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					1.0 Introduction


The World Wide Web provides a service of access to vast amounts of geographically
distributed information. Clearly, the quality of the service depends on the quality of the
access to the data. This quality in turn depends on a number of parameters, some of
which are difficult to quantify. However, it appears that Web users rate access time to
remote data as an essential component of quality. Thus, they tend to avoid overloaded
servers and pages that take a long time to retrieve.


The technique, developed during World War II to analyze the conditions in axis
countries, uses the frequency that a topic is referenced in the media to identify market
place undercurrents that drive change. If that technique were applied today, the Internet
and its associated technologies would be identified as a gigatrend.


The impact on engineering and engineering technology education is hard to predict, but it
is safe to say that the delivery of instruction will change as a result of the world wide web
(www). This paper describes a minimum html scripting process any faculty member
could use to move instructional content from a traditional lecture course to the web using
a set of course templates. In addition, a comparison of technologies used to deliver
content over the web, and a discussion of resources available to the web course developer
is provided.




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2.0 Implementation Of Web Based In Engineering Education

The World Wide Web (or the Web) is one of the most accessible tools available for
academics to use. It allows an easy means of publishing material, it has a low learning-
curve, the majority of its browsers are graphical and user-friendly, and above all it is free
to most people in Higher Education. The Web works on a client-server principle.


The user launches their browser on their machine which in turn interrogates a server
retrieving files. Files are located via their Uniform Resource Locator (URL) unique
address detailing the protocol for transferring the data, the domain name of the Web
server, and the pathname/filename of the actual document. For readers who wish to know
more about the practicalities behind Web authoring consult the series of tutorials.


The Internet has become the major outlet for publishing digital resources. Multimedia
authoring tools are less popular as they tend to support publication on CD-ROM. For
online publication, specialist software and plug-ins are required to create and support
complex sites that include audio, moving images and interaction.


The issue with any new instructional delivery mode is improved levels of learning for the
students. Clearly web-based courses offer advantages in access to course information, in
providing links to a wider resource base, in providing an asynchronous delivery mode,
and in handling administrative tasks. While these advantages do not guarantee increased
knowledge, they do remove impediments from the learning process.


It is also clear that for some courses, like history and language, access to information
from across the world enhances the course content. Also, the opportunity for a greater
understanding of concepts is present in situations where the www provides access to
learning resources beyond that possible from a classroom or single-campus site. In
addition, detaching course information from the ridged lecture schedule provides the
opportunity for students to work at their own rate and their time schedule.




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The ability to deliver course material to a wide range of operating systems, like UNIX,
Windows, and Macintosh, from a single source is a major advantage that the web offers.
In addition, the software or browser to view the course material is free and supports the
display of multiple file formats without the need for the software that created the original
document.


Innovations in technology have changed the demands and expectations in the educational
system. The expansion of the Internet has helped to address the user's need to access
information and different services from all over the world at any time from anywhere.
The new developments in networking will lead to high-bandwidth capabilities, which will
be extended to the home.


The timeline of this expansion is determined by cost and regulatory factors. Nevertheless,
during the next years the network will become more universal and the increasing
availability of interactive resources, distributed databases and information will
systematically challenge the social life, and particularly the global education and training
markets. The Internet will continue to play a leading role in the distribution of
information and knowledge.


Demographic factors and the current employment situation require that educational
institutions adequately change educational programs and contents by increasing
education's distributed accessibility. As education costs increase, students' needs for
learner-beneficial courses, delivered in an appropriate way, with carefully designed
contents will increase, too. The education market will establish the conditions for the
rising competition and only the most valuable and strategic designed program will
succeed.




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3.0 Current Trends of Web For Engineering Education


Web implementation and publishing starts with the identification of the course while
moving some courses to the web makes good pedagogical sense, not all courses are
suited to web deliver. Educators often ask if courses suitable for web delivery have
common characteristics. Courses that require the use of computers and software in the
learning process are good candidates for web-delivery because the students use the
computer as a natural course interface.


Other characteristics include: courses that match up well with the resources available at
worldwide web sites, courses planned for distant learning, courses where the content is
already in electronic format with no copy write limitations, courses with a high level of
information.


Basically, the procedure of implementing after the course is identified, are the following
five activities :-


    i)      Organize the course material to maximize the impact on learning when the
            material is ported to the web.
    ii)     Create a course script in the hypertext markup language (html).
    iii)    Locate a server on the www.
    iv)     Move the document up to the server and test.
    v)      Maintain and update the course.


Much of the work associated with step one is completed if the course is currently taught
in the traditional lecture mode and has been well organized with transparencies or the
equivalent. Materials used in the current course, like lecture notes, printed material, audio
tapes, graphics, and still and video images, can be used in web delivery because the web
offers the opportunity to integrate text, still graphics, animation, sound, and full motion
video into instruction.



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The quality of web-delivery for these five types of instructional content is quite varied.
The delivery of text information is excellent, still graphics, animation, and sound bites are
good, real time or streaming audio is possible, but the practical delivery of full motion
video for teaching is more difficult.


Another critical organizational issue is the strategy used for movement through the course
material. In the traditional delivery mode, it is easy for the teacher to maintain full control
of the pace and direction of movement through the course content. However, web courses
become non-linear, and student movement through the course must be carefully planned
and controlled with sufficient and affective navigational aids.


The ability of students to move along different instructional paths as they navigate the
material makes it difficult to verify that every topic was covered. In addition, the course
designer must make sure that the learner does not get lost in a jungle of hypertext links
between related material.




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4.0 Engineering Education Web Strategy

The dissemination of knowledge is a main purpose of universities. Over the last several
years, universities have been involved in the development and improvement of the
internet. This has enabled wide access to information and services. Thus, contemporary
students expect a lot of services that save them time: online registration, online courses,
online assessment, online digital library access, smart cards, etc.


These demands led to the emergence of education portals, representing a Web site that
provides organized access to the Internet through the offering of content and functionality
by a personalized delivery of services. Consequently, an education portal optimizes the
flexibility of a virtual learning space taking you directly and individually to various
informational and instructional materials.


Many universities are now developing education portals creating the basis for a global
education market where local students could study for degrees or attend special
continuing education courses. The main function of the education portals is to deliver just
in time information and knowledge to users who are geographically dispersed or
separated by physical distance from the instructors.


The education portals are shifting the emphasis on ICT environments in order to bring
content and simultaneously context to the Web. An education portal offers users an
immediate access to information and applications tailored to their educational needs and
informational goals. It makes possible the access to information and services provided by
various independent information sources or service providers.


In consequence, a wide range of additional services must be integrated and implemented
by the relevant service provider (purchase of software licenses, marketing of the
application, competent help-desk assistance, security of the data and privacy of the users,
etc.). the technology infrastructure of the education portal is already a given fact. Now,
users accept paying for the use of educational applications.



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In the education sector, subscription-based education portal services are a common
approach. Frequently, these services are provided by third-party companies, or authorized
education institutions with the intention that education institutions have the opportunity
to lease or buy an access to applications, packages, or service tools.


An education portal may cover many scenarios for applications accessible through the
Web site: Registration/Course enrollment; Virtual learning space; E-mail/Chat-room;
Web search/ Full-text search; Access the library catalog/Purchase books; etc. According
to different access levels users can obtain a personalized access to information related to
them. For example, students can check their own examination marks, course schedules,
library accounts.


Entering a virtual learning space, the quality of online university courses varies
dramatically, which is one reason to acquire superior learning experience for developing
effective courseware applications. A network infrastructure has, however, only to provide
information and knowledge to students. Of course, numerous developments in hardware
and software systems are required to exploit the bandwidth and make functionally rich
applications usable by students and teachers.


But technology alone does not solve any problem in presenting information and
knowledge, or decrease cost, or increase quality of courseware applications. It is crucial
to find the way in which technology can be best used to increase efficiency, effectiveness
and quality of knowledge presentation in order to improve student learning.




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5.0 Advantages of Web Based System for Engineering Education

The issue with any new instructional delivery mode is improved levels of learning for the
students. Clearly web-based courses offer advantages in access to course information, in
providing links to a wider resource base, in providing an asynchronous delivery mode,
and in handling administrative tasks.


While these advantages do not guarantee increased knowledge, they do remove
impediments from the learning process. It is also clear that for some courses, like history
and language, access to information from across the world enhances the course content.
Also, the opportunity for a greater understanding of concepts is present in situations
where the www provides access to learning resources beyond that possible from a
classroom or single-campus site.


In addition, detaching course information from the ridged lecture schedule provides the
opportunity for students to work at their own rate and their time schedule. The ability to
deliver course material to a wide range of operating systems, like UNIX, Windows, and
Macintosh, from a single source is a major advantage that the web offers. In addition, the
software or browser to view the course material is free and supports the display of
multiple file formats without the need for the software that created the original document.


Beside that, other advantages of the implementation of web based for engineering courses
includes the free material, assuming one has access to a Web server. The HTML, the
mark-up language used in creating World Wide Web documents, is very easy to learn.
The Web uses non-propriety standards thus giving the site a longer life expectancy: e.g..
text is in plain ASCII, HTML, and XML; graphics appear as JPEG or GIF. It is
subsequently cross-platform. However, some multimedia resources require specific
software plug-ins for viewing, and these can be platform and Web-browser specific.




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Once established, the material is made available to an international audience amounting
to millions. Linking from the document is not restricted to data elsewhere on the
machine's hard drive or the CD-ROM the program is distributed on, but can be
international. In turn, if you are thinking of creating a virtual environment for your
students, the Web will allow you to link, with ease, to other Universities. Software
needed for the Web is free in most cases or very cheap, and are easy to use.




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6.0 Limitation and Disadvantages of Web Based System for Engineering
Education

One of the two major disadvantages of web delivery is the static nature of html scripted
pages. Instructors familiar with instructional technology software, like ToolBook,
Authorware, and Hypercard would find the basic scripting languages for the web
limiting. To overcome this shortcoming, the developers of the major technology software
systems are making provisions to migrate their material to the web, and current web
developments, like dynamic html (dhtml) and cascading style sheets (css), will give web
pages dynamic characteristics.


A second major disadvantage to delivery of course material in the non-traditional mode is
the development time required. While the templates provided in this paper will not
remove that impediment, they will reduce significantly the time required to get basic
course material to the web.


Another two major disadvantages of web delivery is the static nature of html scripted
pages. Instructors familiar with instructional technology software, like ToolBook,
Authorware, and Hypercard would find the basic scripting languages for the web
limiting. To overcome this shortcoming, the developers of the major technology software
systems are making provisions to migrate their material to the web, and current web
developments, like dynamic html (dhtml) and cascading style sheets (css), will give web
pages dynamic characteristics.


Beside that, the major disadvantage to delivery of course material in the non-traditional
mode is the development time required. While the templates provided in this paper will
not remove that impediment, they will reduce significantly the time required to get basic
course material to the web.




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At present, the screen design facilities and animation capabilities of the Web are not as
advanced as those provided with most of the authoring packages. Links to software and
reviews of moving images and audio resources are available from Streaming Media
World is also contributes to the disadvantages of implementing web based system.


Another thing is the access on networks is slow (probably the most consistent criticism
levelled at publishing on the Internet). However, in answer to this, it should not be
forgotten that HTML files can be read from local networks or hard drives thus dispensing
with the reliance on the speed of the Internet. Academics wishing to provide on-line
tutorials or notes via the Web could even distribute their files on floppy disks.


By opening up access to an international audience there are serious implications for
copyright issues. A developer wishing to publish on the Web will probably have to agree
world rights on the material they use. In short, the technical problems, though still there
on the Web, are far outweighed by the advantages of using it, making it a more attractive
prospect for the development of computer-based learning material than traditional
multimedia-authoring packages though it should be noted that manufacturers of the latter
are constantly seeking ways to deliver traditional multimedia packages through Web
browsers.




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7.0 Future Trends of Web For Engineering Education


The future trends of the implementation of engineering education move from a static web
based to the Virtual reality. The Virtual Seminars for Teaching Literature are a set of
multimedia tutorials. The project produced a wide range of documents covering a range
of issues, including a review of technologies and methods to support online learning,
formats and specifications for digitization, managing workflow, copyright, and
intellectual access.


Building Digital Collections introduced a page of links from the Library of Congress to
reports detailing how the American Memory Collections were developed and published
online. Whereas the CITE - Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education
is published by the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (USA).


The journal publishes case studies and discussion articles on the role and impact of new
technologies on school teaching and learning. The EDUCAUSE Quarterly and
EDUCAUSE Review are both published by EDUCAUSE. EDUCAUSE Quarterly is rich
in case studies and evaluations of the use of C&IT in teaching, research and management
in higher education; EDUCAUSE Review covers similar ground, but in a more discursive
fashion. Both focus on USA events and practices.


Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning is an online
publication promoting innovation in computer-enhanced learning in higher education. It
is published by Wake Forest University, North Carolina, USA. Journal of Interactive
Multimedia in Education. JIME is a refereed online journal launched in 1996 by the Open
University. It publishes articles on theoretical and practical applications of new
technologies to all levels of education within and beyond the UK.


The Learning on the Web. TeleEducation, New Brunswick, Canada. An extended
discussion of the issues surrounding the successful implementation of online resources
for teaching and learning, particularly in a distance learning environment.


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8.0 Conclusion

The movement of learning from the lecture hall to world wide web has begun to
intensify. To participate in this pedagogy, the instructor starts with the migration of the
basic course elements to a web server. This process is quite easy using the templates
identified in this paper. The development of the engineering web-base course then
becomes an evolutionary process with regular enhancements to the course pages using
techniques like JavaScripts, ActiveX controls, and applets that are packaged for specific
affects.


As the web continue to develop, resources and tools will become available to add
additional functionality to the web-based course. Some of these tools have begun to
emerge in the HTML 4 specification in the form of dynamic HTML and cascading style
sheets. The web is leading the way to the virtual classroom.


The contributions in the paper can be summarized the reasonable to use time series
analysis techniques to model Web application in engineering education and cache
replacement algorithms should be a function of variables other than simply time to last
reference and document size.


The results of implementing the web based engineering education system have presented
to support these claims are preliminary. They are very encouraging. Now, the technology
working on precisely quantifying the gains associated with the techniques that have
advocated.




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References

[James A. Rehg, 1999] Developing Web-Based Courses in Engineering Technology.
http://cac.psu.edu/~jar14/homepage/mainpg1.html




[Fabio.Panzieri,1997] Web based Application for Engineering education courses
http://www.cnuce.pi.cnr.it/Networking2002/how-to-reach.html




[C. C. Ko, B. M. Chen, S. Y. V. Ramakrishnan, C. D. Cheng, Y. Zhuang and J. Chen,
1999] A web-based virtual laboratory on a frequency modulation experiment, IEEE
Transactions on Systems, Man, and cybernetics, in press.




[C. C. Ko, B. M. Chen, J. Chen, Y. Zhuang and K. C, Tan, 2001] Development of a web-
based laboratory for control experiments on a coupled tank apparatus. IEEE Transactions
on Education, VOL. 44. No. 1. p.76-86 2001




[C. C. Ko, B. M. Chen, S. H. Chen, V. Ramarkrishman, R. Chen, S. Y. Hu and Y.
Zhuang., 2000] A large scale web-based virtual oscilloscope laboratory experiment.
IEEEngineering Science and Education journal, Vol. 9. No. 2 pp. 69-76, 2000.




[ C. C. Ko, B. M. Chen, K. P. Chan, C. D. Cheng, G. W. Zeng and J. Zhang, 2001] A
Webcase Virtual Laboratory on a Frequency Modulation Experiment, in the Proceedings
of 40 th IEEE Conference on pecision and Control, Orlando, FL, 2001




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