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Study guide basic first aid

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Study guide  basic first aid Powered By Docstoc
					                          Study guide and quick reference sheet for
                               BASIC & PEDIATRIC First Aid
Injury / Illness    Signs & Symptoms                        Treatment                      Additional recommendations

Severe Arterial     Blood squirts from wound with each Use a protective barrier  Call 9-1-1 when necessary
bleeding            heartbeat
                                                       Cover the wound and apply Watch for signs of shock
                                                       direct pressure
                                                                                 Never removed bandages, always
                                                       Elevate the area          place additional bandages on top

                                                            Apply a pressure bandage Never use a tourniquet

                                                            Apply pressure to main
                                                            artery of injured limb


Nosebleed           Blood coming from nose                  Pinch the nose and tilt the If nosebleed is due to an injury or
                                                            head forward until bleeding illness and you notice clear or pink
                                                            stops                       fluids coming from the nose and/or
                                                                                        ears, call 9-1-1


Eye Injury          Object in the eye                       Rinse with water or saline If object cannot be removed,
                                                            solution to flush object out immobilize the eye by wrapping
                                                            of eye(s)                    both eyes and seek medical
                                                                                         attention


Mouth & Teeth       Bleeding from mouth, gums, cheek, Control bleeding in mouth            A knocked out tooth can sometimes
Injuries            or tongue                         with direct pressure                 be replanted

                                                                                           Retrieve the tooth and place in milk,
                                                                                           water, or moist gauze and take with
                                                                                           victim to the dentist


Impaled Object      Object stuck in victim’s body           DO NOT REMOVE THE              When in doubt of the severity of the
                                                            OBJECT                         injury, seek medical attention or call
                                                                                           9-1-1
                                                            Control bleeding around
                                                            object

                                                            Immobilize object with bulky
                                                            dressing


Internal Bleeding   Tender, swollen, bruised, rigid      Call 9-1-1                        Make the victim comfortable &
                    areas of the body, especially of the                                   reassure the victim
                    chest and abdomen
                                                                                           Maintain normal body temperature
                    Blood in vomit, urine, and/or stool
                                                                                           Give nothing by mouth
                    Strong thirst, cool, moist, pale skin
                                                                                           Monitor ABCs
                    Decreased level of consciousness

                    Abnormal pulse and breathing
Shock                Changes in mood or behavior and/ Call 9-1-1                  When possible, elevate feet
                     or irritability                                              8-10 inches
Shock is the failure                                  Make the victim comfortable
of the circulatory Decreased level of consciousness & reassure the victim         Maintain normal body temperature
system to            Cool, moist, pale skin                                          Give nothing by mouth
adequately supply                                      Monitor ABCs
blood and oxygen Strong thirst                                                       Do not elevate feet or move victim if
to the vital organs.                                                                 head or spine injury is suspected,
Causes include:      Abnormal pulse and breathing rate                               or if you suspect internal bleeding,
Any sudden illness                                                                   or the victim has difficulty breathing,
Loss of body fluids                                                                  or the victim has possible leg
Severe injury                                                                        fractures
Poisoning


Muscle, Bone &      Persistent pain                     For obvious or severe        Splint only if you can do so without
Joint Injuries                                          fractures, call 9-1-1        moving the limb or causing pain
                    Swelling, bruising
                                                         When in doubt, splint to   Splint joints above & below the
                    Difficulty moving, loss of sensation immobilize the limb & seek injury
                                                         medical attention
                    Deformity                                                       Splint the limb in the position found

                                                                                     Check the pulse before & after
                                                                                     splinting and monitor circulation
Head & Spine       Mechanism of injury such as:           Call 9-1-1                 If the area or situation is
Injuries                                                                             immediately life threatening, the
                   Car collisions                         DO NOT MOVE THE            victim must be moved using as
                                                          VICTIM                     much care as possible to minimize
                   Falls from a height greater than                                  movement to the victim’s head &
                   victim’s height                        Immobilize the head & neck neck
                                                          by supporting them with
                   Diving accidents                       your hands

                   Injuries during contact sports         Monitor ABCs

                   Gun shot wounds

                   Electric shock & lightening strikes

                   Also:

                   Changes in consciousness

                   Persistent pain or pressure in head,
                   neck, or back

                   Tingling or loss of sensation in
                   hands, fingers, feet, or toes

                   Paralysis

                   Nausea & vomiting

                   Blood or clear fluids coming from
                   ears and/or nose

                   Bruising under eyes & behind ears

                   Difficulty breathing

                   Blurred vision, slurred speech


Burns – Heat       First degree = red, painful, swollen Protect yourself if the scene Call 9-1-1 if:
(Thermal)          skin                                 is unsafe
                                                                                      The burn is third degree
                   Second degree = Same as above Cool the burned area with
                   plus blistering                      cool tap water to reduce      The burn is larger than the victim’s
                                                        pain and minimize the         hand
                   Third degree = black, charred skin. depth of the burn
                   Bone may be visible                                                The burn is on the face, hands,
                                                        Cover with loose, dry,        feet, or genitals
                                                        sterile dressing
                                                                                      The victim is very old or very young


Burns - Chemical   Evidence at the scene                  Call 9-1-1                 Use a protective barrier when
                                                                                     treating a chemical burn
                   Chemicals can cause first, second, Protect yourself if the scene
                   or third degree burns              is unsafe                     Remove affected clothing & jewelry

                                                          Monitor ABCs & watch for   Flush with water until help arrives
                                                          signs of shock
Burns – Electrical   Evidence at the scene                  Call 9-1-1                  For small first or second degree
                                                                                        electrical burns, cool with water &
                     Electricity can cause first, second, Protect yourself if the scene seek medical attention
                     or third degree burns                is unsafe
                                                                                        Turn off the power at the main
                                                          If still connected to a power source
                                                          source, DO NOT TOUCH
                                                          VICTIM

                                                            Monitor ABCs


Poisoning            Evidence at the scene                  Call poison control at       DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING
                                                            1-800-222-1222 or 9-1-1      without first speaking with
Poison can be      Nausea & vomiting                                                     emergency personnel
                                                            Protect yourself if the scene
inhaled, ingested,
                   Burns around the mouth                   is unsafe                     Bee’s typically leave a stinger in
absorbed, or                                                                              their victim.
injected           Odor coming from the mouth               Be prepared to give the
                                                            following information:        If you see the stinger, remove
                     Foaming at the mouth                                                 stinger by scraping – do not
                                                            Type of substance and how squeeze to remove as this may
                     Stomach ache & diarrhea                the victim was poisoned       inject more venom into the victim

                     Seizures                               Victim’s age & weight

                     Decreased level of consciousness How much of substance
                     or drowsiness                    was swallowed / inhaled /
                                                      absorbed / injected
                     Slurred speech, blurred vision
                                                      How long ago poisoning
                     Chest pain, difficulty breathing occurred

                     Skin rash, bite mark or stinger left   Victim’s symptoms
                     in skin


Allergic Reaction    Hives, swelling of the body            Call 9-1-1                   If the victim has a know allergy and
                                                                                         you have the prescribed treatment
Allergic reactions Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea                                            on hand such as an EpiPen, call
                                                                                         9-1-1 and immediately administer
can be caused by
                   Watery eyes, sneezing,                                                treatment according to instructions
various substances Itching
which can include
food, medications, Wheezing & difficulty breathing due
venom, and pollen to the swelling of the airway

                     Decreased level of consciousness
Sudden Illnesses     Common signs & symptoms of            Call 9-1-1                     If you know the victim is a diabetic,
                     sudden illness include:                                              give them some form of sugar.
Many sudden                                                Make the victim comfortable
                     Persistent pain or pressure in                                       If the victim’s condition does not
illnesses such as
                     chest, head and/or abdomen            Maintain normal body           improve, call 9-1-1
heart attack,                                              temperature
stroke, and          Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
diabetic                                                Reassure the victim
emergencies have     Change in skin color, temperature,
similar signs &      moisture                           Monitor ABCs
symptoms
                     Dizziness, confusion, fatigue,    Give nothing by mouth
                     decreased level of consciousness,
                     loss of consciousness

                     Fainting, seizures

                     Numbness, tingling, or paralysis in
                     limbs

                     Slurred speech, blurred vision

                     Abnormal pulse & breathing rate


Seizures            Seizures range from temporary loss When in doubt, call 9-1-1 Even if you know the victim has
                    of focus to violent convulsions of                              seizures, you must call 9-1-1 if:
Seizures can be     the entire body and typically last Clear the area of objects
caused by a variety less than one minute               that could injure the victim The victim does not regain
                                                                                    consciousness
of conditions such                                     Cushion the victim’s head
as fever, head                                                                      If victim does not regain
injury, stroke,                                        Do not hold or restrain the consciousness, check ABCs and
epilepsy, and                                          victim                       give appropriate care
allergic reaction
                                                           Do not put anything in their The victim had the seizure in water
                                                           mouth
                                                                                        The seizure lasts more than one
                                                           Stay with victim until EMS minute
                                                           arrives
                                                                                        The victim is pregnant


Asthma Attack        Difficulty breathing                  Assist victim with their       Call 9-1-1 if medication is
                                                           medication                     unavailable or the victim’s condition
                     Wheezing, severe coughing                                            & breathing do not improve,
                                                           Have victim rest quietly &
                     Neck muscles bulging when             comfortably when breathing
                     attempting to breath                  returns to normal


Fainting             Fainting is caused by a temporary     You can improve the blood      If there is any sign of injury or
                     interruption of blood flow to the     flow to the brain by laying    change in the victim’s condition,
                     brain that usually passes quickly     the victim on their back and   you may need to seek medical
                     once the blood supply to the brain    elevating their feet 8-10      attention
                     improves                              inches
Element Exposure Evidence at the scene                Place the victim in a cool    Heat exhaustion can progress
– Heat Exhaustion                                     place & loosen clothing       rapidly into heat stroke
                  Cool, pale or red, moist skin
                                                      Allow victim to take small    Call 9-1-1 if condition progresses
                  Nausea & vomiting                   sips of cold water if fully   into heat stroke & cool quickly
                                                      conscious
                  Headache & dizziness                                              Monitor ABCs
                                                      Watch for worsening
                  Weakness & exhaustion               condition



Element Exposure Evidence at the scene                Call 9-1-1                    Victim can be cooled by immersing
– Heat Stroke                                                                       them in a cool bath or pool, wetting
                  Hot, red, dry skin                  Cool quickly                  them with any available liquid and
                                                                                    fanning them, or by placing cold
                  Nausea & vomiting                                                 compresses in the victim’s pressure
                                                                                    points
                  Headache & dizziness
                                                                                    Monitor ABCs
                  Weakness & exhaustion

                  Decreased level of consciousness

                  Loss of consciousness

                  Rapid, weak pulse and breathing
                  rate


Element Exposure Shivering                            Call 9-1-1                    Allow victim to take small sips of
– Hypothermia                                                                       warm water or broth if fully
                  Loss of coordination                Remove from the cold          conscious

                  Lethargy, sleepiness                Remove any wet clothing Do not give drinks containing
                                                      and cover to prevent further alcohol or caffeine
                  Loss of consciousness, Irrational   heat loss
                  behavior no pulse,                                               DO NOT REWARM the victim as
                                                                                   this can cause an irreversible &
                  Withdrawal or confusion                                          fatal heart condition


Element Exposure Tissues of the skin become frozen DO NOT RUB AREA                  Once warmed, bandage loosely
– Frostbite      giving them a waxy, discolored                                     separating fingers and/or toes
                  appearance                          Warm slowly in lukewarm
                                                      water until warm to the       Seek medical attention
                  Loss of sensation & cold to the     touch & normal color has
                  touch                               returned

				
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