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					Transporting the Next Generation of
CO2 for CCS
          Presenter : Patricia Seevam
          Sept 2010




Presentation Structure


     Introduction

     Existing Experience with CO2 Pipelines

     Next Generation CO2 Pipelines

     Technical Challenges

     On-going Research Projects

     Challenges in deploying CCS

     Conclusions




                                              1
CCS - Introduction

  Carbon Capture & Storage involves capturing CO2 from a
  source (e.g. power plant), transporting it via pipeline to be
  stored in a storage site (aquifer, reservoir etc)




Decarbonising hydrocarbons

• CCS is the critical technology to
  making this happen

• Can cut CO2 emissions from
  industrial sources by 90%

• Can contribute 20% of the emissions
  reductions needed by 2050 (IEA)
• A bridging technology to longer-term
  alternative energy sources
• Enabling:
   − low carbon power generation
   − low carbon oil and gas production
   − and low carbon unconventional oil
• CCS expected to be deployed at
  scale by 2030




                                                                  2
Oil and Gas


 Exploration & Production
 Pipelines are the cheapest &
 safest option for transcontinental
 transportation
 Well established field with high
 returns
 Transportation of CO2 to various
 sinks is practical with pipelines
 To meet emission targets, etc.,
 major CO2 pipeline projects will
 need to be completed over the
 next 20 years.




Presentation Structure


     Introduction

     Existing Experience with CO2 Pipelines

     Next Generation CO2 Pipelines

     Technical Challenges

     On-going Research Projects

     Challenges in deploying CCS

     Conclusions




                                              3
Existing Experience with CO2 Pipelines

                          MAOP       Length
          Pipeline                              Origin of CO2
                           (bar)      (km)

Val Verde                   --        130     Anthropogenic

Bairoil                     --        180     Anthropogenic

Weyburn                  Up to 204    328     Anthropogenic

Cortez                     186        808     Natural

Sheep Mountain             132        660     Natural

Bravo                      165        350     Natural

Central Basin Pipeline     170        278     Natural

Bati Raman                 170        90      Natural




CO2 Network – Example in the USA


                                                                Anthropogenic




                                                                Natural




                                                                                4
Presentation Structure


       Introduction

       Existing Experience with CO2 Pipelines

       Next Generation CO2 Pipelines

       Technical Challenges

       On-going Research Projects

       Challenges in deploying CCS

       Conclusions




CO2 Pipelines : Tomorrow


•   We have CO2 pipelines, but they are for EOR mostly from
    natural sources. New pipelines will include storage and
    will be from anthropogenic sources
•   Larger volumes of CO2 will be transported thus requiring a
    larger infrastructure
•   The CO2 will contain impurities due to different capture
    technologies
•   Power plant operation would need to be considered along
    with the synchronisation between capture, transport and
    storage
•   Re-use of infrastructure would be a new possible addition
    to the CO2 transport strategy
•   Health & Safety Regulations/ pipeline design codes would
    need to be ‘updated’ or developed for anthropogenic CO2
    pipelines




                                                                 5
Key differences between existing and ‘new’


• Current Experience
  − High pressure supercritical CO2 pipelines
  − For EOR
  − Natural sources of CO2
  − Sparsely populated areas
• Anthropogenic CO2 pipelines for CCS
  − Impurities
  − Gas phase or possible re-use of infrastructure
  − CO2 from capture plants and transient power plant
    operation
  − Larger volumes to be transported
  − Risks as it may go through populated areas




CO2 Compositional Specification




                                                        Ref: PhD thesis P.Seevam (Newcastle University)




                                                                                                          6
      Effect of Impurities on Pipeline
           Design & Operation

  Cause of                                      Effect on
                           CO2                   Pipeline
  Differing
Compositions            composition             Transport
 Requirements for EOR/Storage                 Pipeline integrity
 Source of CO2
                                              Flow Assurance
 Pre-treatment
                                              Operation

                                              H&S




Presentation Structure


     Introduction

     Existing Experience with CO2 Pipelines

     Next Generation CO2 Pipelines

     Technical Challenges

     On-going Research Projects

     Challenges in deploying CCS

     Conclusions




                                                                   7
Technical Challenges

•   CO2 compositional specification
    −   What is acceptable from a technical, economic and and regulatory perspective
        (e.g. hydraulics, health & Safety, materials, EOR and storage requirements)
•   Materials
    −   Fracture propagation: Understanding the decompression characteristics of
        anthropogenic CO2
•   Physical properties of anthropogenic CO2
    −   Modelling or defining the phase properties of anthropogenic CO2
    −   Equation of state
•   Water Specification
    −   Corrosion: Dryness specification and the effect of impurities on water solubility
    −   Evaluation of risk of hydrate formation
•   Release Modelling (Pipeline Safety)
    −   Source term etc
•   Transient behaviour
    −   Start up, shut down, line pack etc
    −   Synchronisation between capture, transport and storage
•   Pipeline Integrity Assessment - Inspection tools and methodology
    −   Can we inspect these pipelines?
    −   Re-use of existing infrastructure




Presentation Structure


           Introduction

           Existing Experience with CO2 Pipelines

           Next Generation CO2 Pipelines

           Technical Challenges

           On-going Research Projects

           Challenges in deploying CCS

           Conclusions




                                                                                            8
CO2 Pipeline Research Projects


• DNV JIP– Recommended practise for design, construction,
  operation and maintenance of CO2 pipelines ( PIPETRANS)
• MATRAN (Newcastle University) - Materials for Next Generation
  CO2 Pipeline Transport Systems (MATTRAN) is a multi-consortium
  project sponsored by the Engineering and Physical Sciences
  Research Council (EPSRC) with the aim of providing the tools and
  information necessary for pipeline engineers to select appropriate
  materials and operating conditions to control corrosion, stress
  corrosion cracking and fracture propagation in pipelines and
  associated equipment carrying supercritical CO2 from the capture
  processes likely to be realised in the near and long term future
• COOLTRANS (National Grid)) – investigating dense phase CO2
  covering aspects of pipeline design requirements, risk assessment,
  environmental impact and safe operation which would in turn
  inform regulation and codes for safe operation of anthropogenic
  pipelines.




CO2 Pipeline Research Projects


• CO2 VIP (Verification and Improvement Project (Norway) –
  Improvement in hydraulic modelling software which will include
  steady state and transient experiments (6 industrial partners have
  confirmed their participation: Petronas, Inpex, Shell, Statoil, Gassco
  and Chiyoda)
• GERG, PRCI research initiative on CO2 materials and property
  modelling
• IFE Norway - research on anthropogenic CO2 corrosion with focus
  on the effect of impurities (SO2, NOx, H2S, O2 and glycol) on
  corrosion and the precipitation of a corrosive phase
• NOVA Research and Technology Centre - Shock-Tube
  Measurements of Decompression Wave Speed in CO2 with
  Impurities aimed at determining decompression wave speed for
  binary and more complex CO2-based mixtures (including mixtures
  representative of different capture technologies)
• Others: SARCO2 A &B, CO2Pipehaz and Lacq pilot project




                                                                           9
   CO2 Pipeline Research Projects


   • Objectives: Safe and efficient CO2 pipeline
   • Key Common Areas:
      − CO2 properties and phase behaviour
      − Fracture propagation
      − Dispersion/source term modelling and risk
        assessment
      − Corrosion
      − Pipeline inspection
   • It is important to draw upon current
     experience and not reinvent the wheel
   • Design codes and regulations should be
     supported by industry best practise. Hence,
     engagement between CO2 pipeline operators,
     stakeholders and regulators is important




   CCS: Potential across the BP group


          Alaska                                    North Sea

                                                    Hull



    Canada                                          Gelsenkirchen/Lingen
                                                                             China
   HECA
                      Sunrise-Toledo                            HPAD         Tangguh LNG
                                           Algeria — In-Salah
           Mexico


                                                                                                    AE
                                  Argentina, Pan American JV
                                                                                                    E&P
                                                                                                    R&M


                    Low carbon power    Reducing E&P       Reducing R&M              EOR
Low carbon power
                    (petcoke & coal)    emissions          emissions                 • Alaska
(gas)
                    • HECA              • In Salah         • Gelsenkirchen           • US onshore
• HPAD




                                                                                                          10
Other Challenges - Pipelines


• Infrastructure size and timing
  − Understand the scale of the problem
  − Network development and planning
• Skills and work force
  − Engineers, technicians, welders
  − Onshore construction and offshore vessel availability
• Material requirements and procurement
  − Long lead time materials
  − Pipelines, valves etc
• Capture technology and storage uncertainties




Presentation Structure


       Introduction

       Existing Experience with CO2 Pipelines

       Next Generation CO2 Pipelines

       Technical Challenges

       On-going Research Projects

       Challenges in deploying CCS

       Conclusions




                                                            11
 Future Challenges

What is needed to make widespread CCS happen?
 1                     2                            3                            4
 Firm Long-Term Policy A Regulatory                 Market Conditions to         Public
 Commitment            Framework                    Stimulate Growth             Acceptance

 The role of CCS in        Deployment of CCS        CCS currently represents     Essential for CCS to
 reducing greenhouse       will require standards   an additional cost, so for   be deployed on the
 gas emissions needs to    to provide assurance     business to invest in CCS    scale required.
 be formally recognized,   of the effectiveness     as a commercially viable
                                                                                 Industry and
 and included in           of geological storage    venture long-term, a
                                                                                 government need to
 international             of CO2. Regulations      policy framework to
                                                                                 work together to build
 agreements on             must include             support the market is
                                                                                 confidence in CCS as
 greenhouse gas            agreement on site        needed.
                                                                                 having a key role to
 mitigation.               certification,
                                                                                 play alongside other
                           operation, and long-
                                                                                 climate mitigation
                           term responsibility.
                                                                                 technologies.




Public acceptance

 • Yes – parallels with nuclear, wind, electricity pylons, gas storage etc =
   qualified acceptance
 • But the industry and governments need to act quickly to shape the
   debate
 • Requires coordinated public awareness, education, context setting and
   incentivisation – at a local and national level – to counter NUMBY




 Natural Gas Storage -                                Nuclear             Dam projects
 Underground & Gasometers




                                                                                                          12
Barriers to growth

                                                                  FISCAL POLICY
  While the technology is ready, in
  many cases fiscal support to develop                            REGULATORY
                                                                  FRAMEWORKS
  projects is lagging
                                                                  TECHNOLOGY



  • Lack of commercial incentives (e.g. policy, stable carbon price not in place (although
           some countries now attempting to kick-start)
  • Lack of effective regulatory regimes (e.g. who is responsible for long-term storage in
           pore space)
  • Vested political concerns based on national self-interest (e.g. blocking Clean
           Development Mechanism)
  • Some NGO's are not convinced by industry arguments about long term safety
    issues around the transportation and storage of dense phase CO2. Industry
    needs to address these concerns if we are to successfully deploy the
    technology globally
  • Lack of public awareness               misunderstanding           lack of support




 Deployment will drive down costs

 The cost of CCS should reduce over time as technology develops
                      200



                      150

                                           Ca p
   Cost $/tonne CO2




                      100                         ture
                                                          cost

                       50
                                              orage cost
                                Transport & St
                        0



                      -50                                        Early T&S projects lower cost because:
                                                                   • EOR potential to use CO2 for EOR
                                                                   • Infrastructure reuse potential
                                                                   • Use of Oil and Gas fields cf Saline




                                                                                                           13
Presentation Structure


        Introduction

        Existing Experience with CO2 Pipelines

        Next Generation CO2 Pipelines

        Technical Challenges

        On-going Research Projects

        Challenges in deploying CCS

        Conclusions




Conclusions


• Timely deployment is important and long term planning of networks is more
  efficient than unregulated evolving networks
• Current experience is with transporting natural sources of CO2 whereas the
  next generation of CO2 transport will involve anthropogenic CO2

• Some of the existing experience with CO2 transport can be used for next
  generation CO2 pipelines, however, some of the key lessons will come
  from the first commercial CCS projects
• The main technical challenges are related to CO2 composition physical
  properties, fracture propagation, dispersion modelling and pipeline
  inspection
• A number of research project have been initiated worldwide with
  overlapping areas, however, its important to ensure we do not reinvent the
  wheel
• Regulatory framework with clear guidance to industry and developers needs
  to be in place to ensure timely deployment of CCS




                                                                               14
            THANK YOU

Contact: patricia.seevam@uk.bp.com




                                     15

				
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