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Manual For Sustainable Neighbourhood Development Acknowledgements Authors: Chrisna du Plessis James Lundy Pierre Swanepoel Published by: Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism Private Bag X447 Pretoria 0001 South Africa http://www.environment.gov.za Foreword This manual and the processes and protocols it Change will come through the neighbourhood, contains are based upon community as local communities can quickly identify their development projects undertaken by the authors weaknesses and strengths, and act on them. in South Africa, Australasia and the United The environment, the economy and social Kingdom, as well as research on United structures, can best be improved by local Nations best practice community development people, at the local level. and Local Agenda 21 projects. This Manual is designed with the The approach forwarded is based upon neighbourhood in mind. It was not intended to community driven sustainable development, cover villages, informal settlements or marginal known as a Local Agenda 21 programme, which displaced settlements. However, extra makes the focus different from many of the rate resources and tools would have to be provided payers and residents associations development to counter the lack of physical and social frameworks, local authority driven Local Agenda resources in these marginalised communities. 21 programs and Integrated Development Plans. Our neighbourhood programme seeks to Who is the Target Market of this empower people at a local level to design a sustainable community development strategy Manual? and with other power brokers and their local • Local Government Officials authorities. This manual is not a substitute for • Politicians Local Authority driven Integrated Development • Professionals Planning (IDPs) but rather a guide assisting local neighbourhood groups to organise • Community Leaders themselves to give meaningful inp ut into the IDP process based on the international Local Agenda 21 process. We have focused on the local level or urban neighbourhood as the first and the largest target group for the Local Agenda 21 program. Neighbourhoods exist throughout cities and towns and usually have an existing network of community organisations. The “Neighbourhood Local Agenda 21” program has the ability to support hard pressed local government systems and focus community attention on issues relevant to sustainability. Neighbourhoods are the building blocks of a nation. They are the cells of social unrest or community creativity. They are where we all live, learn, love and die. We have our roots in the neighbourhood; it is our refuge and our vessel of advancement. Success in South Africa’s cities will require multi -class and multi-race coalitions for sustainable growth, development and distribution of services and opportunities that will bring about stable, healthy, vibrant, and safe neighbourhoods. Contents PART 1 4. Monitoring – measuring progress, minimising mistakes Sustainable Development • Monitoring Save the Earth, save the World • What is an indicator? • Why do we need sustainable development? • Is this Progress? • Where does sustainable development • Update and revise the Action Plan comes from? • What is Sustainable Development? 5.Celebrating – Feedback and Promotion • What can we do? • Celebrate • Creating sustainable neighbourhoods • Feedback • Promotion The South African Context • A promotion programme • Local Authority planning processes • The media can help • National policy context • Local Agenda 21 in South Africa • Putting it all together PART 3 How to… Preparing and holding meetings and PART 2 workshops Manual for Neighbourhood • The perfect meeting Sustainable Development • Purpose • Who should attend? The five point approach to Sustainable • Choosing and appropriate venue Community Development • Setting the Agenda • Role of a facilitator 1. Getting Started – Partnerships and • Revisiting meetings/ Workshops common values • Helpful Hints • Kickstarting the process • Establishing a constituency Setting up a Sustainable Neighbourhood • Identifying partners Organisation • Identifying common values • When to set up a Sustainable • Interim committee Neighbourhood Organisation • Structure of the Sustainable Neighbourhood 2. Developing a community vision Organisation • Visioning – from dream to reality • Working group • Preparing for the visioning process • Building networks of support • Profiling the community • Making it work • Identifying the issues • Co-ordination • Priorities • The vision statement Hiring help • Consultants 3. Action Plans - From Ideas to Actions • Six steps to hiring help • Action Plans _how to get there • Setting goals, targets and triggers • Implementation strategies Part 4 • Implementation Finding help Professional directories Websites Organisations Publications 4 Part 1 SustainableDevelopment Save the Earth and save the World “An Approach to Sustainable Community Development” way we live, bringing improvement to many areas of our lives. In fact, we have come to believe that humans and their technology can conquer all problems, and that the answer to all our social problems such as poverty lies in economic growth fuelled by industry. However, development brought its own problems. Factories and automobiles are polluting the air and water. These emissions contribute to the greenhouse effect and the destruction of the ozone layer, which in turn is causing world wide climate change. This causes a change in rainfall patterns and thus in the livelihood of many people making a living out of agriculture, forcing many off their farms. People moving to cities to find jobs often don’t find any and have to live in shacks in unhealthy and unsafe conditions. Communities are This manual is not about saving the Earth, but destroyed, and with them, the glue that keeps about saving the world. This means maintaining society together: the sense of belonging that the current Earth environment so that the human race can survive and rebuilding our encourages care of the weaker members of the community and inhibits anti -social behaviour communities, saving the human race from its present path of self-destruction. such as crime. To top it all, the gap between rich and poor is bigger than it has ever been before. In this first section of the manual we will discuss Improved medical care also contributed to why we need sustainable development, where unprecedented population growth, forcing us to the term came from and what it means, as well spread resources among a staggering six as what it means for your community, your family billion people. By 2020 two thirds of the world’s and yourself. population will be affected by water shortages. Our intensive farming methods, developed to Why do we need sustainable feed this population, have removed so many development? nutrients from the soil that an apple grown today The past three hundred years have seen many has less than a twenty-sixth of the nutrients that improvements in the conditions of life for same a pple would have had eighty years ago. humanity. Slavery has been abolished in most parts of the world, democracy is the norm, not When the rivers caught fire in Canada and the exception and only the most backward of America, people finally realised that we will have countries still treat women as second class to find a way to answer our needs for citizens. We have all but eradicated dreaded development without destroying the diseases such as polio and leprosy, it has environment. become a lot safer for women to give birth, and more children than ever before survive their first Further fuel was added to the fire when the Club year. Machines have completely changed the of Rome published its famous report “The Limits to Growth” in 1972. Although many of their 5 assumptions have now been proven premature, guideline and action plan for sustainable the report did make us realise that the Earth development. does not have unlimited bounty, that sooner or later we are going to run out of the very things Agenda 21 we need to survive. At the same time more and As a result of the Earth Summit, 180 nations more people are born who want a job, a house adopted Agenda 21 - a detailed plan of action and a decent quality of life – all things we cannot setting specific initiatives which all nations provide without economic growth and use of should undertake in the achievement of resources. The answer suggested to this sustainable development. dilemma is the concept of sustainable development. Agenda 21 explains that population, consumption and technology are the primary Where does sustainable driving forces behind environmental change. It development come from? offers policies and programmes to achieve a sustainable balance between consumption, "The environment is where we all live; and population and the earth's life supporting development is what we all do in attempting to capacity. improve our lot within that abode. The two are inseparable." - Brundtland Local Agenda 21 The challenge of Agenda 21 is to translate the Sustainable development started out as the global framework into actions at the local level. idea that we cannot sustain development if we The Earth Summit recognised the vital role that do not protect the environment. It was, however, all levels of society, including communities, the soon realised that sustainable development private sector and local authorities can play in would not be possible without certain social and the successful implementation of Agenda 21. economic changes such as a reduction in Many of the problems and solutions that Agenda poverty levels and greater social equality and 21 attempts to address have their roots in local fairness. activities. Therefore, the full participation and The challenge of sustainable development is to commitment of all people is crucial in fulfilling the objectives of Agenda 21 and in creating a balance the needs of the community for social and economic well being, with the protection of sustainable future. the environment. Agenda 21 places great emphasis on the process of forming Local Agenda 21s. It Since the term was first used in the mid 1970’s, recognises that partnerships between a lot of thought and debate has gone into exactly communities and local authorities are crucial to what sustainable development requires from developing a strategy that can create action. us. Although each local community determines In June 1992 The Earth Summit - the United specific actions and policies of Local Agenda 21 Nations Conference on Environment and programmes, the key goals of the Local Agenda Development - was held in Rio de Janeiro. It 21 process are specific. brought together the representatives of 180 countries, including 108 Heads of Government. In total over 50,000 people came together to Local Agenda 21 goals discuss the many environmental and • To raise awareness of environmental and development challenges facing humanity. sustainability issues amongst all citizens; • To maximise the support and involvement of At the Earth Summit the international community local communities and businesses; • To pursue economic development and social agreed on a framework for global sustainable progress whilst limiting the impact on development. This came in the form of two non- environmental resources and fragile binding agreements. ecosystems; • To reduce the consumption of all natural The first, The Rio Declaration on Environment resources; and Development, set out the principles for • To maximise energy efficiency and the human interaction with the environment. The proportion of energy from renewable resources; second, Agenda 21, formed the international 6 • To conserve and enhance green space and livelihood would have been destroyed, and the diversity of wildlife; job opportunities created by the mine would • To encourage all organisations and individuals have dried up. to adopt sustainable practices and lifestyles; • To minimise levels of pollution; Sustainable development looks at all these • To minimise the environmental impact of waste factors and asks: ”How can we optimise the and to promote the reduction, re-use and goals of all three systems?” Through recycling of resources. participation with the local community, another solution would then be found that provides Habitat Agenda economic growth, jobs and infrastructure, but at nd Following on Agenda 21, the 2 United Nations the same time protect the environment. This is Conference for Human Settlements (Habitat II) not another unpractical ideal. Through in Istanbul, 1996, dealt specifically with the sustainable development the case study issue of sustainable human settlements. From described above is today a World Heritage Site this the Habitat Agenda, an agenda for the – the St. Lucia Wetlands System. sustainable development of human settlements, was developed. It outlines goals Sustainable development can therefore be and principles, commitments and a global plan described as: the process of continuously of action for the achievement of sustainable striving for dynamic balance between: human settlements. Most importantly, the • Using and protecting the physical and Habitat Agenda provides us with a description of natural environment and its resources; what a sustainable human settlement (or • Creating equitable and viable economic neighbourhood) is like. systems with an ethical basis; and • Acknowledging and guiding social and cultural systems and values towards “ A sustainable human settlement is one greater equitability, responsibility and where all have adequate shelter, a healthy human well-being. and safe environment, basic services, and productive and freely chosen employment.” One of the main goals of sustainable development is to ensure equal distribution of The Habitat Agenda the earth’s resources and of opportunity for human well-being not only between people currently living on Earth (intra-generational What is sustainable development? equity), but also between the generations living There are three systems integral to now and all future generations (inter - development: the economy, society and the generational equity). environment. Each of these systems tries to achieve certain goals, including maximum For sustainable development to truly work, it growth. In the process, they affect each other, needs a change of mind and heart from each of often negatively. us. We are all, as individuals, responsible for the well being of the Earth and of our For example, the economy dictates that a certain communities. Sustainable development valuable area of coastland be mined to requires of each of us to accept that maximise the use of the country’s mineral responsibility and follow a shared vision of resources and earn foreign currency. Society basic values that provides an ethical foundation agrees with this, because the project would for our interaction with each other and with the provide jobs and money for infrastructure such Earth. as schools. Under traditional development, this would have been enough to approve the project. However, it excluded the fact that an important “This we know: the Earth does not belong to wetland area would forever be destroyed, with man, man belongs to the Earth. All things are devastating effect to the local ecosystem and the livelihood of many people who may not find connected like the blood that connects us employment with the mining company. In twenty eb all. Man did not weave the w of life, he is year’s time, when the mineral reserves have merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the been exhausted, the area would have lost a web, he does to himself.” major natural asset, people’s traditional Chief Seattle, 1855 7 11. Eradicate poverty, as an ethical, social and environmental imperative. 12. Affirm and promote gender equality as a The Earth Charter prerequisite to sustainable development. After the Rio Summit, it was realised that the Democracy and peace. world will need a set of commonly agreed to 13. Establish transparency and accountability principles for sustainable development to both on governance, and provide access to guide and judge the actions of individuals, information, inclusive participation in businesses and governments. decision -making, and access to justice. 14. Honour and defend the right of all persons, For five years the Earth Charter Commission without discrimination, to a natural and travelled the world to workshop with all the social environment supportive of their peoples of the Earth a document that will dignity, bodily health, and spiritual well- become this guiding light. Although a first final being. version is now almost complete, the document 15. Integrate the knowledge, values, and skills will continue to change to address new issues needed for promoting sustainable as they arise. The following set of principles development into universal education and comes from the pen -ultimate draft, and it is life-long learning. recommended that you download the final 16. Create a culture of peace and co-operation. version of the Earth Charter, which also includes the supporting principles, from its website What can we do? http://www.earthcharter.org. Once there was a great forest fire, and all the The Earth Charter Principles birds and animals rushed to escape. General Principles Humming Bird went to the river and collected 1. Respect Earth and life in all its diversity. 2. Care for the community of life with a drop of water. The other birds laughed. understanding, love and compassion. ’What are you doing?’ they asked. She replied 3. Build societies that are free, just, “I’m doing what I can.’ participatory, sustainable and peaceful. Native American story 4. Secure Earth’s bounty for present and future generations. Ecological Integrity Sustainable development is not just an ideal for 5. Protect and restore the integrity of Earth’s the richer countries. It is the basis on which we ecological systems, with special concern can build the new South Africa, and it provides for biological diversity and the natural the guidance we need to make the African processes that sustain life. Renaissance a reality. The values embedded in 6. Prevent harm as the best method of sustainable development are also not strange environmental protection, and when to those who grew up in Africa. knowledge is limited, apply a precautionary approach. Ubuntu ngumuntu ngabantu – a person is a 7. Treat all living beings with respect and person because of other people. This concept is consideration, and protect them from cruelty one of the cornerstones of the development of and wanton destruction. sustainable neighbourhoods and communities. 8. Advance world-wide the study of ecological However, no community is sustainable if its systems and the dissemination and people are not safe, do not have clean air to application of knowledge that enables breathe or fresh water to drink, or a warm place communities to care for Earth. to sleep. A just and sustainable economical order 9. Adopt patterns of production, consumption, As communities in South Africa, we are in deep and reproduction that safeguard Earth’s trouble. Just look at the newspapers: crime, regenerative capacities, human rights corruption, poisoned water and polluted air, 10. Ensure that economic activities, including poverty and growing shantytowns, climate world trade, support and promote human change and unemployment. People having no development in an equitable and respect for each other, and no one having any sustainable manner. respect for the precious planet on which our lives depend. 8 However, the most important contribution to South Africa faces several large problems. Our stopping crime is the values we teach our response to these problems will decide if we children and the example we set for them. will grow a strong, healthy nation with an Buying goods from dubious sources, bribing the environment that can support all the people traffic police and cheating on your taxes all send living in the country, now and in the future. Let’s the message that it is acceptable and even take a look at some of these problems and the clever to defy the law. Respect other’s property, contributions individuals and communities can rights and dignity and set a good example for make that will lead to more sustainable your children and the children in the development. neighbourhood. Poverty and unemployment Water Possibly the biggest problem facing South Africa South Africa has less water available per person is that of unemployment and poverty. The than our desert neighbours Namibia and expanded unemployment rate increased from Botswana. At present there is about 1 700 32.7% in 1994 to 37.6% in 1999 and a quarter of kiloliters available per year for each person – not those employed earns less than R500 per just to drink and wash, but for growing food, month. generating electricity and manufacturing all the things we use everyday. Compare that to a Communities ca n contribute to the alleviation of global average of 10 000 kiloliters per person, poverty by supporting small local businesses and you can see how precious water is in South and service providers. Community based Africa. It is estimated that if we do not change organisations such as church groups, can help the way we use it, the country could run out of to train people in new skills and thus improve water by 2015. We cannot afford to waste a drop their chances of getting a job or their own of water. business. Co-operative saving schemes like stokvels and initiatives based on letsema, Sustainable development teaches us to use where interest-free seed money is provided to water wisely. This means using less of it, and members of the community to start their own reusing water where possible. Take a quick means of livelihood, are other ways shower instead of a bath, reuse the bath water communities can harness their resources to to flush the toilet or water the garden, put a brick alleviate poverty. in your toilet cistern and fix leaky taps. Reduce water use by using water-wise devices in the Some communities are developing their own home, plant gardens that do not need a lot of internal bartering system where units of energy water, capture the rainwater from the roof and can be traded within the community, enabling report leaks in the municipal supply system. people without money to participate in the local economy, and thus lessening their level of Avoid polluting our water sources by not using poverty. pesticides, not letting used motor oil run into the stormwater drainage or sink into the soil and do Crime not use rivers and streams as toilets or to wash your clothes in. Buy biodegradable soaps and It is no secret that South Africa has an household cleaning products. Report industries unacceptably high crime rate and that a lot of the resources that could be used for development that are running effluent into rivers. goes towards preventing, solving and punishing crimes. However, the country’s crime problems Loss of arable land cannot be solved without the active participation Arable land is land we can use to grow food on. of the community. As a dry country, South Africa has very little arable land. Twenty five years ago only 13% of Neighbourhood Watch schemes and the country was arable land, today that figure is Community Policing Forums are two ways that 10%. This translates into less than 0.5 hectares the community can contribute to the fight against per person. Factors such as the growth of cities, crime. Keeping the neighbourhood clean, erosion, overuse, and pollution through knowing your neighbours and informing police pesticides, fertilisers, industry and even motor of criminal activity in your neighbourhood are cars, combined to reduce the percentage of others. arable land. If this continues, we will not have 9 enough land to grow enough food to feed the using public transport further contribute to nation. reducing our energy use. Communities can help to limit this loss by The second step would be to use cleaner pressurising developers and the local authority technologies for generating energy. These to use land more efficiently and use more include solar power, wind power and hydro - environmentally friendly principles in planning electricity, but not nuclear power. Some of these and constructing large housing and commercial technologies can easily be used at home, for developments. Ways to use land more efficiently instance using solar water heaters and solar include subdividing plots, using under- cookers. Communities can also lobby local developed land such as railway and road authorities and electricity providers to increase reserves, converting unused or partly occupied their use of cleaner technologies. buildings to other uses, urban agriculture and recycling of waste to limit the need for rubbish Air pollution can further be combated by making dumps. sure your car’s exhaust system functions properly, getting your car fitted with a catalytic Air pollution converter and using unleaded petrol. Pressuring Air pollution contributes to climate change and the relevant authority to monitor the emissions the pollution of water and land, but its biggest from local industries and ensure their impact is on the health of people. It is estimated compliance with safety standards is another that world-wide about 3 million people die every way for communities to fight air pollution. year as a direct consequence of air pollution, with another 50 million people losing days of Waste their lives because of diseases caused or made Think for a moment of everything you throw away worse by air pollution. In South Africa, these every day. Now imagine what your rubbish heap figures are exceptionally high. looks like for the year. Add to your heap the heaps of everyone in your street, your Air pollution is closely linked to our use of neighbourhood, your city. Not a pretty sight is it? energy. The biggest threat to our health comes South Africa produces between 340 and 480 from indoor air pollution caused by the burning million tonnes of waste annually, of which 15 of coal, wood or dung in badly ventilated million tonnes is municipal waste. This houses. translates to about 200kg of waste per man, The biggest problems are caused by the types woman and child per year. Eighty percent of this of fuels we use, especially fossil fuels such as waste can be recycled. coal, oil and petrol, and biomass fuels such as wood and dung. Although electricity appears a One way for communities to reduce waste, and clean source of energy, most of the electricity in thus our use of resources and energy, is to South Africa is generated using coal, causing air recycle waste such as paper, cans, glass and pollution in other pa rts of the country and plastic bags. You can ask recycling companies environmental degradation and loss of to put recycle bins at a central area in your agricultural land through strip mining and neighbourhood where it would be easy for you to acidification. dump your separated waste into the appropriate containers once a week. Have a separate bin for The first step would be to reduce our use of all your organic waste (peels, egg shells, tea these fuels. In our houses we can reduce the bags, etc.) and start your own compost heap in amount of energy we use through passive your garden. thermal design, the use of insulation, and proper ventilation. Our ways of cooking and even Another way is to reduce what we use. Take your the type of meals we eat influence our energy own bags to the supermarket and avoid buying use. Foods that are baked in the oven or products that comes wrapped in many layers of simmer on the stove for a long time, use more paper and plastic. Lobby local shops and energy than for example stirfries. One-pot supermarkets to start a take-back policy on dishes also use less energy than a traditional containers such as plastic bottles and bags, meal using all the stove plates. Energy can also and polystyrene trays. Try to find a farm stall be saved by using less warm water and where you can buy milk and fruit juice in your insulating geysers. Cutting down on own containers. unnecessary car trips, planning our trips and 10 In certain European countries people are fined further the Local Agenda 21 for your for not separating their waste, or pay for waste neighbourhood. removal by weight. Your neighbourhood can i lobby your local authority to ntroduce similar Local Agenda 21 provides an opportunity for the measures. neighbourhood to get together and formulate an integrated sustainable development strategy at (For more information on the problems and grassroots level which can then be taken to opportunities facing South Africa, you can read local authority planning processes such as the the State of Environment Report, published by formulation of Land Development Objectives the Department of Environmental Affairs and and the Integrated Development Planning Tourism, and the State of Human Settlements process. This ensures that the neighbourhood Report, published by the Department of can actively influence the decisions made by its Housing) local or metropolitan authority. Creating sustainable This manual describes the process that communities can follow to develop their own neighbourhoods sustainable development strategy (Local Now that we have a better idea of the problems Agenda 21) within the bigger development facing us and some of the ways we, as strategies of their city and the country. This communities, can tackle them, we can start process is illustrated in the adjoining diagram. looking at how we create more sustainable neighbourhoods. The first thing to do is to get a group together that will mobilise the community and kickstart At the beginning of this new century, 54% of the process. Together with your community, a people in South Africa live in urban areas. Many picture is then drawn of how you would like your of them live in large Metropolitan areas where neighbourhood to be (the visioning process). there is no direct link to the people who make Once you know where you are going, an Action decisions. These large structures make people Plan that outlines the things that need to be feel that they can do little to change things for the done and how they must be done, can be drawn better. However, by mobilising the up and (importantly!) implemented. To ensure neighbourhood, it is possible to improve things that your neighbourhood is developing in the and influence the decisions made by the people way it was envisioned in the Visioning process, at the top. and that that implementation of the Action Plan is not causing other, unforeseen problems, It is at neighbourhood level that we identify with regular monitoring is important. Once you start and feel connected to our community. seeing the results, celebrate as a community Sustainable neighbourhoods function like and spread your good news around to inspire villages. People know and care about each other neighbourhoods. other, there is sharing of resources both in times of abundance and times of need, and However, before we can embark on this because there is respect for each member of process, it is necessary to understand the South the community, there is little crime. The African policy and development processes your members of the village/neighbourhood stand neighbourhood strategy will have to take into together against threats from outside and account. The next section will give you a brief protect that on which their common survival overview of these policies and processes. depends, including the environment. Neighbourhoods are alive with community activities – security committees, residents and rate-payers associations, parent and teacher committees. In most neighbourhoods, these committees and associations are focused on a narrow agenda and not looking at their potential for improving the quality of life of that neighbourhood and the wider environment. However, all these associations can be used to Local Agenda 21 11 Educate, Organise, Activate Five Steps to a More Sustainable Neighbourhood “Quality of Life” “Partnerships and Values” Your Community – Your Environment + “Vision” Creating the picture + “Action Plan” From Ideas to Actions + “Monitoring” Making sure the plan works + “ Celebrate!” Telling everyone about it 12 The South African context sector such as transport plans, environmental management plans, infrastructure development plans, etc. It is possible to comment on each of these plans and object to aspects of these. “Everyone has the right…to have the However, by far the most important processes to environment protected for the benefit of be involved in are the Land Development present and future generations, through Objective (LDO) process and the Integrated reasonable legislative and other measures Development Planning(IDP) Process. that…secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources, Land Development Objectives while promoting justifiable economic and To facilitate the land development process, the social development.” Development Facilitation Act (67,1995) placed a responsibility on local authorities to prepare Section 24, South African Bill of Rights Land Development Objectives (LDOs) on an annual basis. The concept of sustainable development is The LDOs are guidelines, drawn up with the entrenched in our Bill of Rights and runs through all the major policy documents that have participation of the community, to how the land under the jurisdiction of the local authority will be been promulgated since 1994. This policy direction places special emphasis on developed. The LDOs are presented as a collection of local planning outputs such as development that is people-centred, development frameworks, strategies and environmentally sound and participatory in projects. nature. The LDOs have to deal with the following To ensure development that is relevant to the issues: different provinces, cities and towns with their • How people will gain access to basic different, economic, social and environmental services, and the standard of those conditions, the Constitution places a lot of services. responsibility for development on local • Objectives relating to urban and rural space authorities. and form, particularly how poorer areas will be integrated into the area as a whole; how The Constitution gives the following mandate to local authorities: the environment will be used in a sustainable manner; how transportation will • Provide democratic and accountable government for all communities. be planned; how bulk infrastructure for the purpose of land development will be • Ensure the provision of services to provided; what densities there should be in communities in a sustainable manner. settlements; how land development should • Promote social and economic be co-ordinated with other authorities; how development. land use should be controlled; and how • Promote a safe and healthy environment. natural resources should be optimally • Encourage the involvement of communities used. and community organisations in the • Strategies in relation to how to optimise the matters of local government. involvement of sectors of the economy, particularly financial institutions and This means that your neighbourhood can developers in land development; how to directly influence the development agenda in obtain finance for land development; and your town or city by influencing the local government and becoming involved in some of how to build adequate administrative and institutional capacity to deal with land the planning processes local authorities are compelled to follow. development in the area. LDOs must contain goals that are quantifiable, Local Authority Planning Processes such as the number of housing units and other Each of the different line departments in a local facilities planned for such as schools and authority have to draw up plans specific to its clinics; the nature of housing development; and 13 the rate of delivery. The LDO process is now being incorporated into the Integrated These phases are very similar to the process Development Planning Process. outlined in this manual for a Local Agenda 21 Action Plan. It must be emphasised that the Integrated Development Planning (IDP) Local Agenda 21 process is not another, One of the key ingredients of sustainable separate planning process, but an IDP process human settlement development is integrated that follows the principles of sustainable development planning. development. By following the steps in the manual, your neighbourhood will in fact be Integrated development planning is planning developing an IDP at neighbourhood level. It is which takes all the conditions and therefore important that you be familiar with the circumstances which will play a part in the IDP for your town or city, as well as with the key successful outcome of the plan into account, policy drivers at national level. You can then and involves all the people or organisations who make sure that the action plan proposed by your have a role to play or a contribution to make. It neighbourhood fits in with your local IDP and generates solutions that optimise the joint with the bigger national development plan. At the expertise of different disciplines and same time you can see what the needs of your stakeholders. neighbourhood are that are not being addressed by the IDP and bring this up at the The Local Government Transition Second next IDP review. Amendment Act (97, 1996), as well as the Draft Local Government Municipal Systems Bill (May National policy context 1999), requires of local authorities an Integrated There are many policy outlines that inform local Development Plan (IDP). Metropolitan councils government as to what the direction and and local authorities must prepare their financial priorities of national government are. The most and other plans in accordance with the IDP they important of these are the Reconstruction and have set, and regularly monitor and assess their Development Programme (RDP), the Growth, performance against their IDPs. T hey must also Employment and Redistribution Strategy annually report to and receive comments from (GEAR), and the White Paper on Environmental the community regarding the objectives set in Management Policy for South Africa. The Urban the IDPs. Development Framework is another important policy document for sustainable neighbourhood The process of formulating an IDP involves: development. • A close assessment of the current reality of the total municipal area (This could include Reconstruction and Development a State of the Environment Report ) Programme • A determination of community needs. The RDP describes the country’s policy • An audit of available resources (including a regarding human development and provides the Strategic Environmental Assessment) main socio-economic policy framework. It seeks • The prioritisation of needs. to build a democratic, non-racial and non-sexist • The development of frameworks and goals future. The main principles driving the RDP are: to meet these needs (This includes the • Integration and sustainability LDO process) • People-driven development • The formulation of strategies to achieve • Peace and security goals within specific time frames. • Nation-building • The implementation of projects and time • Meeting basic needs and building the frames to achieve key objectives. infrastructure • The use of performance monitoring tools to • Democratisation measure impact and performance. • Assessment and accountability The IDP process consists of six phases: Growth, Employment and Redistribution • Preparing the Workplan • Vision Strategy • Development Framework GEAR is the country’s main macro-economic • Development Strategies policy designed to facilitate overall economic • Operational Planning for implementation recovery. It places emphasis on an export- • Monitoring, evaluation and review orientated economy, but also encourages 14 initiatives to enhance private sector involvement Pretoria, Durban, Cape Town and Midrand have in development through investment and more developed environmental management plans. effective local spending to stimulate local economic development NEMA also holds polluters and those responsible for damaging the environment White Paper on Environmental responsible for the costs incurred through Management (May 1998) damages and reparations caused by their This provides the foundation for the country’s actions. environmental policy. Some of the most important policy directives laid down by the Promulgated under sections 26 and 28 of the White Paper are: Environmental Conservation Act (73 , 1989), the • Development must be sustainable so that National Environmental Impact Assessment the needs of the present generation are met regulations require mandatory EIAs for without compromising the ability of future proposed specified activities and for changes in generations to meet their own needs. listed land uses. Your neighbourhood can use • Environmental justice shall be pursued so this legislation to ensure that developers in your that diverse environmental impacts shall area respect the environment. not be distributed in such as manner as to unfairly discriminate against any person. Urban Development Framework • Equitable access to environmental The Urban Development Framework sets the resources, benefits and services to meet outline for urban development policy in South basic human needs and ensure human Africa. well-being must be pursued. • Responsibility for the environmental health It outlines an urban vision that, by 2020, South and safety consequences of a policy, African cities and towns will be spatially and programme, project, product, process, socio-economically integrated; safe, healthy and service or activity, exists throughout its peaceful centres of economic and social lifecycle. opportunity; centres of democratic, efficient, • Decisions must take into account the sustainable and accountable urban governance interests, needs and values of all interested geared towards innovative community-led parties, and this includes recognising all development; environmentally sustainable with forms of knowledge, including traditional a marked balance between consumption needs and ordinary knowledge. and renewable and non-renewable resources; • The full social and environmental impacts planned in a highly participatory fashion and of activities, including disadvantages and marked by adequate housing and infrastructure benefits, must be considered, assessed and effective services that provide households and evaluated and decisions must be and business with a basis for equitable appropriate in the light of such standards of living. consideration and assessment; and organs of state must take measures to Also defined in the Urban Development achieve the progressive realisation of this Framework is a set of goals to achieve this principle. vision. These are summarised into four key • The right of workers to refuse work that is programmes: harmful to human health or the environment • Integrating the city, with focus on integrated must be respected. planning and ending the segregation and inequality instituted by apartheid. One of the first pieces of legislation to flow from • Improving housing and infrastructure to the White Paper is the National Environmental build habitable and safe urban Management Act (107, 1998) (NEMA). This Act communities, and increase access to requires of every national department exercising financing and encouraging investment in functions which may affect the environment, and housing. every province, to prepare an environmental • Promoting urban economic development to implementation plan every four years. At present enhance the capacity of urban areas to environmental implementation or management build on local strengths to generate greater plans are not required of local authorities, local economic activity and alleviate urban although some of the bigger cities such as poverty. 15 • Creating institutions for delivery through Objectives: significant transformation and capacity- The objectives were the following: building of government at all levels and • Raise awareness on Agenda 21 and the clarity on the roles and responsibilities of concept of sustainable development to all the different government spheres. involved parties • Identify sustainable and non sustainable Local Agenda 21 in South Africa characteristics of Marabastad The aim of Local Agenda 21 is to change the • Define guidelines for the sustainable way local governments are organised and development of Marabastad operated to ensure that municipal services can • Develop sustainable development be sustained and equitably distributed between indicators according to which actions could current and future generations. This objective be monitored and evaluated and other requires a strategic planning approach that communities’ Local Agenda 21 equally factors long-term community, ecological programmes can be monitored and and economic concerns into the development evaluated and provision of current municipal services. • Define an auditing and reporting system by which communities, local authorities and There are approximately 10 formal LA 21 other decision makers can be made aware initiatives currently taking place in South Africa. of the findings Among these are the cities of Cape Town, • Make proposals regarding the integration Johannesburg, Pretoria, Durban, Kimberley, of these findings into national , provincial Port Elizabeth and East London, and a provincial and local development policy planning LA 21 strategy in KwaZulu Natal. At national level the Department of Environmental Affairs and Issues addressed: Tourism has embarked on an awareness- As part of an integrated approach, the following raising and capacity-building programme and a five environments have been identified: National LA 21 Campaign. • Physical ( built ) environment The LA 21 principles are also being integrated • Physical (natural ) environment into the Local Government planning processes, • Social environment including Integrated Development Planning. • Economic environment Several national policy documents, including the • Institutional environment Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and the White Paper on Local Government, refer to Within each of these environments, broad the important role that local authorities have to generic characteristics that contribute to the play in the process of sustainable development. level of sustainability within an area, have been The Urban Development Framework of South identified, with Marabastad -specific issues Africa specifically encourages local authorities being highlighted. A matrix containing the to embark on LA 21 initiatives. following was consequently defined: • Sustainability characteristics • Unsustainable characteristics Best Practice in South Africa • Guidelines for implementation Local Agenda 21 Programme in Maraastad • Sustainability indicators Location: • Auditing and reporting system; and • Policy implications Marabastad, approximately 10 minutes walk to Results achieved: the north west of the Cenrtal Business District Marabastad was not on a sustainable (CBD) of Pretoria development course. The most prominent Responsible organisation: obstacle was a prevailing perception that Holm Jordaan & Partners and Urban Designers illegality is acceptable and crime pays. This was Description: aggravated by a continued uncertainty about the The programme strived to create and delivered schedule for the Land Restitution awareness of Agenda 21, build capacity in the Commission. province and local authority on Agenda 21 programmes and develop guidelines and The Agenda 21 actions and contact have indicators by which the community’s Local definitely impacted in the following positive Agenda 21 programme can be monitored and assessed. manner: 16 • An awareness of Agenda 21 has been Gauteng Department of Development Planning created which serves to highlight the and Local Government through the Vusani crucial issues, the interactive nature of Amadolobha Fund. The porocess to implement problems and their solutions thsese proects is currently being carried out. • The positive efforts of the DEA&T and Contact: Pretoria City Council’s EMPRET process Holm Jordaan & Partners Architect and Urban have been supported by facilitating and Designers strengthening communication bridges Prof Dieter Holm / Ms Annemarie Loots between authorities and the local Tel: 012 46 3226 population. Fax: 012 346 4168 • Funding for the implementation of projects E-m ail:email@example.com within the Agenda 21 framework has been granted by the Gauteng Province and implementation of projects has been Putting it all together initiated. Lessons learned: All these processes and plans sound very • Limited human resources (professional confusing if we view then as separate from each and community) require participation to be other, so let’s review how it all fits together. employed with careful consideration. • The country currently experiences a phase The Local Agenda 21 process provides an of unrealistic expectations. These agenda for action (The Action Plan) to ensure expectations aimed at the short term make that the development in your city and it difficult for individuals to commit neighbourhood is sustainable, that is, according themselves to vague concepts that will to the principles of sustainable development. mainly bear communal value in the lo ng Your neighbourhood LA 21 Action Plan forms a term. Participation without implementation part of the greater Local Agenda 21 process and is thus very difficult. Combined together, if Action Plan for your town or city. possible, the process will not only ensure that expectations are realistic, but will also The LA21 Action Plan has certain generate and maintain enthusiasm. characteristics: • A climate of mutual distrust (between • It rests on a community vision and common organisations and between individuals set of goals that has been arrived at through within the same organisation ) contributes a public participation process. to the discreditation of the people in • The actions it proposes aims to improve the leadership positions. This should be quality of life for all the inhabitants of that counteracted through openness and city, with both the benefits and the burdens transparent processes from all role of development distributed fairly and players. equitably amongst them, without using the • With the initialisation of a Local Agenda 21 environment and its resources in such a programme in an area with complex way that future generations will not be able problems and a low level of awareness on to achieve the same quality of life. sustainability, raising of awareness as • It has built-in feedback, monitoring and initialising phase take up more time and evaluating processes to make sure that any effort than what is normally budgeted for. negative impact caused by the proposed However, should this be aligned with actions can be picked up and acted on community concerns from the beginning, before the problem becomes serious. following up with actions within a sustainable framework can proceed much The IDP process (which includes the LDO easier. process) provides an integrated Plan of Action Financing: for the development of your city. If this Plan of The Department of Environmental Affairs and Action follows the principles of sustainable Tourism provided initial funding for raising of development and shows the above awareness and definition of broad guidelines characteristics, it is a LA21 Action Plan. for the sustainable development of Marabatad. This was followed by R 1 million for the IDP and LA21 tend to be processes driven by implementation of the identified projects in the local authority, but both depend on Marabastad , which was allocated by the grassroots public participation. This manual 17 aims to teach people at grassroots level how to create a Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation (SNO) that will be responsible for drafting and implementing a LA21 Action Plan at neighbourhood level. These neighbourhood LA21 Action Plans can then be used to define the LA21 Action Plan for the entire city. The following diagram describes the relationship between the local planning processes, Local Agenda 21 an d Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisations. Your sustainable neighbourhood organisation can contribute to: • IDP strategic visioning • The LDO development framework • The implementation of NEMA by monitoring industries and developers to ensure that the environment is not harmed. LDO 18 Local Government IDP Process LDO Agenda 21 Principles Vision and Action LA Plan for city 21 SNO SNO SNO Action Action Action Plan Plan Plan Grassroots 19 Part 2 ManualforSustainable Neighbourhood Development “The Five Step Approach to Sustainable Community Development” 20 Step 1 - one Getting started-Partnerships and Common Values “Each journey starts with one step, each project is initiated by one idea and a small dedicated group of people” neighbourhood, it is likely that the process will “It is not because things are difficult that we require the assistance of an outside do not dare. It is because we do not dare that organisation such as a non-governmental organisation responsible for environmental things feel difficult.” education or your local authority. Seneca, Roman philosopher What are we trying to do? Kickstarting the process The initiators have to be very clear what it is that To get the process towards a sustainable makes their initiative different from the work neighbourhood going you need a small group of done by all the other community-based groups people dedicated to making it work (the in their neighbourhood. (See also Sustainable initiators), and a clear idea of what it is you want Neighbourhood Organisation) to achieve. It does not really matter who these people are, but it is important that they are Remember that the goal of a sustainable enthusiastic and understand the issues, neighbourhood is to improve the overall quality challenges and opportunities within the of life for everyone in the community while neighbourhood. Often these issues trigger the encouraging all members of the community to formation of sustainable neighbourhood protect the environment and limit their use of organisations as communities take a proactive resources. It does not focus on only one role in their own development. problem such as crime, poverty or pollution, but look at the bigger (integrated) picture to see how The initiators would start the process by groups can work together to solve one another’s establishing the borders of their neighbourhood problems. and identifying who in the community need and should be involved. (See Establishing a What you are trying to achieve is to bring constituency) They would then organise the first together a group of people in your community community meeting at which two things need to who are committed to the values of sustainable be established. development in order to form a Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation (SNO). The The first is to get support from the community for purpose of the SNO is to design and help the process you are about to set in motion and implement an Action Plan (your neighbourhood establish a common value system for your Local Agenda 21) for the neighbourhood. This community that supports sustainable plan should further sustainable development development. The second is the election of an and improve the quality of life for the community. interim committee that will be responsible for The SNO would also represent the setting up a legally recognised sustainable neighbourhood at local authority planning neighbourhood organisation and organising processes, to the press and with possible future meetings until the organisation is project funders. established and running. The SNO can be an informal group of people The initiators – who are they? who agree to make certain changes in the way The initiators can be a few individuals who have they live and in their neighbourhood. This can be decided to mobilise their community and a loosely organised group with some people improve the quality of life in the neighbourhood. (office bearers) having certain responsibilities They can be community leaders, members of a such as arranging meetings and keeping order ratepayers association, concerned parents or during meetings. However, if your group intends representatives from a government agency. to influence the local authority and be Unless you live in an exceptional represented on its stakeholder meetings, or 15 want to raise funds for community projects, you • To support community-based issue analysis of will need to set up a legally recognised local issues, including long-term systemic organisation. problems. • To identify and prioritise key issues that need immediate action. • To develop action plans for addressing key issues, drawing from the experiences and What does the process look like? innovations of a diverse local community. First Contacts Initiators organise initial activities and set the process on tract Establish the borders What is the area this neighbourhood organisation is going to cover? Draw it on a Values Workshop map, using the features listed below as Widely publicised workshop used to establish boundaries. common community values Interim Committee Informal, non-legal association of individuals Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation Organisation, the formal elected governing structures to ratify the neighbourhood constitution Establishing a constituency • Infrastructure – Railway lines, Major roads, The first thing you need to do is establish the Highways, borders of your neighbourhood. You can use • Natural features – Parks, Ridges, Rivers etc. existing geographical boundaries or social • Business Centre – Shopping, Offices boundaries such as political constituencies. • Shared Social Facilities – Schools, Churches, (See box) A neighbourhood should not be too etc. big. A good rule of thumb to use is a radius of • Statutory boundaries – Local Council about 1km, but it can be bigger. You can use a boundaries, political constituency community focus point such as a local shopping centre, a church or a school as the central point of your neighbourhood. Who are the stakeholders? A neighbourhood is made up of many different Once you know the borders of your role players who have a “stake” in the quality of neighbourhood, you can start identifying the life of the neighbourhood. These include stakeholders who should be invited to community and environmental groups, participate in your Local Agenda 21 process. business, non-governmental organisations, local authorities, government agencies and Why have open participation processes? individuals. For your Action Plan to be • To educate the community about sustainability successful, it will need the participation and co - and the individual actions they can take to operation of all these stakeholders. improve their neighbourhood. • To ensure community ownership of the process Involving a wide range of individuals and groups and the programmes initiated by it. in the development of the Sustainable • To create a shared community vision of the Development Organisation not only creates future 16 legitimacy for the SNO and the programmes it It is clear that to achieve this, all of society needs will initiate, but it also brings a wide range of to work together in partnership, in an open skills and insights to the process. participation process. Therefore, an essential component of a neighbourhood organisation is List of possible stakeholders to invite the development of partnerships between all the Neighbourhood residents groups within communities. • Special groups of people such as women, youth or the disabled Partnerships are an efficient way of using the • Community leaders resources and skills in your community in such • Households a way that all stakeholders benefit. This means • Teachers that partners are not just participants who Community-based organisations occasionally share their opinions. They are • Church groups expected to share responsibility for the planning • Formal women’s groups process and its outcomes. Formal partnerships • Social groups are usually formed to address specific aspects of the Action Plan in special Working Groups. • Civics • Neighbourhood Watch Working group partners are drawn from the • Parents/rate -payers associations stakeholder groups according to the skills and • Sports and cultural clubs type of contribution required, and include the Independent sector local authority, local businesses and community • Non-governmental organisations groups. Howeve r, all members of the • Academic/Educational institutes, local neighbourhood community are partners in schools formulating the community vision and action • Media plan and in working towards making their vision Private sector real. • Local businesses and service providers • Co-operatives • Professionals practising in the Identifying common values neighbourhood (doctors, dentists, lawyers, Before a Sustainable Neighbourhood architects) Organisation can be initiated, it is important that • Home-based enterprises the community accept the values of sustainable • Informal traders development as a common value system. A first • Artists and craftsmen step is to educate the community and make • Environmental organisations people aware of sustainable development and • Property developers Agenda 21 principles. This can be done through • Banks an initial values workshop. • Major employers Local government and associations Supporting information • Elected officials A good starting point is the Earth Charter. It • Political party representatives provides a set of universally accepted principles • Service providers (police, health care, social for sustainable development and the supporting service) principles explains clearly how these should be • Community policing groups interpreted. • Town planners • Line department officials (transport, Copies of the full Agenda 21 and Habitat environmental management, etc.) Agenda documents are also available on the National/regional government agencies Internet. Summaries of the principles contained • Infrastructure and service providers in these documents are available from the • Economic development agencies Department of Environmental Affairs and • Provincial line department officials Tourism. If your local authority already has a Local Agenda 21 process in place, it may be able to provide explanatory material. Identifying partners Traditional values such as ubuntu , batho and As you remember, sustainable development setho also provide a good basis for your requires that we balance the diverse interests of community. Drawing on the values of all the business, the environment and the community. major world religions, the Parliament of World 17 Religions identified the following four directives of such a pledge is provided as an appendix, but for a global ethic. These directives also describe you can write your own pledge, using the values the ethics followed by a sustainable community. described above as a basis. Another good idea is to circulate forms for a • Have respect for all life on Earth community skills register. The skills register can • Deal honestly and fairly with each other be used to identify individuals who could make a • Speak and act truthfully valuable contribution to various projects, as well as to provide the basis for establishing • Respect and love one another and all community businesses and promoting the use beings on Earth as equal participants in of local resources. The register should ask Life people not only what their occupation is, but World Parliament of Religions: Towards a also what other skills they have. People have Global Ethic skills and interests well beyond what they do for a living. Values workshop – Introducing sustainable neighbourhoods Finally, the meeting should call for volunteer to a community members for an Interim Committee that will take This is the first public meeting to introduce the the process forward. Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation and the issues of sustainable community Goals of the Workshop development. The purpose of the meeting is to • Provide information on sustainability and generate enthusiasm; to gather support and Local Agenda 21 commitment; and to motivate people for action. • Get support and buy-in from the community • Agree on common values It is important that all the stakeholder groups • Form an Interim Committee you have identified are invited to this meeting. • Start a community skills register Take care not to exclude any relevant people or organisations. Interim Committee There may already be an organisation or group The Interim Committee is a non-legal group of that can stimulate interest, or you can discuss volunteer and interested stakeholders whose the meeting and its aims with community primary responsibilities are to set up the leaders such as church officials, teachers and structure for the Sustainable Neighbourhood street committee leaders. They can then invite Organisation, develop a constitution and start their constituencies to attend the meeting. You the process for developing an Action Plan. can also ask these people for contributions to the agenda. Put up notices in public places The secondary responsibilities of the Interim such as clinics, libraries, shops, restaurants Committee are: and shebeens. For more information on how to • Communication and co-ordination between organise a meeting, see Part Three. community and stakeholders. • Keeping track of the program. An invited speaker from a local organisation, • Continue to build broad community interest local authority or from an academic or research in the project. organisation could be asked to introduce Local • Undertake issues workshops within the Agenda 21 and explain some of the issues and community (assist in building reasons for sustainable development, including membership). those outlined in the introduction. • Doing a community audit (of strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats) The initiators can then explain why they feel the • Identifying action areas. need for a Sustainable Neighbourhood • Initiating community projects. Organisation in their specific neighbourhood. Use some of the local issues you know about to The primary purpose of the Interim Committee illustrate this. is to establish a work program for the creation of an incorporated organisation that can represent A pledge can be circulated at the meeting to the neighbourhood. encourage community commitment. An example 18 In some cases the initiators may form the core neighbourhood achieves its goals to the of the Interim Committee, and have an ongoing members of that community. responsibility to recruit new members throughout the process of developing a The purpose of establishing a new, permanent Neighbourhood Organisation. The independent organisation is to form a common Interim Committee can consist of as many ground and build bridges between existing people as possible who can meet on a regular organisations and individuals. The sustainable, but largely informal basis. As not everyone can integrated development of the neighbourhood is be represented on the committee, the the focus. Smaller, localised issues can be community as a whole should be kept well tackled by existing organisations. informed of the decisions and activities of the Interim Committee. The Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation can take two forms. It can be similar to a club It is not necessary that the Interim Committee with a constitution and a set of appointed office has an official Chairperson, Treasurer, bearers (Chair, Secretary and Treasurer). In Secretary etc., but it works better if specific many cases where all you want to do is people are given certain responsibilities. It is mobilise your neighbourhood and initiate important that records of meetings are kept and communal neighbourhood projects, this may be that everyone knows who is responsible for this. all you need. The Interim Committee lasts as long as its However, operating as an informal committee needs to establish the democratic and legal can reduce your ability to be recognised by other structures for the Sustainable Neighbourhood stakeholders and government agencies as the Organisation. It has exactly the same appropriate organisation to deal with, and will responsibilities, although the Interim Committee reduce opportunities for funding and support. It is a non-legal and self-elected entity. may therefore become essential to establish the organisation as a legal body. The Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation The SNO then becomes a legally incorporated Many bodies are working on selected issues organisation, such as a Section 21 company, within a neighbourhood. The Sustainable which can act as the legal entity of the project. It Neighbourhood Organisation is developed upon is a body that can apply to organisations for the holistic principles of sustainable funding and in other arenas be recognised as a development, being equity, participation, and a formal organisation representing the interests of search for solutions to address future needs. that neighbourhood. Born out of the international Local Agenda 21 process, it localises international concerns Please see Part Three for more information on within a neighbourhood, seeking local solutions establishing a legal identity for your Sustainable to global problems. It complements many Neighbourhood Organisation. organisations currently working within neighbourhoods, giving control of the way a 19 Step 2 - two Developing a community vision drawing up an IDP for your neighbourhood. The Things get better when enough people decide only difference between an IDP and a Local that they should get better. Things change when Agenda 21 Action Plan, is that the LA21 plan is ordinary people come together in a common built around the principles of sustainable purpose. development, while the IDP has community Kofi Annan, 1999. needs as its main driving force. Visioning – from dream to reality Finding the facts Visioning is a process by which a community There is certain information you will need for the develops a picture of the future they want for community profile and issues analysis. themselves and their children, and plans how to achieve this. The process of visioning allows The first of these is a map of your communities to list and prioritise the issues of neighbourhood showing natural features such importance to them, while establishing goals as streams and green open spaces, as well as and objectives from which the Action Plan will infrastructure such as roads, railway lines, grow. schools and hospitals. An ordinance map from the Surveyor General’s office is ideal (copies are The visioning process has four components: available at your local authority’s planning • Profiling the community office). They may also be able to provide you • Community issues analysis with an aerial photograph of your • Prioritising the issues neighbourhood. Failing this, you can use a map • Formulating the vision statement bought in a bookstore and draw a big copy of it. If your community is not on the map, drawing your own map can be a fun, and educational, Preparing for the visioning process thing to do for the local schoolchildren. The map The visioning process is carried out at public does not have to be perfect, but should show the meetings and community workshops, but main geographical features of your requires certain preparations and gathering of neighbourhood. information by the Interim Committee, the Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation Some other facts you may need; Steering Committee, or dedicated Workgroups • The population breakdown (men, women, within the SNO. children, age profile, cultural groups); • Employment and unemployment statistics; Learning from others • Local business profile; A good place to start is with your local authority. • Community resources and organisations; The visioning process described here is very • Crime patterns; similar to that followed by your local authority • Housing stock and condition; during the IDP process, and indeed, your • Level of services; neighbourhood vision statement and issue • Annual public investment – and where it analysis can contribute to the formulation of the goes; next IDP. If you were not involved in your city’s • Local car ownership. IDP process, talk to the officials responsible for it and find out how they did things and what the issues were that determined the IDP Vision Sources of information Statement. They should also be able to provide • Local Authority you with some of the facts you need. • Political party offices • Churches The Department of Constitutional Development • Central statistical service (Stats SA) also provides a guide to the IDP process that is • Government departments very useful. Remember that you are really • Library 16 • Internet social conditions. Technical assessments help • The Yellow Pages to inform the discussion, and can improve • Community newspaper people’s understanding of the true scope and • Anecdotal – Interviews and observations impact of the various issues, as well as how • Local police station they relate to one another. However, the help of technical experts are not Profiling the community critically important. Although certain issues can Where are we now? more easily be identified by outside experts, Before you can decide where you want to go, you local residents have day-to-day contact with the need a clear picture of where you are. This way problems affecting them and they can identify your Vision and Action Plan will be grounded in key problems more readily. It is more important reality and not based on unrealistic that the local stakeholders discuss the issues expectations. as they see them. Just to remember to look at environmental issues, as well as social and A community profile is a picture of where your economic issues. neighbourhood is right now, in other words the current reality. It describes all the different Role of Community Issue Analysis elements that make up the neighbourhood such • It focuses planning on people’s recognised as the natural resources base; the geography interests, needs, and preferences. (natural and human); demographics; • It initiates detailed dialogue among neighbourhood assets such as housing and community groups and between the transportation, education, cultural and community and technical experts and recreational resources; and the different planning officials. business, political, and community institutions. • It informs the community about a wide Local issues, forces and trends should also range of local issues, creating a well- form part of your community profile. informed constituency of residents to work for sustainability. Creating a community profile need some • It helps stakeholders understand each background work (see Preparing for the other’s problems, and how these are visioning process) to gather the basic facts interrelated. about your neighbourhood. It is then further developed in a workshop with all the From your community profile, it is possible to stakeholders. Draw on the local knowledge of identify some trends and issues both outside the participants to build the picture. and inside your neighbourhood that are positive or negative. You can use these to start the Do not go into too much detail, but focus on conversation. describing your neighbourhood as it really is, not as you want it to be. A good community Depending on the size of your SNO, you can profile describes what you have to work with break into smaller workgroups focused around (strengths and opportunities), as well as what common interests. These workgroups will then the main obstacles are (threats and bring the main issues they identified back to the weaknesses). This is where the community general meeting where they are discussed issue analysis comes in. alongside the issues identified by the other workgroups. Write all the issues identified down Identifying the issues on one list under columns marked ‘positive’ and Community Issue Analysis ‘negative’ and eliminate duplications. Try to group similar issues together. Community-based issue analysis uses a series of exercises to help stakeholders share This method makes sure that the opinions of a knowledge, review and participate in technical broad range of stakeholders are heard. It also assessments, set planning priorities, and jointly helps to identify possible areas of conflict. develop options for action. - ICLEI People often find it easy to think of negative aspects, but difficult to identify positive issues If you have the funds available, it is good to have such as strengths and opportunities. Take care some technical experts to help with the analysis, not to let the workshop focus on the negative. especially as it relates to environmental and 16 It is very important that all the stakeholders your problems, and is therefore of high understand and agree on the issues that importance. affect the development of your neighbourhood. Some questions a community can use to To get this understanding a SWOT analysis evaluate and prioritise the issues can be: is very useful. • What can we change easily? • What can we influence? SWOT Analysis • What are pressing concerns? Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats • What do we have to initiate? SWOT Analysis is a tool that can be used to do • How do we communicate? an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of any issue. It Identify those issues where actions and develops a picture of what the community has to changes can lead to significant and lasting work with and what the obstacles to its vision improvements. Do not focus only on the critical are. This helps them to formulate attainable issues where stress is the greatest, but also goals, objectives and actions. focus on those pivotal issues that will unlock most improvement.. Take the list of issues identified in the previous exercise and, together with all the participants in Make a list of the five or ten issues that should the process, place each of them under one of be prioritised. You can order them according to the categories SWOT Matrix in the SWOT matrix. urgency or importance, or not at all so that they are all of equal importance. It is best not to order Strengths and weaknesses are usually internal them according to categories such as social, or issues. Strengths are those positive issues in environmental. Issues that may appear social your neighbourhood you can build on. on the surface may actually have an S W Weaknesses are the negative things within your neighbourhood that you need to overcome. environmental cause or effect. Discuss this list with all the stakeholders until Opportunities and threats are usually external. there is cons ensus on the priorities identified for Opportunities are positive factors or trends the neighbourhood. This is very important, as outside your neighbourhood that you might want this list will determine not only your vision, but to exploit for the good of your community. also your Action Plan. Likewise, threats are negative external forces, T the influence of which you would want to limit. O The Vision Statement You now know what the current reality is in your Priorities neighbourhood; what the strengths, Now that all the stakeholders have a clear idea weaknesses, opportunities and threats are; and of what the positive and negative issues are in what the priority issues are that needs to be your neighbourhood, and which are internal addressed. Finally, you are ready to prepare factors you may have control over, the next step your neighbourhood vision statement. is to prioritise those issues. The vision describes what a community wants Your issues list includes a broad range of to become. It describes its dreams and hopes problems, challenges and wishes. Not all of for the future and will guide your entire LA21 them can be addressed at the same time. You process from here on. therefore need to prioritise the issues in terms of importance and urgency. Requirements for a LA21 vision statement • It should be rooted in reality and therefore It is essential to evaluate all issues raised, achievable. discussing each one as appropriate. Many • It should be based on the common values issues may be linked with others and it is identified by the community, and on the important to recognise these links in prioritising values of sustainable development. the issues. A useful exercise is to draw a map of • It should be shared by all the stakeholders. how issues are linked. You may find that an • It should be focused on the priorities issue that did not appear very important identified. because it is not immediately visible or very urgent, may actually be pivotal to solving many of 17 • It should motivate people to take on personal responsibility for realising the vision. The purpose of a vision statement is to build a basis for agreement on the general direction in which the community should go. It should be brief, positive and inspiring. A good way to write your vision statement is to start with a brainstorming session around your priorities and values. Take each priority and start writing down words and ideas that describe what your community would look like if the priority has been successfully addressed. Measure this picture against your common values and see which of these can be used to describe the envisioned outcome. Now consolidate these descriptions into one picture that describes your future. Your first vision statement will not be perfect and it should be revisited from time to time. The following is an example of a vision statement from the United States. “ A dynamic and diverse community celebrating its heritage, committed to sharing power and opportunity and working in harmony to sustain our environment and create economic vitality for this and future generations – the City of Albuquerque.” Brainstorming Brainstorming is an integral part of the visioning process. By involving many diverse people, it stimulates creativity and the potential to solve problems. However there are some basic guidelines for it to be successful. • Keep a record of all ideas (a flip chart may be useful) • Be open to new ideas. • Avoid criticism of others’ ideas. • Allow time for the idea to be explained. • Encourage all to contribute. • Keep the comments short so all get their turn. 18 Step3- three Action Plans - From Ideas to Actions 19 A vision without a task is but a dream. A task without a vision is but drudgery. A vision with a task can change the world. From the declaration given by Global Co -operation for a Better World, Mount Mbu, Rajastan, India, 1989. Action Plans How do we get there? Everything you have done up to now has been a preparation for the Action Plan. Guided by the Vision Statement, the Action Plan provides an agenda for the sustainable developm ent of your neighbourhood, in other words, a Local Agenda 21 that is specific to your community. An action plan is a set of agreed goals, targets and triggers, developed with strategies and commitments to achieve those targets. At its simplest, an action plan provides the neighbourhood with a list of things to do and a plan for doing them. A strategic Action Plan addresses problems and needs at a systemic level and with a long-term perspective. It contains concrete targets for both short -and long-term progress and describes the mechanisms by which the achievement of these targets can be evaluated. ICLEI To make sure that the Action Plan is implemented, it is important to link your goals to that of existing, formal planning processes such as the IDP, and to national government policy. Why develop action plans? Action plans help a community to manage a wide range of activities, develop timetables, establish budgets and assist in fundraising. By having an agreed set of goals and targets, as well as an implem entation strategy, it allows the development of a community project and the monitoring of its success. An action plan that clearly describes the process, goals, strategies and expected outcomes, allows people to come in at different stages of the process, as the common vision of where the process is going is clear. A well prepared plan assists in the implementation of a project in a co-ordinated and systematic manner. An important function of the action plan is that it includes a budget or business plan, which establishes the financial and resource requirements and limitations of the project. The budget gives an indication of the funding mix required for the implementation of the project. The other information contained in the Action Plan can combine with the budget to serve as the basis for funding applications, as all the necessary information has already been outlined. The action plan can be also used as the basis of a brief for consultants. [See Part 3.] An action plans consists of: • A community vision, developed by the stakeholders, including a consensus position on current problems and opportunities; • Strategic goals for each problem or opportunity area related to this vision; • Specific targets to be achieved in meeting each goal; • Identified implementation strategies and programs for achieving these targets and goals; • A description of key partnerships to be established for implementation, including linkages with existing planning processes; and • A framework for periodic evaluation of progress, including ‘triggers’ for future planning and action. (From the ICLEI Local Agenda 21 Planning Guide) 20 Setting goals, targets and triggers Goals describe the desired outcomes of your responses to the issues identified in the Community Issues Analysis, and describe what you want to achieve. An example of a goal is to boost job creation in the community by supporting locally owned and small scale and community based enterprises. They are responses to the priorities identified in the issue analysis and should be regularly reviewed as priorities might change. There should be at least one goal for every issue identified. These goals can be prioritised and listed according to whether they are long or short term in focus. The ability of the Action Plan process to establish clear goals requires that: • Clear information is available about the nature and extent of a challenge or opportunity. • Viable and acceptable action options have been identified to address the challenge or opportunity. • The cost of implementing different options is known. Targets are measurable commitments to be realised within a specific time frame. They are also used to measure the progress of the Action Plan. Some questions you may want to ask in setting the targets are: • Is the target sufficient to meet immediate, priority needs? • Is the target sufficient to achieve, over time, the goal? • Can the target be achieved? What actions need to be taken? Are the stakeholders and community members willing to take these measures? • Would we be willing to settle for a lower level of achievement than is set in the target? What level? • What indicators are needed to measure progress and implementation? Triggers are future conditions that “trigger” specified, previously agreed to, actions at a future date. If long term or lower priority issues are incorporated into action plans there needs to be continued monitoring of that issue, and the development of triggers and specified actions if those issues deteriorates in the future. A trigger is a commitment to take a specified action at a future date. The implementation of this agreed action is catalysed or 'triggered' when certain specified conditions develop. The instrument is called a 'trigger' because a future condition (e.g. increase in pollution, decline in water supply of quality) 'triggers' a specified action that has been defined by prior agreement. In developing a trigger, the working committee needs to agree on the 'future conditions' that they feel requires and justifies immediate action, and the different actions that must be taken when the trigger conditions take place. Monitoring will be required, so indicators will need to be developed in conjunction with the trigger. Implementation strategies When the goals and targets have been established, the next step is the development of an Issues implementation strategy to achieve those goals and targets. The implementation strategy provides a set of actions for every goal, as well as a strategy of how you are going to go about performing those actions. Identifying actions Actions can be steps to reduce those factors impacting negatively on the well-being of your community and the environment. Or they can be steps to strengthen those factors that improve the well-being of the community and the environment. Goals When deciding on the actions you want to take, it is useful to ask the following questions: • Will the selected actions be sufficient to achieve the related targets? • What is the likelihood that the selected actions can be successfully implemented? 21 Targets Triggers • Do the selected actions fairly distribute the responsibility and cost for their implementation amongst the community? • What impact can the proposed actions have on the environment and on society? Before you decide on any actions it is important that you consider their possible impact, both short term and long term, as well as possible alternatives. The ideal action provides a win -win solution for all three sectors of environment, economy and society. In practice this is not always possible, and various alternatives have to be looked at in order to find the solution that causes the least harm and provides the maximum benefit, now and in the future. To help you decide on these actions you can use scenario planning. Scenario planning Scenario planning is a way of rehearsing several possible futures and testing decisions against these scenarios. It provides an informed long-term view to guide the setting of priorities. Using the information you collected for the community profile you can create stories (or scenarios) of possible futures by adding the proposed actions or their alternatives in different combinations. The implications of each scenario can then be identified and you can develop a strategy that will work regardless of which future will unfold. In the process you will also identify a list of indicators and trigger situations that will be useful in monitoring the success of your Action Plan. The introduction provided you with some ideas for actions you can undertake in your neighbourhood. The following list gives some further examples of actions that can be carried out by the individual or community. Your House • Insulate your house. • Install a solar hot water system. • Grow food-producing trees in the garden. • Plant a vegetable garden. • Collect rainwater from the roof for the garden • Build secondary accommodation • Make sure your house overlooks the street and people in the street overlook the house. Your Street • Ask your local authority to provide traffic calming measures in your street. • Lower your fences or make them more transparent. • Form street committees - get to know your neighbours. • Share childcare and tutoring. • Help your neighbours. • Plant street trees. Your Neighbourhood • Plant trees in your parks. • Clean your rivers and streams. • Form a Local Agenda 21/ Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation based on the street committees. • Keep the streets clean of rubbish. • Walk around your neighbourhood – reclaim the streets. • Use local shops, services, trades people and institutions. • Paint out graffiti. • Report petty vandalism – fix anything broken. • Plant community food gardens in unused open space and vacant plots. • Encourage formalised street trading and markets – busy streets are safe streets. 22 • Walk and cycle rather than use the car. Once you have decided on a set of actions, you need to break these actions up into manageable tasks and put them onto a time-line that tells you when what needs to be done. This will help you with drawing up the budget and finding out what you will need in terms of skills, resources and technical knowledge. Budget Some projects will have only basic expenditures, while more ambitious projects may need complex funding mixes. The majority of projects will need some funding. A budget can help you when you are looking for funding, whether you are asking donations from local businesses, organising cake sales or applying for international donor funding. It also helps you to monitor the implementation of the project. Things to factor into a budget are capital expenses such as buying equipment or seed; running costs for telephone calls, travel and printing; and human resources, that is people’s time, energy and knowledge. A budget will also quickly tell you how feasible your plan of action is. However, don’t let a lack of funds discourage you. There are many things you and your community can do that requires only your energy, creativity or small lifestyle changes. Focus on these first, and the successes will improve your chances of getting outside funding for some of the more expensive projects you would like to do. Partnerships Who will do the work? Many projects will only happen because individuals give freely of their time and expertise. These volunteers are the most important partners in the project, but they often need direction. Your implementation strategy should clearly identify the type of skills needed for each task. By developing a skills register, you can make optimum use of the skills available in your community, appointing people to tasks where their skills are most useful. Often all that is needed are extra hands and able bodies, but sometimes you need special skills or technical knowledge. Your community may already have many of these skills available on a voluntary basis, but occasionally you will need outside help. The three most important partners in accessing external help are the local authority (who should be a main partner of the project in any case), the relevant NGO’s and local businesses. Make a list of all the key partnerships and responsibilities for implementation, including those that need to h be developed t roughout the lifetime of a project. One of the first tasks should be to approach possible partners (including the community at large) to develop partnership agreements for implementation. Implementation An excellent Action Plan provides no guarantee that the problems will be solved, that the community's needs will be met, or that it will become more sustainable. Two important factors for the successful implementation of the Action Plan are the listing of the responsibilities for the working committee and stakeholders. The distribution of tasks and responsibilities helps to ensure the implementation of the project. The second aspect is an appropriate budget, funding mix and investment of community resources in the project. 23 Step 4 - four Monitoring – Measuring progress, minimising mistakes Be careful what you wish for, you just might get it. Old saying Monitoring Your neighbourhood has now agreed on a common vision, decided on a plan of action to realise this vision and is busy implementing this plan. Hopefully, you are already seeing some of the changes brought about by your actions. Are they changes you wished for? We are part of very complex social and environmental systems and any action we perform have several impacts on these systems that we cannot predict. Something we thought would be the ideal solution to our problems may turn out to have created our worst nightmare. To avoid this, we need to monitor projects closely and react to possible problems before they become too big. Therefore, once the action plan is being What is an indicator? implemented, a monitoring program for the An indicator is something that helps a project needs to be put in place. While community to understand where it is, which way developing the vision and action plan, a series it is going and how far it is from where it wants to of indicators would have been identified. These be. A good indicator alerts a community to a monitor the changes your action plan for problem before it gets too bad and helps it to economic, environmental and community health recognise what needs to be done to fix that brought about. It is important to monitor the problem. direction of change. Are the strategies put in place assisting or hindering the development of the community? Indicators are tools for measuring impact and progress and are integral to monitoring the Indicators can also be developed to measure implementation of the projects outlined in a community performance and progress towards community's action plan. The publishing of the meeting your targets. indicators helps to convey progress to the community, keeping the project honest and The community profile should have measured alive. and recorded the existing situation to provide a baseline set of data that future recording of the The indicators should be measured periodically project’s performance or the state of the by the community members themselves, or environment can be compared to. responsibility given to a Working Group or individuals to monitor and report the results 24 back to the Sustainable Neighbourhood • The indicator is developed, accepted, and Organisation and community at large. used by the community. • The indicator provides a long-term view of The style of presenting the indicators is the community. It provides information important. It needs to be clear and concise so about where the community has been, as that the information can be easily used to well as a goal set for where the community influence major decisions on the progress should be in 20, 30 or 50 years. being made, the success of the project and any • The indicator is based on information that is changes of direction that may be necessary, timely, reliable and easily accessible. • The indicator links the different areas of the A presentation style that has been successful in community. The areas to link are: other indicator projects includes: culture/social, economy, education, • A graph showing trends, casting back as far environment, health, housing, quality of life, as possible. politics, population, public safety, • A description of the indicator, and why its recreation, resource consumption/use, and important to monitoring the project. transportation. • A definition of what is being monitored (Sustainable Community Indicators Checklist • An interpretation of the trends demonstrated Source: Hart 1996 ABRIDGED) • An evaluation of the results against the community's vision • A statement of the linkages between what is Is this progress? being measured and other aspects of the After the program has been going for some time project or spheres of sustainable (6 months - one year) some questions need to development. be asked: • Have goals been reached, if not were they The different types of indicators reasonable and achievable? Indicators are used to monitor the unfolding of • Did the Action Plan translate into action? • Were the indicators sufficient to measure possible futures as caused by our actions, as progress? well as changes in our outside environment • What was successful? such as climate change or changes in national • What problems can be identified? priorities or even political systems. • Were people motivated to participate in the working comm ittees? They are also used to monitor the impact of • Is the community generally aware of the decisions made against the neighbourhood program? vision, its common values and the principles of • Look at your accomplishments and sustainable development. congratulate yourselves. Depending on what is being measured, indicators can fall into different frameworks. The Update and revise the Action Plan! causal framework, described by Pressure-State- Things change. Projects are implemented, new Response indicators, is the most widely used, information and knowledge becomes available, especially for physical systems. It can be used you become more experienced, the situation in to describe environmental, economic or social your neighbourhood change because of internal pressures (the issues you have identified), or external forces. In reality, the Action Plan is an system conditions and the responses to these evolving document, and as projects are problems. Goal-based frameworks are implemented and monitored, goals and characterised by performance-based indicators priorities may change and the programme may categorised as inputs, outputs, efficiency and need to be revisited and reviewed. outcome indicators. Additional stakeholders and funding can also Characteristics of a good indicator change the extent and intensity of the actions. • The indicator is relevant to an individual The process of implementation is a way to community's vision of the future. communicate and give form to community • The indicator is understandable to the values, and in itself usually attracts the greatest community at large. If only experts support. This is why short and long term understand it, only experts will use it. objectives are separated, and projects are prioritised according to need and resources. 25 and evaluated, again using the indicators. This After completing a specific project, the information can then be used to see how things successes, failures, and lessons that can be might be changed in future projects. learnt from the process needs to be reviewed 26 Step 5 - five Celebrating – Feedback and promotion Feedback It is good to have an end to journey toward, It is important to provide periodic feedback to but it is the journey that matters in the end. stakeholders and the community at large on the Ursula Le Guin progress and performance of the action plan, and check with them that the plan still reflects the wishes of the community and continues to support sustainable development. This ensures Celebrate that the community continues to feel ownership This step does not come at the end of a project, of the process and therefore support it through but starts with the visioning process and their own actions. continues throughout the lifetime of your Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation. Feedback can take many forms. It can be in a community newsletter, regular articles in the Celebrate key moments in creating and local newspaper, or community meetings. implementing your Local Agenda 21. These include: • Setting up the Sustainable Neighbourhood Promotion People will only be aware of your programme of Organisation • Completing the Vision Statement creating a healthy, safe, sustainable neighbourhood through information, action and • Introducing the Action Plan • Starting and completing projects, as well as promotion. If the community is informed about the issues then one of the major goals is key moments during the lifetime of the achieved. specific project. Use every opportunity you can think of for a • Promote the Local Agenda 21 / Community celebration. Celebrations serve many purposes. Development to the community through They provide opportunity to promote your Local projects and events. Agenda 21 and attract new partners; to give • Promote the Local Agenda 21 program to feedback to the community about where you are outside agencies through the power of the in the process and what is being achieved; and media reporting on your projects and to raise funds. By allowing the people in your events. neighbourhood to meet and mingle in a joyful • Promote your neighbourhood to other parts spirit, celebrations also strengthen the of the city - be proud of where you live, community and improve community pride and claim it, make it yours, improve it for your social cohesion. children. Community activities such as picnics in the Successful promotions do not just happen. They park, tree planting days, clean street days, local need extensive planning and communication. shopping days and celebration of local Use your commercial and community centres landmarks and important local stores are as focal points for your promotion campaign. important to foster pride of the neighbourhood. Existing community structures such as religious groups, schools, civics or street committees can Celebrations need not be expensive do’s. Be help to spread the word. Use your partnerships inventive, use local talent and support with community organisations and structures, and above all, have fun. associations. Why Promote? 27 Attitudes are delicate - perceptions quickly The following list provides some ideas for a become realities. However, attitudes and promotion programme. Some may be perceptions can be changed. It is important to appropriate to your community, others not. Use it keep this in mind because negative attitudes as inspiration to create your own promotion can be changed with the right approach. programme that celebrates the unique strengths of your community and the successes More than any other point in the Local Agenda of your Local Agenda 21 programme. 21 process, promotion will expand the potential of your program to change peoples perceptions Environmental Promotion and attitudes. • Focus on the environmental assets of the neighbourhood: street trees, gardens, parks It should be a goal of the promotional program and streams. to generate a popular image of your • Provide information on local improvements neighbourhood. Good marketing techniques happening or about to happen. can create a sense of zest, excitement and • Encourage local improvement through vitality, generating community well being, and promoting examples of best practices - contributes to a sense of ownership and desire solar hot water, food producing gardens and to improve the environment in which the parks. community lives. • Plan seasonal events - spring bulb planting, winter tree planting, harvest festivals. Building an image Retail Promotion Image is possibly the most important factor in • Focus on the variety of goods and services improving your neighbourhood - it is the available. impression other people have of your • Celebrate local retail centres with events. neighbourhood. Having a good image helps a • Organise “shop local” campaigns. neighbourhood to attract investment, thus Special Events creating jobs and improving services. It a lso • Organise celebrations for all - young, old, fosters a sense of civic pride. Generating civic visitors, locals. pride is essential to a successful Local Agenda • Use events to build community interest in 21/ community development programme. neighbourhood. • Use events to initiate projects and end The image of a neighbourhood is determined by projects. its physical appearance and by its particular • Celebrate traditional, ethnic and local identity. In search of “progress” many holidays, people or history. neighbourhoods have lost sight of their identity: the aspects that make that community look or Many organisations can help you organise feel unique. An identity might be based on an special events to promote your Sustainable important historical event, ethnic group, Neighbourhood Organisation and Local Agenda distinctive landscape, architecture, feature, or 21. Ask your local authority for a list of reputation for safety or friendly people. environmental organisations in your city or region. Service providers such as Eskom or your Once an identity is rediscovered, it can be built local Water Board, and big companies such as upon and used as the basis for celebration and Pick and Pay also have community outreach promotion. Use this new-found civic pride to programmes that you could benefit from. Your mobilise the community into improving the local businesses can also provide some help in physical appearance of the neighbourhood. return for the good publicity this gives them. Image is determined by: The media can help • A clean environment. Getting the word out is the most important factor • A safe environment. in the success of your promotional programme. • The visual impression of area. If your city or community has a local paper, it is • The attitude of locals and retailers. particularly important to develop a good working • Greenness of the area. relationship with its editor or reporters. Local • Air quality and noise levels radio stations could also be used to keep the • A clear identity. community informed. If you have access to the Internet, set up a community website to A promotion programme generate interest and publish positive stories. 28 Whatever route you decide to go, it is important to know how to deal with the media and prepare press releases. Remember that a media release should help the press to quickly identify the points you want to get across. Preparing Media Releases • Opening statement of press release needs to have “punch” and interest. • Provide graphics or photographs to accompany the press release. • Provide a human -interest story - children, elderly, animals. • The first sentences of your press release are the “lead”. Your lead should answer six questions - Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How. • Be brief, two sentences make a good paragraph in newspaper copy. • Be factual, write in third person (i.e. not “our project, or “my project”, but “the project”). • Avoid adjectives like “very, attractive”, or “interesting”. • Type the press release, leave wide margins for editors to make notes. • Keep a record of where the press release has been sent and published it. 29 Part 3 How to… Preparing and holding meetings and workshops The Perfect Meeting Preliminary Checklist Who should attend? • Purpose - All participants know and understand • Those with information to give to the the purpose of the meeting and its desired meeting. outcomes. Clearly state the purpose and • Those who will gather useful information objectives of the meeting. Produce an agenda from the meeting. and stick to it. • Those with expertise to contribute to the • Agenda - The framework upon which the meeting meeting. rests, organised to achieve the purpose and • Those that need to be invited to support the outcomes of the meeting. • Participants - Those invited to attend, whether legitimacy of the meeting – stakeholders, they have expertise, experience, are and interested or affected parties. stakeholders or interested people or • Those who may provide balance in areas of organisations. In the case of a public meeting or conflict. workshop, broad representation of community • Those who are empowered to implement groups and individuals is essential. any actions agreed. • Facilitator - The facilitator guides the discussion according to the agenda, while still Choosing an appropriate venue accommodating individuals’ ability to participate. Apart from being big enough to accommodate • Agreed Action - A meeting is about an action, whether it’s the dissemination of information or a all those who may wish to participate, it is specific task. The outcomes (agreed and helpful if the space has enough chairs and achieved) should be summarised clearly by the some tables for working groups. Facilitator • Follow-up - A secretary records all decisions and Other resources that may be important and help action points in the minutes, for reference by in the free flow of ideas are white boards, black participants. boards, pens, crayons and large sheets of paper for groups, overhead projectors, and slide projectors. Purpose Before you organise the meeting, you need to be Some communities may have a wide range of clear on what you want to achieve, as this choices, some may not, so what is available is determines the type of meeting and the structure also a consideration. Spaces that may be in of the agenda. your community include the local town hall, community hall, clubhouses, libraries, schools, Meetings have different functions. These include churches and conference centre. Many disseminating information, exchange of ideas successful meetings have been held under a and experience, developing teamwork, tree or in a public open space. (Clear any open instigating internal or external changes, and air meeting first with your local police station, as rapid decision-making, there may still be some by-laws prohibiting it) The most important aspect is that the space is Types of Meetings well known to the community. When advertising • Informative / Advisory the meeting include a location map and street • Consultative address. • Problem solving • Decision taking If possible, try to book the space for free, or at • Negotiating least at a discounted fee. Explain to the owner or 30 manager of the space what is taking place, and • Able to manage the group process without invite them to attend. Ensure that you book taking over or manipulating the group’s ahead so as not to be disappointed. Try to decisions. organise a night or weekend day when the most • Able to harness the skills and potential of people can attend. Remember to confirm the all participants. arrangements before the meeting. • Able to put aside their own needs in favour of the group’s needs. • Aware of both the content of the meeting, Setting the agenda and of how group members interact. Establish a reasonable timetable for the • Able to set a positive tone for the meeting. meeting and stick to its contents to keep • Willing to show respect for the values of people’s attention and the issues focussed. each person involved in the meeting. Consult people within the community about the contents of the agenda. Revisiting meetings / workshops People should enjoy themselves and have a The agenda has the following functions • It communicates certain expectations to sense of achievement. It is important that a summary is given at the end of the meeting, and everyone involved well in advance of the minutes are kept of decisions made, as well as meeting. of objections made to these decisions. In • It helps to order the meeting and keep it to addition, revisiting workshops should be held time. regularly, especially in the early stages. Things • It makes sure that all the important issues change quickly as the community develops legal are discussed. structures and holds visioning and issue workshops. This is an open process, which Generic Agenda allows people to become involved at any stage. (Provide Date, time and place) Therefore, it is to the benefit of all to revisit the • Open - call meeting to order outcomes of the previous workshops and the • Apologies progress the committee has made in its role. • Minutes of last meeting This way a history is built up, allowing new • Matters arising from minutes people to see the way the program has • Inward and Outward Correspondence developed. • Accounts • New Business • General Business Helpful Hints • Fix time and place of next meeting. Some tricks of the trade that may assist the • Adjourn meeting success of the meetings and workshops are: • Allow plenty of time for organisation and preparation. Role of a Facilitator • Make a checklist of tasks, set deadlines, and The facilitator has the role of making a public delegate responsibilities. meeting or workshop work. From organising the • Publicise the meeting widely throughout the meeting, to making sure that all people in the community - use newspapers, fliers, delegate meeting have the opportunity to contribute, the responsibilities. facilitator should ensure the smooth running of • Develop an agenda and display it, or distribute a meeting, During the meeting the facilitator (or copies (leave copies in library, butchers, chairperson) must make sure that all issues hairdressers, cafes etc) have been discussed and that the participants • Arrange to have a 'facilitator' or a person experienced in-group meetings chair the are happy with decisions. meeting. • Have other facilitators organised to run A good facilitator earns the respect of those he individual groups. or she is working with, giving them the ability to • Consider having popular local politicians or direct the smooth running of a meeting or other special speakers contribute to the workshop. meeting. What to look for in a facilitator: • Give everyone a nametag. • Positive, energetic, assertive, respected. • Provide refreshments. • Well organised. • Ask all speakers, including interjectors to state • Able to work well with a variety of people. their name. 31 • Have people organised to record minutes and • Send out a summary of the meeting to all who facilitate the meeting and workshop. attend and make copies publicly available in the • Record names, addresses, phone numbers, of local library, post offi ce, etc. all participants (distribute a questionnaire and sign-up form). Your community may not be able to afford things • End evening by summarising main points - like nametags, refreshments and postage. This develop consensus. Have people sign off on this. does not matter, as these are only helpful extras Set up next tasks and enrol other people into project. and not essential to the success of a meeting. Setting up the Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation When to establish the Sustainable • The size of the Organisation’s governing Board. Neighbourhood Organisation • The most appropriate people to fill the The establishment of the Sustainable positions of Chairperson, Vice Chairperson, Neighbourhood Organisation needs to happen Treasurer and Secretary. early in the process. This is because of the • The contents of the Constitution of the need to generate funding for projects, if not also organisation. for the employment of a co -ordinator. Funding • The establishment of membership. agencies, both government and charitable, will not, on the whole, give funding to an informal Size organisation without a legal constitution. Around ten people are considered a workable size for a governing Board. Given that it is rare The timing of the establishment of the for all members to be able to attend every Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation is meeting, the size of the Board could be set at dependent on the ability of the Interim twelve to fourteen people. Committee to access funding. If there is no other organisation that can apply for funding on Official positions its behalf, then the early formalisation of the Much thought should be given to choosing the Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation right person for the role of chairing the becomes critical and needs to be initiated Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation’s immediately. If funding can be accessed Board. The Chairperson must be able to elsewhere then the Interim Committee can remain informal for several months or so. Like communicate with all sectors of society from children to politicians. Leadership skills are many companies and trusts, a sustainable neighbourhood organisation has a Board, which essential, along with having the respect of the community. has the responsibility of ensuring the successful running of the organisation and its The Vice-Chairperson must be able to work projects. closely with the Chairperson and be able to stand in whenever the Chairperson is Features of an effective organisation: unavailable. • Decisive and action oriented • Clear in its focus The Treasurer needs to have good accounting • Possesses a consistent and well structured and financial record-keeping skills. Incorporated work program organisations are bound by law to keep financial • Acts as a visible symbol of new activity records, have them available for scrutiny by the • Firm strategy for ongoing funding and Organisation’s members if requested, and support annual accounts must be audited and presented along with the Organisation’s Annual Structure of the Sustainable Report every year. Neighbourhood Organisation The role of the Secretary is primarily to keep The important things to consider when evolving accurate records of meetings. Depending on the from the Interim Committee into the Sustainable job description for the Co-ordinator, the Neighbourhood Organisation are: 32 Secretary may also be responsible for the of the workload, and allow several issues to be distribution of minutes of meetings, the worked on simultaneously. preparation of agendas for meetings and the typing and distribution of any correspondence. These groups are composed of all interested participants, as well as specialist bodies and Other board members experts, and stakeholders. This part of the In addition to the above four “official” positions, sustainable neighbourhood organisation has there will be another eight to ten positions to fill the potential to involve the greatest number of on the Sustainable Neighbourhood people, as this is the action stage, where the Organisation’s Board. It is essential that these focus is implementing strategies and positions be filled by people who represent the developing mechanisms to monitor change. broad range of interests in the community. The members must be able to contribute time, The Working Groups act on directives of the energy, skills, money or provide access to Interim Committee or Organisation’s Board. funding sources, and overall, be able to take on This way a clear work program can be the level of responsibility that has been vested in established without overlap and confusion. the Board by the wider community. Resources may be tight amongst the Working Groups, making the use of volunteers who have The constitution skills in areas important. The constitution includes the Value Statement, describes the official and other positions and The role of the Working Groups: their terms of office and election procedures, as • Empower all those that wish to participate well as the legal structure of the organisation. • Make things happen • Act on priorities and tasks set by the Interim Establishment of membership Committee or Organisation’s Board To build broad community support for the • Encourage widespread public involvement Neighbourhood Organisation, membership of it to get things done should be open to any group or individual who • Organise task forces to accomplish short wishes to be a member. Depending on your term activities community, membership could be free, or • Co-operate with other working groups people could pay a small fee, in return for which • Keep the Interim Committee or they receive regular updates on the work of the Organisation’s Board informed of progress Committee and the Working Groups and an invitation to general meetings. Through paying a The Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation small fee and receiving updates on the activities is responsible for prioritising the actions that of the Neighbourhood Organisation, ownership need to be taken when individual Action Plans of the organisation's activities is established are developed for each project area. Then it is throughout the community. up to working groups to carry out the actions so that results are achieved. Working Groups Having defined the issues through community Building Networks of Support meetings and workshops, action is needed. The Building networks of support between the Interim Committee, Sustainable Neighbourhood Interim Committee and Neighbourhood Organisation’s Board and Co-ordinator can't be Organisation, the wider community, expected to do everything. The devolution of professionals and government agencies is an responsibility to the Working Groups is the next ongoing and essential part of the sustainable step. The purpose of the Working Groups is to development process. develop actions. They are formed out of the community meetings and workshops to focus While they may not wish to fill a permanent on major themes developed from those place on the Neighbourhood Organisation, there meetings. They have an essential function in are many individuals in the community who can prioritising issues and actions, and in the contribute a broad range of skills on an as development of individual action plans, their needed basis. They do not need to attend every implementation and monitoring of results. meeting but need to be kept informed of the These Working Groups assist in the distribution Organisation’s progress and decisions via copies of minutes of the meetings. When their 33 particular skills are needed for a project, a • Financial and technical resource personal invitation to the next meeting can be assistance, including information on the extended. This type of relationship could exist areas infrastructure, resources and needs. with local engineers, architects, town planners, • Support and give credibility to project when landscape specialists, journalists, artists, approaching other funding agencies. environmentalists, mechanics - whoever has • Implement public improvements advocated skills that could be called upon without requiring by community. a regular commitment to the Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisatio n. Making it work Meetings Protocol Your local authority, local businesses, police To build trust between the Neighbourhood station and schools, as well as contacts in Organisation and the community there has to be provincial and national government departments an ‘open door’ policy for meetings. Rather than and donor funding agencies are all very being a closed shop, board meetings, usually important members of your support network. held on a monthly or 2 monthly basis, and are open for anyone to attend. This stops any fear Working with Local Authorities that decisions are made without openness and Local Authorities can be very supportive of a transparency, or that the Neighbourhood community development programme. In some Organisation is an exclusive ‘club’ of people cases, they could be the outside agency that who are making important decisions without the instigates a programme to empower a inclusion of community concerns. A decision community. Not only can local authorities identify making process needs to be established, a need within a community for a deve lopment showing the Board and Sustainable programme, but they can also assist it in its Neighbourhood Organisation’s members how running through information, resources and decisions are made. accessing funding. They can therefore play a central role in the activities of the Sustainable Each community must develop its own protocols Neighbourhood Organisation. but must guard against long meetings that do not advance projects. Set an agenda, set Many of the issues that resulted from the objectives, aim to agree on targets and allocate community development programme can be tasks. incorporated into local authority programmes and plans, especially the IDP process. There Funding and Fundraising are also other areas where this may be A successful program is dependent on the appropriate such as renewal projects, resources and funds it can raise for day-to-day recreational opportunities, and maintenance of management and for the development and public amenity and provision of infrastructure. implementation of the Action Plan. As described previously, it is essential to have a legal It should, however, always be remembered that structure and a clear project outline and your Neighbourhood Organisation and action implementation strategy. The more organised plan depends foremost on the participation of the program is, the greater the potential of your neighbourhood community. It is not the fundraising from a wide range of sources. responsibility of the local authority to keep it These funders need to know that there is some going or implement any of its activities. South benefit involved in the project, whether to the African local authorities are also in many cases community at large, their business, or to a long - unable to assist with funding or manpower. term strategy. Benefits and Potential of Partnerships Identifying potential funders involves a great with Local Authorities deal of networking. Start local, whether it is a • Assistance in getting starte d by providing a local employee, community foundation, an venue for meetings, initial leadership and in individual or member of local government the funding of a co-ordinator or consultants. agency or authority. Then expand the search for • Involvement of local politicians. funders to municipal, regional and national • Supporting a complementary community agencies. Funding may be direct or in kind. development strategy. Writing a grants application is a skill in itself. A great deal of thought and background research 34 needs to be done. Contact has to be made with chairperson, secretary, and co-ordinator, along the potential funder, establishing a dialogue and with perhaps summaries of progress from each relationship. of the Working Groups. All the possible material a funder may wish to For the benefit of the community, we would also see about the community, the process, its recommend that the Annual Report is the project, and the outcomes needs to be collated, appropriate document in which to include the and included as additional material to the monitoring program for each year. Further proposal if required. Included could be a proposed strategy for the following year in response to the findings of Potential sources of funds may include: each year's indications. • Government Agencies • Local Government The legal requirements, however, are only a • Foundations small part of the overall communications • Local Businesses picture. The Sustainable Neighbourhood • Corporations Organisation must be able to communicate • Utility Provider with: • Community Development Corporations • The wider community; • Government agencies; • Funding sponsorship bodies; Getting the Word Out • other Sustainable Neighbourhood Media and information is important to the wider Organisations awareness and involvement of the local community and interested individuals and In order to keep the high profile of the project groups. While only a small part of the town may regular newsletters, although a lot of effort to put be active at the committee level, or in attending together, are valuable means of getting meetings, it is still important to provide information out. information on the project, vision, actions and updates of progress. If funding allows, sending copies to all members, the local council, public libraries, Keeping channels of communication open is government agencies, professional bodies, as essential to the ongoing success of the Local well as placing copies in local cafes, Agenda 21 program. Remember that a Local newsagents and grocery stores will help to Agenda 21 / community development program stimulate communication in an outwards flow at is about managing change in your least. A request for feedback and volunteers, neighbourhood on an indefinite basis. It is not as well as the inclusion of a meetings schedule about short-term action only. for the next few months may result in communication flowing back into the project. By keeping doors of communication open, people are kept informed and involved and the A sequence of activities that can be carried out opportunity remains for new people to get on a time-line, or simultaneously are: actively involved in projects at any time in the • Designate a spokesperson or group of future. people. • Recruit volunteers or make use of Co- As the Sustainable Neighbourhood ordinator to help with the media campaign. Organisation is a legal entity, there are statutory • List all local media outlets. (newspaper, requirements to communicate with members of radio, TV) the public and members of the organisation. • Complete a media contact form for each The legal requirements are: outlet. • An Annual General Meeting; • Meet with the editor or publisher of the • Presentation of Annual audited accounts newspaper and reporters or managers of • An Annual Report radio and local TV stations. • Offer written and in-depth materials on The Annual Report is the “official” newsletter of sustainable development and the Local the Board that acts as a record of all the major Agenda 21 program the community is activities of the Organisation. It might include a carrying out. report from each of the chairperson, vice- 35 • Develop a media budget for resources, Once this has happened, the search for an materials and the development of press appropriate co-ordinator must begin. Someone packs and press releases. involved in the Interim Committee or Board to • If you need help writing press releases, find date may be qualified and interested in the a good local writer who'll volunteer. position. If not, the process of finding a suita ble • Write press releases for the first few candidate must begin. workshops. • Establish a group within the committee to The Brief brainstorm publicity ideas. The Board’s first tasks are to define a job • Develop a leaflet or poster on the description, formulate an advertisement for the community development project that is position, place the advertisement calling for distributed before the first series of applicants, review the applicants, select a short workshops. list, contact referees, conduct interviews and • Invite local press representatives to the then select the person considered to be most workshops. suitable for the job. Co-ordination Qualities of the Co-ordinator: Case studies and local experience has shown • Experience in community development that a co-ordinator, a paid or voluntary person work - the ability to help make projects who is 'on the ground' in the community, is a happen. critical element in the success of a Local • A clear understanding of community Agenda 21 / community development project. development and the principles of Agenda Interim Committee and Board members are 21. voluntary and are usually people who lead very • An ability to motivate oneself and work active and full lives. Given these constraints, independently. someone else is needed to do day to day • The ability to work with a broad cross administrative tasks, keep in touch with all section of people. committee members and other people in the • A capacity to communicate with government neighbourhood, and to carry out many of the agencies, politicians, business leaders. actions identified by the working parties. • Skills in putting funding proposals together. • Administrative skills. The co-ordinator is the lynch pin - the person • A high level of professionalism in who keeps the doors of communication open presentation, actions and attitudes. and the momentum of the project rolling. The • Above all, be able to maintain the trust and co-ordinator is someone engaged by the Interim respect of the community while being an Committee or Board to undertake the work of the integral part of it. Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation. • Patience, tack and sensitivity to the local situation are essential qualities. The funding of the Co-ordinator position and a project office is an essential part of the funding Where to Advertise mix. This should be one of the first undertakings Advertising the position in daily newspapers is of the Organisation’s Board. likely to generate interest. Other avenues are government publications, and professional When to bring in the Co-ordinator? institutes. Care and attention must be paid to It is a good idea to engage the co-ordinator on a the above qualities even if the Co -ordinator is part-time or full time basis as soon as possible. appointed on a voluntary basis. If funding is available from the beginning, a co- ordinator will be invaluable during the Contents of advertisement: organisation leading up to the first series of • salary, community workshops and meetings. • hours, • responsibilities, Obviously funding is key - the likelihood is that a • location, and significant level of funding will not be available • contact address phone number. until the Sustainable Neighbourhood Organisation is established as a legal entity. 36 Resourcing Another consideration is the workplace of the Co-ordinator. Renting an office in the neighbourhood with all the associated running costs will be expensive - telephone, fax, computer, photocopier, electricity. Sharing an already established office within a small business may be more cost effective for all parties. Do a door to door search of offices in the neighbourhood. Another option may be using space within the local library, information centres, council offices, or school. 37 Getting help Projects require the assistance of a variety of The Consultants’ work is only as good as the people and a variety of skills. Much can be brief. Do not let the consultant tell you what you undertaken by the local project group and local already know - employ them for solutions not organisations but consultants should be question. considered when you do not have the time or expertise to do the job yourself. Consultants can Terms of Reference provide specialist knowledge and expertise as • General statement of objectives. well as offering an independent unbiased • Organisational background. viewpoint. The right consultants can grow your • Community profile. projects and introduce new partners to the • Specific objectives of project. process. • Context and background to project. • What resources and references are You can ask for assistance from local NGO’s available to consultants who employs specific experts to help with • Organisational chart with points of contact. community development projects, or make use • Time-line dividing work into phases. of the voluntary skills available in your • A budget. community. If you have access to funding, the • Evaluation method. best option may be to hire consultants. • Number of consultants invited. • Contacts. Consultants When dealing with consultants it is important to Six Steps to Hiring Help deal with organisational matters such as Terms of Reference, Budgets, time and payment schedule, and a system to monitor progress. 1. Know your objectives. Often local authority planners and other staff can 2. Interview at least three consultants. assist a community in their projects or in 3. Set clear brief and requirements. defining the tasks of the consultant, and can 4. Call for proposals. give advice on which consultant to use. 5. Evaluate proposals. Remember it is im portant that these consultants 6. Sign contract. have experience working with communities and can articulate scientific information into language ordinary people can understand. Step one - Know your objectives Know what you want the end product to be, What does consultants offer? anticipate the time it will take to get there, the • Knowledge and expertise that may not exist appropriate disciplines to be involved and set a in the Committee and other members of the budget. community • Skills to complete tasks identified and Ask the following questions to clarify your within a determined period of time objectives: • Objectivity and independence from local • Why are you hiring a consultant? issues • What do you expect to achieve? • Short term assistance in achieving goals • What do you want the end product to be? • Have you the resources? • Do the objectives reflect the views of the The following steps will help you get maximum wider community? benefit from your consultant and work towards a • Have you looked for partners - local satisfactory product. authority, businesses, and government agencies? Remember that a consultant should only be hired after your terms of reference and Step two - Interview at least three objectives are well defined. You are the client, you are paying for their assistance, and you consultants must be able to tell them as clearly as possible Invite three suitable consultants for a pre - what you want accomplished. interview discussion. Outline project, objectives, 38 and outcomes. Seek their input; “pick their • are there charges for extra copies of brains”. The more times you have to explain the reports, etc project, the clearer it will become. • is there a ceiling on disbursements Step Three - Set clear brief Step Five - Evaluation Set terms of reference. (See Box) The consultant Set criteria to evaluate proposals should not set the scope of work! Provide all according to: background material; do not pay to be told what • Professional and technical merit. is already known. • Innovative ideas and approaches. • Communication and listening skills. Step four - Call for Proposals • Experience of people who will do the work, Two to five consultants should be invited to as opposed to company experience. submit proposals. If the project is small, invite • Do they seem genuinely interested in fewer to save resources. At a minimum, ask for project? details of approach, time schedule, who will do the work, associated fees and experience. Step six - Contract Thank all those who respond to your call for The contract should be centred on the original proposals. terms of reference, and the winning proposal. Approach someone with legal expertise or What to ask for and what to look for in a approach the local authority or government proposal agency to assist. Consultant Team • Basis for fee. • who will carry out the tasks • Disbursements and expenses. • fee schedule • Key personnel involved and their • local knowledge / interest responsibilities. • professional competence • Methods and dates of payment. Proposal • Dates the consultant submits pieces of • compliance with terms of reference work. • depth of understanding of objectives, vision, • Cancellation clause. project • Alterations clause. • appropriateness of approach • originality, innovation, imagination • organisational quality of proposal - clarity • technical aspects of work program and resources Timing • does it meet program • is it realistic • can you keep up with timetable Cost • are all anticipated costs included • are charges fixed • can you afford it 39 Part 4 Who can help? 40 Simple Living Professional directories http://www.simpleliving.net The South African Development Directory EPA Green Communities A national directory of South African and http://www.epa.gov/region03/greenkit The Natural Step international development organisations active in South Africa. This includes national and http://www.naturalstep.org provincial government departments, parastatals, Sustainable Cities Programme research institutions, diplomatic representation, http://www.sustainable-cities.org CSI programmes, NGO’s, research institutions , Global Eco-village Network development corporations and international http://www.gaia.org funding agencies. Programme for Development Research Organisations (PRODDER) Saving water Human Sciences Research Council Department of Water Affairs and Forestry PO Box 32410 Private Bag X313, Pretoria 0001 Braamfontein 2017 Tel. (012) 338 7500; Fax: (012) 328 6041 Tel (011) 482 6150 Fax (011) 482 4739 National Water Conservation Campaign Email: BB@zeus.hsrc.ac.za Private Bag X9052. Cape Town, 8000 http://www.hsrc.ac.za/prodder.html Tel.(021) 462 1460; Fax.(021) 462 1719 The Professions and Projects Register Energy A national register of planning and development Energy and Development Research Centre related professionals. Avonworld Publishing University of Cape Town Tel (011)280 5299 Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 Tel. (021) 650 3230; Fax. (021) 650 2830 http://www.avonworld.co.za Eskom Enviro Help Line The SAPOA Property Register (24 hours) Tel (011) 800 4727 Eskom Environmental Affairs A national register of professionals , financiers PO Box 1091, Johannesburg, 2000-01-31 and property advisors Tel.(011) 800 8111; Fax (011) 800 4983 Avonworld Publishing Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs Tel (011)280 5299 http://www.avonworld.co.za Private Bag X59, Pretoria, 0001 Tel (012) 317 9000; Fax (012) 322 5224 Energy and Development Group (EDG) Environment Resource Centre for PO Box 261 Southern Africa Noordhoek, Cape Town, 7985 Database on environmental experts in Southern Tel (021) 789 2920 Fax (021)789 2954 Africa The Renewable Energy Demonstration Centre PO Box 5690, Harare, Zimbabwe Private Bag X515, Silverton, 0127 Tel (263-4) 737301 Fax (263-4) 738693 Tel (012) 804 3435/ 1540 Fax (012) 804 3435 http://www.sardc.net/imercsa Pollution and Waste Management Institute of Waste Management Websites Head Office. PO Box 48533, Agenda 21 Roosevelt Park, 2129 http://www.igc.apc.org/habitat/agenda21 Tel (011) 782 3503/4; Fax (011) 782 3507 Habitat Agenda Department of Environmental Affairs and http://unchs.org/unchs/english/hagenda/index.htm Tourism. International Council for Local Environmental Chief Director: Pollution and Waste Initiatives (ICLEI) Management. http://www.iclei.org Private Bag X447, Pretoria, 0001 World Business Council for Sustainable Tel (012) 310 3842; Fax (012) 320 1167 Development National Recycling Forum http://www.wbcsd.ch PO Box 48533, Roosevelt Park, 2129 Sustainable Communities Network Tel (011) 782 3503; Fax (011) 782 3507 http://www.sustainable.org 41 Packaging Council of South Africa Tel (012) 841 3068/ 3871 PO Box 782205, Sandton, 2146. A Place Called Home Tel (011) 783 4782; Fax (011)883 7170 Sowman, M. and Urquhart, P. UCT Press Durban Solid Waste C/o Jute & Company Customer Services 17 Electron Rd. PO Box 1038, Durban, 4000 PO Box 14373 Tel (031) 302 4841 Wetton, 7790 Share-Net Urban Green File PO Box 394, Howick, 3290 PO Box 922, Parklands, 2121 Tel (0332) 303931; Fax (0332) 302549 Tel (011) 482 4706 Fax (011) 482 3407 Fairest Cape Association http://www.urbangreen.co.za PO Box 97, cape Town, 8000 Earthyear Tel (021) 462 2040; Fax (021) 461 9519 PO box 771, Sea Point, 8060 Waste Aware. Eastern Gauteng Services Tel (021) 790 1362/3 Fax (021)790 1384 Council Private Bag X 1069, Germiston, 1400 Tel (011) 704 1101; Fax (011) 820 4011 Collect-A-Can Head Office, PO Box 30500, Kyalami, 1685 Tel (011) 466 2939; Fax (011) 466 2941 Aluminium Can Recycling Association PO Box 751815, Garden View, 2047 Tel (011) 454 1408; Fax (011) 454 1501 Glass Recycling Association PO Box 5303, Delminville, 1403 Tel (011) 827 0338; Fax (011) 827 6944 Trade-a-Bottle PO Box 2253, Rensburg, 2401 Tel (011) 824 6855; Fax (011) 827 3600 Plastic Federation of South Africa Private Bag X68, Halfway House, 1685 Tel (011) 314 4021; Fax (011) 314 3764 SAPPI Waste Paper PO Box 114, Eppingdust, 7475 Tel (021) 531 3077; Tollfree 0800 221 330 Mondi Recycling PO Box 12168, Vorna Valley, 1686 Tel (011) 315 8450; Fax (011) 315 8313 Tollfree 08000 22112 Nampak Paper Recycling PO Box 89, Crown Mines, 2025 Tel (011) 839 1840; Fax (011) 837 1157 Tollfree 0800 01 8818 Rose Foundation (Oil recycling) Suite A9, Waverley Court, Kotze St. Mowbray, 7700 Tel (021) 448 7492; Fax (021) 448 7563 Oilkol PO Box 1126, Krugersdorp, 1740 Tel (011) 762 5506; Fax (011) 762 4830 Publications Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and Design (Redbook) CSIR Boutek 42
"Manual Neighbourhood Development"