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					States Parties                                                                           Ethiopia



                                        Ethiopia

2008 Key Data
                           State Party since      1 June 2005
                              Contamination       Antipersonnel and antivehicle mines, ERW
           Estimated area of contamination        Unquantified
                          Casualties in 2008      18 (2007: 84)
             Estimated mine/ERW survivors         At least 7,275
        Article 5 (clearance of mined areas)      Deadline: 1 June 2015
                           Demining in 2008       Not formally reported, but believed to be
                                                  4.46km2 of mined areas
       Risk Education Recipients in 2008          88,000
 Progress towards victim assistance aims          Slow
          Support for mine action in 2008         International: $18.9 million (2007: $5.8
                                                  million)


Ten-Year Summary
The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia became a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty on
1 June 2005. Ethiopia has not enacted national implementation legislation. Ethiopia completed
destruction of its stockpile of antipersonnel mines on 2 April 2009. The government strongly
denied a report by the UN Monitoring Group on Somalia that Ethiopia provided antipersonnel
mines to forces in Somalia in 2006. Both Ethiopia and Eritrea used antipersonnel mines in their
1998–2000 border war.
   Ethiopia’s mine and explosive remnants of war (ERW) problem is the result of armed conflicts
dating back 60 years. The Landmine Impact Survey, completed in 2004, significantly overstated
the extent of contamination. The Ethiopian Mine Action Office (EMAO) was established in
February 2001 to formulate policy, allocate resources, and approve mine action strategies and
workplans. With support from Norwegian People’s Aid, EMAO has been using land release
principles to identify the remaining threat.
   Between 1999 and 2008, Landmine Monitor identified 1,947 mine/ERW casualties in Ethiopia
(786 killed, 1,129 injured, and 32 unknown). Ethiopia lacks a national casualty data collection
mechanism and accurate casualty data was not available so it was not possible to analyze trends
effectively or accurately represent the total numbers of casualties. Since 1999, risk education
(RE) in Ethiopia has been provided by EMAO, NGOs, and local government, mainly in the
regions of Tigray, Afar, and Somali, with UNICEF financial and technical support. By 2008, the
provision of RE was limited.
   Ethiopia lacks sufficient emergency medical care. Despite some improvements in healthcare
coverage by 2009, some mine-affected regions had made the least progress in healthcare
development. Physical rehabilitation services increased significantly since 1999, but remained
inadequate to meet the needs of persons with disabilities—including mine survivors—despite
significant international support, particularly from the ICRC. Psychosocial support and economic
reintegration were inadequate throughout the past decade. Surveys indicated that only about half
of mine/ERW survivors received emergency medical care, very few received rehabilitation, and
almost none accessed psychological or economic assistance. Limited progress was made in
introducing public policies to address the needs of persons with disabilities: existing laws were
not adequately implemented, which perpetuated discrimination.



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Landmine Monitor Report 2009


Mine Ban Policy
Ethiopia signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 17 December 2004,
becoming a State Party on 1 June 2005. Ethiopia has not reported the enactment of national
implementation legislation. In its Article 7 report submitted in 2009, however, Ethiopia included
reference to several items of legislation that it stated were “consistent with Article 9” of the
Mine Ban Treaty. These included: certain sub-articles of the Ethiopian constitution; the Council
of Ministers’ Regulation No. 70/2001 establishing the EMAO; and articles 500, 499, 497, and
481 of Ethiopia’s penal code.1
   Ethiopia submitted its initial Article 7 report—due by 28 November 2005—in June 2007.2
   Ethiopia attended the Ninth Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in November 2008, where
it made statements on stockpile destruction and mine clearance. Ethiopia did not attend the
intersessional Standing Committee meetings in May 2009.
   Ethiopia has not engaged in States Parties’ discussions on matters of interpretation and
implementation related to Articles 1, 2, and 3 and thus has not made known its views on issues
related to joint military operations with states not party to the treaty, foreign stockpiling and
transit, mines with sensitive fuzes or antihandling devices, and mines retained for training.
Ethiopia’s silence is particularly notable in light of its military support for, and joint military
operations with, the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia, known as the
Government of National Unity after February 2009, which is not party to the Mine Ban Treaty.
   Ethiopia is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons and has not signed the
Convention on Cluster Munitions.3
Transfer of antipersonnel mines
The UN Monitoring Group on Somalia has alleged transfer of antipersonnel mines from
Ethiopia to Somalia. In November 2006, the Monitoring Group reported that in September
2006 the Ethiopian military transferred 180 antipersonnel mines and other unspecified mines
to Puntland and Qeybdiid militias.4 The Monitoring Group had alleged earlier transfers of
mines from Ethiopia to Somalia, but did not specify whether the mines were antipersonnel or
antivehicle.5 In response to Landmine Monitor’s inquiries about the alleged November 2006
transfer of antipersonnel mines, Ethiopia described the allegations as “without foundation…
unsubstantiated…[and] false.” It stated that “Ethiopia is in full compliance of its obligations
under the Convention…[T]here has never been any transfer of antipersonnel mines to any third
party including in Somalia.”6


1
     Article 7 Report, Form A, 30 April 2009. No further details of the penal code articles were reported.
2
      The initial report did not include Form A (national implementation measures) or Form B (stockpiled
    antipersonnel mines), and did not note what period it covered. The date ranges of several forms were left blank.
    Form C referred to locations of mined areas as of June 2007; Form G stated the period from 2004 to 2007.
3
     For details on cluster munition policy and practice, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning
    Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice, Mines Action Canada, May 2009, pp. 201–202.
4
     “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia pursuant to Security Council resolution 1676 (2006),” S/2006/913,
    22 November 2006, pp. 19–22. It also reported transfers of antivehicle mines and unspecified mines to other
    Somali entities. It cited the provision of 100 antivehicle mines to Baadi’ade and Ujejeen clans on 17 July
    2006, 200 unspecified mines to Mohammed Qanyare, warlord and former TFG minister between July and mid-
    October 2006, and an unknown quantity of unspecified mines to the Islamic Courts on 25 July 2006.
5
     In May 2006, the UN Monitoring Group reported a January 2006 transfer of unspecified mines from Ethiopia
    to Somali warlord Mohamed Dheere. An October 2005 report from the Monitoring Group stated that Mohamed
    Dheere had bartered mines and small arms for ZU-23 anti-aircraft guns from Ethiopia. “Report of the Monitoring
    Group on Somalia pursuant to Security Council resolution 1630 (2005),” S/2006/229, 4 May 2006, p. 13; and
    “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia pursuant to Security Council resolution 1587 (2005),” S/2005/625,
    4 October 2005, p. 46.
6
     Letter from Amb. Samuel Assefa, Embassy of Ethiopia to the US, to Stephen Goose, HRW, Landmine Monitor
    Ban Policy Coordinator, 11 July 2007. He also wrote, “Terrorists and extremist groups, however, have routinely
    used antipersonnel landmines. These mines are channeled to these by, among others, the Government of Eritrea
    and its collaborators.”


422
States Parties                                                                                            Ethiopia


   No new allegations of antipersonnel mine transfers have been made by the Monitoring Group
since 2006. Attempts by two Presidents of Meetings of States Parties of the Mine Ban Treaty
to clarify and seek further information from the Monitoring Group about its reports of mine
transfers have not received a reply as of August 2009.7
Production, stockpiling, and use
Ethiopia has stated that it does not produce antipersonnel mines, and has not imported
antipersonnel mines since the overthrow of the Mengistu regime in 1991.8
   The Mine Ban Treaty required that Ethiopia destroy all of its stockpiled antipersonnel mines
by 1 June 2009. In its June 2007 Article 7 report, Ethiopia reported that 39,759 items described
as stockpiled antipersonnel mines were destroyed between 2004 and 2007. Of the declared
items, only 5,867 appear to be antipersonnel mines.9
   At the Ninth Meeting of States Parties, Ethiopia reported that, as a result of inventories carried
out by the Ministry of Defense during 2008, it concluded its original stockpile to be 55,569
antipersonnel mines, of which 40,189 had already been destroyed. Ethiopia stated its intention
of destroying a further 14,266 mines (54,455 in total) before its June 2009 deadline, with the
remaining 1,114 mines to be retained for training purposes.10
   In its April 2009 Article 7 report, Ethiopia stated that 54,455 antipersonnel mines had been
destroyed, fulfilling the Article 4 stockpile destruction obligation on 2 April 2009. It said the
mines were destroyed at various locations by “electrical method” according to Ministry of
Defense safety and environmental procedures. It indicated that 40,189 mines had been destroyed
in 2008 and another 14,266 mines in 2009—again providing a list which included many items
that do not appear to be antipersonnel mines. Of the 54,455 items, it appears that 32,650 were
antipersonnel mines. 11
   In one part of the April 2009 Article 7 report, Ethiopia stated it retained 303 mines for training
purposes, the same number as reported in the initial Article 7 report in 2008. It said the mines
were used for mine detection dog (MDD) training at Entoto, Gemhalo, and Tegochale.12
   However, in another part of the report, Ethiopia indicated 1,114 mines are retained, the same
number cited at the Ninth Meeting of States Parties.13
   There have been no reports of new use of antipersonnel mines since the end of the 1998–
2000 war with Eritrea.14 Between 2003 and 2008 there were incidents caused by newly laid
antivehicle mines in the Temporary Security Zone (TSZ) separating Eritrea and Ethiopia,
according to news reports and the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) Mine Action

7
      For details of statements and actions by the two Presidents relating to the Monitoring Group reports, see
     Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 373.
8
      Ethiopia first made this statement in 1997. Statement by Amb. Dr. Fecadu Gadarmu, Embassy of Ethiopia to
     Canada, Mine Ban Treaty Signing Ceremony, Ottawa, 3 December 1997, p. 2.
9
      Article 7 Report, Form G, June 2007. Antipersonnel mines declared destroyed are as follows: PMD-6M (111),
     PMN (4,227), TS-50 (1), M2A3B (2), M3 (620), M14 (306), M16 (21), POMZ-2M (361), V-5 (2), M69 (151),
     M35 (10), M21 (14), GOYYATA (29), “Egypt antipersonnel mine” (2), and antipersonnel mines of unknown
     type (10). The remaining items included detonators, blocks of explosives, practice mines, signal mines, fuzes,
     and booby-traps.
10
      Statement of Ethiopia, Ninth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 26 November 2008.
11
      Article 7 Report, Form F, 30 April 2009. The 32,650 mines include: PMN (14,318), M16 (7,023), PMD-6M
     (6,178), POMZ-2M (3,471), M3 (503), M14 (390), M69 (318), MD-9 (182), Goyyatta (132), MK-1 (30), PPMI
     (29), V5 (23), M2A3 (17), GOYTA (13), M-35 (9), unknown (8), NR490 (3), and MON-50 (3). The other items
     include detonators, fuzes, strikers, detonating cord, blasting caps, TNT, and plastic explosives.
12
      Article 7 Report, Form D, 30 April 2009. This included PMD (76), PMN (60), M14 (58), POMZ (43), M16 (43),
     M3 (13), and Type 69 (10).
13
      Article 7 Report, Form G, 30 April 2009. This included PMN (508), POMZ-2M (200), PMD-6M (150), M-3
     (100), M16 (60), Goyyatta (60), MK-1 (10), M14 (5), V-3 (4), PPMI (3), GOYTA (2), and one each MON-50,
     MON-100, M-59, M-69, M-2A1, M-2A1 (practice), NR490, MK-161, PPM-2, and unknown. The number of
     individual mines listed totals 1,112.
14
      While not openly acknowledging the use of antipersonnel mines during the border conflict with Eritrea from
     1998–2000, in April 2002 Ethiopia provided the UN with detailed maps of mines laid by Ethiopian forces in
     Eritrea during the conflict. Email from Phil Lewis, Chief Technical Advisor, UNMEE MACC, 23 April 2002.


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Landmine Monitor Report 2009


Coordination Center (MACC). UNMEE has had no access to the TSZ since March 2008.15 In
October 2008 an antivehicle mine killed three civilians traveling by car on the road connecting
the contested town of Badme with the rest of Ethiopia. Reportedly the road is checked by the
Ethiopian army regularly for new mine use.16

Scope of the Problem
Contamination
Ethiopia is contaminated by mines and ERW, primarily UXO, resulting from internal and international
armed conflicts dating back to 1935.17 It is not known if this includes a residual threat from cluster
munition remnants. The 2004 Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) identified 1,492 communities as
impacted by mines and UXO in 1,916 suspected hazardous areas (SHAs). Afar, Tigray, and Somali
regions accounted for more than 80% of the impacted communities in the country.18
   EMAO, however, considered the results of the LIS unreliable,19 and in 2007 began to conduct
general and/or technical surveys in all of the communities deemed affected by the LIS. In its
initial Article 7 report submitted in 2007, Ethiopia declared 4,097 suspected mined areas; the
date of emplacement of the mines ranges from 1935 to 2000.20 EMAO, however, believed the
actual number was much lower than even the 1,916 SHAs identified by the LIS and did not
know the source of the Article 7 data on SHAs.21
   In August 2009, EMAO reported it had re-surveyed 1,047 communities and had confirmed 164
mined areas and SHAs in nine regions covering approximately 36km2 (see table in Identification of
hazardous areas section below). A total of 925 SHAs had been cancelled totaling more than 597km2
of estimated area, and 738 communities of the 1,047 communities visited were declared unaffected.22
Casualties
Landmine Monitor identified 18 mine/ERW casualties in Ethiopia in 2008 (three killed and
15 injured). Casualties included eight men, one woman, one girl, and two people of unknown
gender. Due to a lack of consistent information and limited casualty data collection, not all
casualties could be cross-referenced and current casualty data probably under-represents the
extent of the problem in Ethiopia.23 The available casualty figures for 2008 are inadequate for
meaningful comparison to the 84 mine/ERW casualties (31 people killed, 49 injured, and four
unknown) identified by Landmine Monitor in 2007.24 No confirmed mine/ERW incidents were
recorded in 2009 as of June.
   In 2008, Ethiopian troops in Somalia were frequently involved in explosive device incidents,
although most appear to have been caused by remote-detonated devices as opposed to victim-
activated devices.25


15
      See Landmine Monitor Report 2008 p. 374.
16
      “An Ethiopian-Eritrean war looms again,” France 24, 13 November 2008, www.france24.com.
17
      See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 356.
18
      Survey Action Center (SAC), “Landmine Impact Survey, Ethiopia, Final Report,” Washington, DC, January
     2008, p. 9.
19
      Letter from EMAO to UNMAS recommending that the UN certify the LIS, 22 June 2006.
20
      Article 7 Report, Form C, 5 July 2008.
21
      Interviews with Gebriel Lager, Deputy Director, EMAO, in Ljubljana, 14 April 2008; and in Geneva, 4 June 2008.
22
      Email from Rune Andresen, Programme Manager, NPA, 20 August 2009.
23
      See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, pp. 379–380; and US Department of State, “2008 Country Reports on
     Human Rights Practices: Ethiopia,” Washington, DC, 25 February 2009. In 2008, the Tigray BoLSA had
     reported 52 casualties including 44 casualties in one incident involving a bus. This incident has since been
     identified as a bombing, not a mine incident, and has not been included in the total for 2008. The 44 casualties
     were previously included in Landmine Monitor Report 2008. The POC in Addis Ababa reported assisting 23
     people injured by mines/ERW in 2008 but details are not known. Email from Ambachew Negus, National Mine
     Coordinator, RaDO, 17 June 2009.
24
      See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 379.
25
      Landmine Monitor media monitoring, January–December 2008; and see Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 380.


424
States Parties                                                                                         Ethiopia


   Between 1999 and 2008, Landmine Monitor identified 1,947 mine/ERW casualties in Ethiopia
(786 killed, 1,129 injured, and 32 unknown). Landmine Monitor data in the period was gathered
from various sources, including UNMEE MACC, EMAO, the national NGO Rehabilitation and
Development Organization (RaDO), and the LIS. Due to the lack of comprehensive or systematic
data collection, these cumulative casualty figures should not be considered comprehensive or
representative of trends or the actual numbers of casualties.26

                                         Casualties from 1999–2008
                              Year       Killed     Injured    Unknown       Totals
                            2008               3         15             0         18
                            2007             31          49             4         84
                            2006             17          17             0         34
                            2005             13            5           13         31
                            2004             24          37             0         61
                            2003            148         209             0        357
                            2002            426         509             0        935
                            2001             13          69             0         82
                            2000             51         119            15        185
                            1999             60         100             0        160
                                Total       786       1,129            32      1,947


  The most complete data source remains the LIS completed in 2004, which recorded 16,616
mine/ERW casualties (9,341 people killed and 7,275 injured).27
Risk profile
A high proportion of recent casualties were children, and many incidents were caused by
antivehicle or antipersonnel mines. Common activities at the time of incident include traveling
and tampering, followed by shepherding.28
  There is no permanent marking of mine/UXO contaminated areas, although a Geneva
International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD)/UNICEF RE needs assessment
report of May 2008 for Somali region found that communities there used tree branches to fence
off some minefields.29



26
      See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 379; Landmine Monitor Report 2007, p. 391; Landmine Monitor
     Report 2006, pp. 436–437; Landmine Monitor Report 2005, pp. 360–361; Landmine Monitor Report 2004,
     pp. 895–896; Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 519; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 553; and Landmine
     Monitor Report 2001, p. 216. For 2004, this report counted RaDO, deminer casualties, and UNMEE MACC data
     reported in Landmine Monitor Report 2004. For 2003, this report counted both the LIS and UNMEE MACC
     IMSMA reporting for the TSZ, both reported in Landmine Monitor Report 2004. For 2002, this report added
     the data from the TSZ in Landmine Monitor Report 2003 to the LIS data reported in Landmine Monitor Report
     2004. For 2001, this report added the data from the TSZ in Landmine Monitor Report 2002 to the LIS data in
     Landmine Monitor Report 2004. For 2000, the LIS data from Landmine Monitor Report 2004 was added to
     RaDO-recorded casualties in Somali National Region reported in Landmine Monitor Report 2001. For 1999, the
     LIS data from Landmine Monitor Report 2004 was counted.
27
      See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 895.
28
      See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 375.
29
      Ibid, p. 378.


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Landmine Monitor Report 2009


Socio-economic impact
An RE assessment conducted by GICHD/UNICEF in Somali region in December 2007 and
January 2008 found that while the mine/ERW problem was considerable, most of the people
interviewed stated that clearance was not their first priority. Drought, food and water shortages,
as well as health, were considered more serious problems.30

Program Management and Coordination
Mine action
EMAO was created as an autonomous statutory body by the Council of Ministers in February
2001.31 Initially, EMAO reported to the Office of the Prime Minister but, following public-
sector reorganization in 2005, responsibility was transferred to the Ministry of Federal Affairs.32
EMAO formulates policy, allocates resources, and approves mine action strategies and
workplans.33 EMAO also conducts mine surveys, marking, clearance, and RE activities based
on priorities determined by regional and local authorities.34
  In 2007, following a recommendation by a 2006 UNDP evaluation, the Ethiopian mine action
program changed from being directly executed by UNDP to a nationally executed program with
one international mine action project officer based at EMAO.35
Victim assistance
The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MoLSA) is responsible for disability issues
and coordinating rehabilitation. The Head of MoLSA’s Rehabilitation Affairs Department
represented Ethiopia internationally as the victim assistance (VA) focal point. The Ministry of
Health (MoH) has also claimed to have responsibility for VA coordination. EMAO does not
coordinate VA activities.36
Data collection and management
The LIS conducted in 2002–2004 was not certified by the UN until July 2006. EMAO believes
that if the survey teams had included one person with a demining background for the community
interviews, the results would have been more accurate.37 In 2007, at EMAO’s request, Norwegian
People’s Aid (NPA) trained their survey teams to conduct technical and general survey in the
SHAs identified by the LIS.38 As of April 2009, these surveys were continuing.39
   There is no nationwide or systematic mine/ERW casualty data collection for Ethiopia and
data is not readily shared between mine action actors. The extent to which EMAO collects
casualty data was not clear.40 There was no standard format or mechanism for collecting or
storing data. Limited mine/ERW casualty or survivor data was collected separately by the
Ministry of Health, Landmine Survivors Network Ethiopia (LSN Ethiopia), and RaDO. The
Central Statistics Agency of Ethiopia collects data on persons with disabilities. There is only
limited sharing of data between stakeholders in the disability sector.41


30
     GICHD, “A Needs and Capacities Assessment for MRE in Somali Region, Ethiopia,” Geneva, 20 May 2008, p. 20.
31
     Council of Ministers Regulation No. 70/2001, 5 February 2001.
32
      GICHD, “Evaluation of NPA’s Humanitarian Mine Action Project and Review of Ethiopia’s Mine Action
     Programme,” Geneva, February 2007, p. 19.
33
     UN, “2008 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, November 2007, p. 200.
34
     UN, “2009 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, November 2008, p. 185.
35
     Interview with Keita Sugimoto, Mine Action Project Officer, UNDP, in Ljubljana, 13 April 2008.
36
      See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 385; and telephone interview with Helena Ruud, Child Protection
     Officer, UNICEF, 13 August 2009.
37
     Interview with Gebriel Lager, EMAO, in Geneva, 4 June 2008.
38
     Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Per Håkon Breivik, Programme Manager, NPA, 11 April 2008.
39
     Article 7 Report, Form C, 30 April 2009.
40
     Telephone interview with Helena Ruud, UNICEF, 13 August 2009.
41
      Government of Ethiopia “Draft Victim Assistance Status Report,” provided by email from Assefa Ashengo,
     Head, Rehabilitation Affairs Department, MoLSA, 15 August 2009.


426
States Parties                                                                                         Ethiopia


   The MoH, in cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO), has operated an injury
surveillance system in six hospitals in Addis Ababa since 2004. The project was expanded to
Afar, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambella, and Somali regions and Dire Dawa city by 2009 and was
planned to be implemented nationwide by 2010. MoLSA and LSN Ethiopia were involved in
designing a census questionnaire component on disability for the Third National Population
and Housing Census 2007: the census included questions on cause of disability, including war
injury. As of August 2009, MoLSA had not reported the results. In early 2008, a RaDO survey
of 135 mine-affected villages in the Tigray region found 343 mine/ERW casualties, including
14 recorded in the past year. As of June 2009, LSN Ethiopia had registered 2,084 amputees,
including some who were not mine survivors.42 LSN Ethiopia did not collect recent mine/ERW
casualty data for 2008–2009.43
   The GICHD/UNICEF needs assessment for the Somali region reported that only half
of all survivors interviewed had received medical care and just 1% had received physical
rehabilitation.44 The assessment was not endorsed by the government and thus could not be used
subsequently for program implementation purposes.45


                                      Mine action program operators
                                                                          Casualty data
      National operators and activities      Demining           RE                                VA
                                                                           collection
     Bureaus for Labor and Social affairs         x                              x                 x
     Cheshire Services Ethiopia                                                                    x
     EMao                                         x              x
     LSN Ethiopia                                                                x                 x
     Moh                                                                         x                 x
     MoLSa                                                                                         x
     RaDo                                                                        x                 x
     tigray Disabled Veterans association                                                          x
                                                                          Casualty data
International operators and activities       Demining           RE                                VA
                                                                           collection
     handicap international                                                                        x
     iCRC                                                                        x                 x
     Npa                                          x
     UNiCEF                                                      x




42
      “Draft Victim Assistance Status Report,” provided by email from Assefa Ashengo, MoLSA, 15 August 2009;
     and Landmine Monitor Report 2008, pp. 379–380.
43
      Email from Bekele Gonfa, Director, LSN Ethiopia, 6 August 2009.
44
      See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 383.
45
      Telephone interview with Helena Ruud, UNICEF, 13 August 2009.


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Landmine Monitor Report 2009


Plans
Strategic mine action plans
Even though the decree that established EMAO did not explicitly require a strategic plan, in
August 2005 EMAO completed a strategic plan for 2006–2011. The draft strategy reportedly
sets the following goals:46
      • elimination of the socio-economic impact of mines and UXO in affected commun-
        ities;
      • provision of RE to affected communities to reduce the number of victims;
      • building of a competent mine action program; and
      • creation of a mine information system capacity to assist planning of demining and
        RE, and to provide full information to other developmental actors.
   EMAO stated that it would revise its strategic plan after completion of the technical surveys,
scheduled for before the end of 2009.47
   UNDP mine action project objectives include: to return and promote long-term reintegration
of internally displaced people; to stabilize peace in war-affected areas of Afar and Tigray; and to
improve food security through creating access to land for affected communities.48
Disability action plan
A National Program of Action for Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities (1996–ongoing)
was under revision in 2008. Reportedly, VA will be addressed in the revised plan to be created by
2010.49 Ethiopia has not presented a strategic VA plan. It did report, however, that the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs, MoLSA, Ministry of Education, MoH, EMAO, LSN Ethiopia, and other
relevant partners “exert coordinated efforts to implement the plan of action.”50
Integration of mine action with reconstruction and development
Cleared land in Afar and Tigray regions is said to be made available for common use by
community farmers and herders, and in most cases plowing and grazing begins immediately
after the handover of cleared land to the community.51 According to UNDP, the released land
was used for farming and grazing and contributed to improved food security in the regions.
As a result, UNDP believes mine clearance contributed directly to one of the Millennium
Development Goals: the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger.52
   Ethiopia’s Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP)
includes provisions for food security for people in highly vulnerable situations, specifically
including persons with disabilities. Ethiopia also reportedly adheres to the Continental Plan of
Action for the African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (1999–2009).53
National ownership
Commitment to mine action and victim assistance
  Ethiopia has demonstrated commitment to mine action through the establishment of a mine
action center and the use of national resources to address contamination. A UNDP evaluation of
mine action in 2006 found that “a high degree of national management, planning and operational

46
      GICHD, “Evaluation of NPA’s Humanitarian Mine Action Project and Review of Ethiopia’s Mine Action
     Programme,” Geneva, February 2007, p. 31.
47
      Interview with Gebriel Lager, EMAO, in Geneva, 4 June 2008; and email from Rune Andresen, NPA, 20 April
     2009.
48
      UNDP, “Mine Action in the Afar and Tigray Regions,” www.et.undp.org.
49
     Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2009.
50
      Ibid.
51
      UN, “2008 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, November 2007, p. 199; and information from
     EMAO provided by email from Lydia Good, Mine Action Programme Specialist, Conflict Prevention and
     Recovery Team, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, UNDP, 26 August 2008.
52
      UNDP, “7.5 million meters square of suspected hazardous areas were cleared of mines and handed over to the
     community for immediate productive use,” www.et.undp.org.
53
      Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, “Ethiopia: Building on Progress A Plan for Accelerated and
     Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP) 2005/06-2009/10,” Volume I, Addis Ababa September, 2006;
     and “Draft Victim Assistance Status Report,” provided by email from Assefa Ashengo, MoLSA, 15 August 2009.


428
States Parties                                                                                      Ethiopia


capacity had been developed,” and recommended that the national mine action program should
transition to national execution in early 2007,54 which occurred the same year.55
   Ethiopia has stated it is committed to its “obligations to meet the aims of the Nairobi Action
Plan and to assist landmine survivors and other persons with disabilities” by giving special
consideration to survivors and other persons with disabilities living in mine-affected areas.56
However, disability is not considered a priority issue in Ethiopia. Disability organizations have
stated that MoLSA was not capable of planning and coordinating VA due to a lack of government
commitment.57 Ethiopia has acknowledged that the disability sector is uncoordinated and
lacks direction, funding, and capacity at the regional level.58 In 2009, the work of civil society
organizations was hampered by a new law setting categories of activities that can be undertaken
by NGOs in accordance with their funding sources (national or international).59
   National efforts in VA for landmine survivors, and assistance for people with disabilities more
generally, focus on revision of existing laws and policy frameworks.60 MoLSA has a mandate to
address issues relating to persons with disabilities, including landmine survivors. Other relevant
ministries reportedly also have disability departments. Each region of the country and the two
separate city administrations have a Bureau for Labor and Social Affairs (BoLSA) responsible
for employment and social issues in addition to coordinating both public and private services
for persons with disabilities. Many VA services were supported by international organizations
or provided by NGOs or the ICRC.61
National management
Many EMAO personnel are former Ethiopian army personnel and constitute the core group of
technical experts at EMAO.62 NPA initiated a project in 2005 with EMAO to enhance EMAO’s
MDD and technical survey/task impact assessment capacities.63 In 2008, the project was
extended until 201164 and its office relocated to EMAO’s headquarters.65 In May 2009, UNDP
reported that it continued to provide support for technical capacity development, project quality
assurance, program advice, strategic partnering, and resource mobilization.66
   During a workshop in 2008, MoLSA, the disability and VA coordination focal point,
proposed the creation of an interministerial Disability Council under the Office of the Prime
Minister to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and the
Developmental Social Welfare Policy.67 In 2009, this policy, issued in 1996, was being reviewed
in order to more adequately address disability and rehabilitation issues, including mine/ERW
VA provisions. An ad hoc national committee was established to coordinate community-based
rehabilitation (CBR) programs.68



54
      Mine Action Support Group, “Newsletter: First Quarter of 2007,” Washington, DC, 24 May 2007, p. 7.
55
      Interview with Keita Sugimoto, UNDP, in Ljubljana, 14 April 2008.
56
      MoLSA, “Status of Victim Assistance in Ethiopia,” Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-
     Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 3 June 2008.
57
      See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 385.
58
      “Draft Victim Assistance Status Report,” provided by email from Assefa Ashengo, MoLSA, 15 August 2009;
     and Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 384.
59
      Interview with Bekele Gonfa, LSN Ethiopia, in Geneva, 29 May 2009.
60
     Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2009.
61
      “Draft Victim Assistance Status Report,” provided by email from Assefa Ashengo, MoLSA, 15 August 2009.
62
       Statement of Ethiopia, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action
     Technologies, Geneva, 5 June 2008.
63
      GICHD, “Evaluation of NPA’s Humanitarian Mine Action Project and Review of Ethiopia’s Mine Action
     Programme,” Geneva, February 2007, p. 41.
64
      Email from Rune Andresen, NPA, 19 April 2009.
65
      Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Rune Andersen, NPA, 4 April 2009.
66
      Email from Lydia Good, UNDP, 26 August 2008.
67
      ICRC, “Physical Rehabilitation Programme: Annual Report 2008,” Geneva, May 2009, pp. 25–26.
68
      “Draft Victim Assistance Status Report,” provided by email from Assefa Ashengo, MoLSA, 15 August 2009.


                                                                                                        429
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National mine action legislation and standards/Standing operating procedures
As noted above, EMAO was established through a Council of Ministers’ decision in 2001.69
National standards for mine clearance operations were adopted in 2001 and revised in 2006.70
NPA drafted standing operating procedures (SOPs) for technical survey, which EMAO accepted
in October 2006.71 The SOPs foresee two phases: first, information gathering and analysis
through general survey without entering the SHA; and then technical survey to further reduce
the polygons by defining the perimeters of the SHA.72
Program evaluations
A GICHD evaluation published in 2007 concluded that EMAO “has performed increasingly
well since its establishment. Its demining operations have made a substantial contribution to
resettlement and rehabilitation efforts in the war-affected districts (“woredas”) of Tigray and
Afar regions, delivering significant socio-economic benefits for those regions and promoting
Ethiopia’s post-war recovery.”73

Demining and Battle Area Clearance
EMAO and NPA are the only demining operators in Ethiopia. As of November 2008, the
demining capacity was comprised of six manual demining companies, 12 MDD teams, five
technical survey teams, and six mechanical demining teams.74
   In 2006, NPA completed a MDD training facility at Entoto Mountain in Oromia region near
Addis Ababa as part of a larger EMAO training center that was under construction. The full
training center was scheduled to officially open in late 2009.75 From 2007–2008, NPA trained
and accredited 38 MDD teams with a capacity of approximately 1,000m2 of clearance or
verification per day per dog. Three teams have been “retired” leaving 35 active MDD teams.76
Identification of hazardous areas
In 2007, five technical survey teams were deployed to the regions of Amhara, Dire Dawa,
Oromia, Somali, and Tigray to re-survey SHAs identified by the LIS.77 As of August 2009,
EMAO had surveyed 1,047 SHAs from the LIS and confirmed 164 as mined areas. They also
identified 40 new SHAs. The technical surveys applied NPA/EMAO land release concepts
which break SHAs into smaller demining tasks and polygon sets.78 As of August 2009, 925
SHAs had been cancelled totaling more than 597km2 of estimated area.79




69
     Article 7 Report, Form A, 30 April 2009.
70
     Interview with Etsay G. Selasie, Director General, EMAO, Addis Ababa, 16 March 2007.
71
      GICHD, “Evaluation of NPA’s Humanitarian Mine Action Project and Review of Ethiopia’s Mine
     Action Programme,” Geneva, February 2007, p. vi; and response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by
     Per Håkon Breivik, NPA, 11 April 2008.
72
     Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Per Håkon Breivik, NPA, 11 April 2008.
73
      GICHD, “Evaluation of NPA’s Humanitarian Mine Action Project and Review of Ethiopia’s Mine Action
     Programme,” Geneva, February 2007, p. vi.
74
     Statement of Ethiopia, Ninth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 27 November 2008.
75
      Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Rune Andresen, NPA, 3 April 2009; and email from Rune
     Andresen, NPA, 24 April 2009.
76
      Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Rune Andresen, NPA, 3 April 2009; and email from Rune
     Andresen, NPA, 19 April 2009.
77
     Statement of Ethiopia, Eighth Meeting of States Parties, Dead Sea, 21 November 2007.
78
     The LIS in Ethiopia had only one central coordinate for each SHA. Email from Rune Andresen, NPA, 3 April
     2009.
79
     Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Rune Andresen, NPA, 3 April 2009.


430
States Parties                                                                                   Ethiopia


                             Preliminary survey results as of August 200980
                                   No. of SHAs      Land released      Confirmed mined
                    Region
                                    surveyed            (m2)              area (m2)
                 Somali                      361        511,197,341           29,983,755
                 tigray                      234         40,750,015            5,461,701
                 afar                        214         38,226,465              355,667
                 oromia                      118           5,242,661             209,661
                 amhara                      114           1,933,202               13,475
                 Benishangul-                 19            223,994                13,175
                 Gumuz
                 Dire Dawa                    14              30,043             413,449
                 Gambela                       9                   0                    0
                 harer                         3                   0             200,000
                 addis ababa                   3                   0               29,054
                           Total           1,089        597,603,721           36,679,937

Demining and battle area clearance in 2007 and 2008
Ethiopia did not formally report clearance results for 2008, although Landmine Monitor
extrapolation from available data suggests clearance of 4.46km2. According to NPA, in 2008
MDD teams cleared 1,630,342m2 and found 13 antipersonnel mines, four antivehicle mines,
and 129 items of UXO in Gemhalo, Tigray region, and Togochale, Somali region.81 In the first
quarter of 2009, NPA MDD teams cleared a further 500,000m2, during which 19 items of UXO
were found.82
  In 2007, Ethiopia reported it cleared 7.54km2 of mined areas and that the total SHA for the
country had been reduced by 122.11km2.83 In June 2008, Ethiopia reported it had released
375km2 through technical surveys and rapid response teams since 2002.84 During clearance
operations since 2003, 5,713 antipersonnel mines, 722 antivehicle mines, and 97,148 items of
ERW have been destroyed.85
Progress since becoming a State Party
Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty, Ethiopia is required to destroy all antipersonnel mines
in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 June
2015. In April 2007, Ethiopia informed States Parties that high-priority mined areas would be
cleared by 2010 and the remaining areas by its Article 5 deadline.86 In June 2008, Ethiopia
reiterated that it “firmly hopes to fulfill its Article 5 obligations by 1 June 2015.”87 In November



80
     Email from Rune Andresen, NPA, 19 August 2009.
81
      Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Rune Andresen, NPA, 3 April 2009; and email from Rune
     Andresen, NPA, 19 April 2009.
82
     NPA, “Productive quarter for mine-detection dogs in Ethiopia,” www.npaid.org.
83
     Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Gebriel Lager, EMAO, 7 May 2008.
84
      Statement of Ethiopia, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action
     Technologies, Geneva, 5 June 2008.
85
     Email from Rune Andresen, NPA, 20 August 2009.
86
      Statement of Ethiopia, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action
     Technologies, Geneva, 25 April 2007.
87
     Ibid, 5 June 2008.


                                                                                                     431
Landmine Monitor Report 2009


2008, however, Ethiopia cited security problems in the regions as a possible impediment to mine
clearance operations and meeting its Article 5 obligations by the June 2015 deadline.88

                                        Demining from 2003–200889
                               Mine clearance         Battle area         Area released by
                   Year
                                   (km2)            clearance (km2)         survey (km2)
                2008                       4.46                  0.00                  475.49
                2007                       7.54                  4.74                  122.11
                2006                      11.42                  0.00               Unknown
                2005                      11.00                  0.00                    7.06
                2004                       7.00                  2.00                    1.70
                1999–2003             Unknown               Unknown                 Unknown
                       Total              41.42                  6.74                  606.36


Risk Education
RE remained very limited in 2008. RE was delivered by EMAO, alongside clearance, and by
RaDO. UNICEF support to the Tigray BoLSA ended in 2007.90
   RaDO conducted RE for Sudanese refugees in four camps in collaboration with the
Administration for Refugees and Returnees Affairs and the Office of the UN High Commissioner
for Refugees (UNHCR). RE was delivered through community meetings, house-to-house visits,
and the media. Training of trainers was conducted through existing community networks:
women’s associations, youth associations, schools, clubs, churches, social workers. A total of
1,227 trainers were trained, and 87,958 beneficiaries reached.91
   RaDO’s RE materials were developed to be language appropriate and culturally sensitive
to southern Sudanese communities. The materials were cloth banners, posters, leaflets, carry
bags, and wall murals. They were distributed to the trainers for use as aids, and to community
leaders during repatriation for use in education sessions at screening points, assembly points,
and way stations by already-trained members of repatriation teams.92 Monitoring was conducted
regularly by RaDO and partners.93
   The GICHD/UNICEF needs assessment concluded that RE was needed in Somali region
due to the high number of casualties and ongoing conflict. The communities surveyed had
little knowledge of the danger posed by mines/ERW, particularly to children and herders. The
assessment recommended the adoption of a participatory community-based approach using
local resources, supported by external actors, and taking into consideration lessons learned from
RE in Tigray and Afar regions. RE should also support data collection efforts.94
   Since 1999, RE in Ethiopia has been provided by EMAO, NGOs, and local governments,
mainly in Tigray, Afar, and Somali regions, with UNICEF financial and technical support.95

88
      Ibid.
89
      The figure for 2008 is based on Landmine Monitor extrapolation of EMAO cumulative reporting. See also
     Landmine Monitor 2006, p. 434; Landmine Monitor Report 2007, pp. 388–389; Landmine Monitor Report 2008,
     p. 379; and “EMAO demines over 41.5 mln sq. meters of land,” WaltaInfo (Addis Ababa), 23 September 2008,
     www.waltainfo.com.
90
     Telephone interview with Helena Ruud, UNICEF, 10 August 2009.
91
      Email from Ambachew Negus, RaDO, 17 June 2009.
92
      Ibid.
93
      Ibid.
94
      See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 382.
95
      See previous editions of Landmine Monitor.


432
States Parties                                                                                     Ethiopia


Victim Assistance
The total number of mine/ERW survivors in Ethiopia is unknown, but is at least 7,275, according
to the LIS.96 Little concrete progress in providing services to mine/ERW survivors was reported
for 2008. Challenges in providing adequate services for persons with disabilities, including
mine/ERW survivors, in Ethiopia included a lack of resources, a lack of trained personnel,
and inadequate enforcement of existing legislation. Communication between national and
international organizations was also poor.97
   The emergency medical care system in Ethiopia remained inadequate to meet the needs of
people with traumatic injuries, including mine/ERW survivors. There was insufficient medical
staff, including a lack of doctors trained in emergency care. Some progress in national emergency
response coordination was reported with the establishment of an emergency unit at the MoH and
the completion of new blood banks in all regions of the country.98
   Ethiopia continued to improve coverage in the health sector and build the capacity of health
services through the Health Sector Development Program (Phase III 2005–2010).99 Yet shortages
in medicine, supplies, and staff persisted. In part, this was due to a focus on quantity rather than
quality in the program. The MoH was reportedly aware of these challenges and constraints,
including an acute lack of adequate funding to fulfill plans. Reporting in mid-2008 indicated
that overall national use of the health system had decreased slightly since 2004. Although
no conclusive data was available, explanations for this decrease included the introduction
of user fees deterring poor people from accessing the system and a lack of understanding or
implementation of the fee waiver, as well as an increased number of private sector health
providers.100 Healthcare coverage in some areas was hampered by the volatile security situation.
This prevented expansion, upgrades, and maintenance of health services in the Somali region,
which fell behind national targets. In Oromia, the most densely inhabited region, healthcare
services fell behind other large regions, leaving serious gaps in coverage.101
   Access to physical rehabilitation services remained difficult due to the limited number of
centers. Many persons with disabilities could not afford transportation or accommodation
during treatment.102 Particularly in eastern Ethiopia, including in Dire Dawa and Somali regions,
there was a lack of physical rehabilitation services, combined with inadequate awareness about
physiotherapy and rehabilitation in general.103 The Social Welfare Development Directorate of
MoLSA is responsible for coordinating rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities.
   Ethiopia had 13 centers run by the government and NGOs providing physical rehabilitation
and prosthetic-orthopedic devices. Regional BoLSAs supervised six centers in different parts
of the country. Some NGO-run outreach programs existed to assist people without access to
centers. A sustainability study in early 2007 recommended the development of a national physical
rehabilitation strategy, which MoLSA planned to complete by 2010, for distribution to relevant
government offices, including BoLSAs, in 2011. The strategy is being drafted in collaboration
with the ICRC.104 Throughout 2008, the ICRC provided support to MoLSA in developing the
strategy. 105 WHO was working with relevant disability and rehabilitation stakeholders to expand
CBR implementation in Ethiopia.106


96
    See Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 381.
97
    “Draft Victim Assistance Status Report,” provided by email from Assefa Ashengo, MoLSA, 15 August 2009.
98
    Ibid.
99
    Ibid; and Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 383.
100
     Ministry of Health, “Final Report: Ethiopia Health Sector Development Programme (HSDP) III 2005/06 –
    2010/11 Mid-Term Review 05th May – 5th June 2008,” Addis Ababa, 12 July 2008, pp. xv–xvi.
101
     Ibid, pp. 47–48.
102
     ICRC, “Physical Rehabilitation Programme: Annual Report 2008,” Geneva, May 2009, pp. 25–26.
103
     Email from Thierry Hergault, Program Director, HI, 21 May 2009.
104
     “Draft Victim Assistance Status Report,” provided by email from Assefa Ashengo, MoLSA, 15 August 2009.
105
     ICRC, “Physical Rehabilitation Programme: Annual Report 2008,” Geneva, May 2009, pp. 25–26.
106
     “Draft Victim Assistance Status Report,” provided by email from Assefa Ashengo, MoLSA, 15 August 2009.


                                                                                                       433
Landmine Monitor Report 2009


   Psychological support services are limited in Ethiopia and are mostly provided by NGOs,
including peer support services. Some psychiatric services are provided by the MoH, but
these were largely confined to Addis Ababa. There are no clinical psychologists in Ethiopia.
Reportedly psychiatric nurses are distributed throughout the country and other health workers
receive some mental health support training.107
   No concrete improvement was reported in economic reintegration for persons with
disabilities, including mine/ERW survivors. Limited economic reintegration activities have
been exacerbated by extreme poverty, conflict, and geographic obstacles. Access to vocational
training and micro-credit institutions is limited by strict eligibility criteria and interest rates.108
   Government-run centers under BoLSAs provide some vocational training to persons with
disabilities, including mine/ERW survivors. Vocational training and income-generation
opportunities were also provided by NGOs and the Ethiopian Red Cross. Some economic
reintegration opportunities for persons with disabilities were supported by the International
Labor Organization and international donors. Employment quotas reportedly existed, but were
not implemented. The government reportedly tried to raise awareness among employers and
civil service institutes for the increased employment of persons with disabilities.109
   Ethiopian law does not mandate equal rights for persons with disabilities. Reportedly the
government devoted few resources to rehabilitate or assist persons with disabilities or provide
services for them. Persons with disabilities sometimes reported discrimination in work and wages.
Women with disabilities were more disadvantaged than men in education and employment.110
Furthermore, inadequate enforcement of existing legislation sustained negative attitudes to
persons with disabilities. In 2008, a proclamation was passed to provide equal employment
opportunities for persons with disabilities, prohibit discrimination, and require employers to
adapt to the needs of employees with disabilities, with recourse to legal action and penalties.111
   Ethiopia signed the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 30 March
2007, but as of 1 July 2009 had not ratified it, nor had it signed the Optional Protocol.
Progress in meeting VA26 victim assistance objectives
Ethiopia is one the 26 States Parties which are members of the VA26 group of States Parties
with significant numbers of mine survivors, and “the greatest responsibility to act, but also
the greatest needs and expectations for assistance” in providing adequate services for the care,
rehabilitation, and reintegration of survivors. As part of its commitment to the Nairobi Action
Plan, Ethiopia developed 2005–2009 VA objectives which were presented at the Sixth Meeting
of States Parties in 2005.112 Objectives for 2005–2009 have not been formally revised and failed
to meet the SMART criteria (specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound). No
plans to achieve the objectives were reported and Ethiopia did not formally report on progress
related to the objectives in 2008–2009.113 A revised draft status report provided to Landmine
Monitor indicated that although progress in VA has been noted by Ethiopia, it did not correlate
with the objectives presented in 2005. Ethiopia was developing new or revised objectives for
the period 2009–2010.114


107
     Ibid.
108
     See Landmine Monitor Report 2007, p. 393.
109
     “Draft Victim Assistance Status Report,” provided by email from Assefa Ashengo, MoLSA, 15 August 2009.
110
     US Department of State, “2008 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Ethiopia,” Washington, DC,
    25 February 2009.
111
     “Draft Victim Assistance Status Report,” provided by email from Assefa Ashengo, MoLSA, 15 August 2009.
112
      “Final Report of the Sixth Meeting of States Parties/Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb,
    28 November–2 December 2005, pp. 157–161; and Co-Chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance
    and Socio-Economic Reintegration, “Status of Victim Assistance in the Context of the AP Mine Ban Convention
    in the 26 Relevant States parties 2005–2008,” Ninth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 28 November 2008, p. 13.
113
     Statement of Ethiopia, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, 3 June
    2008; and “Mid-Term Review of the Status of Victim Assistance in the 24 Relevant States Parties,” Dead Sea,
    21 November 2007, pp. 31–32.
114
     “Draft Victim Assistance Status Report,” provided by email from Assefa Ashengo, MoLSA, 15 August 2009.


434
States Parties                                                                                     Ethiopia


   Ethiopia did not make statements regarding VA progress and challenges at the Ninth Meeting
of States Parties in 2008 or the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in May 2009.
Ethiopia participated in the workshop on advancing landmine VA in Africa, held in Nairobi
from May–June 2005. In November 2006, MoLSA co-hosted a workshop to discuss mine VA in
Ethiopia. In August 2007, a VA-focused roundtable was convened by MoLSA to discuss future
measures.
   Ethiopia included a VA/disability expert on its delegation to the intersessional Standing
Committee meetings in 2008 and the Seventh Meeting of States Parties. Ethiopia reported on
challenges in achieving the aims of the Nairobi Action Plan, and on its VA activities more
generally, at the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration
in 2008 and at the meetings of States Parties in 2007 and 2008.
   In June 2008, Ethiopia presented a report on the Status of Victim Assistance to the Standing
Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration. In 2007, Ethiopia used
Form J in its initial Article 7 report and in its Article 7 report submitted in 2009, to provide
details on VA.
Victim assistance activities
The National Orthopedic Center (NOC) at the Black Lion Hospital in Addis Ababa, inaugurated
in October 2007, was not fully operational as of July 2009, although the physiotherapy unit
was operational. The Prosthetic Orthotic Center (POC) of Addis Ababa remains the largest
prosthetic center and the national referral center, pending the NOC becoming fully operational.
In 2009, the organizational structure of the POC was being revised and would probably result in
its merger with the NOC, under coordination of the Medical Faculty of Addis Ababa University.
ICRC support to the POC had been phased out and by 2008 the center was using local products
for manufacture. In 2008, the POC assisted 130 mine/ERW survivors, of whom 116 received
prostheses (among the 528 prostheses produced).115
   The ICRC and regional authorities held a seminar for health professionals on treating weapon-
wounded patients in Tigray. The ICRC faced restrictions in carrying out its mandate in Ethiopia
and reduced its set-up and program, concentrating activities in Tigray. In 2008, the ICRC
was not granted permission to resume work in the Somali region after having been expelled
in July 2007.116 In 2008, the ICRC supported six rehabilitation centers (Assela, Arabaminch,
Bahirdar, Cheshire Services Ethiopia, Dessie, and Mekelle) with materials and components,
technical support, and on-the-job training. In 2006–2007 it supported eight centers. The ICRC
covered transportation, accommodation, and other costs for mine/ERW survivors and other war
amputees. ICRC support to the Harar center ended in October 2007 and the center has not
been operational since. The ICRC-supported centers delivered 520 prostheses to mine/ERW
survivors (of 1,959 total prostheses delivered) and 65 orthoses to survivors (of 2,874 in total).
This total was a decrease from 2007, due to the termination of support to the POC and Harar
centers. Yet the six ICRC-assisted centers increased service provision by about 25%.117
   Ethiopia views the peer support services by LSN Ethiopia through trained peer counselors as an
integral part of national capacity for providing psychological support to mine/ERW survivors.118
LSN Ethiopia assisted a total of 644 mine/ERW survivors in 2008. It supported 339 people
through its peer-to-peer support program, 139 through social reintegration, 66 through loans/
micro-credit, 15 through income-generating activities and eight received educational support. In
addition, five survivors were referred for emergency medical care and eight received continuing



115
    Data from interview with Yohanes Berhanu, Manager, POC, Addis Ababa, March 2009, provided by email from
    Ambachew Negus, RaDO, 17 June 2009; and telephone interview with Yohanes Berhanu, POC, 5 August 2009.
116
     ICRC, “Annual Report 2008,” Geneva, 27 May, p. 111.
117
     Data from interview with Marc Zlot, Head of Orthopedic Programme, ICRC, Addis Ababa, March 2009,
    provided by email from Ambachew Negus, RaDO, 17 June 2009; and ICRC, “Physical Rehabilitation
    Programme: Annual Report 2008,” Geneva, May 2009, pp. 25–26.
118
     “Draft Victim Assistance Status Report,” provided by email from Assefa Ashengo, MoLSA, 15 August 2009.


                                                                                                       435
Landmine Monitor Report 2009


medical care, 35 received prosthetics, and 20 survivors received other services.119 In 2008, LSN
Ethiopia held a workshop for health experts on including psychological support in hospitals and
workplaces to raise awareness of the possibility of employing mine/ERW survivors; this lead to
some beneficiaries gaining employment.120
   In 2008, RaDO provided physical and social rehabilitation services in six refugee camps in
west and east Ethiopia for Sudanese and Somali refugees and the surrounding local population,
in collaboration with the Administration for Refugees and Returnees Affairs and the Office of
the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. RaDO provided various mobility devices and offered
vocational training and income-generating activities.121
   Cheshire Services Ethiopia provided rehabilitation services and orthopedic appliances to
persons with disabilities, mainly children, in 2008. It provided rehabilitation services through its
center just outside Addis Ababa as well as outreach and CBR programs in Dire Dawa and Addis
Ababa. The appliances it provided were included in ICRC reporting. Outreach by Cheshire
Services Ethiopia reaches eight regions of Ethiopia, in collaboration with MoLSA and MoH. 122
   The Tigray Disabled Veterans Association (TDVA) continued to support the service capacity
of the Mekelle Orthopedics and Physiotherapy Center, which provided vocational training
and access to credit, self-employment, and income-generation opportunities. TDVA carried
out several projects specifically supporting war veterans with disabilities and their families
in 2008, including developing cooperatives in rural and semi-urban areas of Tigray region,
supporting entrepreneurship for women with disabilities and sponsoring education for persons
with disabilities and their children.123
   In October 2008, Handicap International (HI) began a two-year project to increase and
improve physical rehabilitation services in Dire Dawa and Somali regions. Physiotherapy units
of public hospitals in Dire Dawa and Jijiga receive equipment and HI provides technical support
and training to four graduate physiotherapists. The project did not have data on the number of
mine/ERW survivors among beneficiaries for 2008, but intended to collect such data for 2009.124

Support for Mine Action
Landmine Monitor is not aware of any comprehensive long-term cost estimates for meeting
mine action needs (including RE and VA) in Ethiopia. The national mine action program was
established using a combination of national funds and a World Bank loan.125 Authority for mine
action strategy and implementation, aside from VA activities, rests with EMAO.
National support for mine action
Ethiopia did not report national mine action funding in 2008. In 2007, the GICHD evaluation of
Ethiopia’s mine action program reported an annual contingency budget of ETB17 million to 20
million ($1,941,400–$2,284,000) for mine action, most of which had not been spent.126
International cooperation and assistance
In 2008, 10 countries and the EC reported providing $18,942,638 (€12,863,397) to mine action
in Ethiopia. This represents more than double what was reported in 2007. The EC continued its
ongoing support to UNDP in Ethiopia with a €9,750,000 ($14,357,850) contribution in 2008.
Funding at 2008 levels appears sufficient to meet Ethiopia’s mine action needs.

119
     Data from interview with Bekele Gonfa, LSN Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, March 2009, provided by email from
    Ambachew Negus, RaDO, 17 June 2009.
120
    Interview with Bekele Gonfa, LSN Ethiopia, in Geneva, 29 May 2009.
121
     Data from interview with Alemayoh Mitiku, Coordinator, Refugee Rehabilitation Program, RaDO, Addis
    Ababa, April 2009; and interview with Teshome Zewdie, Project Manager, Somalia Refugee Camps, Jijiga,
    Ethiopia, April 2009, both provided by email from Ambachew Negus, RaDO, 17 June 2009.
122
    “Draft Victim Assistance Status Report,” provided by email from Assefa Ashengo, MoLSA, 15 August 2009.
123
    TDVA, “Ongoing Projects,” www.tdva.org.
124
    Email from Thierry Hergault, HI, 21 May 2009.
125
    UN, “Country Profile: Ethiopia,” www.mineaction.org.
126
    Ibid.


436
States Parties                                                                                         Ethiopia


                   2008 International Mine Action Funding to Ethiopia: Monetary127
                       Implementing
       Donor             Agencies/              Project Details                       Amount
                       Organizations
  EC                     ,
                    UNDp tRaNStEC,            Mine clearance, Va                 $15,940,415 (€10,824,674)
                    iCRC
  Norway            Npa                       Mine clearance                   $1,405,008 (NoK7,920,000)
  Netherlands       UN Mine action            Unspecified mine                                      $576,780
                    Service (UNMaS),          action
                    Npa
  Finland           Npa                       Survey, mine                             $294,520 (€200,000)
                                              clearance
  Japan             Fund for Barrier-free     Va                                    $232,956 (¥24,016,060)
                    Mobility
  United States     Via the Centers for       Unspecified mine                                      $173,000
                    Disease Control           action
  United            UNDp                      Capacity-building,                          $83,453 (£45,000)
  Kingdom                                     mine clearance
  austria           LSN                       Va                                             $4,374 (€2,970)
                                                              Total              $18,710,505 (€12,705,762)


                    2008 International Mine Action Support to Ethiopia: In-Kind128
       Donor                 Form of In-Kind Support                   Monetary Value (where available)
  Germany           Mine clearance equipment                                           $232,133 (€157,635)
                                                              Total                    $232,133 (€157,635)


  In addition to the above, the UK reported contributing £50,000 ($92,725) via the UN Mine
Action Service (UNMAS) to support capacity-building, mine clearance, and emergency
response in Eritrea and Ethiopia, but did not differentiate funds to Ethiopia.129




127
     Emails from Mari Cruz Cristóbal, Policy Assistant, Directorate-General for External Relations, 28 May 2009;
    Ingunn Vatne, Senior Advisor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 4 June 2009; Dimitri Fenger, Humanitarian Aid
    Section, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 8 June 2009; Sirpa Loikkanen, Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
    27 February 2009; and Hayashi Akihito, Japan Campaign to Ban Landmines (JCBL), 4 June 2009, with
    translated information received by JCBL from the Humanitarian Assistance Division, Multilateral Cooperation
    Department, and Conventional Arms Division, Non-proliferation; Germany Article 7 Report, Form J, 27 April
    2009; US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety 2009,” Washington, DC, July 2009; email from
    Amy White, Deputy Program Manager, Conflict, Humanitarian and Security Department, DfID, 17 March 2009;
    and email from Daniela Krejdl, Humanitarian Aid, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 3 March 2009.
128
     Belgium Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2009; and Spain Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2009.
129
     Email from Amy White, DfID, 17 March 2009.


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