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									Nairobi Declaration

      20 -23 FEBRUARY 2002
Nairobi Declaration

            NAIROBI, KENYA
         20 -23 FEBRUARY 2002

An Expert Consultation on Biosafety and Environmental Impact of
Genetic Enhancement and Introduction of Improved Tilapia strains/
Alien species in Africa, was convened in Nairobi, Kenya from 20-23
February 2002 under the sponsorship of ICLARM – The World Fish
Center, Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA),
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), The
World Conservation Union (IUCN), United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP), and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD),
to discuss and develop guidelines that will foster the development of
aquaculture while maintaining biodiversity. The meeting was attended
by aquaculturists, geneticists and conservation specialists from Africa
and from international organizations. Following four days of discussions
the participants endorsed the Nairobi Declaration on Conservation of
Aquatic Biodiversity and use of Genetically Improved and Alien Species
for Aquaculture in Africa.

                     Nairobi Declaration

Fish are a critical source of animal protein to the people of Africa, and
aquatic resources play a central role in sustaining rural and urban
livelihoods across much of the region. Yet for the continent as a whole
per capita supply of fish is declining and current projections of supply and
demand indicate that this gap will continue to grow in the coming decades.

If this gap is to be bridged capture fisheries need to be sustained and the
potential of aquaculture realised. In doing so attention needs to be given
to protecting the rich aquatic biodiversity of Africa, especially the rich
diversity of freshwater fish and its role in sustaining capture fisheries and
providing species for aquaculture.

At present fish production from aquaculture in Africa is low. However as
population increases, together with demand for fish, the aquaculture sector
is projected to grow. For this to happen, a wide range of constraints need
to be addressed and a greater range of management practices
considered. Pond and broodstock management will need to be improved,
a wider range of feeds developed, and market access improved.

In addition, there is considerable potential for improving performance of
the fish species and strains used. At present many of the fish used in
aquaculture in Africa are derived from undomesticated stocks. This
contrasts with crops, livestock and poultry where large increases in
production have been achieved through application of breeding programs
and other genetic improvement procedures. However, while improved
strains and introduced species have potential to increase production there
is clear risk of escape into the wild, and possible negative impacts on
biodiversity. If the full potential for sustainable aquaculture in Africa is to
be realised these concerns need to be addressed.

  1. Quality seed
     Given that aquaculture from small-scale, low-input systems to large-
     scale intensive systems can achieve potential benefits from genetic
     enhancement, quality seed should be made available and used in
     conjunction with proper broodstock and farm management.

  2. Genetics in broodstock management
     Since genetic resources in cultured populations can be degraded as a
     result of captive breeding, genetic aspects of broodstock management
     need to be a basic element within all aquaculture and stock
     enhancement programs.

  3. Responsible introductions
     Introductions of fish, including genetically improved strains and alien
     species, may have a role in the development of aquaculture. Any
     movement of fish between natural ecological boundaries (e.g.
     watersheds) may involve risk to biodiversity and there is need for
     refinement and wider application of protocols, risk assessment
     methods, and monitoring programs for introductions of fish, including
     genetically improved strains and alien species. States have an important
     responsibility in the development and implementation of such protocols
     and associated regulations, the establishment of clear roles and
     responsibilities, and capacity building. Such efforts should be linked
     to obligations pursuant to the Code of Conduct for Responsible
     Fisheries, the Convention on Biological Diversity, and other relevant
     international agreements.

       4.   Conserving wild stocks
            Unique wild stocks of important tilapia species still exist in many parts of
            Africa. Priority areas should be identified and managed as conservation areas
            in which introductions of alien species and genetically improved strains should
            be prevented.

       5.   Transboundry problems in fish transfer
            The majority of issues and problems associated with movement of fish and
            the use of genetically improved strains are common to most African countries.
            Countries are encouraged to: (a) look beyond borders for examples of workable
            policies and legislation, adopt them where appropriate to fill national policy
            gaps, and harmonize them where necessary; and (b) use existing regional
            bodies or form new bodies to assist in coordinating management activities
            taking into account ecological realities, in particular transboundary watersheds.

       6.   Strengthening access to information
            Baseline information on fish genetic diversity, environmental integrity and
            aquaculture practices exists, but it is neither comprehensive nor easily
            accessible. The existing mechanisms for collection and dissemination of
            information need to be strengthened.

       7.   Controlling pathogen movement
            Internationally accepted codes and protocols for reducing the risk of
            transboundary movement of pathogens1 through movement of fish including
            alien species do exist, but they do not address any specific needs regarding
            genetically improved species. States and other relevant bodies should evaluate
            the existing codes and protocols for reducing the risk of transboundary
            movement of pathogens through movement of fish including alien species
            and genetically improved strains, and adapt them for African conditions.

    the term pathogen used here includes parasites

8. Raising awareness of risks of fish introduction
   Policy makers, enforcement agencies, stakeholders and the general
   public need to be made aware of issues related to, and the need for,
   policy on the movement of alien species and genetically altered
   species, and this should be high on national agenda.

9. Engaging stakeholders
   Some policies relevant to movement of fish seem difficult to implement,
   are unknown to users, create conflicts of interest, or are viewed as
   restrictive, in part because they have been developed with limited
   consultation and participation. Formulation of policy and legislation
   concerning fish movement should seek to engage all stakeholders in
   a participatory process. In addition, governments should establish
   advisory groups with links to independent and scientifically competent
   expert bodies such as FAO, IUCN, and ICLARM – the World Fish

10. Liability for adverse environmental impacts
    Although economic benefits can be derived through the use of alien
    and/or genetically improved species in aquaculture, in many cases,
    those to whom benefits accrue do not bear the costs associated with
    adverse environmental impacts. In view of this, there should be provision
    for liability, compliance (e.g., incentives) and restoration within policies
    and legislation concerning the movement and use of alien and
    genetically improved fish species in aquaculture.


Belgium                                    Cote d’Ivoire

Professor Jean-Claude Micha                Dr. Yapi Gnaore Valentine
L’Unite d’Ecologie des Eaux Douces,        Coordonnateur Scientifique du CNRA
UNECED                                     Direction Regionale de Bouake
Departement de Biologie                    01 BP 633, Bouake
Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame         Tel: 225 06 81 34
de la Paix, Namur (FUNDP)                  Fax: 225 31 633 126; 31 633 526; 31
Rue de Bruxelles 61                        633 139
B-5000 Namur                               E-mail
Tel: 32-81-724 337; 724111; 724361         E-mail 2:
Fax: 32-81-724420; 230391
E-mail:       Professor Valentin N’Douba
                                           Universite de Cocody
Cameroon                                   UFR-Biosciences
                                           Laboratoire d’Hydrobiologie
Mr. Pierre Nna Abo’o                       22 B.P. 582, Abidjan 22
Direction des Peches                       Tel: (225) 22440307
Ministere de l’Elevage,                    Fax: (225) 22 44 37 07
des Peches et des                          E-mail:
Industries Animales
B.P. 930, Yaounde                          France
Tel: 237 316 049
Fax: 237 221405                            Dr. Jean Francois Agnese
E-mail:            Laboratoire GPI, CC 63, Universite
                                           de Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon
                                           3400 Montpellier
                                           Tel: 33 4 67 14 46 89
                                           Fax: 33 4 67 14 45 54

Dr. Meg Gawler (Facilitator)            Dr. Luc de Vos
Founding Director                       Head, Department of Ichthyology
ARTEMIS Services - for Nature           National Museum of Kenya
Conservation and Human                  P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi
Development                             Tel: 254-2-742161/4 ext. 244
590 route d’Ornex,                      Fax: 254-2 741424
01280 Prevessin-Moens                   E-mail:
Tel: +33 4 5040 7870
Fax: +33 4 5040 7379                    Dr. Nyawira Muthiga
E-mail :       Regional Biodiversity Coordinator
                                        Kenya Wildlife Service
Ghana                                   PO Box 82144, Mombasa
                                        Tel: 254-11-312745
Dr. Eddie Kofi Abban                    Fax: 254-11-227774
Water Research Institute                E-mail:
PO Box. 38, Achimota, Accra
Tel: 23321-775511/776044                Mr. Bethuel Odour Omolo
Fax: 23321-761030/777170                Head of Station
E-mail:                   Fisheries Department
                                        Sagana Fish Farm
Kenya                                   PO Box 26, Sagana
                                        Tel: 254-16346041
Ms. Nancy Gitonga                       E-mail:
Director of Fisheries
Museum Hill                             David Liti
P.O. Box 58187,Nairobi                  Moi University
Tel: (254 2) 744 530                    Zoology Department
Fax: (254 2) 743 699                    PO Box 1125
E-mail: namugitonga@icon;               Eldoret                      E-mail:

Malawi                                   Dr. O.A. Ayinla
                                         Assistant Director
Dr. Michael Kapeleta                     Nigerian Institute for Oceanography
Malawi National Aquaculture Center       and Marine Research
PO Box 44, Domasi                        Federal Ministry of Agriculture
Zomba                                    P.M.B. 12729, Victoria Island,
Tel: 265-531216                          Lagos
Fax: 265-522733                          Tel: 234-01 261 7530
E-mail:                 Fax: 234-01 2617530
Dr. Aggrey Ambali
Chancellor College                       Dr. Richard King
University of Malawi                     Center for Wetlands and Waste
PO Box 280, Zomba                        Management Studies
Tel: 265-522222                          University of Uyo
Fax: 265-525636                          PMP 1017, Uyo
E-mail:              E-mail:;
Dr. Stella Williams
Department of Agricultural               Dr. Roger S.V. Pullin
Economics                                Ecotrack
Obafemi Awolowo University               7A Legaspi Park View
Ile-ife, Osman State                     134 Legaspi St.,
Tel: 234-36-233862/1-4925535             Makati City
Fax: 234-36-232401/1-4925535             Tel: 63-2-8180870
E-mail:           Fax: 63-28402630

South Africa                             Uganda

Ms. Irene de Moor                        Dr. Godfrey Mbahinzireki
Grahamstown Albany Museum                Officer in Charge
Somerset St.,                            Aquaculture Research
Grahamstown, 6139                        Fisheries Resources Research Institute
Tel: 46-6222312
                                         P.O. Box 343, Jinja
Fax: 46-6222398
                                         Tel: (256-43) 12 04 84/12 13 69
                                         Fax: (256-43) 12 01 92
                                         Mr. Rick Gregory
Dr. Wilfred N. Sarunday                  Project Advisor
Principal Environmental Management       DFID Fish Farming Project
Officer                                  PO Box 27624, Kampala
PO Box 63154 or 63207                    Tel: 265-41-77700018
Dar-es Salaam                            Fax: 256-41-200745
Tel: 255-22-2134603                      E-mail:
Mobile: 255-741-530708
Fax: 255-22-2647056                   Dr. Wilson Mwanja
E-mail 1:             Principal Fisheries Officer,
E-mail 2:
                                      Fisheries Resources Department,
                                      Ministry of Agriculture, Animal
Dr. Benjamin Ngatunga
Senior Research Officer (Ichthyology) Industries and Fisheries,
Tanzania Fisheries Research           PO Box 341, Kampala
Institute                             Tel: 256-41 320563; 256-41 077
Kyela Centre,                         594923
PO Box 98 Kyela,                      Fax: 256-41 320496
Mbeya                                 E-mail :
Tel: 255 025 254002 (Office)
Fax: 255 025 2540425; 255

Ms Gertrude Atukunda                    Professor Brendan Mc Andrew
Socio-economist / Project Manager       DFID Aquaculture and Genetic
NARO / MAAIF Fish Farming Project       Research Program (AFGRP)
Kajjansi Research Development Centre,   Institute of Aquaculture
PO Box 27624,Kampala                    University of Stirling
Tel: 256-41 200736; 256-41 077          Stirling FK9 4LA
482946                                  Scotland
Fax: 256-41-200745                      Tel: 44-01786 467900
E-mail:         Fax: 44-01786 451462
                                        E-mail 1:
Mr. Owari Wadunde                       E-mail 2:
Senior research Officer NARO            E-mail 3:
Kajjansi Research Development Centre,
PO Box 27624, Kampala                   USA
Tel: 256-41 200822; 256-41 071
803666                                  Dr. Loren Miller
Fax: 256- 41-200745                     Department of Fisheries & Wildlife
E-Mail:         and Conservation Biology,
                                        University of Minnesota,
United Kingdom                          200 Hodson Hall
                                        1980 Folwell Avenue, St. Paul
Dr. Krishen Rana                        Minnesota 55108-6124
Institute of Aquaculture                Tel: 1-612 624-3019; 1-612 624-3600;
University of Stirling                  1-612-6247723
Stirling FK9 4LA                        Fax: 1-612 625-5299; 6495055
Scotland                                E-mail:
Tel: 44-1786) 467-920
Fax: 44-1786) 472-133

Ms Karen L. Veverica                    International & Regional
International Center for Aquaculture    Agencies
and Aquatic Environments, ICAAE
Department of Fisheries and             African Centre for Technology
Allied Aquaculture,                     Studies (ACTS)
College of Agriculture
203 Swingle Hall,                       Dr. John Mugabe
Auburn University,                      Director
Alabama 36849-5419                      African Centre of Technology Studies
Tel: 1-205-8444786; 1-205-8444786       PO Box 45917, Nairobi,
Fax: 205-8449208; 1-205-8449208         Kenya
E-mail 1:    Tel: (254-2) 524000; 524700
E-mail 2:        Fax: (254-2) 522987/524001
                                        E-mail: j.mugabe@cgiar.og
                                        Convention on Biological
Mr. Charles T. Maguswi                  Diversity (CBD)
Deputy Director
Fisheries Headquarters                  Mr. Ryan Hill
PO Box 350100,                          Program Officer,
Chilanga                                Scientific Assessments,
Tel: 260-1-278173/278515/260 97         Biosafety Program
778 447/ 260 1 278 173                  Secretariat of the Convention on
Fax: 260-1-278418                       Biological Diversity (CBD)
E-mail:              St. Jacques Street, Suite 300
                                        Montreal, Quebec
                                        Canada H2Y 1N9
                                        Tel: + 1 (514) 287-7030
                                        Fax: + 1 (514) 288-6588

Food and Agricultural                 ICLARM - The World Fish Center
Organization (FAO)
                                      Dr. Patrick Dugan
Dr. Devin Bartley                     Deputy Director General - Africa and
FAO of the United Nations             West Asia
Fisheries Department                  ICLARM - The World Fish Center
Via delle Terme di Caracalla          Regional Research Center for Africa
00100 Rome, Italy                     and West Asia
Tel: (39-06) 5705-4376                PO Box 2416,
Fax: (39-06) 5705-3020                Cairo, Egypt
E-mail:         Tel: (205) 5404226; 5404227
                                      Fax: 2055 3405578
Dr. Rohana Subasinghe                 E-mail:
Inland Water Resources and
Aquaculture Service                   Dr. Modadugu V. Gupta
Fishery Resources Division            Director, International Relations
Fisheries Department                  Research Coordinator, INGA
Via delle Terme di Caracalla          ICLARM - The World Fish Center
00100 Rome, Italy                     PO Box 500, GPO
Tel: (39) 0657056473                  10670 Penang,
Fax: (39) 0657053020                  Malaysia
E-mail:     Tel: (604) 626-1606
                                      Fax: (604) 626 5690
Dr. John Moehl                        E-mail:
Regional Aquaculture Officer, RAFI
FAO Regional Office for Africa        Dr. Randall E. Brummett
Gamel Abdul Nasser Road               Senior Aquaculture Scientist
PO Box 1628                           ICLARM - The World Fish Center
Accra, Ghana                          Cameroon Office
Tel: (233-21) 701 0930 ext. 3161      IITA-Humid Forest Station
Fax: (233-21) 701 09 43;              BP 2008 (Messa),
(233-21) 668 427                      Yaounde, Cameroon
E-mail:            Tel: (237) 237434; 237522
                                      Fax: (237) 237437

Dr. Daniel Jamu                        Technical Centre for Agricultural
Project Team Leader (Officer in-       and Rural Cooperation (CTA)
ICLARM - The World Fish Center         Dr. Gesa Wesseler
Malawi Project Office                  Seminars and Studies Department
Plot 229, Old Naisi Road               Technical Center for Agricultural and
                                       Rural Cooperation (ACP-EU)
Zomba, Malawi
                                       Postbus 380, NL 6700 AJ
Tel: (265) 536274; 536298
Fax: (265) 536274                      The Netherlands
E-mail:               Tel: 31-0 317-467 135
                                       Fax: 31-0 317-460 067
Dr. Mahmoud Rezk                       E-mail:
ICLARM - The World Fish Center
Regional Research Center for Africa    The World Conservation Union
and West Asia                          (IUCN)
PO Box 2416,
Cairo, Egypt                           Dr. Geoffrey Howard
Tel: (205) 5404226; 5404227            Regional Program Coordinator for
Fax: 2055 3405578                      IUCN in Eastern Africa
E-mail:;                IUCN Eastern Africa Regional Office
                                       PO Box 68200
                                       Nairobi, Kenya
                                       Tel: 254-2 890605/12
International Livestock Research       Fax: 254-2 890615
Institute (ILRI)                       E-mail:

Dr. Olivier Hanotte                    Dr. Simon Heck
ILRI (International Livestock          IUCN Eastern Africa Regional Office
Research Institute) Campus             PO Box 68200
Old Naivasha Road                      Nairobi, Kenya
Nairobi 00100, Kenya                   Tel: (254-2) 890605/12
Tel: 254-2-630743                      Fax: (254-2) 890615
Fax:254-2-631499                       E-mail:

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P.O. Box 500, GPO, 10670 Penang, Malaysia
Tel : (604) 626 1606
Fax : (604) 626 5530
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