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VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 17

									THE ASSESSMENT OF THE WATER QUALITY OF THE HEX RIVER CATCHMENT –
                           NORTH WEST PROVINCE


                                          by




                               JANEL DU PLESSIS


                             MINOR-DISSERTATION


          Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree


                             MAGISTER SCIENTIAE




                                          in


                      ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT


                                        in the


                              FACULTY OF SCIENCE


                                        at the


                      UNIVERSITY OF JOHANNESBURG




                            Supervisor: Dr. J.M. Meeuwis


                                   December 2006
                                                                                                   ii

                                            ABSTRACT

This minor-dissertation established the long-term (July 2002 to June 2006) as well as present day (July
2005 to June 2006) water quality conditions of the Hex River and its tributaries the Dorp-, Paardekraal-
, Klipgat- and Klipfontein Spruit, upstream of the Bospoort Dam. The Hex River is situated in the
North-West Province, in close proximity of the town Rustenburg. The Hex River falls within the
associated Hex River catchment. Various anthropogenic activities impact negatively on the water
quality of the Hex River. These impacts include agriculture, livestock production, industrial effluent,
mining activities, and processing as well as residential impacts including treated and untreated sewage
from the town of Rustenburg as well as informal settlements in the Hex River catchment. The various
land uses for the Hex River include domestic use by informal settlements in the area, including mining
concessions, livestock watering as well as irrigation and the aquatic environment of the Hex River
catchment and the receiving water body the Bospoort Dam. The Hex River, therefore, not only has a
effect on the environment but also on the social and economic aspects in the region.


Owing to the severity of these impacts it was deemed necessary to determine the long-term water
quality trends of the Hex River as well as the prevailing water quality conditions. The primary
tributaries of the Hex River were included in the study to determine the source of possible pollution
influx. In order to achieve the aim of the study a literature review was conducted on chemical, physical
and biological water quality as well as legislative requirements controlling water quality management.
A proper understanding of the various impacts as well as land uses in the area is essential in
demarcating possible pollution sources. The assessment of the long-term water quality data was
conducted to determine the historical water quality trends of the Hex River and associated tributaries
and the deterioration in water quality over a four year period. The most recent water quality data were
compared against the Target Water Quality Guideline Ranges (DWAF, 1996) for domestic use,
irrigation, livestock watering as well as aquatic ecosystems.


The long-term water quality trends showed a significant mine water, industrial effluent and sewage
impact on the Hex River after the confluence with the tributaries. The assessment of the current water
quality situation indicated non-compliance towards the Target Water Quality Guideline Ranges
(TWQGR) as stipulated by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF, 1996a-d), rendering
the water unfit for domestic use, irrigation and livestock watering. The sources feeding the tributaries
                                                                                                   iii

contain water of inferior quality with a direct associated environmental risk. However, at present the
risk potential is contained in the system but with a specific environmental event, such as high rainfall
over a short period of time, could be released with a significant environmental impact and decrease in
aquatic biodiversity.
                                                                                                   iv

                                          OPSOMMING

Hierdie verhandeling bepaal die langtermyn (Julie 2002 tot Junie 2006) asook huidige water kwaliteit
van de Hex Rivier en sy sytakke, die Dorp-, Paardekraal-, Klipgat- en Klipfontein Spruite, stroomop
van die Bospoort Dam. Die Hex River is gelee in die Noordwes-Provinsie aangrensend tot die dorp
Rustenburg. Die Hex Rivier val binne die ooreenkomstige Hex Rivier opvangsgebied. Die kwaliteit
van dei water in die Hex Rivier, word geïmpakteer deur ‘n verskeidenheid van menslike aktiwiteite.
Hierdie impakte sluit landbou, veeteelt, nywerheids afvalwater, mynbou aktiwiteite en verwerking
asook residentiele impakte insluitend behandelde en onbehandelde riool afkomstig van die drop
Rustenburg en informele nedersettings in the Hex Rivier opvanggebied. Die verskeidenheid grond
gebruike van die Hex Rivier sluit huishoudelike gebruik, lewendehawe drinkwater, besproeiing en die
water ekosisteme van die Hex Rivier opvangsgebied en die ontvangende watermassa van die Bospoort
Dam in. Die Hex Rivier het dus nie net ‘n effek op die omgewing nie, maar ook op die sosiale en
ekonomiese aspekte.


As gevolg van die erns van bogenoemde impakte is dit besluit om die langtermyn water kwaliteits
tendense van die Hex Rivier te bepaal, asook die huidige water kwaliteits toestand. Aangesien die Hex
Rivier deur sy sytakke gevoed word, is die riviere ook in die studie ingesluit ter bepaling van die
oorsprong van moontlike besoedelings invloeiings. Om die doel van hierdie studie te bereik, is ‘n
literatuurstudie van chemise, fisiese en biologiese water kwaliteit asook die wetlike vereistes ten
opsigte van water kwaliteits bestuur, onderneem. ‘n Begrip ten opsigte van dei verskeie impakte asook
grond gebruike in die studie area is noodsaaklik vir die afbakening van moontlike besoedelings bronne.
Die evaluasie van die langtermyn water kwaliteits data is belangrik vir die bepaling van die historiese
water kwaliteits tendense van die Hex Rivier en sy sytakke en die agteruitgang van die water kwaliteit
oor die vier jaar periode. Die huidige water kwaliteits data is vergelyk met die “Target Water Quality
Guideline Ranges” of te wel die water kwaliteits riglyne soos voorgestel deur die Departement
Waterwese en Bosbou (DWAF, 1996) vir huishoudelike gebruik, besproeiing, lewendehawe drinkwater
asook water ekosisteme.


Die langtermyn water kwaliteits tendense dui op ‘n beduidende mynwater, industriële afvalwater asook
riool impak op die Hex Rivier na die samevloeiing met die sytakke. Die evaluasie van die huidige
water kwaliteits situasie toon nalatigheid ten opsigte van die water kwaliteits riglyne soos gestipuleer
                                                                                                v

deur die Departement van Waterwese en Bosbou. Die water in die Hex Rivier opvangsgebied is dus nie
geskik vir gebruik as huishoudelike water, besproeiing asook drinkwater vir vee nie. Die bronne wat
die sytakke voed bevat water van lae gehalte en ‘n direkte omgewings risiko word daarmee geassosieer.
Die risiko potensiaal word tans deur die sisteem ingesluit en kan met ‘n spesifieke omgewings voorval
vrygelaat word met ‘n betekenisvolle omgewings impak.
                                                                                                 vi

                                     ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Without the help of the following people mentioned below the completion of this minor-dissertation
would not have been possible:


   •   To the Lord, who provided me with good health and strength of mind to complete this
       dissertation


   •   To Dr. Meeuwis for her professional guidance and motivation throughout the study. It is greatly
       appreciated


   •   To my parents for their continuous understanding, keen interest, support and prayers


   •   To Clean Stream Environmental Services for supplying the data for the study as well as making
       their resources available to conduct the study


   •   To Ryno Erdmann for his continuous guidance, sharing of extensive knowledge of the study
       area and allowing me the time to complete this study


   •   To my work colleagues and friends for their support and motivation


   •   To the memory of my dear friend and co-student Terrence Payne
                                                                                                                                                                                                 vii

                                                                       TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                Page
ABSTRACT ..............................................................................................................................................................                          ii
OPSOMMING...........................................................................................................................................................                             iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.......................................................................................................................................                                          vi
LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................................................................                              xi
LIST OF TABLES.....................................................................................................................................................                             xv


PART 1: INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................                                         1


1.1.      BACKGROUND OF STUDY........................................................................................................................                                            1
1.2.      PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY ........................................................................................................................                                         3
     1.2.1. MAIN AIM OF THE STUDY......................................................................................................................................                          4
     1.2.2. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY ...............................................................................................................................                              4


PART 2: PROBLEM STATEMENT .....................................................................................................................                                                  6


PART 3: WATER QUALITY AND WATER QUALIY MANAGEMENT .......................................................                                                                                        9


3.1. WATER QUALITY ...........................................................................................................................................                                   9
3.2. WATER QUALITY MANAGENEMT..............................................................................................................                                                     10
     3.2.1. WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA.....................................................................................                                                       10
     3.2.2. WATER QUALITY LEGISLATION ..........................................................................................................................                                11
          3.2.2.1. Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act No. 108 of 1996 ....................................................................                                        11
          3.2.2.2. National Environmental Management Act, Act No. 107 of 1998........................................................................                                           11
          3.2.2.3. National Water Act, Act No. 36 of 1998 .............................................................................................................                         12
          3.2.2.4. National Water Resource Strategy ......................................................................................................................                      12
          3.2.2.5. Catchment Management Agencies ......................................................................................................................                         13
          3.2.2.6. The South African Water Quality Guidelines and the Target Water Quality Guideline Ranges (TWQGR) .......                                                                     14


3.3. WATER QUALITY CONSTITUENTS AFFECTING DOMESTIC USE, IRRIGATION, LIVESTOCK
WATERING AND THE AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS...............................................................................................................                                              16
     3.2.1. PHYSICAL WATER QUALITY.................................................................................................................................                             18
          3.2.1.1. pH........................................................................................................................................................................   19
          3.2.1.2. Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) ........................................................................                                       19
          3.2.1.3. Turbidity..............................................................................................................................................................      20
     3.2.2. CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY ...............................................................................................................................                              20
          3.2.2.1. Chloride...............................................................................................................................................................      21
          3.2.2.2. Sulphate...............................................................................................................................................................      21
          3.2.2.3. Nitrate .................................................................................................................................................................    22
                                                                                                                                                                                                viii




                                                                                                                                                                                               Page
         3.2.2.4. Ammonium .........................................................................................................................................................           22
         3.2.2.5. Ortho-phosphate..................................................................................................................................................            22
         3.2.2.6. Manganese ..........................................................................................................................................................         23
         3.2.2.7. Aluminium ..........................................................................................................................................................         23
         3.2.2.8. Iron......................................................................................................................................................................   23
         3.2.2.9. Fluoride ...............................................................................................................................................................     24
         3.2.2.10. Hardness............................................................................................................................................................        24


    3.2.3. MICROBIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY ...............................................................................................................                                       24
         3.2.3.1. Total Coliforms ...................................................................................................................................................          25
         3.2.3.2. Faecal Coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. Coli).................................................................................................                             25


3.4. FACTORS INFLUENCING WATER QUALITY ............................................................................................                                                            26


PART 4: STUDY AREA: HEX RIVER CATCHMENT – NORTH WEST PROVINCE ................................                                                                                                 28


4.1. LOCATION, DEMARCATION AND OVERALL DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA........................                                                                                                   28


4.2. PHYSICAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS THAT HAVE AN INFLUENCE ON THE WATER
QUALITY OF THE HEX RIVER CATCHMENT ...................................................................................................                                                         29
    4.2.1. DRAINAGE .................................................................................................................................................................          29
    4.2.2. CLIMATE ....................................................................................................................................................................        32
    4.2.3. VEGETATION ............................................................................................................................................................             34
    4.2.4. RELIEF ........................................................................................................................................................................     35
    4.2.5. GEOLOGY...................................................................................................................................................................          36
    4.2.6. SOIL.............................................................................................................................................................................   37
    4.2.7. LAND USE ..................................................................................................................................................................         37
         4.2.7.1. Urban Development ............................................................................................................................................               38
         4.2.7.2. Mining activities..................................................................................................................................................          40
         4.2.7.3. Industrial activities ..............................................................................................................................................         42
         4.2.7.4. Sewage Treatment Works ...................................................................................................................................                   42
         4.2.7.5. Agricultural Activities.........................................................................................................................................             42
    4.2.8. WATER USES SITUATED WITHIN THE STUDY ..................................................................................................                                             43
         4.2.8.1. Domestic Use ......................................................................................................................................................          43
         4.2.8.2. Irrigation..............................................................................................................................................................     44
         4.2.8.3. Livestock Watering .............................................................................................................................................             44
         4.8.3.2. Aquatic Ecosystems ............................................................................................................................................              44


4.3. REVIEW OF EXISTING INFORMATION ON THE WATER QUALITY OF THE STUDY AREA.............                                                                                                        45
                                                                                                                                                                                 ix


                                                                                                                                                                               Page
PART 5: DATA COLLECTION AND METHODOLOGY ................................................................................                                                        47


5.1. DATA COLLECTION .......................................................................................................................................                    47


5.2. LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE MONITORING LOCALITIES ..................................................                                                                   48
     5.2.1. MONITORING LOCALITIES SITUATED WITHIN THE DORP SPRUIT..............................................................                                                 49
     5.2.2. MONITORING LOCALITIES SITUATED WITHIN THE PAARDEKRAAL SPRUIT ...........................................                                                            52
     5.2.3. MONITORING LOCALITIES SITUATED WITHIN THE KLIPGAT SPRUIT........................................................                                                    56
     5.2.4. MONITORING LOCALITIES SITUATED WITHIN THE KLIPFONTEIN SPRUIT...............................................                                                         59
     5.2.5. MONITORING LOCALITIES SITUATED WITHIN THE HEX RIVER ..................................................................                                              63


5.3. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION .............................................................................................................                                   66
     5.3.1. INORGANIC SAMPLING ..........................................................................................................................................       67
     5.3.2. MICROBIOLOGICAL SAMPLING ...........................................................................................................................                67


5.4. SHORTCOMINGS OF THE DATA ..................................................................................................................                                67


5.5. METHODS USED TO ANALYZE DATA........................................................................................................                                       69


5.6. INTERPRETATION OF DATA ........................................................................................................................                            71


PART 6: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS .................................................................................................................                                 73


6.1. BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................................                73


6.2. TABULAR AND GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF DATA ..................................................................                                                            73
     6.2.1. PHYSICAL WATER QUALITY CONSTITUENTS ..................................................................................................                              75
          6.2.1.1. pH values ...........................................................................................................................................        75
          6.2.1.2. Salinity (Electrical Conductivity and Total dissolved solids)............................................................                                    78
          6.2.1.3. Turbidity............................................................................................................................................        84
     6.2.2. CHEMICAL WATER QUALITY CONSTITUENTS .................................................................................................                               86
          6.2.2.1. Chloride .............................................................................................................................................       86
          6.2.2.2. Sulphate .............................................................................................................................................       90
          6.2.2.3. Nitrate................................................................................................................................................      94
          6.2.2.4. Ammonium........................................................................................................................................             98
          6.2.2.5. Ortho-phosphate ................................................................................................................................            102
          6.2.2.6. Iron ....................................................................................................................................................   106
                                                                                                                                                                               x

                                                                                                                                                                             Page


          6.2.2.7. Manganese.........................................................................................................................................        108
          6.2.2.8. Alumimium........................................................................................................................................         112
          6.2.2.9. Fluoride .............................................................................................................................................    116
          6.2.2.10. Hardness ..........................................................................................................................................      119
6.2.3. BIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY ..................................................................................................................................           123
          6.2.3.1. Total Coliforms .................................................................................................................................         124
          6.2.3.2. E.Coli.................................................................................................................................................   125
          6.2.3.3. Faecal Coliforms ...............................................................................................................................          126


6.3. SYNTHESIS OF WATER QUALITY CONDITIONS......................................................................................                                             127




PART 6: CONCLUSIONS......................................................................................................................................                    133


PART 8: RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................................                             137


PART 9: REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................                  138
                                                                                                                                                xi

                                                           LIST OF FIGURES
                                                                                                                                                Page
Figure 1: Regional settling of the study area in relation to South Africa (a) and the North West
Province (b) .............................................................................................................................      2


Figure 2: South Africa’s 19 identified water management areas ...............................................                                  13


Figure 3: Primary drainage of the North West Province............................................................                              29


Figure 4: Secondary drainage of the North West Province........................................................                                30


Figure 5: Regional Map of the Hex River catchment and associated sub-catchments and
tributaries.................................................................................................................................   31


Figure 6: Mean Annual Rainfall for the North West Province ..................................................                                  33


Figure 7: Land use of the North West Province ........................................................................                         38


Figure 8: Regional Map indicating the various villages/ settlements situated within the study area,
Hex River catchment................................................................................................................            39


Figure 9: Primary mining activities within the North West Province ........................................                                    41


Figure 10: Identified impacts on the Prison Stream No. 1 within the Dorp Spruit .....................                                          50


Figure 11: Illustrates map indicating the location of monitoring localities (Dorp1 – Dorp4) as well
as locality names, description, coordinates situated within the Dorp Spruit...............................                                     51


Figure 12: Illustrated indicating the location of monitoring localities (Paarde1 – Paarde5) as well
as
the locality names, description, coordinates situated within the Paardekraal Spruit...................                                         53


Figure 13: Mining related impacts on the Paardekraal Spruit at Paarde1...................................                                      54
                                                                                                                                                 xii

                                                                                                                                                 Page
Figure 14: Impacts from the Thekwane waste water treatment works on the Paardekraal
Spruit ......................................................................................................................................   54


Figure 15: Mining related impacts on the Paardekraal Spruit at Paarde3...................................                                       55


Figure 16: Impacts from the waste water treatment works upstream of the Paardekraal
Spruit confluence with the Hex River.......................................................................................                     56


Figure 17: Mining related impacts on the Klipgat Spruit at monitoring locality Klipg1.............                                              56


Figure 18: Illustrated map indicating the location of monitoring localities (Klipg1 0 Klpg3) as
well as locality names, description, coordinates situated within the Klipgat Spruit ...................                                         57


Figure 19: Mining related impacts on the Klipgat Spruit at monitoring locality KLipg2 ...........                                               58


Figure 20: Seepage from tailings complex impacting on the Klipgat Spruit at monitoring
locality Klipg3 .........................................................................................................................       59


Figure 21: Impacts from the Klipfontein Return Water Dam and tailings complex on the
Klipfontein Spruit ....................................................................................................................         59


Figure 22: Illustrated map indicating the location of monitoring localities (Klipf1 – Klipf6) as
well as locality names, description, coordinated situated within the Klipfontein Spruit.............                                            60


Figure 23: Impacts from the mining related as well as waste water impacts on the Klipfontein
Spruit ......................................................................................................................................   61


Figure 24: Mining activities impacting on the Klipfontein Spruit downstream of the Klipfontein
Dam at sampling locality Klipf3...............................................................................................                  61


Figure 25: Mining activities impacting on the Klipfontein Spruit downstream of the Klipfontein
Dam at sampling locality Klipf4...............................................................................................                  62
                                                                                                                                                  xiii

                                                                                                                                                  Page
Figure 26: Mining related impacts on the Klipfontein Spruit in the vicinity of the Naude
Dam.........................................................................................................................................    62


Figure 27: Illustrated map indicating the location of monitoring localities (Hex1 – Hex12) as
well as locality names, description, coordinates situated within the Hex River .........................                                         63


Figure 28: Impacts from the Rustenburg waste water treatment works on the Hex River ..........                                                   65


Figure 29: Spatial presentation of the annual average pH values recorded for the Hex River and
primary tributaries during July 2002 to June 2006 ....................................................................                          77


Figure 30: Spatial presentation of the annual average Total Dissolved Solid (TDS)
concentrations recorded for the Hex River and primary tributaries during July 2002 to June
2006.........................................................................................................................................   80


Figure 31: Spatial presentation of the annual average Chloride concentrations recorded for the
Hex River and primary tributaries during July 2002 to June 2006.............................................                                     87


Figure 32: Spatial presentation of the annual average Sulphate concentrations recorded for the
Hex River and primary tributaries during July 2002 to June 2006.............................................                                     92


Figure 33: Spatial presentation of the annual average Nitrate concentrations recorded for the Hex
River and primary tributaries during July 2002 to June 2006 ...................................................                                  96


Figure 34: Spatial presentation of the annual average Ammonium concentrations recorded for
the Hex River and primary tributaries during July 2002 to June 2006 .......................................                                      99


Figure 35: Spatial presentation of the annual average Ortho-phosphate concentrations recorded
for the Hex River and primary tributaries during July 2002 to June 2006 .................................                                       103


Figure 36: Spatial presentation of the annual average Iron concentrations recorded for the Hex
River and primary tributaries during July 2002 to June 2006 ....................................................                                107
                                                                                                                                     xiv



                                                                                                                                     Page
Figure 37: Spatial presentation of the annual average Manganese concentrations recorded for the
Hex River and primary tributaries during July 2002 to June 2006.............................................                       110


Figure 38: Spatial presentation of the annual average Aluminium concentrations recorded for
the Hex River and primary tributaries during July 2002 to June 2006 .......................................                        114


Figure 39: Spatial presentation of the annual average Fluoride concentrations recorded for the
Hex River and primary tributaries during July 2002 to June 2006.............................................                       118


Figure 40: Spatial presentation of the annual average Hardness concentrations recorded for the
Hex River and primary tributaries during July 2002 to June 2006.............................................                       121


Figure 41: Total coliform counts recorded for the Hex River monitoring localities during the
period February 2004 to June 2006 ..........................................................................................       125


Figure 42: E. Coli counts recorded for the Hex River monitoring localities during the period
February 2004 to June 2006 .....................................................................................................   125


Figure 43: Faecal coliform counts recorded for the Hex River monitoring localities during the
period February 2004 to June 2006 ..........................................................................................       126


Figure 44: Distribution of problematic chemical, physical and biological constituents..............                                129
                                                                                                                                            xv

                                                         LIST OF TABLES
                                                                                                                                            Page

Table 1: Definitions related to water quality by means of water quality objectives ...................                                     14


Table 2: Summary of the Target Water Quality Guidelines as stipulated by the Department of
Water Affairs and Tourism (1998) ...........................................................................................               17


Table 3: Physical water quality attributes .................................................................................               18


Table 4: Chemical water quality attributes................................................................................                 21


Table 5: Microbiological water quality attributed .....................................................................                    25


Table 6: Vegetation types of the North West Province .............................................................                         35


Table 7: Natural Mean Annual Runoff (MAR) for the Hex River and its tributaries .................                                          36


Table 8: Summary of the water quality of the Bospoort Dam ...................................................                              46


Table 9: Water quality constituents affecting domestic use, irrigation, livestock watering and
the aquatic environment analyzed for the Hex River and its primary tributaries........................                                     48


Table 10: Water quality monitoring locality names and descriptions situated within the Hex
River and tributaries Dorp Spruit, Klipgat Spruit, Paardekraal Spruit and Klipfontein Spruit ...                                           49


Table 11: Methods used for the analysis of selected constituents ..............................................                            70


Table 12: Annual average pH values recorded for the Dorp-, Paardekraal-, Klipgat-, and
Klipfontein Spruit as well as the Hex River during July 2002 to June 2006 ..............................                                   76


Table 13: Annual average Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) concentrations recorded for the
Dorp-, Paardekraal-, Klipgat-, and Klipfontein Spruit as well as the Hex River during July 2002
to June 2006............................................................................................................................   79
                                                                                                                                               xvi

                                                                                                                                               Page
Table 14: Annual average turbidity ranges recorded for the Dorp-, Paardekraal-, Klipgat-,
and Klipfontein Spruit as well as the Hex River during July 2002 to June 2006........................                                         85


Table 15: Annual average Chloride concentrations recorded for the Dorp-, Paardekraal-, Klipgat-,
and Klipfontein Spruit as well as the Hex River during July 2002 to June 2006........................                                         86


Table 16: Annual average Sulphate concentrations recorded for the Dorp-, Paardekraal-, Klipgat-,
and Klipfontein Spruit as well as the Hex River during July 2002 to June 2006........................                                         91


Table 17: Annual average Nitrate concentrations recorded for the Dorp-, Paardekraal-, Klipgat-,
and Klipfontein Spruit as well as the Hex River during July 2002 to June 2006........................                                         95


Table 18: Annual average ammonium concentrations recorded for the Dorp-, Paardekraal-,
Klipgat-, and Klipfontein Spruit as well as the Hex River during July 2002 to June 2006.........                                              98


Table 19: Annual average ortho-phosphate concentrations recorded for the Dorp-,
Paardekraal-, Klipgat-, and Klipfontein Spruit as well as the Hex River during July 2002 to
June 2006.................................................................................................................................   102


Table 20: Annual average iron concentrations recorded for the Dorp-, Paardekraal-, Klipgat-,
and Klipfontein Spruit as well as the Hex River during July 2002 to June 2006........................                                        106


Table 21: Annual average manganese concentrations recorded for the Dorp-, Paardekraal-,
Klipgat-, and Klipfontein Spruit as well as the Hex River during July 2002 to June 2006.........                                             109


Table 22: Annual average alimunium concentrations recorded for the Dorp-, Paardekraal-,
Klipgat-, and Klipfontein Spruit as well as the Hex River during July 2002 to June 2006.........                                             113


Table 23: Annual average fluoride concentrations recorded for the Dorp-, Paardekraal-,
Klipgat-, and Klipfontein Spruit as well as the Hex River during July 2002 to June 2006.........                                             117
                                                                                                               xvii

                                                                                                               Page


Table 24: Annual average hardness concentrations recorded for the Dorp-, Paardekraal-, Klipgat-,
and Klipfontein Spruit as well as the Hex River during July 2002 to June 2006........................        120


Table 25: Bacteriological water quality recorded for the Hex River monitoring localities Hex6,
Hex8 and Hex10, during the period February 2004 to June 2006..............................................   124


Table 26: Chemical and physical water quality constituents recorded for the study area posing
risk to aquatic ecosystems, domestic use, irrigation and livestock watering ..............................   128

								
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