Institutional Advancement In Higher Education

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Institutional Advancement In Higher Education Powered By Docstoc
					With the rapid increase in the costs associated with higher education, there has been
an ever-increasing pressure placed upon colleges and universities to raise funds for
institutional support. Fund-raising drives in excess of $1 billion are commonplace
among top tier institutions in the early twenty-first century. The responsibility for
identifying individuals capable of making gifts to the institution falls under the
umbrella of institutional advancement. Offices of institutional advancement are
typically responsible for all of the institution's relationships with individuals external
to the institution. This discussion of institutional advancement in higher education
includes two sections. First, it presents a brief history of institutional advancement. In
the second section, the four functional areas of institutional advancement are
discussed (public relations, publications, alumni relations, and development).
Historical Background The philanthropic support of educational institutions is not a
new concept. Some of the earliest examples of educational philanthropy include
Greek philanthropist Cimon's support of the Academy of Socrates and Plato and
Alexander the Great's assistance in opening Aristotle's Lyceum through his financial
support. The history of educational philanthropy in the United States can be traced
back to medieval universities in twelfth-century Europe. In these institutions, founders
were forced to approach potential donors for money and resources for college
operations. Wealthy individuals established endowments to support the universities of
Paris, Oxford, and Cambridge. The idea of the chief faculty member raising funds for
the institution was transferred to the early colonial American colleges. The first
president of Harvard College, Henry Dunster, counted generating resources as part of
his duties. While the first solicitation for Harvard College in 1641 is cited as the
beginning of fund-raising in this country, Kathleen Kelly commented in 1998 that the
extent of the solicitation efforts tends to be overstated and presents a misleading
portrayal of early educational institutions as heavily dependent on financial donations.
Others also dismiss the notion that fund-raising began in the 1600s given that most
early colleges were supported by government funds and taxes. Systematic
fund-raising traces its roots to the twentieth century; early efforts were limited and
involved only a few wealthy benefactors. In 1821 Williams College established the
first alumni association and in 1823 Brown University established the first alumni
fund. Not until 1897 did the first public university, the University of Michigan,
establish an alumni association. This difference in organizational behavior between
public and private institutions is repeated throughout fund-raising history, although
only minor differences exist today. One of the first great institutional fundraisers was
William Lawrence, an Episcopal bishop, who raised more than $2 million for Harvard
in 1904 鈥?905 as president of the alumni association and who led a drive at
Wellesley College that brought in nearly $2 million. From 1905 to 1915 Charles
Sumner Ward and Lyman L. Pierce conducted the first "capital campaign" for the
YMCA that raised about $60 million in capital funds. However, in 1936 fewer than
fifty percent of colleges and universities had alumni funds in place and. According to
Kelly "apart from a few exceptions related to annual giving 鈥 he first full-time staff
fundraisers did not appear on the scene until the late 1940's" (p. 149). Private, rather
than public institutions employed the first fundraisers, "with only 25 percent of all
institutions reporting a centralized development function as recently as 1970"
(Brittingham and Pezzulo, p. 82). The majority of those were private institutions. In
1912, twenty-three men who were responsible for organizing former students of their
universities founded the Association of Alumni Secretaries (AAS). While some of
those involved had responsibilities for raising funds, the majority were engaged in the
organization of alumni to support their universities in ways other than financial. By
1938 only one fifth of those surveyed by the American Alumni Council (the new
name adopted by the AAS) were engaged in fund-raising activities. In the spring of
1958 the American Public Relations Association (ACPRA) and the American Alumni
Council (AAC) met at the Greenbrier Hotel in White Springs, Virginia. The purpose
of the meeting was to discuss the need for administrative coordination of the functions
of public relations, alumni relations, and fund-raising. In 1974 the AAC and ACPRA
merged to form the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education (CASE).
This organization brought together the organizational functions of public relations,
publications, fundraising, and alumni relations under the umbrella of institutional
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