Position based Routing Scheme using Concentric Circular Quadrant Routing Protocol in mobile ad hoc network

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					                                                             (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                              Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2011
                      Position based Routing Scheme using Concentric Circular
                        Quadrant Routing Protocol in mobile ad hoc network


                Upendra Verma                                                                       Mr. Vijay Prakash
             M.E. (Research Scholor)                                                                      Asst. Prof.
     Shri Vaishnav Institute Of Science and                                                Shri Vaishnav Institute Of Science and
     Technology Indore(Madhya Pradesh),INDIA                                           Technology Indore(Madhya Pradesh),INDIA
         upendra4567@gmail.com                                                                  vijayprakash15@gmail.com


Abstract— Mobile ad hoc network is a self-organizing and                 games. Manet is also used for location specific services, time
self-configuring network in which, mobile host moved                     dependent services.
freely, due to this disconnection is often occurred between
mobile hosts. In mobile ad hoc network location of mobile                In this scheme, we assumed that the whole network area is a
nodes are frequently changed. Location management is a                   circular. Here this circular area contains another circle, which
crucial issue in manet due to dynamic topologies. In this                is called location server region. We use only one location
paper we propose a position based routing scheme called                  server region in which nodes (location servers) are relative
“Concentric Circular Quadrant Routing Scheme                             fixed.
(CCQRS)”. In this paper we use single location server
region for location update and location query. This                      The rest of paper is organized as follows. In section 2 ,
strategy reduces the cost associated with location update                Classification of Routing Protocol are presented. Section 3
and location query.                                                      gives description of Proposed scheme. Section 4 gives
                                                                         conclusion.
Keywords- mobile adhoc network; routing protocol; Concentric
Circular location management;CCQRS.
                                                                                 II.    CLASSIFICATION OF ROUTING PROTOCOL
                                                                         Routing is the act of moving information from source to
                                                                         destination in internetwork. During this process, at least one
                      I.    INTRODUCTION                                 intermediate node within the internetwork is encountered.
Mobile ad hoc network is self configuring network using
network of mobile nodes connected by wireless link. In manet,            Problem with routing in mobile ad hoc network:
mobile nodes are free to join or leave the network and they
move randomly. Due to this, the network topology is                      – Asymmetric links: Most of the wired networks rely on the
frequently changed, that means dynamic network topology is               symmetric links which are always fixed. But this is not a case
used in manet. Mobile ad hoc network is highly suited for use            with ad-hoc networks as the nodes are mobile and constantly
in situations where fixed infrastructure is not available, not           changing their position within network. For example consider
trusted, too expensive or unreliable. In manet, there is no need         a MANET( Mobile Ad-hoc Network ) where node B sends a
for planning of base station installation or wiring. In manet,           signal to node A but this does not tell anything about the
users accomplishing their task, accessing information and                quality of the connection in the reverse direction.
communicating anytime, anywhere and from any device or
node.                                                                    – Routing Overhead: In wireless adhoc networks, nodes
                                                                         often change their location within network. So, some stale
There are various application of manet. The original                     routes are generated in the routing table which leads to
motivation of manet for military application. In battlefield,            unnecessary routing overhead.
military can not rely on access to fixed infrastructure. Manet is
also used for emergency services such as search and rescue               – Interference: This is the major problem with mobile ad-hoc
operation, disaster recovery, replacement of fixed                       networks as links come and go depending on the transmission
infrastructure in case of environmental disaster, policing and           characteristics, one transmission might interfere with another
fire fighting, supporting doctors and nurses in hospital.                one and node might overhear transmissions of other nodes and
Manet is also used for conference and meeting routs, office              can corrupt the total transmission.
wireless networking, network at construction sites, inter
vehicle network. Manet is also used for education such as                – Dynamic Topology: This is also the major problem with ad-
virtual classrooms, ad hoc communicating during meetings                 hoc routing since the topology is not constant. The mobile
and lectures. Manet is used for entertainment like multi-user            node might move or medium characteristics might change. In




                                                                    44                              http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                    ISSN 1947-5500
                                                          (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                           Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2011
ad-hoc networks, routing tables must somehow reflect these            into four quadrant. Each four quadrants uses the small circle
changes in topology and routing algorithms have to be                 region i.e. location server region for location update and
adapted. For example in a fixed network routing table                 location query. In this scheme only one location server region
updating takes place for every 30sec. This updating frequency         is used. Location server region contains multiple location
might be very low for ad-hoc networks.                                servers.
                                                                      This scheme uses “one for all location service”, i.e. one
There are two types of routing protocol- Table driven routing         location sever region (containing nodes acting as location
protocol (Proactive) and on demand routing protocol                   server) is used for location update and location query.
(Reactive) as shown in table:                                         The architecture of Concentric Circular Quadrant as shown in
                                                                      fig.




                                                                         Figure 1 Concentric Circular Quadrant Architecture

In proactive protocol each and every node in the network              Here, only one location server region say R. It contains many
maintains routing information of every other node in the               nodes acting as location servers. This location server region
network. Routing information is generally kept in the routing         will stores complete location information of a node. Complete
tables and it is periodically updated as network topology                    location information consists of nodeid, quadrant
changes. Proactive protocol is suitable for small network not         number, x-coordinate, y-coordinate.
for larger network because protocol need to maintains node
entries for each and every node in the routing table. This                A. Location Server Update:
causes more overhead in the routing table leading to
consumption of more bandwidth.                                           Let’ p’ be a node in the network. There are two movement
Reactive Protocol is a protocol, they don’t maintain routing          of p:
information. If a node want to send message to another node           i)         movement within the region (Quadrant)
then this protocol searches for route in on demand manner and         ii)        movement between the region(Quadrant).
establish connection in order to transmit and receive the
message. The route discovery occurs by flooding the route                 i)   Movement within the region(Quadrant):-
request packets throughout the network.
here, we will use DSDV ( Distance sequenced distance vector)          Whenever node ‘p’ moves from one location to other location
Protocol. DSDV is a proactive protocol, which is based on             within the same quadrant. In this situation, after movement
bellman ford algorithm. It was developed by c peakins and P.          node p informs to location server. Location server updates the
bhagwat in 1994. DSDV solve the routing loop problem. For             existing location information related to node p as shown fig.
routing loop problem, each entry in the routing table contains
a sequence number.


         III.   DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED SCHEME
A position based routing scheme called “Concentric Circular
Quadrant Routing Scheme (CCQRS)” is used for location
update and location query. In this scheme I have assumed that
whole network area as circular. In this scheme a small circle
region called location server region denoted by R is in the
other circular area. This circular area divides




                                                                 45                             http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                ISSN 1947-5500
                                                           (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                            Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2011




                                                                                Figure 4: Location query within the quadrant
           Figure 2: movement within the quadrant
                                                                           ii) Location query between the quadrants:

    ii) Movement between the region(Quadrant):-                        Node P sends a message to node R. here, node P is in a
                                                                       quadrant and node R is in other quadrant. In this situation node
Whenever node ‘P’ moves from one location to other location            P sends the message to one of the location servers, which is in
between the quadrants (i.e. different quadrant). In this               location server region. The location server contains the
situation, after movement node P informs to same location              complete information for node R. Location server sends
server means that in this situation same location server region        message directly to node R as shown in fig. Same procedure
is used. Location server updates the existing location                 for both queries because of only one location server region.
information related to node P as shown in fig.




                                                                               Figure 5: Location query between the quadrants
          Figure 3: movement between the quadrant
                                                                                     IV.   PROPOSED ALGORITHMS

    B. Location query:
                                                                           •    Algorithm for movement of nodes within the
                                                                                quardrand
There are two cases for location query:
    i)       Location query within the quadrant
                                                                                Let us take: Q0,Q1,Q2,Q3 [for quadrants]
    ii)      Location query between the quadrants
                                                                                             P [for node]
    i)   Location query within the quadrant:
                                                                                1.   begin: node p move from one location to another
                                                                                     location [Q0toQ0 or Q1toQ1 etc.] within the
Node P sends a message to node R. in this situation node P
                                                                                     quadrant
sends the message to one of the location servers, which is in
                                                                                2.   move: moverment of nodes within the quadrant.
location server region. The location server contains the
                                                                                     After movement the information of node (radius
complete information for node R. Location server sends
                                                                                     r) is changed in location server of location server
message directly to node R as shown in fig.
                                                                                     region.




                                                                  46                               http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                   ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                         (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                          Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2011

           3.   protocol: for communication any on e of the                          [10] Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) Charter. Work in progress.
                                                                                     http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/manet-charter.html, 1998.
                protocols is used (e.g.
                DSDV,AODV,DSR,LARetc)
                                                                                                               AUTHORS PROFILE
           4.   store: New information is stored into the location
                server
           5.   repeat:[step 1 to step 2] for new moving nodes

      •    Algorithm for movement of nodes across the
           quadrant

           1.   begin: node p move from one location to another
                location [Q0toQ1 or Q1toQ2 etc.] within the
                quadrant                                                             Authors1: He is pursuing Master of Engg. (M.E.) in Computer Science and
           2.   move: moverment of nodes within the quadrant.                            Engg. From Shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology and Science Indore
                After movement the information of node (radius                           RGPV university Bhopal. Submitted Project Title “ Location
                                                                                         Management in MANET”. Completed B.E.(Computer Science) from
                r and quadrant number) is changed in location                            R.G.P.V. ,Bhopal.
                server of location server region
           3.   Protocol: for communication any on e of the
                protocols is used (e.g.
                DSDV,AODV,DSR,LARetc)
           4.   Store: New information (radius r and quadrant
                number) is stored into the location server
           5.   Repeat:[step 1 to step 2] for new moving nodes


                           V.     CONCLUSION
                                                                                     Authore2: Working as an Assistant Professor ( CSE dept. ) , Shri Vaishnav
                                                                                         Insstitute of Technology and Science Indore. M.E. from I.E.T. DAVV
In this paper I propose a position based routing scheme called                           University.
“Concentric Circular Quadrant Routing Scheme (CCQRS)”. In
this paper we use single location server region for location
location update and location query. This strategy reduces the
cost associated with location update and location query. This
strategy reduces the cost associated with location update and
location query.


                           VI.    REFERNECES


[1]   Denin Li Chenwen wang Jian Fang, Jie Zhon, Jiacum Wang “ Reliable
      Backbone based location management scheme for mobile ad hoc
      network , 2010 IEEE
[2]   Kausik Majumdar, Subir kumar sarkar “ Multilevel Location
      Information based routing for mobile ad hoc network.
[3]   Shyr-Kuen Chen, Tay-you Chen, Pi-Cheng wang “ Spatial aware
      location for mobile ad hoc network”,2009 IEEE.
[4]   GS Tomar, RS Tomar, “ Position based routing for mobile ad hoc
      nerwork” 2008 IEEE.
[5]   Strategies for data location management in mobile ad hoc network”,
      2005 IEEE.
[6]   Mujtaba khambatti and Sarath Akkineni, “ Location management in peer
      to peer mobile ad hoc network”, May 2002 IEEE.
[7]   Jipeng Zhou, Zhengjun Lu, Jianzhu Lu, Shuqiang Huang “ Location
      Service for mobile ad hoc networks with Holes”, 2010 IEEE.
[8]   D.P. Agrawal and Q.A. Zeng , "Wireless and Mobile Systems," Second
      Edition, Thomson, 2006.
[9]   L. Blazevic, J.Y. La Boudec, and S. Giordano, "A location-based routing
      method for mobile ad-hoc Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile
      Computing, Vol. 4, No. 2, March/April 2005, pp. 97-110




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