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Motivation

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					     LEARNING OUTLINE
    Follow this Learning Outline as you read and
                              study this chapter.

What Is Motivation?
  • Define motivation.
  • Explain motivation as a need-satisfying
    process.
Early Theories of Motivation
  • Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    and how it can be used to motivate.
  • Discuss how Theory X and Theory Y
    managers approach motivation.
  • Describe Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene
    theory.
  • Explain Herzberg’s views of satisfaction
    and dissatisfaction.




© 2007 Prentice Hall,                   16–2
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     LEARNING OUTLINE
                (cont’d)
    Follow this Learning Outline as you read and
                              study this chapter.


Contemporary Theories of
Motivation
  • Describe the three needs McClelland
    proposed as being present in work
    settings.
  • Explain how goal-setting and
    reinforcement theories explain
    employee motivation.
  • Describe the job characteristics model
    as a way to design motivating jobs.
  • Discuss the motivation implications of
    equity theory.
  • Contrast distributive justice and
    procedural justice.
  • Explain the three key linkages in
    expectancy
© 2007 Prenticetheory and their role in
                 Hall,                16–3
    motivation.
   Inc. All rights
     LEARNING OUTLINE
                (cont’d)
    Follow this Learning Outline as you read and
                              study this chapter.



Current Issues in Motivation
  • Describe the cross-cultural challenges of
    motivation.
  • Discuss the challenges managers face in
    motivating unique groups of workers.
  • Describe open-book management,
    employee recognition, pay-for-
    performance, and stock option
    programs.




© 2007 Prentice Hall,                   16–4
   Inc. All rights
                             motivation




© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc.
All rights reserved.
        Motivating Self and
                    Others


Questions for Consideration:

   What do theories tell us about
    motivating ourselves and
    others?

   How do we motivate for specific
    organizational circumstances
    and/or individual differences?
     What is Motivation?

   Motivation
    – The processes that account for
      an individual’s intensity,
      direction, and persistence of
      effort toward attaining a goal
          Intensity: how hard a person tries
          Direction: where effort is
           channeled
          Persistence: how long effort is
           maintained

          Motivation works best when
           individual needs are
           compatible with organizational
           goals.
                        Definition
 Getting results through people
 Getting the best out of people
 Peters&Waterman:
  “Management’s principal job is
  to get the herd heading roughly
  west.”




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           Theories of
           Motivation

                 Process theories
Needs              • Expectancy
                       Process
theories               Theory
                        theories
 Maslow’s        • •Goal Setting
                      Expectancy
  hierarchy of         Theory
  needs
                       Theory
 Herzberg’s          • Goal
  two factor           Setting
  theory               Theory
                       Theory X
                   and Theory Y


   Theory X
    – The assumption that employees
      dislike work, are lazy, dislike
      responsibility, and must be coerced
      to perform.


   Theory Y
    – The assumption that employees
      like work, are creative, seek
      responsibility, and can exercise
      self-direction.
                       Motivators


   Intrinsic
    – A person’s internal desire to do
      something, due to such things as
      interest, challenge, and personal
      satisfaction.
   Extrinsic
    – Motivation that comes from outside
      the person, such as pay, bonuses,
      and other tangible rewards.
         Needs Theories of
               Motivation


 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
 Herzberg’s two factor theory
  (motivation-hygiene theory)
 Alderfer’s ERG theory
 McClelland’s theory of needs


 Basic idea:
 Individuals have needs that,
  when unsatisfied, will result in
  motivation
     Maslow’s Hierarchy of
            Needs
   Physiological
    – includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and
      other bodily needs
   Safety
    – includes security and protection from
      physical and emotional harm
   Social
    – includes affection, belongingness,
      acceptance, and friendship
   Esteem
    – includes internal esteem factors such as self-
      respect, autonomy, and achievement; and
      external esteem factors such as status,
      recognition, and attention
   Self-actualization
    – the drive to become what one is capable of
      becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s
      potential, and self-fulfilment
      The Relevance of the
                   theory
   Deprivation at a lower level,
    causes loss of interest in higher
    level needs.
   A satisfying job at the higher
    levels will raise the level of
    tolerance or deprivation at the
    lower levels.
   When a need at a given level is
    satisfied, the law of diminishing
    returns set in.
   Oversatisfying of a need may
    produce a sense of guilt and/or
    deliberate self-deprivation.
   Different people will feel needs
    with different levels of intensity.
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    Herzberg’s Motivation-
          Hygiene Theory
   Hygiene factors - necessary, but not
    sufficient, for healthy adjustment
    – extrinsic factors; context of work
           company policy and administration
           unhappy relationship with employee's
            supervisor
           poor interpersonal relations with one's
            peers
           poor working conditions
   Motivators - the sources of
    satisfaction
    – intrinsic factors; content of work
           achievement
           recognition
           challenging, varied or interesting work
           responsibility
           advancement
  Contrasting Views of
      Satisfaction and
       Dissatisfaction

         Traditional View

Satisfaction                Dissatisfaction



          Herzberg’s View
               Motivators
Satisfaction                  No Satisfaction


           Hygiene Factors
No Dissatisfaction             Dissatisfaction
Relationship of Various
    Needs Theories



   Maslow             Alderfer      Herzberg        McClelland

 Self-Actualization
                       Growth                    Need for Achievement
                                    Motivators
     Esteem

                                                   Need for Power
   Affiliation        Relatedness
                                    Hygiene
                                                 Need for Affiliation
    Security                         Factors
                      Existence
  Physiological
      Summary of Needs
              Theories

– Maslow: Argues that lower-order needs
  must be satisfied before one progresses to
  higher-order needs.
– Herzberg: Hygiene factors must be met if
  person is not to be dissatisfied. They will
  not lead to satisfaction, however.
  Motivators lead to satisfaction.
– Alderfer: More than one need can be
  important at the same time. If a higher-
  order need is not being met, the desire to
  satisfy a lower-level need increases.
– McClelland: People vary in the types of
  needs they have. Their motivation and
  how well they perform in a work situation
  are related to whether they have a need
  for achievement, affiliation, or power.
        Process Theories of
                Motivation



   Looks at the actual process of
    motivation
    – Expectancy theory
    – Goal-setting theory
           Expectancy Theory


   The strength of a tendency to act in a
    certain way depends on the strength
    of an expectation that the act will be
    followed by a given outcome and on
    the attractiveness of that outcome to
    the individual.
             Expectancy Theory


Individual       Individual        Organizationa       Personal
Effort           Performance       l Rewards           Goals



             1                 2                   3


    1. Effort -performance relationship (expectancy)
    2. Performance -reward relationship
    (instrumentality)
    3. Rewards - personal goals relationship
    (valence)
                          Expectancy
                        Relationships
   The theory focuses on three
    relationships:
    – Effort-performance relationship
           The perceived probability that exerting a
            given amount of effort will lead to
            performance.
    – Performance-reward relationship
           The degree to which the individual believes
            that performing at a particular level will
            lead to a desired outcome.
    – Rewards-personal goals relationship
           The degree to which organizational
            rewards satisfy an individual’s personal
            goals or needs and and are attractive to
            the individual.
    Maximizing Motivation
        Under Expectancy
 If I give maximum effort, will I
  be able to accomplish the task
  expected of me?
 If I give maximum effort, will it
  be recognized by my manager
  and/or in my performance
  appraisal?
 If I receive a good performance
  appraisal, will it lead to
  organizational rewards?
 If I’m rewarded, are the rewards
  ones that I find personally
  attractive?
                            Goal-Setting
                                 Theory
   The theory that specific and
    difficult goals lead to higher
    performance.
    – Goals tell an employee what needs to be
      done and how much effort will need to be
      expended.
    – Specific goals increase performance;
      difficult goals, when accepted, result in
      higher performance than do easy goals;
      and feedback leads to higher performance
      than does nonfeedback.
    – Specific hard goals produce a higher level
      of output than does the generalized goal
      of “do your best.”
           The specificity of the goal itself acts as an
            internal stimulus.
                Management by
                    Objectives
   A program that encompasses
    –   Specific goals
    –   Participative decision-making
    –   Explicit time period
    –   Performance feedback
                    Motivation and
                         Behavior
   Reinforcement Theory
    – Assumes that a desired behavior is
      a function of its consequences, is
      externally caused, and if
      reinforced, is likely to be repeated.
           Positive reinforcement is preferred for
            its long-term effects on performance
           Ignoring undesired behavior is better
            than punishment which may create
            additional dysfunctional behaviors.




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           Expectancy Theory
                          (Vroom)




                1                   2
Individual           Individual          Organisational
  Effort            Performance            Rewards



                                              3

  1. Effort-Performance relationship =
               Expectancy
                                            Personal
2. Performance-Rewards relationship =        Goals
           Instrumentality
3. Rewards-Personal goals relationship =
               Valence



  Prentice           Chapter 6                 27
   Hall,
   How Expectancy Theory
                  Works

Your tutor offers you £1 million if you memorise the textbook by tomorrow
                                   morning.




        Expectancy                      Instrumentality                          Valence


   Effort - Performance Link         Performance - Rewards Link Rewards - Personal Goals L

   No matter how much effort          Your tutor does not look         There are a lot of wonderful things

   you put in, probably not possible like someone who has £1 million      you could do with £1 million

  to memorise the text in 24 hours


            E=0                               I=0                                   V=1




Conclusion: Though you value the reward, you will not be motivated to do
                              this task.
      Designing Motivating
                      Jobs
   Job Design
    – The way into which tasks can be
      combined to form complete jobs.
    – Factors influencing job design:
           Changing organizational
            environment/structure
           The organization’s technology
           Employees’ skill, abilities, and
            preferences
    – Job enlargement
           Increasing the job’s scope (number
            and frequency of tasks)
    – Job enrichment
           Increasing responsibility and
            autonomy (depth) in a job.

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      Designing Motivating
              Jobs (cont’d)

   Job Characteristics Model (JCM)
    – A conceptual framework for
      designing motivating jobs that create
      meaningful work experiences that
      satisfy employees’ growth needs.
    – Five primary job characteristics:
           Skill variety: how many skills and
            talents are needed?
           Task identity: does the job produce a
            complete work?
           Task significance: how important is
            the job?
           Autonomy: how much independence
            does the jobholder have?
        Feedback: do workers know how well
        
        they are doing?
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                        Exhibit 16–7 Guidelines for Job Redesign




Source: J.R. Hackman and J.L. Suttle (eds.). Improving Life at
Work (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1977). With permission
   © 2007 Prentice Hall,
                      of the authors.
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                     Motivation and
                         Perception
   Equity Theory
    – Proposes that employees perceive
      what they get from a job situation
      (outcomes) in relation to what they
      put in (inputs) and then compare
      their inputs-outcomes ratio with
      the inputs-outcomes ratios of
      relevant others.
           If the ratios are perceived as equal
            then a state of equity (fairness) exists.
           If the ratios are perceived as unequal,
            inequity exists and the person feels
            under- or over-rewarded.
           When inequities occur, employees will
            attempt to do something to rebalance
            the ratios (seek justice).
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               Motivation and
           Perception (cont’d)
   Equity Theory (cont’d)
    – Employee responses to perceived
      inequities:
          Distort own or others’ ratios.
          Induce others to change their own
           inputs or outcomes.
          Change own inputs (increase or
           decrease efforts) or outcomes (seek
           greater rewards).
          Choose a different comparison
           (referent) other (person, systems, or
           self).
          Quit their job.
    – Employees are concerned with
      both the absolute and relative
      nature of organizational rewards.
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Exhibit 16–10 Integrating Contemporary Theories
                                  of Motivation




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                Current Issues in
                      Motivation
   Cross-Cultural Challenges
    – Motivational programs are most
      applicable in cultures where
      individualism and quality of life
      are cultural characteristics
           Uncertainty avoidance of some
            cultures inverts Maslow’s needs
            hierarchy.
           The need for achievement (nAch) is
            lacking in other cultures.
           Collectivist cultures view rewards as
            “entitlements” to be distributed based
            on individual needs, not individual
            performance.
    – Cross-Cultural Consistencies
           Interesting work is widely desired, as
            is growth, achievement, and
            responsibility.
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             Current Issues in
            Motivation (cont’d)
   Motivating Unique Groups of
    Workers
    – Motivating a diverse workforce
      through flexibility:
           Men desire more autonomy than do
            women.
           Women desire learning opportunities,
            flexible work schedules, and good
            interpersonal relations.




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             Current Issues in
            Motivation (cont’d)
   Flexible Work/Job schedules
    – Compressed work week
           Longer daily hours, but fewer days
    – Flexible work hours (flextime)
           Specific weekly hours with varying
            arrival, departure, lunch and break
            times around certain core hours during
            which all employees must be present.
    – Job Sharing
           Two or more people split a full-time
            job.
    – Telecommuting
           Employees work from home using
            computer links.


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             Current Issues in
            Motivation (cont’d)
   Motivating Professionals
    – Characteristics of professionals
           Strong and long-term commitment to
            their field of expertise.
           Loyalty is to their profession, not to
            the employer.
           Have the need to regularly update
            their knowledge.
           Don’t define their workweek as 8:00
            am to 5:00 pm.
    – Motivators for professionals
           Job challenge
           Organizational support of their work



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          Current Issues in
         Motivation (cont’d)
   Motivating Contingent Workers
    – Opportunity to become a
      permanent employee
    – Opportunity for training
    – Equity in compensation and
      benefits
   Motivating Low-Skilled,
    Minimum-Wage Employees
    – Employee recognition programs
    – Provision of sincere praise




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              Current Issues in
             Motivation (cont’d)
    Designing Appropriate Rewards
     Programs
     – Open-book management
            Involving employees in workplace
             decision by opening up the financial
             statements of the employer.
     – Employee recognition programs
            Giving personal attention and
             expressing interest, approval, and
             appreciation for a job well done.
     – Pay-for-performance
         Variable compensation plans that
         
         reward employees on the basis of their
         performance:
           – Piece rates, wage incentives,
             profit-sharing, and lump-sum
             bonuses
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             Current Issues in
            Motivation (cont’d)
   Designing Appropriate Rewards
    Programs (cont’d)
    – Stock option programs
           Using financial instruments (in lieu of
            monetary compensation) that give
            employees the right to purchase
            shares of company stock at a set
            (option) price.
           Options have value if the stock price
            rises above the option price; they
            become worthless if the stock price
            falls below the option price.




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    Begin with the end in
                    mind

What are your talents?
 What is your ultimate
      career goal?
What can you achieve in
        2 years?
What are your personal
         goals?
              From Theory to
                    Practice:
                Guidelines for
        Motivating Employees

   Use goals                  Check the system
   Ensure that goals           for equity
    are perceived as           Use recognition
    attainable
                               Show care and
   Individualize               concern for
    rewards                     employees
   Link rewards to            Don’t ignore
    performance                 money




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                             Motivation

               “A great man is one who can
               make a small man feel great,
                   and perform great.”

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc.
All rights res

				
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