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					Name                                                    Date                   Hour

Questions we will address:
 What do plants need?
 What do plants use for food?
 What is photosynthesis?
 Why do I breathe oxygen?
 Why do I eat food?

Table of Contents
 Photosynthesis Q&A
 Plant Requirements brainstorm (not included)
 Balloon Plants Lab
 Digging Deeper
 BTB/Elodea Lab
 Death of a Producer
 Think Green
 Factors Influencing the Rate of Photosynthesis Inquiry Lab
 Burning Chip Lab
 Cellular Respiration Notes
 Review: Biochemistry, Cell Transport, Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration

                                  Brandi Williams
                                   Think Green
Name                                                                     Date                     Hour

                                   Photosynthesis Q & A
Q: What does photosynthesis mean?
A: Photosynthesis is made of the following word parts:
   “photo” means light
   “synth” means to put together or make
   “esis” means process
   So photosynthesis literally means “the process of using light to put together or make”.

Q: What is photosynthesis?
A: Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make their own food. This is important,
   because, as we know, food provides us with energy.

Q: What is an organism that makes its own food called?
A: Organisms that make their own food are called “producers” or “autotrophs”.
  (Organisms that do not make their own food are heterotrophs.)
   “Auto” means self
   “Troph” means food or nutrition
   So autotrophs, or producers, provide themselves with food or nutrition

Q: Why do plants need to make their own food?
A: Plants are sessile organisms, which means that they are anchored to one spot. Since
   plants can’t move around, they are unable to forage or scavenge for food.
   Even if plants were able to go out and find food to eat, they have no digestive organs
   to break the food down into a form useful to cells.

Q: What do plants need in order to survive?
A: In order to survive, plants must be able to carry out photosynthesis. Several things must be
   present in order for photosynthesis to occur. Make a list below about what you hypothesize
   plants need in order to survive. __________________________________________________

Define the following terms in your own words:




                                             Brandi Williams
                                              Think Green
Name                                                        Date                Hour

                                Materials (per group)
                    Clear balloon             200 mL beaker
                    120 mL potting soil         Radish seeds
                     200 mL beaker              60 mL water
                    Funnel                      Paper towel
                  Students will work at their lab stations in groups.
  1. Obtain a clear balloon, 120 mL potting soil, several radish seeds, and 60 mL
  2. Hold the balloon upright firmly by its neck.
  3. Throughout the experiment, continue to hold the balloon upright. Do not
       tip or turn the balloon on its side at any point in the experiment.
  4. Place a funnel’s narrow end into the open end of the balloon.
  5. Pour the soil that you have measured through the funnel and into the
  6. Pour the water that you have measured through the funnel into the
  7. Drop the radish seeds through the funnel into the balloon.
  8. If the exterior of your balloon has gotten dirty, wipe the dirt away with a
       paper towel.
  10.Blow the balloon up, so that it is as full as possible without bursting.
  11.Your balloon is ready to be hung in a light area to determine whether your
       seeds will grow! Ask your teacher where and how to hang your plant.
  12.Clean your lab station and return to your seat.
                                     Brandi Williams
                                      Think Green
Name                                                                     Date                       Hour

                                           Digging Deeper

Question: Do acorns and full grown oak trees weigh the same? Where does all of the
matter come from that allows an acorn to gain so much mass? As the tree grows from a tiny
acorn to mighty oak, the additional matter in the tree must come from somewhere. But
where does it come from? That’s the question Jean-Baptiste van Helmont asked himself
several hundred years ago.

Where do you think the matter in an oak tree comes from? Write your hypothesis here.

 Let's travel back in time 350 years. It is now the year 1642. We are in Europe. It is a time of
excitement and exploration and travel in this part of the world. Some people have found
what they call a New World across the ocean (it is actually a very old world to the Native
Americans living in this "New" World)! More and more people are getting interested in
finding out about the why's of the world around us -- more people are interested in and
finding benefactors who will pay them to do science experiments.

We are going to meet one of these early scientists. He is a physician but he also does
experiments with plants. His name is Jan-Baptiste Van Helmont. He is from the country of
Belgium and the year 1642. Almost everyone back in 1642 was sure that soil was the food
for plants. Jean-Baptiste Van Helmont decided to prove them right (or wrong?).

Is soil food for plants? Write your hypothesis here. _______________________

Suppose a child was given 200 pounds of food to eat. Predict what would happen to the
weight of that child as he or she gobbled up the food. Does the child's weight go up, go
down, or stay the same? ____________________________________

What would happen to the weight of the food on the table as the child ate it? Does the
weight of the food go up, go down, or stay the same? ___________________

Now think about a young tree planted in a bucket of soil. As the tree grows it gains weight.
Does it gain weight from the soil the way a child gains weight from food?
_______________________ Is the soil a kind of food for the plant? ________ Write down below
whether you think the weight of the soil will go up, go down, or stay the same as the tree
grows: _____________________________________

In the 1600's everyone thought that the soil and minerals in the soil were the food for the
plants. A scientist named Jan Van Helmont did an experiment to see if this was true. He
planted a five-pound young willow tree (Salix sp.) weighing five pounds in a bucket
containing 200 pounds of soil. He watered the tree regularly but he did not add any more

                                            Brandi Williams
                                             Think Green
Name                                                                     Date                         Hour

After five years, van-Helmont weighed the tree again and found that it weighed 174
pounds, however, the weight of the soil only decreased by two ounces! In the chart below,
record the initial and final weights of both the tree and the soil.

                                                 Tree                                 Soil

       Original Weight

   Weight after Five Years

What do you think Van Helmont concluded? Is soil a food for plants? Why or why not?


 Does Van Helmont's experiment give us evidence to say that soil is or is not food for
plants? Explain your thinking.

Are minerals in the soil food for plants? _______________________________

Everyone says that plants take in minerals from the soil. Minerals do not have very much
weight, but they do weigh something. So do you think Dr. Van Helmont’s tree took in
minerals from the soil? _______

About how much weight did the tree get from the minerals?_______

Do you think this amount of minerals could explain how the tree gained 164 pounds?
Explain your thinking._______________________________________________________________________________

Is water food for plants? Van Helmont thought that his experiment was evidence that
water must be food for plants. He thought that if soil and the minerals in the soil were not
giving the tree its food, then the tree must be gaining weight by getting food from the
water. After all, he had been watering the tree everyday for five years.

 Water helps the tree to grow, but does it give the tree energy? Could the tree live and grow
if all it took in was water? Explain your thinking. _________________________________________________

Before van-Helmont’s experiment, where did people believe that trees got their food?
                                            Brandi Williams
                                             Think Green
Name                                                                     Date                       Hour

Briefly summarize van-Helmont’s experiment. What was he testing? What was his
procedure? What materials did he use? What were his observations? Conclusion?

In science, experiments more often than not lead to more questions than they do answers.
What question was answered by van-Helmont’s experiment?

What did van-Helmont erroneously conclude from his experiment? __________________________

Why is it important that scientists continuously experiment on topics that other scientists
have already made a conclusion about? (Hint: Think about the conclusion van-Helmont
drew from his experiment.) _____________________________________________________________________

What does soil provide for plants? _________________________________________________________________

                                            Brandi Williams
                                             Think Green
Name                                                                        Date                        Hour

4 test tubes                     4 pieces of tape          Water
Bromothymol blue (BTB)           Drinking Straw            2 sprigs of Elodea
4 test tube stoppers             Well-lit area                      Dark area
Test tube rack                   Goggles                   Colored pencils

To avoid swallowing BTB, do not place the straw very far down into the liquid. Blow slowly.

                                                    Day 1

    1. ____      Put on goggles.
               You are wearing goggles now, aren’t you? ________

    2. ____     Obtain the materials listed above.
                Do you have everything you need? ________

    3. ____     With your 4 pieces of tape, label your 4 test tubes A, B, C, and D.

    4. ____     Also write your group number and hour on the tape.

    5. ____     Attach the tape to the test tubes.
                Are your 4 test tubes labeled now? _______

    6. ____     Fill all 4 test tubes 2/3 full of water and place them in your test
                tube rack.

    7. ____     Add a dropper full of BTB to each test tube. What color is the liquid inside of the test
        tubes? _________________

    8. ____     Color the test tubes on Figure 1 the same color as the liquid inside each of the test
        tubes. Does this color indicate that carbon dioxide is present or absent? _____________

    9. ____     Place a straw in test tube A.

    10. ____    Blow into the straw slowly.
                Do not allow the solution to exit the test tube.
                Do you understand the instructions? ________ If not, contact your instructor.

                                                Brandi Williams
                                                 Think Green
Name                                                                      Date                       Hour

  11. ____    Blow into test tube A for five minutes.
              Remember to blow slowly, so that the solution does not overflow!
              Write the time you began blowing below.
              Add five minutes to that time so that you know when to stop.

                      A: Time began __________                   Time to stop _________

  12. ____    Repeat steps 8 and 9 for test tubes B, C, and D.

                      B: Time began __________                   Time to stop _________

                      C: Time began __________                   Time to stop _________

                      D: Time began __________                   Time to stop _________

  13. ____    In the blank spaces on Figure 2, write what you have added to the solution.

  14.____     Color the test tubes in Figure 2 to reflect the color of your solution.

  15.____     Now, place a sprig of Elodea into test tubes B and D.
              Which test tubes do not contain Elodea? __________________

  16.____     Place a stopper on all 4 test tubes.

  17.____      Place test tubes A and B in the well-lit area designated by your instructor. Be careful not
  to disturb other test tubes in the area.

  18.____     Place test tubes C and D in the dark area designated by your instructor. Be careful not to
  disturb other test tubes in the area.

  19.____     Clean your lab area and throw your straws away.
              Ask your instructor to initial here when your lab area is clean. ____

  20.____     Sit at your desk and complete day one questions.

                                   Day 2 (After 48 hours)
  1. ____     Observe your four test tubes.
              Do you have your test tubes and not another group’s? _______

  2. ____     Color the test tubes in Figure 3 to reflect the colors of your solutions.

  3. ____     Throw your Elodea in the trashcan, and pour your solutions down the sink.
              How do you dispose of the Elodea? _______________________

  4. ____     Clean your test tubes, other equipment and lab table.
              Ask your instructor to initial here when your lab area is clean. ____
                                             Brandi Williams
                                              Think Green
Name                                                                  Date              Hour

  5. ____     Sit quietly at your desk and complete the following questions.

                                        Day 1 Questions

  1. What does bromothymol blue (BTB) test for?

  2. Typically, what color is BTB?

  3. What color does BTB become when its substrate is present?

  4. Did the liquid inside the test tube change colors when you blew into it?

  5. If so, what does this color change mean?

  6. What do you exhale when you breathe out?

  7. What did you add to the solution in the test tube when you blew into it?

  8. What plant did we use for this experiment? _____________________

                                      Day 2 Questions

  1. What happened in each test tube after 48 hours?

       A: ______________________________________________________

       B: ______________________________________________________

       C: ______________________________________________________

       D: ______________________________________________________

  2. What does a reversal in the color change of the solution in the tubes represent?

  3. Based on your observations, what can you conclude about what plants require?

                           Figure 1: Color of the Water and BTB solution

                                          Brandi Williams
                                           Think Green
Name                                                     Date         Hour

              Figure 2: Color of the Water and BTB Solution
                       After Blowing Into the Straw

       Figure 3: Color of the Water and BTB Solution After 48 Hours

                    Well-Lit Area               Dark Area

                                 - 10 –
                             Brandi Williams
                              Think Green
Name                                                                    Date                       Hour

                                     Death of a Producer
It was a lazy Saturday morning as Mrs. Williams began fishing in her new pond. Actually, it had
been over four years since the dam was built. Three summers had passed since she stocked the
pond with fish. The water had cleared. It reflected the blue of the sky.

“Woo-hoo! A strike!” Mrs. Williams yelled, as if to let her cows in on the thrill of landing a big one.
As she fought the fish close to shore, it became snarled in the Elodea, water plants that Mrs.
Williams finds useful in her biology classes, that were growing a few feet from shore. As quickly as
it had struck, the fish was gone! Mrs. Williams labored to reel in several long strands of the fuzzy
green plant.

“Darn that stuff,” Mrs. Williams thought. “I didn’t realize so much had grown. Well, I’ll fix that.” She
drove back to the barn and got the chemical she knew would kill most of the Elodea. She returned
to the pond and applied the amount of the herbicide recommended on the label.

A few weeks later Mrs. Williams decided that she would try her luck again. As she topped the dam,
she couldn’t believe what she saw and smelled! All along the shore where the Elodea had been was
a dark, slimy, foul-smelling blob that reminded her of the Bog of Eternal Stench from Labyrinth, one
of her favorite movies. (I just thought I would throw in an obscure movie reference to see if you
were paying attention!) This blob was composed of bacteria feeding on the dead plants. Bloated and
floating belly-side-up were hundreds of fish. Among the large ones, Mrs. Williams knew she
recognized “the one that got away.” She felt both angry and sad (the same way she feels when you
don’t do your homework!). Her thoughts of disbelief turned into confusion and anxiety. How had
this happened, she wondered. The herbicide chemical she had used was not toxic (poisonous) to
animal life- only to plants.

Not sure of just how to handle this problem, Mrs. Williams decided to call the Game and Wildlife
Department. As an employee of this department, you answered the phone and began speaking to
Mrs. Williams about her problem. Mrs. Williams explained to you what had happened, and you
assured her that she had used the herbicide correctly. The herbicide was not directly responsible
for the death of the fish. You offered to come to the pond to do some testing, because your biology
teacher turned you into a big, knowledgeable scientist. Because of your knowledge of scientific
method, you made a hypothesis based on Mrs. Williams’ story and you wanted to test it.

The next day you brought your equipment out to the pond. You took several samples of the water
from different places around the pond and some at different depths. The result of the testing
confirmed your hypothesis. The amount of oxygen in the water had decreased below the limit that
could be tolerated by most fish.

You suggested that Mrs. Williams dredge the pond in order to remove the dead Elodea and fish. You
explained to Mrs. Williams that in a few weeks when the bad smell was gone, the pond would once
again contain the normal levels of oxygen. Of course, it would take three or four weeks after
restocking with fish before Mrs. Williams could once again try for “that big one”.

Mrs. Williams shook her head in disbelief. What did dead plants have to do with the oxygen content
in the water?

You realized Mrs. Williams’ confusion and set up an experiment for her to observe.

                                                - 11 –
                                            Brandi Williams
                                             Think Green
Name                                                                     Date                    Hour

                                               First, you prepared two identical set-ups in the
                                               following manner. Several sprigs of healthy Elodea
                                               were placed at the bottom of a funnel. The inverted
                                               funnel (inverted means upside-down, like the funnel
                                               on the Tin Man’s head in the Wizard of Oz, another of
                                               my favorite movies!) was positioned in a large test
                                               tube of water. A test tube full of water was inverted
                                               over the narrow end of the funnel. One set-up was
                                               left in the dark and another was left in the light.
                                               What was the identity of the gas produced? You
                                               placed a glowing splint into its mouth. It burst into
                                               flame! This means that the gas produced was

                                               Now Mrs. Williams understood the relationship
                                               between the dead plants and the dead fish. Green
                                               plants use light energy to produce oxygen.
                                               Photosynthesis is responsible, once again!
The process of photosynthesis enables green plants to use light. In addition to food, the producers
also give off oxygen. In fact, all the world’s green plants supply the earth with oxygen, just like an
entire pond’s green plants provide all of the fish in the pond with oxygen. A large percent of the
world’s supply of oxygen is produced by the large number of algae (phytoplankton) thriving in the
upper levels of the oceans. Considering this, pollution of the oceans may harm the algae and lower
the amount of oxygen produced by photosynthesis. (That would create a bigger problem than Mrs.

Without photosynthesis, life as we know it would not exist. Without our source of food and oxygen
production, where would we be?


1. What environmental variable killed the Elodea?

2. Which environmental variable killed the fish?

3. Why was there a lack of oxygen?

4. In the experiment that you, the biologist, conducted, why didn’t oxygen appear
 in the test tube of the Elodea left in the dark?

5. Describe the test that you, the biologist, used to detect the presence of

6. What are producers?

                                                - 12 –
                                            Brandi Williams
                                             Think Green
Name                                                                  Date             Hour

7. Explain the impact an oil spill would have on oxygen production.

8. A friend who is not biology-savvy cleans out your aquarium and removes all of the
 soil and plants, leaving only the fish and the water. Predict what will happen and
 explain why.

9. I saw a bumper sticker the other day that asked, “Have you thanked a green
 plant today?” Give two reasons to thank a green plant.

                                              - 13 –
                                          Brandi Williams
                                           Think Green
Name                                                            Date              Hour

                            What types of food do plants produce,
                                and where do they store it?

                                           Data Table
                                 Geranium Kept        Geranium Kept in   Coleus
                                    in Light                Dark




Leaf After



Leaf after

                                            - 14 –
                                        Brandi Williams
                                         Think Green
Name                                                         Date                   Hour

  1. For which substrate is Lugol’s iodine used as an indicator? _____________
  2. What color is Lugol’s iodine? ____________
  3. What color is Lugol’s iodine when it reacts with its substrate? ___________
  4. Describe how you would test a substance for the presence of starch.
  5. What differences did you observe between the geranium leaf of the plant placed
     in the dark compared to the geranium leaf of the plant left in the light?
  6. With which geranium leaf did the Lugol’s iodine react?
  7. What substance is present in this leaf? _________________________________
  8. What did you notice about the different areas of the coleus leaf when it was
     treated with Lugol’s iodine?
  9. Which portion of the coleus leaf reacted with the Lugol’s iodine?
  10. What substance is present in these portions of the coleus leaf? _________
  11. What is the significance of the presence of this substance in leaves? (See
      Problem or Objectives on page 1 of this packet for help.
  12. What green pigment, found in cells, is responsible for photosynthesis?
  13. In which plant organelle can you find these pigments? __________________
  14. Use a colored pencil to color each box on table one that contains the
      substrate __________________.

                                         - 15 –
                                     Brandi Williams
                                      Think Green
Name                                                                         Date                   Hour

Today, you will choose one of the following variables and design an experiment to determine how that
variable affects the rate of photosynthesis. The variables are:

                 Intensity (brightness) of light
                 Wavelength (color) of light
                 Amount of carbon dioxide present (you will add sodium bicarbonate to the water to
                  create CO2)
                 Temperature
                 Would you like to test a variable not listed here? Discuss it with your instructor.

You will determine the rate of photosynthesis by measuring the amount of oxygen or counting the
number of oxygen bubbles released from an underwater plant. Below are suggestions about how to set
up your experiment.

Elodea sprig in a test tube:

Underwater leaf:

Elodea twig in inverted test tube:

Floating discs:

You will create a data table for your results. You will also complete a lab report for this lab.
                                                 LAB REPORT

                                                   - 16 –
                                               Brandi Williams
                                                Think Green
Name                                               Date   Hour




Safety Precautions:


Observations/Qualitative Data:

                                     - 17 –
                                 Brandi Williams
                                  Think Green
Name                                               Date   Hour

Quantitative Data/Data Tables:


                                     - 18 –
                                 Brandi Williams
                                  Think Green
Name                                           Date   Hour




       Experimental Group:

       Control Group:

                                 - 19 –
                             Brandi Williams
                              Think Green
Name                            Date   Hour



                  - 20 –
              Brandi Williams
               Think Green
Name                                                Date   Hour

Tips for Further Investigation:

                                      - 21 –
                                  Brandi Williams
                                   Think Green
Name                                        Date     Hour


By doing the Burning Chip lab, I learned that __________
                            - 22 –
                        Brandi Williams
                         Think Green
Name                                                         Date   Hour

Plants turn sunlight into food during ___________________________.
Animals get food by eating. So, then, how does food get turned into

An organelle called the __________________________ turns food into
energy. This process is called _________________________________.

Here’s how it works:
  1. An organism makes or eats food.
  2. The food must be burned to create energy, so the organism takes
     in ________________________.
  3. This creates energy in the form of a molecule called ___________.
  4. Wastes are also created. One of the wastes is
     _________________, which we exhale.
  5. Another waste is water, which we _____________________ out.

                 Glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water


                Carbon dioxide


                                      - 23 –
                                  Brandi Williams
                                   Think Green
Name                                                             Date                    Hour

          Exam Review: Biochemistry, Cell Transport, Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration

Biochemistry Packet:
1. Complete the indicator chart below.
                   Biuret          Iodine         Brown     BTB                 Benedict’s
                                                  paper bag





2. List the 4 biomolecules. Next to each, describe its composition and state its function.
   Additionally, give an example of each.

3. What are polysaccharides made of?
4. What is starch made of?
5. What are proteins made of?
6. What are nucleic acids made of?

7. What do enzymes do?

                                            - 24 –
                                        Brandi Williams
                                         Think Green
Name                                                                  Date            Hour

8. What is amylase? What does amylase do to starch?

9. Plants store glucose as ___________________________________________.
10. How is glucose important to living things?

11. Why do animals have amylase?

12. Why do plants have amylase?

13. Why do bacteria have amylase?

14. What causes decomposition of plant material?

Cell Transport Packet

15. What is diffusion? What causes diffusion to occur?

16. Diffusion will stop when what occurs?
17. What is a solution? Use the terms “solute” and “solvent” in your response.

18. What does the term “concentration” mean?

19. What does the cell membrane have that allows materials to pass through it?
20. What types of substances are allowed to pass through the cell membrane?

21. Which of the following substances are able to pass through the cell membrane: glucose,
    starch, water?

22. What is a concentration gradient?

23. What does the term “semi-permeable membrane” refer to?

                                              - 25 –
                                          Brandi Williams
                                           Think Green
Name                                                            Date                  Hour

24. What do the following terms mean: hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic? In which direction
    does water move in each?

25. What is the job of the cell membrane?

26. What is the difference between active transport and passive transport?

27. What is diffusion?

28. What is osmosis?

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Packet
29. What is photosynthesis?

30. What are producers?

31. What are autotrophs?

32. What does sessile mean?

33. What do plants need in order to survive?

34. What does soil provide for plants?

35. What is food for plants?

36. What do animals exhale?

37. What gas do plants require?

38. What two things do plants provide for animals?

39. What type of food do plants produce, and where do they store it?

40. In which organelle does photosynthesis occur?

41. What are the factors that influence the rate of photosynthesis?

42. What is the equation for photosynthesis?

                                             - 26 –
                                         Brandi Williams
                                          Think Green
Name                                                      Date   Hour

43. What does photosynthesis require?

44. What does photosynthesis produce?

45. What does cellular respiration require?

46. What does cellular respiration produce?

47. What is the purpose of cellular respiration?

48. In which organelle does cellular respiration occur?

49. What is ATP?

                                            - 27 –
                                        Brandi Williams
                                         Think Green
Name                                                              Date          Hour


                                      400 mL beaker
                                          Hot plate
                                       Beaker tongs
                                         Oven mitt
                              1 geranium leaf kept in the dark
                              1 geranium leaf kept in the light
                                      Colored pencils
                                       Lugol’s iodine
                                        1 coleus leaf

Demo Procedure

  1. Prepare for class by starting an alcohol bath and by placing the three leaves
      (coleus, geranium- dark, geranium- light) in labeled bags. (You may want to do
      six leaves so that all students can make observations at the same time.
  2. Pass the bags around the class and have the students draw what they observe
      in the observation table with colored pencils.
  3. Put on goggles, and have students put on goggles.
  4. Tear the stem off of the leaf that has been kept in the dark.
  5. Carefully, with foreceps, place both of your geranium leaves and the coleus leaf
      in the alcohol in the hot water bath. Be extremely careful
  6. Boil your leaves until they are nearly white.
      Using forceps, remove your leaves from the alcohol.
  8. Hold the leaves up so that students can make observations about and draw the
  9. Add several droppers full of Lugol’s iodine to each leaf and wait one to two
  10. Pour the excess iodine off of each leaf into the sink.
  11. Place the leaves back into the bags and pass them around the class for
      students to draw and observe.

                                        - 28 –
                                    Brandi Williams
                                     Think Green
Name                     Date   Hour

           - 29 –
       Brandi Williams
        Think Green