Jean_Charles_Le_Vallee by niusheng11

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									    Food Security Assembly 2004

         Food Safety and Food Security

Precautionary Principle, Federal Food Regulatory
      Initiatives, Future of Food and More

       Panel on Safe and Nutritious Food
            Jean-Charles Le Vallée
 Overview of Presentation


 Food Regulatory Bodies
 Food Safety, Concerns, Behaviour,
  Labeling, GMOs and More
 The Way Forward ?



                                      2
                      Aim


 To inform audience/readers on Canadian
  regulatory structures and on debated issues
  over food security and safety
 To raise questions addressing future food
  policy.


                                                3
               Background

 Canadian legislation dealing with the
  adulteration of food dates back to 1874.
 Current Food and Drugs Act was proclaimed
  in 1954, replacing one enacted in 1920.




                                              4
           Precautionary Principle

 Guiding principle for the application of precaution
  to science-based decision making in areas of federal
  regulatory activity in sectors such as health, food
  safety, and the conservation of natural resources
  and the environment.
 The application of precaution recognizes that the
  absence of full scientific certainty shall not be used
  as a reason for postponing decisions where there is
  a risk of serious or irreversible harm.

                                                       5
                  Regulation


 Appropriate regulation is determined through
  a comprehensive public policy analysis
  identifying both the risks and the benefits of
  the technology in order to identify those
  approaches that can best achieve the desired
  risk-benefit balance.

                                               6
              Federal Strategy

 To protect the health of Canadians through
  national science-based and coordinated
  policies, standards, regulation, inspection and
  surveillance,compliance and enforcement,
  risk and benefit assessment, research, public
  engagement, communication, and education
  programs related to foods.

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              Food Directorate

 Part of a national food safety system that
  involves Health Canada, the Canadian Food
  Inspection Agency, AAFC, and provinces,
  territories and municipalities.
 The federal health authority is responsible for
  establishing policies, setting standards and
  providing advice and information on the
  safety and nutritional value of food.

                                                8
               Food Directorate

 conduct scientific research
 conduct health risk and benefit assessments
 developing policies, standards and guidelines, such
  as for approval of new food additives
 evaluating submissions from the food industry
 providing information to support Canadians in their
  decisions about food and diet.


                                                        9
           Food Directorate in HC

   Bureau of Biostatistics and Computer Applications
   Bureau of Chemical Safety
   Bureau of Food Policy Integration
   Bureau of Food Regulatory, International and
    Interagency Affairs
   Bureau of Food Safety Assessment
   Bureau of Microbial Hazards
   Bureau of Nutritional Sciences
   Office of Policy and Strategic Planning
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                Other Players

 The Canadian Food Inspection System
  Implementation Group (CFISIG) develops model
  regulations and codes of practice to move Canada
  toward a more unified food inspection system.
 AAFC Agriculture Policy Framework
 Canada’s Action Plan for Food Security
 Integrated Pan-Canadian Healthy Living Strategy
 BC Food Safety Act; QC Food Product Act; ON
  Food Safety and Quality Act.

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                 Other Players

 Food Value Chain Bureau
 Canadian On-Farm Food Safety Program
 Canadian Food Safety Adaptation Program
 FightBac! Canadian Partnership for Consumer
  Food Safety Education
 Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety
  (University of Guelph)
 Canada Customs and Revenue Agency


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           The F/P/T Committee
           on Food Safety Policy
 Federal/Provincial/Territorial Legislation Relative
  to Food Safety
 FPTCFSP Protocol on Information-sharing and
  Collaboration
 Risk Categorization Model for Food Retail / Food
  Service Establishments
 The Foodborne Illness Outbreak Response Protocol
  Model Guideline for Food Safety in Food Banks

                                                    13
           Codex Alimentarius

 The Codex Alimentarius Commission was
  created in 1963 develop food standards,
  guidelines and related texts under the Joint
  FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
 Purpose of programme is to protect the
  health of the consumers and ensuring fair
  trade practices in the food trade.

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                SPS, HACCP

 Sanitary and phytosanitary issues related to
  the adoption and enforcement, by a country,
  are measures necessary to protect human,
  animal or plant life or health; SPS provisions
  are essential elements in international trade
  agreements, e.g.WTO, NAFTA.
 Hazards Analysis Critical Control Point – a
  Paper Trail

                                               15
     Food Safety and More


 Consumer Behaviour
 Food Insecurity
 Food Chain
 Concerns, Labeling
 Food Safety

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                  Behaviour

 Canadians spent $55.8 billion in grocery
  stores, $29.9 billion in various foodservice
  outlets (e.g. restaurants, institutions and
  hotels), and $19.5 billion on alcoholic
  beverages (2000).
 The average Canadian spent around $1
  625 on groceries (1996).

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                 Behaviour

 Canadian consumers spent 13.6% of their
  personal disposable income on food and non-
  alcoholic beverages in 1974, in 1983 the
  share was 10.9% and in 1997 it was almost
  10%. Estimates for 2000 indicate 8.9% of
  PDI to food (historical low).
 Food insecure much higher share PDI
  23%*
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                          Behaviour

 Slow population growth
 Changing composition of population
      Elderly, cultural diversity, smaller families
 Consumers want affordable food
 More health consicous, however, overweight
  obesity levels rising, physical activity decreasing
 Identity, statement of place


                                                        19
                Food Insecurity
 When experiencing food insecurity, almost half
  reduce the quality of their foods
 Twice as food insecure if smoke or consume
  alcohol or depressed
 More food insecure if under BMI 20 or over BMI
  30, least food insecure if 25-30
 More secure if you eat 5 portions of fruits and
  vegetables daily
 Single mothers, divorced greatest food insecure
  along with aboriginal peoples
 Three times more food insecure if renting         20
              Food Insecurity

 Food is the flexible budget item: it is cut
  back at the expense of other more immediate
  demands coming from agencies that can
  threaten: utilities, debt, rent.
 Personal costs of poverty remain hidden
 Food should be a basic utility product like
  water – a public health service

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                 Food Chain

 Production (animal husbandry and fisheries)
 Processing, Packaging, Storage, Distribution,
  Exchange, Marketing
 Preparation and Consumption

 Waste, Regulations, Inputs
 Food Provision Concept (PP and FF)

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           Quality and Preferences


 Food quality has different definitions along
  the chain. For example:
     Producers: Technological, ecological attributes
     Consumers: Taste, variety, freshness,
      convenience, access, healthy, nutritious, safety,
      environment, appearance, trust


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                              Motivations

              Enjoying life                    Health




Tasteful     Enjoying meal     Natural meat               Prevent
                                                          illness


                 Taste           Quality       Trust                     Label
                                              Place of               Absence
Appearance Production method      Origin      purchase   Freshness   hormones




                                                                            24
                                               Choice of Foods
                                                 Alw ays   Usually


 Nutritional qualities               23%                             34%              57%


   Medical purposes                18%                     21%                        39%


      Fortified foods        11%                  21%                                 31%


Mental performance          10%            13%                                        23%


Athletic performance        8%           12%                                          20%


         Weight loss        7%           14%                                          21%


    n = 2,012
                       0%          10%           20%        30%      40%   50%   60%
                                                                                 25
       Consumer Education

 Concerns
 Labelling, e.g. Dk, Origin, Fair Trade,
  Organic
 Traceability controls
 Certification, standardized labels (QC,
  BC)


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               Future Labelling?

 % GMOs, if >0,9% then transgenic label in EU
 Market share of the price the producer, wholesaler
  and retailer receive, e.g. France
 Distance traveled on receipts, e.g. organic stores
 Let’s Go Metric – Kilojoules! And not kcal.
  Everywhere but not North America
 Glycemic Index and BMI, Australia
 Restaurant Labelling non-existant, fast foods a must


                                                     27
Example of labelling from
  Mexico (Corn Flakes)




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    Mandatory Nutrition Labelling

 Since January 1, 2003, there is now
  mandatory nutrition labelling for domestic
  and imported pre-packaged foods affecting
  also content and health claims
 Must comply by 2006-2008.
 Pre-packaged foods only, need to broaden.


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         Food Safety in Canada

 Consistent with Canada’s National Security
  Policy (NSP), food safety has been
  recognized as being important to Canada’s
  national security interests.
 Greater accountability required from private
  sector between producer and consumer
 Food sovereignty – greater control, power
  over food

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                En français


 Salubrité des aliments or
 Sûreté des aliments
     as is used correctly by AAFC
 Not sécurité alimentaire



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          Sources of Unsafe Food

 Microbiological risks (foodborne illnesses: E.Coli
  0157, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp.,
  and bovine spongiform encephalopathy)
 Chemical risks (veterinary drugs, pesticides, heavy
  metals, industrial pollutants, natural toxins, food
  additives)
 Biotechnological risks (GMOs?)
 Physical/Technological risks (irradiation of
  food, and modified-atmosphere packaging,
  objects)
                                                    32
                 Costs in Canada

 Foodborne illnesses, and diet-related chronic
  diseases (e.g diabetes, and obesity) continue
  to pressure Canada’s health care system:
     One million Canadians suffer from foodborne
      illnesses each year;
     Diet-related chronic diseases costs an estimated
      $6.6 billion in direct and indirect health care
      costs and lost productivity each year.

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                        Costs

 BSE cost $1 billion in compensation to cattle
  producers.
 Recovery from the loss of trust/consumer
  confidence and markets due to animal, fish, plant
  diseases or contamination is increasingly costly and
  protracted, e.g. publicity surrounding PCB levels in
  salmon resulted in a 20% drop in market share for
  the fish industry.


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           Foodborne Diseases


 Food and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases are
  leading causes of illness and death in less
  developed countries, killing some 1,8 million
  people annually, most of whom are children.




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       Biotechnological Risks

 No known risk, BUT uncertainties
  remain
 Risk assessment and communication
  required
 Limitations in methods for safety
  testing
 Evidence of political pressure to
  minimize regulatory hurdles?
 Excluding public, and ignoring
                                      36
          Biotechnological Risk

 The weaknesses in regulations for safety
  testing are compounded by the decision to
  not impose mandatory labeling, thereby
  inhibiting consumer choice, post-market
  surveillance and potential liability claims.
 It is about values-based concerns and the
  promotion of a technologically-based
  solution for an uncertain potential problem
  that is fundamentally social and political in
  character.
                                                  37
                Need for Change
 Consumers may benefit from cheaper food but there
  are quality implications and health externalities, e.g.
  degenerative diseases, social and environmental
  costs – this will change politics of food as
  insufficient GDP
 Need to act, avoid morbidity, worsening stature,
  body compositioning, intergenerational
  transmission – nutritional outcomes
 Swap consumer individual oriented policies for
  public health and citizenship

                                                       38
                  Way Forward

   National Food Policy Framework
   Relocating Canada’s Food Security Bureau
   Sustainable Food System Approach
   Food Observatory – monitoring role
   A Future People’s Food Council, Food Commission
   Provider responsability, self-regulation, trust
   Economic globalization–14 digit UPC uniform code


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           National Food Policy
               Framework
 Intended to provide a policy basis for improvement
  in the overall management of Canada’s food system
  by developing a common vision and an integrated
  and coordinated governance architecture, that can
  optimize the use of public funds across
  departments, jurisdictions and sectors, as well as
  segments of the industry, in order to meet the
  expectations Canadians have for the food they eat.


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           Key NFPF Themes

 Food Safety
 Food System Management
 Building a Future for Canada’s Agri-Food
  Sector
 Supporting Consumer Choice at Home and
  Export Needs Abroad
 Food from a Population Health Perspective

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