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					                                        Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                               Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape



3.         AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT

3.1        Biophysical environment

3.1.1      Climate

The climate for the Langebaan-Saldanha area, including the Langefontein site, is known as
“Mediterranean” because of its hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Mean annual rainfall that falls
mainly in winter is about 265 mm – 330 mm per annum, and mean monthly temperatures range between
minima of 7.1°C -14.9°C (mainly winter) and maxima of 18.4°C- 27.5°C37. Strong winds occur regularly,
predominantly from the south.

3.1.2      Topography

Langefontein is located on a coastal plain with a relatively flat topography. The elevation of the property
is generally between 60 and 100 m above mean sea level. Three koppies on the property screen it from
the R27 freeway. These are:

       •   Suurvykop koppie south-west of the communications infrastructure, with a maximum
           elevation of 152 m above sea level;
       •   Langefontein koppie immediately north-west of the telecommunications infrastructure,
           with a maximum elevation of 144 m above sea level; and
       •   Betjieskop koppie in the south-west corner reaches a maximum elevation of over 200 m
           above mean sea level. These, and the remaining telecommunications antennae, dominate
           this otherwise flat landscape visually.



3.1.3      Geology, soils and founding conditions

The Langefontein terrain is situated on a coastal plain that consists mostly of the Tertiary fossilipherous
calcretes of the Elandsfontein formation, with surface deposits of calcareous and quartzose sands. The
site is largely covered with Quaternary deposits of the Langebaan formation consisting of calcrete capped
dune sand. The calcrete and limestone deposits are grey to cream medium grained and contain shell
fragments. The underlying sand is cohesionless, quartzitic and of aeolian origin. A small portion in the
centre of the site is covered with some deposits of the Springfontein formation that consists of light grey
to pale red fine to medium sand. Marginal mud deposits sometimes are found. Shell fragments and shark
teeth are present in the sands.

In general founding conditions are suitable for single and double storey building units on standard strip
footings. However special care should be taken against collapse potential in aeolian sands. A foundation


37
     Hanekom N., Randall R.M., Nel, P. & Kruger, N. 2009. West Coast National Park – State of Knowledge. South African
      National Parks.
Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                                          page 43
                                       Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                              Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape

investigation should be undertaken of specific locations where turbines are proposed to be constructed,
to confirm the unlikelihood of high water tables and the probability of unchartered rock at shallow
depths. The calcareous sands in the area should be suitable for fill under concrete slabs and at least
selected subgrade for road construction.

3.1.4    Water

The Lower Berg River Primary Aquifer System consists of four identifiable units, namely, the
Adamboerskraal, Langebaan Road, Elandsfontein and Grootwater aquifers. These underlie the West
Coast between Darling in the south and Aurora in the north; all are characterised by large storage
capacities and substantial mean annual recharge. The Langefontein property itself is underlain by the
Elandsfontein aquifer, the most geologically complex aquifer in the area. This aquifer comprises two
aquifers: an unconfined upper aquifer near the surface and a lower semi confined aquifer at a depth of
up to perhaps 100 m. The water quality in the Elandsfontein aquifer is fresh to moderately saline. The
military base’s requirements were provided through two wells and a borehole on the site.

There are no significant perennial or seasonal watercourses on the property. The only significant water
body is the vlei area associated with the well that is to the south of the Langefontein koppie.



3.1.5    Flora

Langefontein is one of the few remaining sites in the area whose natural vegetation has not been
significantly impacted upon by agricultural or mining activities. Vegetation on the site comprises two
major types, namely, (West Coast) Saldanha Flats Strandveld and Hopefield Sand Fynbos. There are also
patches of Saldanha Limestone Strandveld and Langebaan Dune Strandveld. Langefontein, and the
surrounding areas in the Hopefield region, are unique in containing some of the last remaining near
pristine populations of Hopefield Sand Fynbos. In addition, the property contains an ecotone between
Saldanha Flats Strandveld and Hopefield Sand Fynbos, which makes both of conservation significance and
scientific interest (Figure 3.1).

The Saldanha Flats Strandveld consists of sclerophyllous shrublands built of a sparse emergent and
moderately tall shrub layer, with an open succulent shrub layer forming the undergrowth.
Conspicuous displays of geophytes and annual herbaceous flora in spring. At least two endemic plant
species and 26 Red Data List plant species occur in the ecosystem38. About 48% of the original area for
the Saldanha Flats Strandveld vegetation type remains, and it is classified as ‘poorly protected’ by the
National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment39 because, with a conservation target of 24 %, only 11 % of the
original area is protected.



38
   SANBI & DEAT. 2009. Threatened Ecosystems in South Africa: Descriptions and Maps. DRAFT for Comment. South African
    National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, South Africa.
39
   Rouget, M, Reyers, B, Jonas, Z, Desmet, P, Driver, A, Maze, K, Egoh, B. and Cowling, RM. (2004) South African National
    Spatial Biodiversity Assessment 2004: Technical Report. Volume 1: Terrestrial Component. Appendix A&B. Pretoria:
    South African National Biodiversity Institute.
Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                                             page 44
                                       Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                              Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape

Hopefield Sand Fynbos is a moderately tall, ericoid-leaved shrubland with dense herbaceous stratum of
aphyllous hemicryptophytes. This is mostly asteraceous and restioid fynbos, although proteoid fynbos is
extensive and ericaceous fynbos occurs in seeps and along watercourses. Hopefield Sand Fynbos has all
three typical fynbos elements, but with a paucity (in species richness and density) of Ericaceae. The
ecosystem is most diverse in the Hopefield area, where extensive stands of Leucadendron foedum,
Leucospermum rodolentum and Serruria fucifolia are dominant. At least five endemic plant species and
45 Red Data List plant species occur in the ecosystem32. The near pristine nature of the plant
communities on the Langefontein property makes it likely that elements of conservation significance,
including several Red Data Book species, will be found on the site. About 49% of its original area remains,
and it is classified as ‘hardly protected’ since < 1 % of the original area is protected for conservation
purposes, against a target of 30 %33.

Both these vegetation types were classified initially as ‘endangered’ by the National Spatial Biodiversity
Assessment33. In other words, the functioning of the ecosystems is compromised because they have lost
significant amounts of their original natural habitat. This was changed to ‘vulnerable’ in the Draft
National List of Threatened Ecosystems40, that is, there is irreversible loss of natural habitat for both and
at least 40 or more Red Data List plant species are associated with Hopefield Sand Fynbos.

Alien/invasive plant species on the site are rooikrans (Acacia cyclops) and pine trees (Pinus sp.). The pines
appear to have been cultivated by previous landowners, and the climatic regime of the area is likely to
curtail any invasive threat posed by these plants.

An unplanned veld fire in February 2000 burnt approximately 30% of the site along the northern and
north-western property boundary. The fire caused extensive damage to the vegetation, and loss of the
stabilising plant cover on the loose sandy soils led to wind erosion. However, both (West Coast) Saldanha
Flats Strandveld and Sandplain Fynbos are fire prone environments, adapted to regular cycles of fire.
Therefore, fire is unlikely to impact upon its ecological integrity and may in fact heighten floral diversity.



3.1.6      Fauna

As with most Karoo and Fynbos veld types, the West Coast Strandveld and Sandplain Fynbos are not
particularly noted for either their high vertebrate densities or large species diversity.

A good cross section of typical strandveld / fynbos mammal species has been observed on the property.
These include:

       •   Smaller antelope species like the steenbok, grysbok and duiker;
       •   Small carnivores like genets, civets, jackals and bat eared foxes; and
       •   Dassie as well as a variety of rodent species, including stripped field mice and mole-rats.

In addition to these more typical elements, some unusual elements have also been noted, including a
kudu ram and a lone gemsbok.

40
     Government Notice No. 1477. Government Gazette 32689, 6 November 2009.
Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                                      page 45
                                                                                         Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                                                                                Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape




                               Figure 3-1 Langefontein contains an ecotone between Saldanha Flats Strandveld and Sandplain Fynbos



Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                            page 46
                                   Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                          Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape



The Saldanha-Langebaan area contains a rich herpetological fauna, and a range of reptiles are likely to
occur on the Langefontein site. In particular, the angulate tortoise (Chersina angulata) appears to be
widespread on the site and within the surrounding area (Figure 3.2).




                            Figure 3-2 Angulate tortoise is widespread on the site


The avifauna plays an important role in the West Coast ecosystem, as exemplified by the Saldanha Bay-
Langebaan area, which supports one of the highest densities of waders worldwide. Although there is little
overlap in species composition between the marine avifaunal elements in the Saldanha Bay-Langebaan
area and terrestrial avifaunal elements at Langefontein, the property does appear to support a good
cross section of typical strandveld / fynbos birds, with over 80 species having been identified during
casual observation. Those identified include ostrich (Figure 3.3), black-shouldered kite, spotted eagle owl,
guinea fowl, mouse birds, francolin, black and grey egret, pied crow, heron and secretary bird.




Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                                 page 47
                                   Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                          Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape




                     Figure 3-3 Ostrich (with chicks) on the site and adjoining properties



3.1.7   Sites of archaeological / cultural significance

Langefontein contains several sites of archaeological/cultural perspective significance, including:

    •   The Langefontein homestead, dating back to 1895, located to the south-west of the
        Langefontein koppie. The homestead consists of four buildings, constructed of calcrete
        stones with mud plaster and corrugated iron roofing, and an old water well. These are
        situated north-west of the access road that leads to the radio station enclosure. The
        buildings are generally in a poor state of repair and in need of rehabilitation and
        maintenance. The main house was utilised by the SANDF during their initial activities on
        Langefontein and has been slightly modified by the addition of a stoep, toilet and
        shower facilities. Moreover, a small building and new water tank were added to the
        homestead complex during this period of use by the military (Figure 3.4).
    •   The ruins of an older farmstead, located immediately south of Langefontein koppie and
        east of the Langefontein homestead. The farmstead was constructed of undressed
        calcrete stones. This is most likely the original homestead of the farm, dating back to
        the 1780s (Figure 3.5).

Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                                   page 48
                                  Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                         Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape

    •   The old farm boundary walls, dating back to the 18th or 19th century. These walls, which
        criss-cross sections of the property, were constructed of undressed calcrete stone that
        was transported by ox-wagon. The walls are approximately 1 m in height and 1 m in
        width, and in some sections over 500 m in length.
    •   In addition to the aforementioned, the ruins of several old buildings can also be found
        scattered across the site.




                          Figure 3-4 Langefontein homestead dating back to 1895




                       Figure 3-5 Ruins of older homestead dating back to the 1780s



The underlying geology of the Langefontein property is composed of tertiary fossilipherous calcretes of
the Elandsfontein Formation. The Elandsfontein farm located immediately north-east of the Langefontein
property houses the Fossil Park, and in the light of geological concordance between Elandsfontein and
Langefontein sites, there is a strong probability of fossilipherous material being encountered on the
Langefontein property. The koppies are also likely to be of archaeological significance, since these high
points in the landscape often served as a focus for early hominid activities.



Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                                page 49
                                  Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                         Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape

The communications infrastructure for the military base was completed in 1990 and includes several face
brick buildings, an antenna field and related service infrastructure. These structures are of no
archaeological or cultural significance.

3.1.8   Existing structures and infrastructure on the site

Most of the property remains unused and consists of natural veld. The buildings and telecommunications
antennae are not visible from the R27 road, as it is located behind the low Suurvykop and Langefontein
koppies. The tarred access road is unobtrusive, approximately 2 km long and 8 m wide, and leads off the
R27 through a normal farm gate to an intermediate security gate and security fence approximately 1 km
from the entrance. The buildings are situated within a secure precinct with a guardhouse and crash
barriers. Graded tracks, with a calcrete wearing course layer, provide access to the large antennae and
along the perimeter of the site (Figure 3.6).




        Figure 3-6 View of Langefontein buildings and telecommunications antennae from Suurvykop


The buildings are approximately in the south east of the site within a security fenced enclosure, and they
comprise:

    •   A single storey guardhouse with wooden window frames and doors;
    •   Four 1½ storey high garages with steel roll-up vehicular doors and wooden window frames;
    •   The main building that houses the main operational area, antennae room and
        administration area. The operational area portion is two storeys high and the remainder one

Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                                page 50
                                     Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                            Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape

        storey high. The building has wooden window frames and doors to the administration area
        and steel doors and vents to the operational area. It used to contain nine radio transmitters,
        a control room, workshops, administration area and living quarters for two members of
        staff;
    •   A single storey chiller room, with wooden doors and stainless steel vents;
    •   A single storey pump house, with wooden doors;
    •   A single storey emergency generator building, with wooden doors and stainless steel vents;
    •   A single storey building, in the ESKOM yard, with wood doors.

These have the following fixtures:

    •   Fire fighting equipment in the Fire Pump House;
    •   Borehole pump and control switch and fresh water supply pump;
    •   66kV and associated equipment in ESKOM / consumer yard;
    •   Electrical supply points;
    •   Light fittings;
    •   Air conditioning system.

Other structures within the enclosure are:

    •   A 3-storey high reinforced concrete water chiller reservoir, with a galvanised iron ladder
        on the roof;
    •   A 15-kilolitre rectangular face brick reservoir with a corrugated iron roof;
    •   An elevated 1-kilolitre water tank on a 3 storey high lattice work steel tower;
    •   An above ground bulk fuel storage tank with a surrounding face brick wall;
    •   A car port for 10 cars, consisting of a galvanised steel frame and a corrugated iron roof;
    •   Two fenced enclosures that house external electrical equipment for ESKOM and the radio
        station;
    •   The security fencing to the radio station enclosure comprises two wire mesh fences with
        barbed wire on cranked extensions and concrete crash barriers with an electronic security
        control system at the entrance.



3.1.9   Existing services on the site

Stormwater
There is no formal underground stormwater system on the site. Roof water is discharged via downpipes
at sidewalk/road level and flows as surface water across roads and hardened areas that discharge onto
the surrounding area.

Sewage
The sewage system comprises a waterborne system that discharges into an onsite septic tank . A soak-
away system is situated approximately 400 m north of the main building.


Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                                  page 51
                                        Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                               Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape

Water
Water is obtained from a borehole, approximately 2 km to the north of the enclosure. The water is
pumped to a 15-kilolitre reservoir, at ground level, within the radio station enclosure. From this reservoir,
water for domestic use is pumped into a 1-kilolitre tank from where it gravitates, assisted by booster
pumps, to various draw off points.

Electricity
Power to the radio station enclosure site is provided via a 66kV overhead supply cable from the north. A
step-down transformer is located in the south-western corner of the radio station enclosure that reduces
the power to 11 kV for the low voltage distribution network.

3.2        Socio-economic context

The Langefontein property lies in Ward 6 of the Saldanha Bay Municipality. The West Coast District
Council delivers services and provides financial support to the municipality through negotiated service
level agreements. Saldanha Bay Municipality is bordered in the north by the Bergrivier Municipality, to
the east by the Swartland Municipality and in the south by the West Coast National Park, in the West
Coast District Management Area.

The SA National Parks Board controls the West Coast National Park which includes the Langebaan
Lagoon, the Marius, Malgas, Jutton and Schaapen Islands and some 21 000 ha of the land between
Langebaan and Yzerfontein. The Parks Board also controls the southern portion of Saldanha Bay and the
water area of the lagoon.

3.2.1      Population profile

The total population for the Saldanha Bay municipal area in 2001 was 70 43841, distributed as described
in Table 3.1 below. The distribution by population group is presented in Table 3.2

                 Table 3-1 Population of towns in the Saldanha Bay Municipal Area (2001 Census)
                       Source: Saldana Bay Spatial Development Framework (Draft, July 2010)

                       Town                                                Population
                       St Helena Bay                                         8 104
                       Hopefield                                             6 748
                       Jacobsbaai                                             130
                       Langebaan                                             4 272
                       Vredenburg                                            28 100
                       Paternoster                                           1 448
                       Saldanha                                              21 636
                       Total                                                 70 438




41
     Saldanha Bay Spatial Development Framework. Prepared by Urban Dynamics Western Cape, July 2010. Available online:
         http://www.saldanhabay.co.za/pages/spatial-planning/SDF/plan_sdf.html. Accessed 6 December 2010.
Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                                          page 52
                                         Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                                Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape



            Table 3-2 Distribution of population groups in Saldanha Bay Municipal Area (2001 Census)
                          Source: Saldana Bay Spatial Development Framework (Draft, July 2010)

                                       African      Coloured       Asian          White               Total
       St Helena Bay                    1 987         5 288           3             826              8 104
       Hopefield                          81          5 314          3              826              6 748
       Jacobsbaai                         0             3            0              127                130
       Langebaan                         173          1 774          12           2 313              4 272
       Vredenburg                       4 870        17 666         148            5 416             28 100
       Paternoster                       132          1 216           3              97               1448
       Saldanha                         4 711        13 567         166           3 192             21 636
       Total: Saldanha Bay             11 954        44 828         338           13 318             70 438
       West Coast District             12 360        170279         516           47 732            23 4608

       Western Cape                    826 691      2 146 111      40 376        821 550            3 956 876

  From Table 3.1, it is evident that in 2001 most people (70.6 %) lived in Vredenburg (39.9 %) and Saldanha
  (30.7%). This is most likely due to employment and economic opportunities in these two towns. St.
  Helena Bay, with the third highest population (11.5 %) is a fishing harbour with fish processing area and is
  also becoming more popular as a retirement town. New residential developments include those at
  Britannia Bay and Shelly Point.

  Table 3.2 shows that the Coloured population group was the biggest (63.6 %) in 2001, which mirrors that
  for the West Coast District Municipality. When this is taken together with the African population group
  (17 %), the need to address historical imbalances in terms of service provision, community facilities,
  poverty alleviation and job creation becomes evident.

  The distribution of the population by age and gender is shown in Table 3.3.


           Table 3-3 Distribution of age/gender groups in Saldanha Bay Municipal Area (2001 Census)
                          Source: Saldana Bay Spatial Development Framework (Draft, July 2010)

                          0 – 14              15 – 29           30 – 64                65 +                   Total
                     Male     Female     Male     Female    Male    Female     Male       Female      Male        Female
St Helenabaai       1 165      1 182     1 147     1 316   1 488     1 600       97           55      3 897        4 153
Hopefield           1 039      1 006      755       787    1 298     1 437      177          246      3 269        3 476
Jacobsbaai            12         17        17        4       37        35        2            6         57           62
Langebaan            530        505       516       496     916       960       164          165      2 126        2 126
Vredenburg          3 927      4 164     4 036     3 996   5 531     4 132      503          613      13997        12905
Paternoster          228        213       179       190     282       300        22           32       711          735
Saldanha            3 147      3 178     3 289     3 068   4 169     4 160      272          348      10877        10754
Total               10 048    10 265     9 939     9 857   13 721 12 624       1 235        1 465     34934        34211

  The following can be concluded from the information presented in Table 3.3:

                •    Hopefield showed a declining population in the 15 – 29 age group, increased population
                     in the 30 – 64 age group with significantly reduced population figures for the over 65 age

  Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                                     page 53
                                      Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                             Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape

                   group. This is an indication that there are not sufficient employment opportunities for
                   younger job seekers in the labour market who then migrate to other areas for
                   employment opportunities.
               •   Langebaan: Over 40 % of the population was between the ages of 30 – 64 and 7.9 %
                   were recorded in the 65+ year age group.
               •   Paternoster: Similar to Hopefield, lower population figures for the 15 – 29 age group is
                   indicative of not sufficient employment opportunities, with young people migrating to
                   the larger urban settlements for job opportunities.
               •   Saldanha: As a developing newly urbanized community, 60 % of the population was
                   under the age of 30. Since the 65+ group was significantly small, it suggests that older
                   people went elsewhere to retire.
               •   St. Helena Bay: The population pyramid was typical of a developing community with high
                   birth rates and high mortality rates and a young population profile. Like Saldanha only
                   2.4 % of the total population fell within the 65+ years category. The young population
                   profile has implications for the future provision of community services.
               •   Vredenburg: As a developing newly urbanized community, 56 % of the population was
                   under the age of 30. Males outnumbered females in the 30 - 64 age group, possibly due
                   to in-migration for particular job categories.



 3.2.2   Social trends

 In-migration led to changes in the demographic and social fabric. The population increase over a 12-year
 period to 2007 is shown in Table 3.4.

                           Table 3-4 Population increase in Saldanha Bay since 1995
                                      Source: Saldana Bay IDP Review 2008/2009

                                            1995          2001          2007             Percentage change
Saldanha Bay                                                                          1995-2001     2001-2007
                         Population        58 093        70 224         78 982          20.9 %        12.5 %
                             total
                         Household         13 957        18 489         22 779         32.5 %         23.2 %
                             total

 The average growth rate for the Saldanha Municipal Area for this period was 5.25%. The average national
 growth rate for South Africa is 1.38% and the average growth rate for the West Coast District from 1985
 to 1996 was 3.8%. This high population growth can be ascribed to the creation of job opportunities in the
 industrial sector. Due, in part, to this in-migration, the municipal area has a relatively young population
 profile. This means that health facilities, housing, education and employment will be municipal priorities.

 HIV/AIDS is a major concern . Table 3.5 shows the trends for deaths due to HIV/AIDS up to 2007. Since
 the national trend is for most infected people to be in the 15 – 35 age group, this could explain trends of
 lower population in the 15 - 29 age group. This is a challenge for services such as home and community-
 based care, health care, funeral provision, trauma assistance and orphan care.


 Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                                page 54
                                       Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                              Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape



                   Table 3-5 Percentage of deaths due to HIV/AIDS in Saldanha Bay since 1995
                                      Source: Saldana Bay IDP Review 2008/2009

                                                            Percentage Change
                                            1995-2001                                   2001-2007
                           HIV Positive    AIDS Deaths   Other          HIV Positive   AIDS Deaths   Other
                                                             deaths                                      deaths
     Saldanha Bay          868 %           2 118%        18 %           192 %          238 %         15 %
     West Coast District   827 %           2 004 %       15 %           145 %          189 %         3%

Education creates opportunities for individuals, and has an indirect influence on health, fertility and life
expectancy. There are 19 schools in the area, with a pupil/teacher ratio of 38. Table 3.6 shows the
distribution of educational levels in 2001. Literacy levels are poor, with 21 % of the population over 14
having completed less than Grade 742.

                       Table 3-6 Educational levels of the population in the municipal area
                                          Source: Saldana Bay IDP 2006-2011

                           Number of persons                    1996        2001
                           No schooling                         2259        2228
                           Some primary                         5893        7476
                           Complete primary                     3776        4337
                           Secondary                            12418       16599
                           Grade 12                             5473         9589
                           Post-matric                          2421        3305



3.2.3      Socio-economic profile

The Saldanha Bay municipal area contributed R 2.2 bn to the West Coast district GDP of R 6, 8 billion in
2007 which, together with that of the Swartland Municipality, accounts for 61 % of the district GDP. Its
per capita GDP of R 29 000 is significantly greater than those of other municipalities in the West Coast
district. However, with an unequal income distribution it also has the highest number of people earning
little or no income, with about 20 % of households earning below R 9 600 per annum. The diminished
capacity to save and invest due to low income has longer-term impacts on the strength and resilience of a
local economy. This is shown in Table 3.7 and 3.8. Saldanha is a major manufacturing, wholesale and
retail community services, and transport and communication centre. It also contributes to the
agriculture, fishing, financial and business sectors.




42
     Saldanha Bay Municipality Integrated Development Plan 2006-2011.

Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                                   page 55
                                         Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                                Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape



                             Table 3-7 Income distribution for Saldanha Bay (Census 2001)
                             Source: Saldana Bay Spatial Development Framework (Draft, July 2010)

                              < R800            R800 – R1600       R1601 – R3200         > R3200              TOTAL
                          Number        %       Number     %      Number            %      Number      %
       Jacobsbaai                6      10           7     11           12        20             35    58         60
       Hopefield               568      27         804     38          373      17.7            358    17       2103
       Langebaan               244      13         341     18          354      19.6            867    48       1806
       Paternoster             226      27         185     31          110      18.5             75    12        596
       Saldanha               1420      19        2416     33         1516      21.3           1779    24       7131
       St Helena Bay           674      16        1912     47          646      15.9            824    20       4056
       Vredenburg             1721      18        2626     28         2298      24.6           2693    28       9338
       TOTAL                  4859      19        8291     33         5309      21.2           6631    26      25090

      The Saldanha Steel factory has generated very few linked industries – particularly steel product based
      manufacturing – which one would normally expect to find located near such a facility. In other words,
      locating Saldanha Steel in Saldanha has not resulted in substantial industrial development in the region to
      date. One of the reasons for this appears to be connected with Saldanha Steel’s output being for export
      only rather than for local consumption. However, linked to the steel mill is a steel processing mill and a
      cement plant.

      Mining is also an important economic activity in the region with Namakwa Sands’ heavy minerals
      benefication plant being the main producer. The large port at Saldanha is an important generator of
      economic activity in the region where the exporting of iron ore, coal, oil, copper, zinc, dolomite and lime
      are the major activities. Fishing has historically been a major source of employment in the region.

                              Table 3-8 Employment status for Saldanha Bay (Census 1996)
                             Source: Saldana Bay Spatial Development Framework (Draft, July 2010)

                                                  Unemployed –
                                        %                               %               Unspecified/       %
                       Employed                    looking for                                                         Total
                                     Employed                       Unemployed           Informal      Unspecified
                                                      work
Hopefield                   400          69.1                53               9.2               126           21.8         579
Hopefield Rural            2266          60.5               216               5.8              1262           33.7        3744
Langebaan                  1171          64.1                62               3.4               594           32.5        1827
Paternoster                 356          54.1                71              10.8               231           35.1         658
Saldanha                   6695          60.2              1173              10.6              3247           29.2       11115
St Helenabaai              2548          67.8               269               7.2               943           25.1        3760
Vredenburg                 7818          58.5              1197               9.0              4342           32.5       13357
Vredenburg Rural            986          63.3                80               5.1               491           31.5        1557
Total                     22240          60.8              3121               8.5             11236           30.7       36597
West Coast District       89417          60.2              9788               6.6             49239           33.2      148444
Western Cape            1372988          53.4            299265              11.6            897669           34.9     2569922

      Table 3.8 shows that most of the economically active population in 1996 were employed, with
      Paternoster having the highest unemployment rate (10.8 %). The labour dependency ratios, that is, the



      Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                                   page 56
                                    Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                           Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape

number of people dependent on each employed person, for the different towns in the municipal area
were:

    •   Hopefield: 1 : 4.6
    •   Hopefield Rural: 1 : 0.5
    •   Langebaan: 1 : 0,8
    •   Paternoster: 1 : 1,3
    •   Saldanha: 1 : 1
    •   St. Helena Bay: 1 : 1
    •   Vredenburg: 1 : 1.1
    •   Vredenburg Rural: 1 : 0.8

There is reason to believe that the unemployment rate has increased, e.g., the Saldanha Steel factory has
been scaling down its operations and workforce.

While the economy of the West Coast has been dominated by agriculture and manufacturing, tourism is
considered a non-depleting resource (if managed correctly) with great potential for growth. The tourism
sector is growing rapidly in the West Coast, as is evident from the sharp increase in guesthouses, farm
tourism, restaurant and retail sectors. Major tourist attractions in the area are presented in Table 3.9

                      Table 3-9 Major tourist attractions in the Saldanha-Vredenburg area

                    Area                                              Attraction
        Saldanha / Vredenburg            Beach Front                 Harbour
                                         Anglican Church             Mussel Farm
                                         Fishermen’s Houses          Marcus Island
                                         Malgas Island              Jutten Island
                                         Fossils                     SAS Saldanha Hiking trails
        St Helena Bay                    Da Gama Monument            Lobster and fish factory
                                         Soldatenpost               Beach Front
                                         Whales
                                         Black Tobies
        Velddrift                        Berg River Mouth            Bokkom Fish factory
                                         Laaiplek Harbour            Langrietvlei House
                                         Chemfos archaeological terrain
        Langebaan                        Beach Front                 Dutch Reformed Church
                                         Langebaan Country Club      VOC Baken – Yellow Mouth
                                         Club Mykonos                Future Casino
                                         West Coast National Park Oestewalplaas
        Paternoster                      Beach area                  Fishermen houses
                                         Columbine Festival          Nature Reserve
                                         Tieties Bay
        Port Owen                        Marina

Table 3.10 shows the employment per economic sector in 1996, and it is evident that most people were
employed in the manufacturing, followed by employment in the agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing
sectors. Fishing was historically the largest source of employment. Employment levels have decreased in
the 15 years since 1996.


Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                               page 57
                                             Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Management
                                                    Plan for Wind Energy Facility at Langefontein, Western Cape



                           Table 3-10 Employment per economic sector for Saldanha Bay (Census 1996)
                                  Source: Saldana Bay Spatial Development Framework (Draft, July 2010)


                                                                                                  St                      Vreden-
                                       Hopefield                    Pater                                       Vreden-
                           Hopefield                    Langebaan                  Saldanha       Helena                       burg     TOTAL
                                       Rural                        noster                                      burg
                                                                                                   Bay                    Rural
 Agriculture, hunting,
                                  41           589            50             156       1040            496          423         472         3267
       forestry fishing
  Mining & quarrying               0             6             4              0          24              0          39            0           73
     Manufacturing                71           246            96             24        1939           1552        1128           32         5088
Electricity, gas & water
                                   8               9           2              0           31               2         97             7           156
            supply
      Construction                53           312           193             48         384             58        1097          190         2335
Wholesale & retail trade          56           186           173             39         561            125        1202           38         2380
 Transport, storage &
                                   9           263            33              5         316                29     1018           17         1690
       communication
 Financial, insurance,
        real estate &             20               34         46             15         206                48       524             9           902
      business services
 Community, social &
                                 112           403           442             18        1506            128        1059           30         3698
      personal services
  Private households               7           150            78             18         261                44       442          87         1087
      Exterritorial
                                   0               0           0              0               0            0          0             0            0
        organisations
  Representatives of
            foreign                0               0           0              0               0            0          0             0            0
        governments
    Industry NEC or
                                  23               68         54             33         427                66       789         104         1564
         unspecified
          Total                  400         2266           1171             356       6695           2548        7818          986        22240




        Draft Scoping Report, December 2010                                                                               page 58

				
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