Derek Milosavljevic (SBN 255134)
KIRKLAND & ELLIS LLP Cl n
2 333 South H02e Street -< 0 r-r
Los Angeles, California 90071 ~~
3 Telephone: (213) 680-8400 ~
. , , r
Facsimile: (213) 680-8500 c: : ~
Eric Leon (oro hac vice application to be filed) Z _.\
Claudia Ray (oro hac vice application to be filed) r-'.
<.i n n r:-?
6 firstname.lastname@example.org - :- ....
Robert Cohen (oro hac vice application to be filed) ..., ~
7 email@example.com -I
Mark Rasmussen (pro hac vice application to be filed)
9 KIRKLAND & ELLIS LLP
601 Lexington Avenue
10 New York, New York 10022-4611
Telephone: (212) 446-4800
FacsImile: (212) 446-4900
Attorneys for Plaintiff
15 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
16 FOR THE CENTRAL DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA
TECHFORWARD, INC., CV 0 1313 JL
Plaintiff, CIVIL CASE NO.
vs. COMPLAINT FOR
20 MISAPPROPRIATION OF TRADE
BEST BUY CO., INC., SECRETS AND BREACH OF
23 JURY TRIAL DEMANDED
27 Plaintiff TechForward, Inc. ("TechForward") for its complaint against
28 Best Buy Co., Inc. ("Best Buy") hereby demands a jury trial and alleges as follows:
1 JURISDICTION AND VENUE
2 1. This Court has jurisdiction over this action pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1332
3 in that TechForward and defendant are citizens of different States and the amount in
4 controversy is in excess of$75,000.
5 2. This Court has personal jurisdiction over defendant in that defendant, at
6 all relevant times, had continuous and systematic business contacts with the State of
7 California. Additionally, this Court has personal jurisdiction over defendant in that a
8 substantial part of the events giving rise to the causes of action asserted herein
9 occurred in the State of California.
10 3. Venue is proper in this District pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1391 in that a
11 substantial part of the events giving rise to the causes of action asserted herein
12 occurred in this District.
14 4. Plaintiff TechForward, Inc. is a Delaware corporation with its principal
15 place of business in Los Angeles, California.
16 5. Defendant Best Buy Co., Inc. is a Minnesota corporation with its
17 principal place of business in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
18 OVERVIEW OF COMPLAINT
19 6. This case arises out of Best Buy's blatant misappropriation of
20 TechForward's trade secrets. TechForward -- a small, California-based start-up
21 company -- spent years developing highly confidential and propriety information to
22 enable electronics retailers to implement a "buyback" program. Under the
23 TechForward buyback program, known as the Guaranteed Buyback Plan, the retailer's
24 customers pay for the right to redeem newly-purchased electronic devices at a future
25 date in exchange for a store credit that is a percentage of the purchase price.
26 TechForward was able to develop these trade secrets only after years of successfully
27 implementing the Guaranteed Buyback Plan at companies such as Dell, RadioShack,
28 Tiger Direct and CompUSA.
7. Best Buy -- a Fortune 100, publicly-traded company with more than
2 $45 billion in annual revenue -- for years tried to develop a buyback program on its
3 own, but to no avail. Although Best Buy allocated substantial resources to the project,
4 employing an internal team and contracting with McKinsey & Company to help in the
5 development process, it was unsuccessful. Consequently, Best Buy looked to
6 TechForward for a solution. Unbeknownst to TechForward, however, Best Buy had
7 no intention of paying for TechForward's help. Instead, Best Buy stole
8 TechForward's trade secrets and then cast the company aside while using
9 TechForward's trade secrets to implement its own buyback program.
10 8. Holding out the prospect of a partnership with a multi-billion dollar
11 company, Best Buy induced TechForward to disclose highly confidential and
12 proprietary information that is at the very heart of TechForward's Guaranteed
13 Buyback Plan. After entering into a confidentiality and non-disclosure agreement as
14 well as an operating agreement that contains confidentiality provisions, Best Buy and
15 TechForward collaborated on developing and implementing a "pilot program" selling
16 TechForward's Guaranteed Buyback Plan in selected Best Buy stores in California.
17 After this pilot program proved to be a success, Best Buy came to TechForward with
18 an "urgent" proposal: Best Buy wanted to partner with TechForward and launch a
19 nationwide buyback program. As part of these discussions, Best Buy required
20 TechForward to share highly confidential and propriety information that TechForward
21 had never revealed to any other retailer.
22 9. TechForward agreed to provide this information because it knew that the
23 confidentiality and non-disclosure agreement was in place and had received additional
24 verbal assurances that Best Buy would only use the information in evaluating a
25 partnership with TechForward.
26 10. But just six weeks after demanding and receiving TechForward's trade
27 secrets together with a detailed explanation of those trade secrets from TechForward
executives, Best Buy abruptly ended discussions with TechForward about a
2 nationwide roll out of the Guaranteed Buyback Plan at Best Buy stores.
3 11. Shortly thereafter, Best Buy announced to the world that it was
4 implementing its own buyback program -- called the Buy Back Plan ("BBP") -- which
5 is virtually identical to TechForward's Guaranteed Buyback Plan in its program
6 structure, marketing materials and terms and conditions. To make matters worse, the
7 Best Buy executives who supposedly "developed" this buyback program are the exact
8 same executives who worked with TechForward on the pilot Guaranteed Buyback
9 Plan program for Best Buy and who received TechForward's highly confidential
11 12. Not only did Best Buy launch a buyback program using TechForward's
12 propriety data, it did so in a big way. For the first time in its history, Best Buy bought
13 advertising during the Super Bowl, which aired on February 6, 2011. The Super Bowl
14 advertisement, which featured Ozzy Osbourne and Justin Bieber, was devoted entirely
15 to the BBP.
16 13. In view of Best Buy's unlawful conduct, described in greater detail
17 below, TechForward seeks: (i) compensatory and punitive damages for Best Buy's
18 misappropriation of TechForward's trade secrets in an amount to be determined at
19 trial; (ii) compensatory damages for Best Buy's breach of the non-disclosure
20 agreement; (iii) the costs of this action, including attorneys' fees; and (iv) such other
21 relief as this Court deems appropriate
23 TechForward's Guaranteed Buyback Plan
24 14. TechForward was founded in 2005 by its current Chief Executive
25 Officer, Jade Van Doren, and its current Chief Operating Officer, Marc Lebovitz. The
26 company has spent several years and millions of dollars developing an innovative
27 product -- its Guaranteed Buyback Plan -- for consumers of computers and other
28 electronics. The Guaranteed Buyback Plan, which is purchased by a consumer
concomitantly with the purchase of a wide range of electronic equipment (such as a
2 phone, computer, television, or monitor), gives consumers the flexibility to upgrade
3 their electronics affordably and easily. The Guaranteed Buyback Plan locks in trade-
4 in values for the purchased electronic at the point of sale for up to two years in the
5 future, which makes upgrading to a new device more affordable down the road.
6 15. When customers are ready to upgrade, they simply send their old device
7 to TechForward using the free boxes, shipping labels, and packing materials provided
8 by TechForward. Customers then receive a guaranteed store credit, the amount of
9 which varies depending on how long they have owned the turned-in item and its
10 condition, that they can use toward the purchase of a new device. TechForward
11 ensures all returned devices are re-used or recycled in an environmentally-friendly
13 16. As an example, a consumer who purchases a tablet computer from
14 CompUSA can buy a TechForward Guaranteed Buyback Plan for approximately $40.
15 The consumer is then entitled to a store credit ranging from 50% to 200/0 of that
16 purchase price, depending on when the device is shipped to TechForward and the
17 condition of the device. The consumer is issued the credit once TechForward receives
18 the device, and TechForward then either refurbishes and sells the old device or
19 recycles it.
20 17. While the Guaranteed Buyback Plan may sound relatively
21 straightforward, its success as a business model involves a comprehensive
22 understanding of, and experience with, a wide range of factors that often have a
23 complex interplay with one another. For instance, one of the critical tasks for
24 TechForward, or any company running a similar program, is the management of
25 financial and operational risk related to the payment of store credits to consumers. In
26 other words, a central question is how much cash reserves a company, or its
27 underwriter, must maintain in order to cover the store credits issued to consumers who
28 exercise their buyback rights under the plan. In order to maximize the profitability of
the program, any company would only want to maintain the minimum reserves
2 necessary to satisfy the projected buyback obligations.
3 18. An essential piece of data in answering this question and managing the
4 program as a whole is the "exercise rate," or the percentage of plan holders who
5 actually send in their devices and qualify for a store credit. This information simply
6 cannot be modeled in an accurate way and is not available from any public source.
7 The only way to obtain reliable data is to have actual experience running the program
8 over a period of years. TechForward has built up detailed data on exercise rates
9 across a wide variety of electronic devices through its experience of selling tens of
10 thousands of plans over more than four years of operations with a variety of retailers.
11 19. In addition to the exercise rate itself, TechForward has information on
12 how to profitably influence exercise rate behavior for specific devices that is critical to
13 the program's management. This information is, itself, a complex interplay among a
14 number of factors including knowledge about the depreciation rates, predictability of
15 pricing, and residual values of the devices on the secondary markets, and consumer
16 behavior with respect to categories of electronics. Once again, this is precisely the
17 type of proprietary data that TechForward has developed and analyzed based on its
18 experience of selling and managing the Guaranteed Buyback Plan over a period of
19 years with multiple retailers.
20 20. A number of other factors are also critical to the effective and profitable
21 running of a buyback program. By way of example, pricing methodology; historical
22 cash cycle analyses; the impact of consumer electronic marketplace disruptions on
23 pricing and risk; adverse and positive selection modeling; and operational scalability
24 are all areas that can have a significant impact on the program, especially one that is
25 national in scope. Here, too, TechForward has developed and analyzed the relevant
26 data on these, and other, aspects of its Guaranteed Buyback Plan.
27 21. TechForward has numerous systems and agreements in place to protect
28 trade secrets like these. All TechForward employees and contractors have signed non-
disclosure agreements, and systems that contain such data are protected by a Virtual
2 Private Network (VPN), to which only certain TechForward employees have access.
3 TechForward's trade secrets are shared with TechForward employees only on a need-
4 to-know basis, and only disclosed to retail partners after a non-disclosure and
5 confidentiality agreement has been executed.
6 22. Given the unique nature of the Guaranteed Buyback Program and
7 TechForward's experience in managing and developing it, this data as well as the
8 methodologies and analyses that TechForward had created were not available to Best
9 Buy or any other entity.
10 TechForward's Pilot Program at Best Buy
11 23. Starting in the summer of2005, TechForward had multiple
12 communications with Best Buy about the possibility oflaunching TechForward's
13 Guaranteed Buyback Plan at Best Buy stores.
14 24. After numerous communications over a period of several years, the
15 companies signed a confidentiality and non-disclosure agreement on February 25,
16 2008 (the "NDA"). According to the NDA, the parties agreed to "maintain the
17 confidentiality of information that has been and will continue to be shared by the
18 Parties as may be necessary to initiate and/or maintain a successful business
19 relationship." Under the express terms of the NDA, Best Buy further agreed "not to
20 use [TechForward's] confidential information for any purpose other than that for
21 which it is disclosed."
22 25. TechForward later learned that Best Buy had been attempting to develop
23 a similar program on its own, with no success. On January 10,2009, Mr. Van Doren
24 and Mr. Lebovitz of TechForward, together with Mike Ryan (then a TechForward
25 sales consultant), met with Steve Gusa (then Best Buy's Senior Director of Geek
26 Squad Services) at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. Mr. Gusa explained
27 that he had reviewed non-confidential introductory materials TechForward had sent
28 him in 2007 and that Best Buy had subsequently tried to develop a similar product
itself. According to Mr. Gusa, he had created a team within Best Buy and had
2 contracted with McKinsey & Company in an effort to create Best Buy's own buyback
3 program. Those efforts, however, were not proving particularly fruitful: Mr. Gusa
4 informed TechForward that Best Buy was still at least nine months away from what
5 he called "product definition, " at which point Best Buy would need to begin actual
6 development of the computer systems, marketing and training materials necessary to
7 operate the program, and find a third party to underwrite the program. Mr. Gusa
8 additionally explained that the internal team working on the product had been
9 "decimated" in a recent corporate reorganization.
10 26. On October 13,2009, Mr. Van Doren, Mr. Lebovitz and Mike London (a
11 member of TechForward's Board of Advisors and a former Best Buy executive) met
12 with a number of Best Buy officials in the offices of Dealtree, a TechForward resale
13 partner that recently had been acquired by Best Buy. At that meeting, Kurt Hulander,
14 Best Buy's Managing Director of Growth Initiatives, threw his support behind a pilot
15 program in which TechForward's Guaranteed Buyback Plan would be offered in a
16 limited number of Best Buy stores.
17 27. Over the next several months, TechForward worked diligently with Best
18 Buy executives and managers, including Kevin Deegan (Director of Risk
19 Management), Kurt Hulander, Angela Melcher (Design/Developer for Retail
20 Training), and Jessica Sanders (Strategic Planning Manager, Secondary Markets) to
21 prepare the pilot program. In a meeting at Best Buy's headquarters on March 12,
22 2010, for the purpose of evaluating the proposed TechForward pilot program at Best
23 Buy, TechForward explained brietly some of its proprietary and trade secret risk
24 management strategies to Mr. Deegan, who approved the test from a financial and risk
25 management perspective, with the caveat that Best Buy would want additional
26 information before approving a national launch.
27 28. On April 9, 2010, Best Buy and TechForward entered into an agreement
28 setting forth the details of the pilot program (the "Operating Agreement.") Under the
Operating Agreement, Best Buy promised not to use any confidential and trade secret
2 information it obtained from TechForward during the course of the pilot program "for
3 any purpose except as is expressly permitted" in the Agreement.
4 29. On April 11, 2010, the pilot program launched in twelve Best Buy stores
5 located in the greater Los Angeles area. The initial Guaranteed Buyback Plans
6 covered desktop and laptop computers, LCD monitors, flat-panel televisions,
7 camcorders, Blu-ray Disc players, digital cameras, MP3 players, and GPS devices.
8 30. The pilot program was a success. Indeed, as early as May 15,2010, Best
9 Buy and TechForward discussed expanding the program to other stores. And in early
10 June 2010, TechForward was working with Best Buy, including Butch Cavello
11 (Senior Director) and Kevin Winneroski (Vice President for Secondary Markets) to
12 include mobile phones as part of the expansion. On August 15,2010, the pilot
13 program expanded to cover mobile phones and tablet computers in the pilot stores.
14 Best Buy Obtains TechFonvard's Trade Secrets
15 31. On August 24, 2010, Best Buy told TechF orward that it was interested in
16 something far more extensive than a mere expansion of the pilot program. Rather,
17 Best Buy was contemplating a partnership with TechForward for a buyback program
18 that would be national in scope and accompanied by "large-scale national
19 promotions." Describing the proposal as "fairly urgent," Mr. Winneroski, a member
20 of Best Buy's senior leadership team, emailed Mr. Van Doren of TechForward:
I have a fairly urgent proposal that I need to run by you.
As you are aware, the buy back concept has been
23 resonating well within the company, and some recent
concept screenings that our marketing team completed
reinforced the fact that this is need [sic] for the consumer
25 that scores at the top end of the range. We are in the
26 process of planning our post-holiday ad campaigns, and
there is interest from the marketing team in doing
27 large-scale national promotions around buy back.
Given the tight time frames that we are talking about and
the amount of heavy lifting required, I need to discuss
with you whether this is something you believe is
2 possible. I would also like to talk about what it
potentially means from our side if we were to do buy-
back at scale with TechForward as a partner. ... I
4 know this is short notice, but appreciate everyone's
flexibility. (Emphases added.)
32. Mr. Van Doren responded that TechForward was "committed to making
this work for everyone." To this end, on September 1,2010, Mr. Van Doren, Mr.
Lebovitz, Clay Buckley (TechForward's Chief Revenue Officer) and Mr. London flew
to Best Buy's headquarters in Richfield, Minnesota for a day-long meeting.
33. In advance of the meeting, Mr. Winneroski of Best Buy circulated a
detailed agenda via email on August 30,2010. According to the agenda, the meeting
was to be divided into multiple segments where various groups of executives from
Best Buy would discuss with TechForward specific aspects of the buyback project,
including among other things (i) a review of the current pilot project, (ii) plans for
marketing the Guaranteed Buyback Plan, and (iii) an in-depth review of financial risk
34. With respect to financial risk management, Best Buy's agenda contained
a number of very specific requests for highly confidential TechForward information,
• TechForward's valuation of each piece of its Guaranteed Buyback
21 Plan, from consumer purchase to the issuance of store credit.
• TechForward's cash conversion cycle and how this cycle needs to
23 work for TechForward to be profitable.
• Assumptions and data for exercise rates and breakage that are built
into TechForward's model.
• The calculations and assumptions underlying the residual valuations
in TechForward's model and what the residual values are by product
28 category at various break points.
• Volume sensitivities in TechForward's model indicating the volumes
2 at which the model is sub-optimized and ideally optimized, as well as
3 the breakage point.
4 • TechForward's accrual strategy for future liabilities and its protection
5 against catastrophic loss.
• TechForward's risk mitigation plans for administration of the program
7 in the event TechForward no longer exists.
• Instruments, strategies or roles that Best Buy could employ to help
9 mitigate any risk for TechForward.
10 35. Recognizing the extremely commercially sensitive nature of the
11 discussions Best Buy contemplated for the meeting, Mr. Winneroski said in the email:
We understand and respect that Tech Forward is a private
13 company, and that many ofthe questions that we will
ask may be outside the boundaries of what would
normally be discussed - however given the scope of
15 what we are planning, hopefully it will be more apparent
why we need to ask these questions, and why your being
forthcoming and as transparent as possible is necessary
17 for us to be able to move forward. (Emphases added.)
18 36. At the start of the meeting on September 1, 2010, Mr. Winneroski and
19 Ms. Sanders reviewed with TechForward the results from the pilot program. They
20 were then joined by two more Best Buy executives -- Dan Levinson and Ryan Fulton -
21 - who shared the positive results of Best Buy's focus group study on buyback plans.
22 Notably, Best Buy informed TechForward that when the marketing group commenced
23 the study it was unaware of the pilot program with TechForward. Upon learning of
24 the program, Best Buy said, the marketing group incorporated specific aspects of
25 TechForward's Guaranteed Buyback Plan into its research, including the identical
26 tiered structure and corresponding time frames that TechForward uses to determine
27 the percentage of the purchase price a customer is to receive as store credit upon
28 return of the electronic device. The positive feedback from the marketing group's
research, Best Buy told TechForward, provided the basis to move forward with a
2 national program.
3 37. In that regard, Best Buy wanted assurances that TechForward could
4 manage the financial and operational risk associated with a nationwide program.
5 38. While TechForward had grown its business through relationships with
6 national retailers, at the time of the September Ist meeting it was still a small
7 company with less than a dozen employees. A partnership with a Fortune 100
8 company and the nation's premiere retailer of consumer electronic equipment was an
9 opportunity TechForward's executives were eager to pursue. Thus, in order to give
10 Best Buy the confidence it said it wanted about financial risk management, and in
11 reliance on the parties' NDA, Operating Agreement and Best Buy's verbal assurances,
12 TechForward presented to Best Buy's executives some of the most sensitive and
13 critical information and data about its business. This included information that
14 TechForward had always kept secret and had not shared with any of its prior or
15 current partners.
16 39. Before beginning TechForward's presentation, Mr. Lebovitz again
17 reminded the Best Buy executives in the room -- Mr. Winneroski, Ms. Sanders, Mr.
18 Deegan, Paul Dunn (Finance Director), Sean Stephens (Senior Director, Geek Squad
19 Services) as well as Winnie Zeng and Matt Ingle, both from Best Buy Capital -- about
20 the importance of maintaining the confidentiality of the information TechForward was
21 about to share, noting that TechForward had never shared most of the information
22 with any other retailers.
23 40. Mr. Lebovitz then presented a series of PowerPoint slides and an Excel
24 spreadsheet containing a cash flow and risk model to the Best Buy executives. Over a
25 period of several hours, TechForward's representatives provided detailed explanations
26 and answered probing questions from Best Buy executives that revealed considerable
27 trade secret information about TechForward's Guaranteed Buyback Plan that was
crucial to its operation and success. Among the trade secrets that TechForward
2 provided to Best Buy at the September 1st meeting were the following:
a. Exercise Rates. As noted above, an absolutely critical part of
managing the financial risk associated with the Guaranteed Buyback Plan is
knowing what percentage of customers actually exercise their rights under the
plan and the timing of when they choose to do so, which TechForward calls
exercise behavior. Knowing the exercise rate and exercise behavior, especially
with respect to categories of electronic devices, allows a company to determine
properly several key elements, including the amount of reserves to set aside,
and the projected volume of returned devices at any given time. Too small of a
reserve can obviously imperil the program. But if a company maintains a
reserve that is unnecessarily large, it will have to increase the price of the
product to consumers, which would result in a reduction of sales and
profitability. The volume of returned devices is critical to understanding the
resale and refurbishment capacity a company would need to have in place to
offer such a program. For instance, if every single device sold with a plan is
returned, the sheer volume of devices and customer claims could overwhelm
the logistics and operations of even a large retailer. TechForward, of course,
had collected and analyzed a considerable amount of data related to exercise
rates and behavior for its Guaranteed Buyback Plan. At the September 1st
meeting, TechForward spent considerable time explaining this crucial
information to Best Buy executives.
24 b. Profit Center Comparison to Warranty Programs. TechForward
25 shared highly proprietary information with Best Buy executives that contrasted
26 the Guaranteed Buyback Plan with warranty plans. The information included
27 an explanation of where profit centers can exist within a buyback plan that are
28 absent in warranty plans. Once again, this proprietary, non-public information
was the result of data collection and analysis done by TechForward based on its
2 previous experience with the Guaranteed Buyback Plan over a period of several
3 years with various retailers.
c. Strategies to Influence Exercise Behavior. TechForward also
provided Best Buy executives with non-public information relating to its
strategies and techniques for influencing the exercise rate for specific devices
through positive selection levers. Such knowledge would help a company
maximize profits, respond to changes in the secondary markets for the device,
and optimize the plans for their customers. Additionally, this information is
important in mitigating the risk associated with the guaranteed store credits that
are at the heart of the buyback program.
13 d. Cash Cycle and Reserves. TechForward provided Best Buy with
14 information and analysis that showed how the cash reserves TechForward
15 established have historically been sufficient to meet customer payment
16 obligations under the plans, information which TechForward had never shared
17 with any of its retail partners. The data, in conjunction with the exercise rates,
18 provided Best Buy with critical information concerning how the buyback
19 program can be managed while avoiding the need to maintain unnecessarily
20 large cash reserves.
e. Pricing. Another critical part of a successful Guaranteed Buyback
Plan is the ability to set prices at the right level to make the plan appealing to
customers and profitable to the retail partner. Once again, exercise rates playa
critical role in setting pricing. TechForward shared with Best Buy the
proprietary methodology it had developed, using exercise rates and other data,
to establish pricing for various options under the Guaranteed Buyback Plan.
28 f. Resale Pricing, Scalability, Depreciation and Risk. The resale of
devices returned by consumers is a vital component of the Guaranteed Buyback
2 Plan. Among the many factors that bear on the resale of the devices are the
3 prices at which they can be resold and what impact the Guaranteed Buyback
4 Plan (by virtue of injecting potentially a large number of devices into the
5 secondary markets) will have on pricing. Additionally, the introduction of new
6 consumer electronics can affect product category depreciation for old devices
7 and have other impacts in the secondary markets. TechForward provided Best
8 Buy with its proprietary analyses of these factors in the context of the
9 Guaranteed Buyback Plan, explaining their relative significance with respect to
10 pricing and profitability, in addition to a projected residual value schedule for
11 devices expected to be sold under the Best Buy program. This projected
12 residual value schedule was developed through extensive and proprietary
13 analytical techniques developed by TechForward and applied to sales data the
14 company had licensed from secondary markets. TechForward also presented
15 yet another proprietary analysis showing how accurate its predictions relating to
16 secondary market pricing need to be in order to achieve desired margins.
g. Proprietary Systems and Historical Predictions. Along with its
extensive analyses of the factors identified above, TechForward had developed
its own proprietary systems (i) to manage risk (including Value at Risk
Analyses), (ii) to project the depreciation of used devices, (iii) to analyze
exercise-rate behavior, (iv) to set up front fees, and (v) to perform data mapping
and data integration tasks. TechForward provided Best Buy with outlines and
examples of all these systems, none of which were available to Best Buy from
any other source.
41. After TechForward had finished its presentation and answered numerous
questions from the Best Buy executives and managers in the room, Mr. Dunn (Best
Buy's Finance Director) asked Mr. Lebovitz to send him TechForward's proprietary
and highly confidential cash reserve model spreadsheet as well as an electronic copy
2 of the PowerPoint presentation TechForward had just made. Mr. Dunn said that
3 having the spreadsheet in his hands "would save me time from having to build it
4 myself." Mr. Dunn noted that he would need to build something very similar to
5 TechForward's cash reserve model to convince Best Buy executives that TechForward
6 could manage the risk.
7 42. Mr. Lebovitz agreed to send Mr. Dunn the requested information,
8 reiterating that it was confidential and proprietary. Mr. Van Doren again stressed that
9 the Best Buy executives and managers in the room were not to share the information
10 with anyone, including other Best Buy employees who were not involved in reviewing
11 an expanded relationship between Best Buy and TechForward. At that point, Mr.
12 Winneroski agreed that the information would only be shared among Best Buy
13 employees who were working on the TechForward matter. He then noted that sending
14 Mr. Dunn the information would "save time" for Best Buy. At the end of the meeting,
15 George Sherman, Best Buy's Senior Vice President of Services, personally recapped
16 with TechForward the day's discussions and next steps, including the proprietary
17 nature of information shared by TechForward.
18 43. Relying on the existence of the NDA and the confidentiality provisions
19 of the Operating Agreement, as well as the fact that Best Buy had, again, reaffirmed
20 its obligations to use the information TechForward was providing only for the
21 purposes of evaluating a relationship with TechForward, after the meeting Mr.
22 Lebovitz emailed Mr. Dunn copies of a cash reserve modeling spreadsheet, and a copy
23 of a large portion of TechForward's PowerPoint presentation. These documents and
24 the information contained in them go the very heart of TechForward's proprietary and
25 highly confidential risk management strategies that it had developed based on its
26 extensive experience with its Guaranteed Buyback Plan. The email also included
27 information about the escrow account that TechForward had established with other
retailers. Most of the information disclosed in the email was not otherwise available
2 to Best Buy from any source other than TechForward.
3 44. On September 7,2010, during a meeting with TechForward at Best
4 Buy's headquarters, Mr. Dunn asked for a revised cash reserve spreadsheet. The
5 information that Mr. Dunn requested would enable Best Buy to estimate, with more
6 precision, the profitability of the program. Relying on the NDA, the confidentiality
7 provisions of the Operating Agreement, and believing that Best Buy would live up to
8 its promises that it would only use this information to evaluate a partnership with
9 TechForward, Mr. Lebovitz emailed Mr. Dunn the requested revision.
10 45. Notably, later that evening, Mr. Van Doren, Mr. Lebovitz, Mr. Buckley
11 and Mr. London had dinner with Mr. Winneroski and Mr. Hutto from Best Buy. At
12 the dinner, Mr. Hutto reiterated that Best Buy needed a partner to move forward with
13 a buyback program and that TechForward was the only viable option. Mr. Hutto
14 explained that any outstanding issues would not be an obstacle to becoming partners
15 with TechForward, and that Best Buy and TechForward could work together to
16 resolve those matters.
17 46. Best Buy's efforts to access TechForward's highly confidential
18 information did not end on September 7, 2010. Best Buy also requested, ostensibly as
19 part of its diligence, to visit TechForward's office to see, first hand, the systems
20 TechForward had described and explained at the September 1st meeting. So, on
21 September 22,2010, TechForward did something it had never done with any other
22 retailer: it opened up its offices and internal systems for inspection by Mr. Stephens
23 and Mr. Ingle of Best Buy.
24 47. The day-long meeting on September 22,2010 at TechForward's offices
25 included demonstrations, using real data, of TechF orward ' s key systems.
26 TechForward also provided Best Buy with answers to several questions Best Buy had
27 relating to operational details, financials, and technical capabilities. Included in the
28 discussion was technical information on how TechForward projects residual values,
how TechForward influences customer exercise behavior, how TechForward
2 determines the type of exercise behavior it wishes to promote, how TechForward
3 routes devices for resale to maximize resale profitability, and how TechForward
4 supports customers through a Customer Relationship Management system for its
5 outsourced call-center agents. Again, this was all highly confidential information that
6 TechForward had never provided to another retailer, and that was not available to Best
7 Buy from any other source.
8 Best Buy Wrongfully Uses TechFonvard's Trade Secrets
9 48. On October 19, 2010, Best Buy hastily, and unexpectedly, ended its
10 relationship with TechForward. At a meeting at Best Buy's headquarters, Mr. Hutto
11 and Mr. Winneroski told TechForward that Best Buy would be moving forward with
12 the buyback program on its own.
13 49. Best Buy's termination of the relationship and decision to undertake the
14 buyback program alone came just six weeks after TechForward responded to Best
15 Buy's "urgent" request and provided Best Buy with detailed, highly confidential and
16 proprietary information about the inner workings of TechForward's Guaranteed
17 Buyback Plan.
18 50. Best Buy did keep one part of its promise to TechForward -- it launched a
19 national buyback program accompanied by major media advertising just eleven weeks
20 after suddenly ending the relationship with TechForward. On January 10,2011, Best
21 Buy officially announced its Buy Back Program. Best Buy had previously told
22 TechForward that it needed approximately six weeks to print and distribute in-store
23 materials for a buyback program. Thus, Best Buy fully "developed" the BBP, which
24 is national in scope, only five weeks after terminating the relationship with
26 51. The BBP is nearly identical in its key components to TechForward's
27 Guaranteed Buyback Plan. For instance, the BBP copies the precise term structure of
28 the Guaranteed Buyback Plan and provides a store credit of 50% for a return within
six months of purchase, 40% for a return within 12 months, 30% for a return within
2 18 months, and 20% for a return within 24 months. (In a transparent effort to
3 differentiate the BBP from the Guaranteed Buyback Plan, Best Buy has added an
4 additional category for plans sold with televisions -- a 10% credit for a return within
5 48 months.)
6 52. Additionally, the BBP uses identical terminology to that in
7 TechForward's Guaranteed Buyback Plan to rate the condition of the returned
8 devices: Good, Poor, and Substantially Impaired. The penalties BBP assesses for a
9 device that is in Poor or Substantially Impaired condition are also identical to the
10 penalties in the Guaranteed Buyback Plan: a 50% reduction in store credit for a
11 device in Poor condition and no store credit for a device that is Substantially Impaired.
12 53. Best Buy clearly thinks its buyback program is big news. In fact, Best
13 Buy was so enamored with the BBP and the potential it has to generate revenue,
14 increase customer loyalty, and draw in new customers, that it bought some of the most
15 expensive television advertising time in the world. On February 6, 2011, Best Buy --
16 for the first time in its history -- aired a Super Bowl commercial, one that featured
17 international musical stars Ozzy Osbourne and Justin Bieber. Prior to the ad running,
18 Drew Panayiotou, Best Buy's Senior Vice President of U.S. Marketing, was quoted in
19 the press as saying, "We feel like we have really big news that will revolutionize
20 retailing. It's innovative; it's first ever. That's why the stage [the Super Bowl] is so
21 important for us."
22 54. Best Buy has continued to promote the BBP in the national media. The
23 Super Bowl commercial still airs on network television, and the company recently
24 featured the BBP in a whole-page advertisement in the Wall Street Journal.
25 Additionally, Best Buy has been promoting the BBP in conjunction with the
26 company's sale of the iPhone for use on Verizon's network, and the BBP is
27 prominently featured on the homepage of Best Buy's website.
55. Given that the BBP is a near duplicate of TechForward's Guaranteed
2 Buyback Plan, it is hardly surprising that Best Buy was able to launch the program in
3 a relatively short period of time and announce it to the world on Super Bowl Sunday.
4 But, the extraordinary similarities of the two products tell only part of the story. Best
5 Buy, by its own admission, was not able to develop a buyback program on its own.
6 Indeed, during the pilot program and while Best Buy was later coaxing highly
7 sensitive information from TechForward, Best Buy did not, to TechForward's
8 knowledge, maintain any separate working group -- much less one isolated and walled
9 off from Best Buy employees involved with TechForward -- to develop a buyback
10 product internally.
11 56. Rather, what Best Buy needed and wanted was the help of TechForward
12 because it would have taken Best Buy years to develop its own buyback program.
13 Given Best Buy's failure to develop its own program in the past and the fact that, on
14 information and belief, no other company was offering a buyback program
15 comparable to TechForward's, the only way that Best Buy could have launched its
16 own program within six weeks was to use TechForward's proprietary information in
17 violation of the NDA and the Operating Agreement. Best Buy needed the
18 information, analyses, methodologies, and insights that TechForward had amassed
19 and worked so hard to develop. Once Best Buy had obtained this information --
20 through false promises of a partnership -- it threw TechForward out into the cold and
21 shamelessly presented a carbon-copy product as its own. And it did so using many of
22 the key individuals at Best Buy who worked with TechForward and had access to its
23 confidential information.
24 57. Notably, the Buy Back Program Agreement indicates that Best Buy is not
25 the guarantor of its program; rather, the program is underwritten by an insurance
26 company. Any reputable underwriter acting as a guarantor of a program like the BBP
27 would have inquired about the level of risk the program entails as well as Best Buy's
28 strategies for managing that risk. This information requires knowledge and
understanding of, among other things, the exercise rates of the products, the financial
2 risk analyses, and risk mitigation techniques. Management of the risk also requires
3 that sophisticated systems and methodologies be in place to analyze the relevant data
4 that comes from a variety of sources, such as residual value projection, resale routing
5 techniques, and techniques to influence customer exercise behavior. Best Buy
6 obtained this information and the ability to develop the appropriate methodologies and
7 systems from the confidential information given to it by TechForward.
8 58. Simply put, without the knowledge and information that TechForward
9 supplied to Best Buy, the company would not have had the data and risk analysis
10 techniques necessary to assess and manage the risk associated with the BBP, convince
11 an underwriter to take on the risk associated with the program, and profitably run the
12 program. And certainly Best Buy would not have been able to put in place a national
13 program of this complexity in a matter of weeks without an understanding -- provided
14 by TechForward -- of how to run the program from both a financial and operational
16 FIRST CAUSE OF ACTION
17 (Misappropriation of Trade Secrets)
18 59. TechForward incorporates by reference all of the allegations set forth in
19 paragraphs 1-58 above as though fully set forth and realleged herein.
20 60. As alleged above, TechForward has developed and maintained valuable
21 proprietary information that derives independent economic value from not being
22 generally known to the public or to other people who can obtain economic value from
23 its disclosure or use.
24 61. As alleged above, TechForward has made reasonable efforts under the
25 circumstances to maintain the secrecy of this information, including but not limited to,
26 entering into the NDA and repeatedly seeking commitments from Best Buy's
27 employees that they would not disclose the information that TechForward shared with
28 Best Buy.
62. Accordingly, the information described above constitutes "trade secrets"
2 under California's Uniform Trade Secrets Act, Civil Code § 3426 et seq.
3 63. As alleged above, Best Buy acquired TechForward's trade secrets
4 directly or indirectly from TechForward and not from generally available information
5 or through its own independent research and efforts. In addition, Best Buy acquired
6 TechForward's trade secrets under circumstances giving rise to a duty to maintain the
7 secrecy of and limit the use of the trade secrets.
8 64. In acquiring this information, Best Buy knew or should have known that
9 it was and still is under a duty to maintain the confidentiality of TechForward's trade
10 secrets and limit the use of TechForward's trade secrets.
11 65. In violation if those duties, Best Buy revealed TechForward's trade
12 secrets to unauthorized recipients, without the express or implied consent of
13 TechForward, and has used and intends to continue to use the trade secrets for its own
14 benefit, without the express or implied consent of TechForward and to the detriment
15 of TechForward.
16 66. These actions constitute misappropriation of TechForward's trade secrets
17 under California's Uniform Trade Secrets Act, Civil Code § 3426 et seq.
18 67. Best Buy's misappropriation of TechForward's trade secrets has caused
19 and will continue to cause TechForward to suffer substantial damages, including but
20 not limited to losses suffered as a result of the disclosure of its confidential and
21 proprietary trade secrets, as well as the loss of current and future business that could
22 have been derived from the use of its confidential and proprietary trade secrets. The
23 amount of damages that TechForward has suffered will be proven at trial.
24 68. As a result of Best Buy's misappropriation of TechForward's trade
25 secrets, Best Buy has been unjustly enriched in an amount to be proven at trial.
26 69. Best Buy's misappropriation of TechForward's trade secrets was also
27 done willfully and maliciously and with the intent to improve its own business without
adequately compensating TechForward. TechForward is therefore entitled to
2 exemplary damages in an amount to be proven at trial.
3 SECOND CAUSE OF ACTION
4 (Breach of Non-Disclosure Agreement)
5 70. TechForward incorporates by reference all of the allegations set forth in
6 paragraphs 1-69 above as though fully set forth and realleged herein.
7 71. TechForward and Best Buy entered into a valid and enforceable NDA,
8 under which the parties mutually agreed (a) to maintain the confidentiality of
9 information shared between the parties; (b) to not disclose any such information to
10 anyone except the parties' employees, agents, and consultants on a need-to-know
11 basis (and only after such employees, agents, and consultants had been informed of
12 and acknowledged their obligation to be bound by the terms of the NDA); and (c) to
13 not use such information for any purpose other than that for which it is disclosed.
14 72. The NDA further provided that all confidential information that was
15 disclosed would remain the sole property of the party disclosing it and the receiving
16 party would have no right, title, or interest in or to the confidential information.
17 73. The NDA was supported by consideration in the form of mutual
18 promises, assurances, and obligations set forth in the NDA.
19 74. TechForward has performed all of the obligations required on its part in
20 accordance with the terms and conditions of the NDA.
21 75. Best Buy breached the terms of the NDA by, among other things, (a)
22 failing to maintain the confidentiality of the information shared between the parties;
23 (b) disclosing the information to Best Buy's employees, agents, and third parties who
24 did not need to receive the information and/or who were not informed of and did not
25 acknowledge their obligation to be bound by the terms of the NDA; (c) using the
26 information for purposes other than that for which it was disclosed, including but not
27 limited to, using the information to develop the BBP as an alternative to
28 TechForward's Guaranteed Buyback Program; and/or (d) profiting from the use of the
1 information without adequately compensating TechForward as the owner of the
3 76. As a result of Best Buy's breach of the NDA, TechForward has suffered
4 damages in an amount to be proven at trial.
5 THIRD CAUSE OF ACTION
6 (Breach of Operating Agreement)
7 77. TechForward incorporates by reference all of the allegations set forth in
8 paragraphs 1-76 above as though fully set forth and realleged herein.
9 78. TechForward and Best Buy entered into a valid and enforceable
10 Operating Agreement for the purposes of conducting a pilot program in which
11 TechForward's Guaranteed Buyback Plan was offered in Best Buy stores in the
12 greater Los Angeles area. Pursuant to the Operating Agreement, the parties mutually
13 agreed (a) to maintain in strict confidence all confidential information that each side
14 provided to other in the course of the pilot program; (ii) to not disclose any
15 confidential information to anyone except agents, consultants, and authorized vendors
16 on a need-to-know basis (and who are subject to a confidentiality agreement that
17 provides for protection of confidential information in a manner that is substantially
18 similar to the protections provided in this Agreement); and (iii) to not use any
19 confidential information for any purpose except as is expressly permitted under the
20 Operating Agreement.
21 79. The Operating Agreement further provided that all confidential
22 information that was disclosed would remain the sole property of the party disclosing
23 it and the receiving party would have no right, title, or interest in or to the confidential
25 80. The Operating Agreement was supported by consideration in the form of
26 mutual promises, assurances, and obligations set forth in the Operating Agreement.
27 81. TechForward has performed all of the material obligations required on its
28 part in accordance with the terms and conditions of the Operating Agreement.
82. Best Buy breached the terms of the Operating Agreement by, among
2 other things, (a) failing to maintain the confidentiality of the information shared
3 between the parties; (b) disclosing the information to Best Buy's employees, agents,
4 and third parties who did not need to receive the information and/or who were not
5 informed of and did not acknowledge their obligation to be bound by the terms of the
6 Operating Agreement; (c) using the information for purposes other than that for which
7 it was disclosed, including but not limited to, using the information to develop the
8 BBP as an alternative to TechForward's Guaranteed Buyback Program; and (d)
9 profiting from the use of the information without adequately compensating
10 TechForward as the owner of the information.
11 83. As a result of Best Buy's breach of the Operating Agreement,
12 TechForward has suffered damages in an amount to be proven at trial.
13 PRAYER FOR RELIEF
14 84. Therefore, TechForward demands judgment against Best Buy as follows:
15 (a) On the First Cause of Action, damages (including exemplary
16 damages), in an amount to be determined at trial, for
17 misappropriation of trade secrets under California's Uniform Trade
18 Secrets Act, Civil Code § 3426 et seq.;
19 (b) On the Second Cause of Action, damages for breach of contract in
20 an amount to be determined at trial;
21 (c) On the Third Cause of Action, damages for breach of contract in
22 an amount to be determined at trial;
(d) Attorneys' fees and costs; and
2 (e) For such other and further relief as this Court may deem just and
Dated: February 11,2011 KIRKLAN
8 33 South Hope S eet
Los Angeles, Ca ifornia 90071
9 Telephone: (213) 680-8400
Facsimile: (213) 680-8500
11 Attorneys for Plaintiff TechForward, Inc.
UNITED STAtS DISTRIC~C~U~T' CENTRAL DISTRICI. CALIFORNIA"
CIVIL COVER SHEET
I (a) PLAINTIFFS (Check box if you are representing yourself 0) DEFENDANTS
TECHFORWARD, INC BEST BUY CO, INC
(b) Attomeys (Firm Name, Address and Telephone Number. If you are representing Attorneys (If Known)
yourself, provide same")
Derek Milosavljevic (SBN 255134), derek.milosavljevrceukirkland.com
KIRKLAND & ELLIS LLP, 333 South Hope Street, Los Angeles 9007 I
ph 213/680-8400; fax 213/680-8500
II. BASIS OF JlJRISDlCTION (Place an X in one box only) III. CITIZENSHIP OF PRINCIPAL PARTIES - For Diversity Cases Only
(Place an X in one box for plaintiff and one for defendant)
o I US Government PlaintiIf 03 Federal Question (US
PTF DEF DEF
Government Not a Party) Citizen of This State 01 01 Incorporated or Principal Place 04
of Business in this State
02 US Government Defendant ri4 Diversity (Indicate Citizenship Citizen of Another State 02 02 Incorporated and Principal Place 05 .£5
of Parties in Item III) of Business in Another State
Citizen or Subject of a Foreign Country 03 03 Foreign Nation 06 06
IV. ORIGIN (Place an X in one box only")
ril Original 02 Removed from 03 Remanded from o4 Reinstated or 05 Transferred from another district (specify): 06 Multi- o7 Appeal to District
Proceeding State Court Appellate Court Reopened District Judge from
Litigation Magistrate Judge
V. REQUESTED IN COMPLAINT JURY DEMAND: FiYes 0 No (Check 'Yes' only if demanded in complaint)
CLASS ACTION under F.R.CP. 23: 0 Yes ~o ri MONEY DEMANDED IN COMPLAINT: $ Amount to be detennined at trial.
VI. CAliSE OF ACTION (Cite the US Civil Statute under which you are filing and write a brief statement of cause" Do not cite jurisdictional statutes unless diversity")
28 USC § 1332 (Diversity Jurisdiction); California Civil Code § 3426 et seq" (Misappropriation of Trade Secrets)
VII. NATtJRE OF SUIT (Place an X in one box only)
OTHER STATUTES CONTRACT TORTS TORTS ONER
0400 State Reapportionment 0110 Insurance PERSONAL INJURY PERSONAL IONS Fair Labor Standards
0410 Antitrust 0120 Marine 0310 Airplane PROPERTY 0510 Motions to Act
0430 Banks and Banking 0130 Miller Act 0315 Airplane Product 0370 Other Fraud Vacate Sentence 0720 Labor/Mgmt.
0450 Commerce/ICC 0140 Negotiable Instrument Liability 0371 Truth in Lending Habeas Corpus Relations
Rates/etc" 0150 Recovery of 0320 Assault, Libel & 0380 Other Personal 0530 General 0730 Labor/Mgmt.
0460 Deportation Overpayment & Slander Property Damage 0535 Death Penalty Reporting &
0470 Racketeer Influenced Enforcement of 0330 Fed" Employers' 0385 Property Damage 0540 Mandamus/ Disclosure Act
and Corrupt Liability Product Liability Other 0740 Railway Labor Act
0340 Marine 0550
Organizations 0151 Med icare Act BANKRUPTCY Civil Rights 0790 Other Labor
0345 Marine Product
0480 Consumer Credit 0152 Recovery of Defaulted 0422 Appeal 28 USC 0555 Prison Condition Litigation
0490 Cable/Sat TV Student Loan (Excl. 158 REI 0791 Ernpl Ret. Inc"
0350 Motor Vehicle
0810 Selective Service Veterans) 0423 Withdrawal 28 TY Security Act
0355 Motor Vehicle
0850 Securities/Commodities/ 0153 Recovery of USC 157 0610 Agriculture PROPERTY RlOOS:;
Exchange Overpayment of 0360 Other Personal CIVIL RIGHTS: ; 0620 Other Food & 0820 Copyrights
0875 Customer Challenge 12 Veteran's Benefits Injury 0441 Voting Drug 0830 Patent
USC 3410 0160 Stockholders' Suits 0362 Personal Injury- 0442 Employment 0625 Drug Related 0840 Trademark
r/890 Other Statutory Actions 0190 Other Contract Med Malpractice 0443 Housing/Acco- Seizure of SOCIAL SECURITY
0891 Agricultural Act 0195 Contract Product 0365 Personal Injury- mmodations Property 21 USC 0861 HIA (I 395ft)
0892 Economic Stabilization Liability Product Liability 0444 Welfare 881 0862 Black Lung (923)
Act 0196 Franchise 0368 Asbestos Personal 0445 American with 0630 Liquor Laws 0863 D1WC/D1WW
0893 Environmental Matters REALPRQPERTY Injury Product Disabilities - 0640 RR & Truck (405(g»
0894 Energy Allocation Act 0210 Land Condemnation Liability Employment 0650 Airline Regs 0864 ssin Title XVI
0895 Freedom of Info" Act 0220 Foreclosure IMMIGRATION 0446 American with 0660 Occupational 0865 RSI (405(g»
0900 Appeal of Fee Determi- 0230 Rent Lease & Ejectment 0462 Naturalization Disabilities - Safety /Health FEDERAL TAXSUlTS
nation Under Equal 0240 Torts 10 Land Application Other 0690 Other 0870 Taxes (US Plaintiff
Access to Justice 0245 Tort Product Liability 0463 Habeas Corpus- 0440 Other Civil or Defendant)
0950 Constitutionality of 0290 All Other Real Property Alien Detainee Rights 087\ IRS-Third Party 26
State Statutes 0465 Other Immigration USC 7609
FOR OFFICE usr ONLY: Case Number:
AFTER COMPLETING THE FRONT SIDE OF FORM CV-71. COMPLETE THE INFORMATION REQIIESTED BELOW.
CV-71 (05108) CIVIL COVER SHEET Page I of2
UNITED STA.S D1STRIC~C~U~T,C~NTRAL
CIVIL COVER SHEET
VIII(a). IDENTICAL CASES: Has this action been previously filed in this court and dismissed, remanded or closed? Ii'No 0 Yes
If yes, list case number(s): _
VIII(b). RELATED CASES: Have any cases been previously filed in this court that are related to the present case? IiNo 0 Yes
If yes, list case number(s): _
Civil cases are deemed related if a previously filed case and the present case:
(Check all boxes that apply) 0 A. Arise from the same or closely related transactions, happenings. or events: or
oB Call for determination of the same or substantially related or similar questions of law and fact: or
DC For other reasons would entail substantial duplication of labor ifheard by different judges; or
o D. Involve the same patent, trademark or copyright, and one of the factors identified above in a, b or c also IS present
IX. VENUE: (When completing the following information. use an additional sheet if necessary.)
(a) List the County in this District; California County outside of this District; State ifother than California; or Foreign Country, in which EACH named plaintiffresides
0 Check here if the government, its agencies or employees is a named plaintiff. If this box is checked, go to Item (b)
County in this District:' California County outside of this District; Slate, If other than California; or Foreign Country
TechForward, Inc.: Los Angeles County
(b) LIst the County in this District; California County outside of this District: State if other than California: or Foreign Country, in which EACH named defendant resides.
o Ch ecx here If th i d de f en dant If th IS b ox ISc hec ke d ,gO to Item (c )
k e government, ItSaaencres or emorovees IS a name
County in this District:' California County outside of this District; State, if other than California; or Foreign Country
Best Buy ce., Inc.: Minnesota
(c) List the County in this District; California County outside of this District; State if other than California: or Foreign Country, in which EACH claim arose.
Note' In land condemnation cases, use the location of the tract of land involved
County in this District:' California County outside of this District; State, if other than California; or Foreign Country
Los Angeles County
• Los Angeles, Orange, San Bernardino, Riverside, Ventura, Santa Barbara, or San Luis Obispo Counties
Note: In land condemnation cases use the location of the tra t ofla i Ived
X. SIGNATURE OF ATTORNEY (OR PRO PER) --lJJ~L~"'~~:::::~- _ Date February I I, 20 I I
he information contained herem neither replace nor supplement the filing and service of pleadings
or other papers as required by law. This form, approved by the Judicial ference of the United States In September 1974, is required pursuant to Local Rule 3-1 is not filed
but is used by the Clerk of the Court for the purpose of statistics, venue and initiating the civil docket sheet. (For more detailed instructions, see separate instructions sheet.)
Key to Statistical codes relating to Social Security Cases:
Nature of Suit Code Abbreviation Substantive Statement of Cause of Action
861 HIA All claims for health insurance benefits (Medicare) under Title 18, Part A. of the Social Security Act, as amended.
Also, include claims by hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, ctc., for certification as providers of services under the
program (42 USC 1935FF(b))
862 BL All claims for "Black Lung" benefits under Title 4, Part B. of the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969.
(30 USC 923)
863 DIWC All claims tiled by insured workers for disability insurance benefits under Title 2 of the Social Security Act, as
amended; plus all claims filed for child's insurance benefits based on disability (42 USC 405(g))
863 DIWW All claims filed for widows or widowers insurance benefits based on disability under Title 2 of the Social Security
Act, as amended. (42 USC 405(g))
864 SSID All claims for supplemental security mcorne payments based upon disability tiled under Title 16 of the Social Security
Act, as amended.
865 RSI All claims for retirement (old age) and survivors benefits under Title 2 of the Social Security Act, as amended. (42
CY-7I (05/08) CIVIL COVER SHEET Page 2 of2