Ukrainian Autocephalous On September 25, in the first lecture this season of the CREES Orthodox Church) on Translation of the Bible and Religious Faculty Speakers Series, Leonid Livak (Slavic Languages and Self-Identification of Ukrainians in the 20th Century. Literatures) presented the findings of his ongoing research on The first attempts to translate the Bible have their roots the image of the Jewish persona in Russian literature. In the in the mid-16th century. In the 17th century, during the Coun- first part of his lecture, Professor Livak discussed the meth- ter-Reformation, these endeavours faded away. It was not un- odology of his investigations. Unlike other researchers of the til the 19th century that Ukrainian writers returned to the Jewish image in Russian literature, Dr. Livak has been less in- Biblethey employed biblical subjects and images in their terested in detecting trends and patterns of historical works, derived their poetical inspiration from scripture, and, development. Nor is his study preoccupied with juxtaposing finally, made renewed efforts to translate the Bible into the and comparing the literary image of the Jew with its real-life Ukrainian language.The latter was first accomplished by Pante- archetypes. Rather, Professor Livaks novel approach treats the leimon Kulish, Ivan Puluy, and Ivan Nechuy-Levytsky in 1902 image of the Jew in Russian fiction as a holistic and self-con- and was published in Vienna.This translation reflected the early tained entity, divorcing objective research from the stage of forming a Ukrainian theological terminology. subjectivities of compare-contrast analogies and temporal value Dr. Isichenko emphasized that Ukrainian translations of biases. the Bible were a powerful incentive for the Ukrainian Ortho- This detachment from moral judgments, Professor Livak dox Church to consolidate its national identity and in par- contends, is essential for a study seeking to explore the image ticular to strive for recognition of modern Ukrainian as a theo- of the Jew from a literature point of view, and avoid slipping logical language. The tradition of conducting church services into the realm of sociology or social history. It is this latter in Ukrainian was established in May 1919 at St. Michaels Ca- tactic, he further argues, that has time and again pushed re- thedral in Kyiv. The Churchs next step towards national self- searchers into pharisaical evaluations of the image of the Jew identification was its severance from the ethnically Russian in literary fiction against the backdrop of contemporaneous hierarchy of the All-Ukrainian Orthodox Council in May 1920. commonsense logic. Detecting a gaping mismatch between Centre News 9 November 2003 the Jew in the literature and the Jew of the real world, these Post-communist Eastern Europe, Professor Fabian ob- scholars have then invariably proceeded to dismiss this liter- serves, is in the process of acknowledging the phenomenon ary image as ludicrous and appalling. Thus, while serving his- of domestic violence, but the underlying change in public val- torical truth well, these investigations have nevertheless done ues and legislation has been slow and difficult. To be sure, the little to further our understanding of the literary imports of unmistakable signs of progress are there.The traditional view, the Jewish persona in Russian fiction. In fact, so genuinely aptly summarized in the painful phrase if he beats you, he tempting are these pitfalls, that in order to avoid falling into loves you, has been emphatically rejected in all Eastern Euro- the same trap, throughout his research Professor Livak has pean countries. But if that arcane view is definitely gone, there chosen to distinguish between the literary image of the Jew is little scholarly agreement over what perceptual framework and the Jew of the real world by altering the words spelling: jew has taken hold in its stead. On the one hand, there is the as opposed to Jew. political rhetoric of various womens rights movements, gain- Building on this methodological foundation, Dr. Livak ex- ing in impact within the broader context of the pan-European amined the many aspects of the jew as a figment of the imagi- crusade against sexual discrimination. On the other, the very nation of a succession of Russian and other European conceptualization of such key notions as gender equality writers. Professor Livaks study suggests that those scholars has been undergoing a fundamental evolution from the class- who treat the image of the jew from the cumulative progres- centred dogmas of the communist era to the resurgent indi- sion perspective of art history may be missing important vidualism in the post-communist world. points. Indeed, the very applicability of this analytical approach The main thrust of Professor Fabians study is to identify is predicated on the availability of real-world historical the ways in which the governments of Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, archetypes. But that has not always been the case. Invariably and the Czech Republic have responded to the demands of we find the literary image of the jew employed as an expedi- national womens rights movements and the pressures of in- ent personification of the antagonist in historical settings where ternational expectations to prioritize the issues of domestic the authors may or may not have had exposure to real-world violence. The principal conclusion she draws is that, as the Jews. In addition to the ease with which the figure of the jew third wave of global democratization establishes only mini- has been used to construct quintessentially negative charac- mal procedural standards for democratic governance (the so- ters, the formative content of this image has been remarkably called low intensity democracy), womens organizations can constant over time and geographic locale. work from below to broaden its base and transform such a In their treatment of the Jews, Russian religious books, political system into a more comprehensive high intensity for example, were heavily influenced by the Byzantine and democracy. Indeed, many Central European NGOs working Latin Catholic religious traditions. The very history of the se- in these issue areas have developed cultural and political ar- mantic transmogrifications of the word Jewfrom its Biblical guments to reflect both the lessons in gender politics learned prototype, through the sketchy figure of the antagonist, to the from the communist experience and the contemporary dis- everyday Russian word yudei, whose phonetics seems to equate course in feminist thought. Jews with Judasis indicative of this tendency. Irrespective of Professor Fabians research entails a number of signifi- the particular historical milieu, Professor Livak concluded, the cant implications for several related fields of social science. She image of the jew has been regularly morphed to reflect cul- explores the intricate interactions of social and political phe- tural bias and suit the needs of the specific literary plot. As nomena, illuminating important aspects of the interplay of the case has required, the jew has been reeking, old, ugly or all democratic theory, gender studies, human rights, and public three at once; she has been a heathen, a vampire or an policy dialogue. Professor Fabian also asks tough questions, undead. And it is precisely this conflation of (sometimes con- such as whether only women can be the victims of domestic flicting) negative characteristics within the composite image violence. of the jew that attests to the strong religious and folklore In the final analysis, Professor Fabian concludes that wom- influences on its content and literary use. ens issues in Central Europe are not yet enjoying the full Nick Roudev, International Relations attention they deserve, overshadowed as they are by more highly publicized and sensationalized debates. Most Central Political scientist Katalin Fabian (Lafayette College, PA) de- European studies of women and politics, for example, have livered her lecture on the Changing Attitudes and Laws on focused exclusively on women in government, failing to ex- Domestic Violence in Central Europe on the eve of a day of plore the many other subtler but far more important ramifi- symbolic significance, October 6, the International Day of cations of that topic. Many womens rights NGOs, like the Violence. Throughout her eventful academic career in Cen- wittily-named NaNE! womens network in Hungary, have tral Europe and North America, Professor Fabian has pub- been trying to change that by sponsoring trenchant public lished and researched extensively on civil society and gender awareness campaigns and initiating heated debates on a number studies. The October 3 lecture, as the title suggests, offered a of taboo domestic violence issues. Despite all financial and progress report on her most recent study on the dynamics of regulatory obstacles, many of the 20 womens NGOs Dr. Fa- domestic violence in four Central European countries: Hun- bian surveyed have succeeded in introducing the rhetoric of gary, Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. gender in the political dialogue surrounding such seminal November 2003 10 Centre News public policy issues as the 1992 abortion bills in Hungary; the In his October 20, lecture, Explaining Success and Failure in raising of the retirement age there; and the 1995 redefinition Transition: Uncharted Waters, Pirate Raids and Safe Havens, of maternity benefits. Oleh Havrylyshyn (Director, East European Division, IMF) Nick Roudev, International Relations discussed the progress of his ongoing research on an explana- tory model for the successes and failures of post-communist On October 20, H.E. Jeremy Kinsman, Ambassador of transition in Eastern Europe. An eminent Canadian scholar of Canada to the European Union, spoke on EuropeOld and Ukrainian origin, Dr. Havrylyshyn has had a long-standing aca- New: Big Implications for Canadian Business and Canadas Place demic interest and extensive professional experience in in the World, co-sponsored by the Munk Centre for Interna- analyzing the pattern and process of East European transi- tional Studies, the Centre for International Studies, the York- tions.The central question Dr. Havrylyshyn poses in his latest UofT Institute of European Studies, and CREES. Ambassador studyhow to measure transition success and explain the Kinsman focused on recent developments in Europe and the factors which facilitate or impede ithas traditionally been impact they will have on relations between Canada and Eu- the subject of much debate in post-1990 political economy rope and between Canada and the USA. scholarship. The Ambassador maintains that Europe is a political and There have been several competing approaches for de- economic success. It has managed to pull together diverse fining success in the transitions from central planning to free nationalities and cultures around the values of prosperity, so- markets in the East European economies. The EBRD-coined cial welfare, and egalitarianism. Now the biggest single market Index of Transition is probably the most popular of those, in the world, the European Union has a 60 per cent share in butDr. Havrylyshyn arguesits largely subjective construc- global foreign direct investment, compared to 22 per cent for tion is a serious drawback. Then, there has been the growth the USA and 2.3 per cent for Canada. Although European performance approach, which builds directly on the classical growth according to a number of measures such as economic economic relationship between stable economic growth and growth and proportion of GDP invested in research and de- rising national income on the one hand and an improving stand- velopment is slower than that of Canada and the USA, Eu- ard of living on the other. Numerous arguments have been ropes economic achievements are nonetheless impressive. made recently that using the GDP growth rate as a proxy Using a rigid regulatory culture as an example, the Am- measure for human welfare may be grossly misleading. The bassador drew attention to certain problems that exist in problem is that in many economies in transition, it is difficult Europe. It takes 61 days on average to incorporate a business to tell whether the observed economic growth is genuine in Europe, in contrast to four days in Toronto and just 24 and, hence, sustainableor brought about by artificial boost- hours in Vancouver. Europes shrinking and aging population ers, such as fluctuations in the international oil prices. Finally, presents another problem: by 2050 it will dwindle below its the third major approach, the one espoused by the IMF, em- current level, and people over 65 will amount to 65 per cent phasizes the role of economic stability for attracting stable of the working population. There is a similar tendency in the and sizeable foreign direct investment. North America, but, particularly in Canada, population decline Dr. Havrylyshyns methodology introduces a more com- is offset by effective immigration policies, something that Mr. prehensive approach. His first step is to compile an encyclo- Kinsman pointed out is almost nonexistent in Europe. pedic list of candidate causal factors drawn from a wide range The Ambassador stressed that there have always been of issue areas. These candidate variables reflect the immuta- close ties between Europeans and North Americans, saying ble initial endowments of the transition countries (natural A lot less divides Europe and us, than Europe, us, and every- resources), their remediable conditions (human resources), body else. In his view, American and European values with and the socio-political policies of their post-Soviet govern- regard to governance, ethics, education, and market largely ments. It is from this initial compilation that Dr. Havrylyshyn coincide.The differences that do exist between Europe, Canada, selected the three causal factors underpinning his parsimoni- and the United States are often related to methods rather ous model for transition success. than fundamental beliefs, and these countries are finding ways to work together. The degree of multilateral cooperation on Charts issues of foreign policy, such as antiterrorism and rebuilding The first problem post-communist policymakers in the nas- Afghanistan and Iraq, is unprecedented. cent East-European democracies faced was the choice of a One constant theme that Ambassador Kinsman returned roadmap for economic changein his model, Dr. Havrylyshyn to was his optimism for the future of Canadian-European and calls this the chart for navigating the stormy waters of tran- European-American relations, suggesting that the European sition. The principal difficulty was that, at the time, the charts project does not mean the end of the American era, but, rather, for transition were many, ranging from relatively simple pre- the successful continuation of a European-American theme. scriptions (import-substitution or even slogans like just get Natalia Smalyuk, CREES rid of the old stuff), to immensely sophisticated schemes drawing on liberal institutionalism and the Washington Con- sensus. In those post-communist countries where the initial Centre News 11 November 2003 choice of a transition chart was delayed by debate or inde- The current EU member states have set forth to manage cision, transition itself was delayed and success was limited. labour migration flows that would benefit Western Europe. They plan to attract the people with the right skills who will Pirate Raids work in certain specific areas and return home once their But the long-term implications of this delayed start ran deeper services are no longer needed. In general, West Europeans than that. In the countries where such temporizing took place, are reluctant to deal with increased migration, expecting that the top echelons of the former communist parties used this immigrants will threaten their jobs and bring along criminal unexpected respite to regroup and assume more palatable and other problems. According to Dr. Lado, these social fears political forms. The former-communist-apparatchiks-turned- contradict economic necessity. The aging EU population and capitalists availed themselves of the initial economic chaos, labour shortages already create significant welfare problems hyperinflation, and weak institutions to appropriate much of that will only get worse with time unless mitigated by attract- the states resources. Once in control of the economy, Dr. ing immigrants. Havrylyshyn argues, these new capitalists then proceeded Though the effects of migration for the future EU mem- to consolidate their hold by capturing the state political ma- bers will be minimal, they may suffer from the youth and chinery and using it to further their interests. brain drain. According to Dr. Lado, two to three per cent of young people and the same percentage of educated people Safe Havens from the new member states will migrate to Western Europe. The consequences of these pirate raids were grim: ravaged Another issue is legal restrictions: the citizens of the new economies, depleted treasuries, and phony privatizations.The members will not be allowed to take jobs in the current mem- only way out of this vicious cycle of powerful vested interests ber states within two to seven years of EU entry.This is more obstructing reforms, and the lack of economic reforms rein- a question of equal rights than actual need, stressed Dr. Lado. forcing the positions of the new oligarchs was the presence Dr. Lado concluded her presentation with a discussion of of what Dr. Havrylyshyn calls safe havens. The carrot of po- two opposite views on the migration effects of the EU en- tential access to a rich capitalist clubthe European Union largement. The first view envisages a lose-lose outcome: for obviated the agonizing debate over a transition chart in the the new members, the limited migration will not be enough first place. The prospect of EU membership, and the need to to solve their labour and welfare problems; at the same time, adopt the Acquis Communautaire, itself offered an obvious and young people from Eastern Europe will be disappointed to appealing course for transition. This, Dr. Havrylyshyn posits, find they will always be somewhat disadvantaged in West Eu- may in part explain the relatively better performance of the ropean labour markets. Proponents of the other view predict Central and East European countries over the states of the a win-win outcome for both current and future EU members: former Soviet Union. the former will manage targeted migration and keep out the Nick Roudev, International Relations unwanted immigrants, while the young generation from the new member states will have better work and travel oppor- On October 30, Maria Lado (General Director, European tunities. Integration Department, Hungarian Ministry of Employment Natalia Smalyuk, CREES and Labour; President, Hungarian Industrial Relations Asso- ciation) spoke on the potential dynamics of migration in the enlarged European Union and their effects on the current and future member states. Her talk was co-sponsored by the Hungarian Research Institute of Canada, the Joint Initiative in German and European Studies, the York-UofT Institute of European Studies, the Centre for Industrial Relations, and CREES. The European Union has a long tradition of limited immi- gration. In 2000, non-EU nationals represented only four per- cent of the EU population. By comparison, the percentage of non-nationals in the USA in 2002 exceeded ten. Dr. Lado stressed that migration will neither decline after the new members enter the EU nor significantly increase. She estimated the potential immigration flows to be 200,000- 350,000 persons per year, predicting that the pull factors, such as changes in the labour markets, will take precedence over the push factors. East Europeans will no longer migrate be- cause of political pressures or a lack of democratic rights. On the other hand, more mobile and well-prepared young adults will move to West European states in search of higher in- comes and new experiences. Labour relations expert Maria Lado. November 2003 12 Centre News The study of labour-management relations (LMR) has tradi- can foreign direct investment. The state of the employer or- tionally been conducted within the context of national char- ganizations in Central and Eastern Europe is just as bleak, Dr. acter and socio-economic development. Does it make sense Lado continues, and the causes for their structural infirmity to talk about LMR at the European level and, if so, how does closely resemble the problems facing labour organizations this question pertain to the accession of the new member- there. states from Central and Eastern Europe? Dr. Maria Lado, a In conclusion, Dr. Maria Lado outlined the principal short senior Hungarian policy-maker and a seasoned EU accession and long-term challenges facing East European organizations negotiator, offered her take on this and other related ques- and regulators in the field of LMR. If they are to integrate tions in an informative talk on October 31 on Labour-Man- successfully in the EU milieu, the trade unions and employer agement Relations in the Future EU Member StatesHow organizations in the future member-states must buttress their do They Fit in the European Scenery? This was the second in credibility and legal positions, expand their membership, her series of talks co-sponsored by the Hungarian Research streamline their institutional structure and increase efficiency. Institute of Canada, the Joint Initiative in German and Euro- Above all, however, if it is to be successful in a united Europe, pean Studies, the York-UofT Institute of European Studies, the East European trade-unionism has to first rediscover its societal Centre for Industrial Relations, and CREES. role. Next years enlargement will be a unique moment in the Nick Roudev, International Relations history of the European Union, because for the first time the admission of new member-states will be dictated almost ex- clusively by political rather than economic considerations.The On October 22, prominent journalist and political analyst accession of the ten new members from Central and Eastern Remzi Lani (Director, Albania Media Institute,Tirana) deliv- Europe will crown these countries economic and political ered a talk on issues in Southeastern European media. transitions to free market economies and liberal democra- Over the past decade, all aspects of Albanian media have cies. But the 2004 enlargement will also present new chal- undergone dramatic changes. Mr. Lani discussed their positive lenges before the EU, and the most critical of these will be the developments and challenges in a broader framework of the convergence challenge. According to present-day estimates, post-communist, post-conflict, and globalization agendas even the most developed of the newly acceding countries will currently facing the country. need between ten and twenty-five years to reach, for exam- The Albanian media scene seems to display remarkable ple, the average EU GDP levels. Convergence in the field of pluralism. In a country of fewer than 3.5 million people, there LMR is likely to be just as challenging. are 21 daily newspapers and close to 100 television and radio Dr. Lado opened her talk with a broad overview of the broadcasters. In fact, it has the highest per capita rate of me- state of LMR in the European Union today, but the core of dia in Europe.This is no longer a region of shut mouths, Mr. her presentation centred around the more interestingand Lani said. We have a journalistic spectrum of all orientations less exploredcomparative question of the state of LMR in and colours, in print and broadcast. Central and Eastern Europe on the eve of the EU enlarge- Paradoxically, the Albanian press does not have a strong ment. Dr. Lados research framework compares and contrasts readership base among the public. Despite the highest per LMR in the current and new member-states, and illuminates capita rate of media, Albania hits another European record in several causes and explanations for the existing differences. lowest media penetration. In a country of over three million, In comparison to their EU counterparts, both trade un- the total circulation of all publications amounts to just around ions and employer organizations in the Central and East Eu- 100,000 copies. Along with purely economic reasons, such as ropean countries appear institutionally deficient and financially poverty and poor distribution systems, the extremely low weak. In stark contrast to the high EU averages, the trade- penetration of print media may be attributed to their nega- union membership in the countries of Central and Eastern tive perception by the readers. Few newspapers function as Europe is low and sporadic. Whereas both community-level successful businessesthus the majority of the papers have and national trade unions and employer organizations within another agenda, which could be political or to promote the the EU enjoy a significant political and economic clout, this is interests of another business. As a result, readers are pre- clearly not the case in the acceding Central and East Euro- sented with abundant information on politicians, but can hardly pean countries.The big exceptions to these trends, of course, find coverage of important realities of their life and real diver- are the Mediterranean candidate-states, where the pattern of sity of public opinion. In essence, the media scene is still domi- LMR has more or less mirrored that of the Union, albeit on a nated by the old traditions of party press. Mr. Lani called it smaller scale. revolver journalism. In light of this fact, Dr. Lados model seeks to explain the A dangerous tendency to use conflict rather than dia- institutional weakness and low membership of the trade un- logue is still common to Albanian media, and the media in ions in Eastern Europe by looking at such factors as the trade- Southeastern Europe could regain their role as instruments unions association with the discredited past, the processes of nationalistic forces. Mr. Lani unequivocally responds to the of privatization, the increasing self-employment, and the sud- question on who is to blame for stirring up racial hatred in den opening of the region to West European and North Ameri- the regionmedia, media, media. Centre News 13 November 2003 Another challenge is the controversial legal environment. New media legislation declares free access to information. At the same time, defamation laws reminiscent of the first stages of transition are still there.There are no journalists in prison in Albania, Lani said, but he warned that ideological pressures are now succeeded by economic ones. While journalists in the Balkans are no longer afraid that the police will knock at the door, they still could face an unpleasant and politically inspired visit from the tax police. Albanian media are undergoing a complex transition from post-communist and authoritarian realities to democracy. Among their many dilemmas, the major one probably relates to the role of journalists in society. Shall they identify them- selves as patriots, using media for political struggles? Or, shall they provide the public with informative and responsible jour- nalism? Mr. Lani has resolved this dilemma for himselfhe Media expert Remzi Lani chose to be a professional. Natalia Smalyuk, CREES On October 23, Taras Koznarsky (Slavic Languages and Lit- site of what he had imagined. But Gogol was not alone. The eratures) delivered a very analytical but also accessible pres- image of Kyiv in the 19th century was a largely a sentimental entation entitled Discovering/Reinventing Kyiv in the 19th product of writers most of whom had never been to the city. Century. This was the second in the CREES Faculty Speak- Professor Koznarsky discussed why such a myth was so ers Series, whose focus this year is on newer members of the easily absorbed by Russian culture. Kyiv became a centre of CREES community. Orthodoxy in Imperial Russia, causing the city to expand. By Professor Koznarskys work was mainly focused on the the late 1800s, Kyiv had a population of 250,000 and such uniqueness of Kyiv as a city torn between the cultures of infrastructure as a network of electric streetcars (an innova- Russian Empire, Ukraine, and Poland. In the 1830s, distinct tion in Eastern Europe at that time!). Professor Koznarsky borders between Russian and Ukrainian began to appear, and concluded with a summary of the process of the creation of this stimulated great interest in Ukrainian literature. It was Kyivs identity, addressing factors such as Russian, Ukrainian, during this decade that one of the fathers of Russian classic and other foreign cultural influences, the Orthodox Church, literature, Nikolai Gogol, wrote about Kyiv: Its ours, not and important historical events like the Communist Revolu- theirs! tion of November 7, 1917.With its long and colourful history, Gogols description of Kyiv spread throughout the main it is no surprise that Kyiv is the capital of modern Ukraine. Russian literary circles.Along with his good friend Maksimovich, Aleksandr Livshits, Commerce and Finance he glorified the city. In their letters, Kyiv was called Russian Athens, Garden of Eden, and Second Jerusalem. At the time, the capital of Russia was St. Petersburg, and Moscow was considered to be the centre of Russian culture. By the 1850s, Kyiv had gained the status of a respectable city, even though its population was only around 50,000 people.Through Gogols works, Kyiv became a beautiful myth, with gorgeous Keep up to date on events in Russian and East views and an abundance of cheap produce and housing. Peo- European Studies by joining the CREES ple in the Russian Empire dreamed of visiting this magical city, listserv and by consulting the events page on so much more interesting and exciting than the grey streets the CREES web site: www.utoronto.ca/crees/ of Moscow or St. Petersburg. events.htm. It was almost impossible not to smile when Professor Koznarsky mentioned that Gogol had not actually visited Kyiv To join the listserv, contact Janet Hyer at until 1835. And when Gogol saw the city, his crush was over. email@example.com. Kyiv turned out to be an unwelcome place. The lack of hous- ing, unclean and narrow streetseverything was the oppo- November 2003 14 Centre News Soviet & Kosher On October 26 and 27, CREES presented the interdiscipli- Edna Nahshon (Jewish Theological Seminary of America) nary symposium Soviet & Kosher: A Century of Jewish Culture in in her paper Habimahs The Dybbuk (1922): Synthesizing He- Russia as a part of the University of Torontos Chancellor brew Words, Jewish Folklore, and Russian Stagecraft found a Jackman Program for the Arts.The participants explored ques- rather more fruitful example of the interaction of two strands tions relating to retaining and developing a Jewish identity in Russian Jewish heritage with the majority culture at an ear- within the context of the cultural policies of the Soviet state, lier stage of Soviet history. This famous Moscow production as the latter attempted to forge an identity of its own. in Hebrew of Shalom An-Skis play originally written in Yid- Gennady Estraikh (New York University), surveying the dish, directed by an Armenian pupil of Konstantin Stanislavsky Yiddish Literary Milieu in Post-Stalinist Soviet Union, traced (Evgeny Vakhtangov), came at the propitious intersection of the history of Yiddish writers groups within the Soviet Writ- three developments: the Russian revolution, the upswing in ers Union from the 1930s to the 1980s. He concluded that Hebrew Zionist activities temporarily accepted by the new the Soviet state fostered a token national culture for an as- Bolshevik government, and the theatrical revolution in the similated ethnic group. This token culture was to be both a new Soviet capital. Using the techniques of the Russian theat- showcase for Soviet policies regarding national minorities, rical avant-garde, and a language non-native to them and their and a source of high art in the minority language. Even though audience (whether Jewish or non-Jewish), the Jewish actors this officially sponsored Yiddish literary culture developed a of the Habimah troupe were able to express their essential degree of vibrancy in the 1960s, it made a minimal impact on Jewishness in ways that stunned and appealed to the wide the larger strata of the audiences of Russian language Soviet strata of Moscows theatre public, regardless of their ethnic literary culture. background. (continued on following page) Three Generations of Vocal Masterworks Soviet & Kosher was also a mini-festival of Clockwise from top left-hand corner: Louis Danto, Yana music.The two concertsThree Generations Ivanilova, Ilona Karan, Inna Golsband of Vocal Masterworks and The Red Army Centre: Raisa Nakhmanovich Klezmer Bandfeatured very different types Not pictured: Sterling Beckwith, Alexander Kats, Natalya of music. Tyomkina, and Senya Trubashnik The celebration was capped by an evening of film. Thomas Lahusen (History and Com- parative Literature), in the role of both film- maker and commentator, explored the Jew- ish theme in Soviet film. The Red Army Klezmer Band L-R: German Goldenshteyn, Jeffrey Wollock, and Michael Alpert Not pictured: Eduard Kagansky Centre News 15 November 2003 Similarly, Alice Stone Nakhimovsky (Colgate University) were the melancholy first parts of these songs recalling the went looking for traces of an essential Jewishness in the old Jewish life and problems, rather than the optimistic Soviet comic routines of Mikhail Zhvanetsky:The Last Jewish Joker. conclusions, celebrating the new perspectives opening up for While this Odessa-born stand-up comedian of the Brezhnev Soviet Jewry. and perestroika eras satirized the experience of life in the USSR The organizers of the symposium engaged in their own with few overtly Jewish references, Stone found plenty of hid- brand of oral history by inviting several speakers with per- den Jewishness in his images, lan- sonal ties to the Soviet Jewish cul- guage patterns, use of archetypal tural milieu. Dov-Ber Kerler (Indi- personalities, and construction of a ana University) gave the audience once-upon-a-time Odessa as an an engaging tour, centred around his ideal home, contrasted to the alien- writer father, through his personal ated Soviet space. photo-albums and library contain- In contrast to Nahshons and ing memorabilia of the Soviet Yid- Stone Nakhimovskys essentialist dish literary circles of the 1960s. arguments, David Shneer (University German Goldenshteyn reminisced of Denver) argued that for the most about his experience as a musician part the Soviet Photojournalists in the Red Army during the 1950s. Photographing World War II did not He felt that he was able to preserve consciously chronicle the Holocaust. and continue elements of tradi- Mostly they recorded the Jewish tionalYiddish musical culture within suffering within the official Soviet the confines of this Soviet spon- framework of constructing the sored institution. Such personal ex- Great Patriotic War in terms of periences added further to the Nazi atrocities against the larger complicated picture of interactions populations of the USSR and other between a marginalized ethnic invaded countries and the eventual group (always at danger for being Soviet victory over the German barbarity. Nevertheless, to- persecuted because of their ethnicity) and an authoritarian day we understand their shocking images to be a part of our state. cultural memory of the Holocaust. Zvi Gitelman (University of Michigan) gave the audience Anna Shternshis (University of Toronto) turned to oral a sense of where this dialectic has left the Jewish community history to examine how memory creates identity. She pre- in Russia today. The Jewish population of Russia has declined sented evidence that Soviet Jews appropriated the official Soviet dramatically through the twentieth century, as a result of po- popular culture of the 1930s to boost their own pride in groms, revolutions, wars, and emigration. At the present time their ethnicity. She gathered this information by interviewing most Russian Jews do not practice their religion, do not live in elderly members of New Yorks Russian-Jewish emigre com- distinct communities, and share the culture and values of the munity about their memories of such genuinely popular en- mainstream Russian society. Nevertheless, they still exhibit a tertainers with Jewish background of the pre-war Stalin era distinct set of attitudes. In a large-scale study of Russian and as Dmitry Utyosov. They remembered fondly Utyosovs sev- Ukrainian Jews that Gitelman has been conducting since 1966, eral Russian-language songs on Jewish themes.Their melodies he has found that they see themselves as urbanized and edu- (which reminded them of Jewish songs they would sing at cated (and so different from say Central Asian Jews), share the home), presence of Jewish characters and names, and use of historical memory of persecution, feel they have better val- positive Jewish images made Utyosov a Jewish artist in the ues than the ethnic Russian community (less substance abuse, memories of these assimilated Jews.What remained with them stronger family structure), see Jews as survivors capable of adapting to the centuries of diaspora, and feel themselves members of the same group, tied together by unspoken broth- erhood.This suggests that the Soviet state did not succeed in Soviet & Kosher was presented by the Chancellor assimilating the Jewish community entirely, since they still share Jackman Program for the Arts, the Centre for Rus- a set of common assumptions about their Jewish identity. sian and East European Studies (Andrew Mellon Jiri Smrz, History, with help from Zachary Lefaive, CREES Fund), the Jewish Studies Program (The Moyshe and Esther Menachovsky Memorial Fund in Jewish Stud- ies), the Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, and the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures. November 2003 16 Centre News
"November 2003 Centre News November 2003 Franklyn"