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					TELECOMMUTING: SENDING THE WORK TO THE WORKER
California Occupational Guide Number 2003-A
Interest Area: Emerging Occupations
1995


OCCUPATIONS ADAPTABLE TO IN-HOME, TELECENTER AND FIELD-BASED
TELECOMMUTING



HIGHLIGHTS

  -- More than 7.6 million salaried employees in the U.S. work at
home or
      near home at telecenters instead of commuting to a remote
location,
      according to LINK Resources, a consulting firm in New York that
      studies telecommuting.

  --  U.C. California Davis oversees 11 telecommuter work centers
      statewide. Program Manager David Fleming maintains that a
successful
      telecommuting program requires forward-thinking managers who
judge
      work quality by end results rather than observe workers at their
desks
      during scheduled hours.

       Most occupations contain information tasks that can be batched
and
      performed away from a main office at least one day each week,
      maintains Jack Nilles of JALA International, a Los Angeles-based
      consulting group. Nilles is considered by many to be the
"Father of
      Telecommuting", and originally promoted the concept during the
      Los Angeles Olympics in 1984.

   -- The California Clean Air Act mandates large employers in
California
      to help meet or exceed local and regional air quality standards.
In
      1992, the act was amended to give these regulated employers
credit for
      each employee who telecommutes at least one day each week.

  -- The Internal Revenue Service now allows employers a one-time
$5,000
       tax credit for setting up a telecommuting station for employees
with
       disabilities.

  -- Caltrans has funded four telecenters in Placer County for
residents
      who normally commute long distances to Sacramento or San
Francisco.
      The first telecenter, opened in September 1993, is available to
those
      who carpool, bicycle or walk to the center, and to those who
drive
      electric or natural gas-powered vehicles.
ABOUT TELECOMMUTING

THE EMERGENCE OF TELECOMMUTING AS A WORK OPTION

California can take credit for the advent of telecommuting, which made
its
first large-scale appearance at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los
Angeles. In
an effort to stem the already burgeoning traffic and air pollution
problems
in the area and anticipating the storm of visitors for the Olympic
games, a
program was set up to allow commuters to work at home or at
telecenters away
from inner Los Angeles. The program's huge success resulted in many
public
and private agencies maintaining telecommuting programs today.

Recent technological advances have been the most important factors in
the
emergence of telecommuting. In the last decade, America's workforce
has
seen personal computers appear in virtually every modern office. As
people
learned to use and depend on them, they found they could use one at
home.
The early 1990s has seen a huge growth in personally-owned computers,
faxes
and modems, largely due to a significant drop in their prices. These
factors have allowed a growing number of people who depend on these
technologies to effectively and efficiently work from home.

In addition, the emergence of mobile communications equipment (laptop
and
hand-held computers, cellular phones and pocket pagers) now allows
people in
occupations such as foresters, contractors, sales representatives,
service
repairers and engineers to do a significant amount of their typical
office
work from the field and from home.


WHAT IS IT?

A recent State of California study describes telecommuting as follows:


Telecommuting: sending the work to the worker instead of sending the
worker
to work; the partial or total substitution by telecommunications
technology,
possibly with the aid of computers, for the commute to and from work.

The term "telecommuter" commonly describes a salaried employee of a
private
business or public agency who works one or more days each week at home
or
from a location near home, as opposed to commuting to a distant work
place.
Some economists include self-employed persons and consultants who work
from
their homes as telecommuters, however the original purpose of
telecommuting
was and remains an alternative to long-distance commutes for salaried
employees.

There are several forms of telecommuting:

        Home-based -- working in an area set aside as an office in an
        employee's residence.

        Telecenter-based -- working from an office near the employee's
home.
        The building can be owned or leased by one or more agencies, and
        telecenter employees work there because it is close to their
home.
        These centers contain computers, copiers, fax machines, quality
        printers, often better or faster computer access through high
speed
        dedicated lines, and may provide social stimulus that is absent
for
        the lone telecommuter.

        Mixed-Use -- working from a combination of in-home, field, or
        telecenter locations. This can include the use of airport and
hotel
     telecenters for travelers, which can save subsequent commuter
trips.

The most common type of telecommuter is the "information worker"-- one
who
collects, analyzes, manipulates, and disseminates information. In
fact,
three-fourths of the nation's documented telecommuters are information
workers.

Today's average telecommuter uses one or more of the following pieces
of
electronic equipment:

  --    Personal computer
  --    FAX machine
  --    Laptop or other portable computer
  --    Cellular phone
  --    Pocket pager or other hand-held communicator
  --    Modem
  --    Answering machine
  --    Telephone

Telecommuters receive and dispatch information over telephone lines,
cable
TV lines and, increasingly, via satellites or other wireless networks.
They
use a wide variety of operating software, from simple calculation
programs
and E-mail systems to complex graphics packages. The majority of
telecommuters depend on computers and modems to bring themselves
closer to
the "outside world," yet many telecommuters need nothing more
sophisticated
than a telephone and pencil to do their work.

Telecommuting proponents maintain that most    occupations contain
information
tasks that can be batched and performed away   from a main office at
least
one day each week, and say that to limit the   occupations of
telecommuters
to computer programmers and systems analysts   is to take a narrow view.

This work includes tasks such as report writing, reading and response
to
mail, business planning, timekeeping and accounting duties, telephone
interviews, and purchasing activities. Information typically given by
phone, modem or fax from a central office can now be transmitted from
home. Some telecommuters who require stretches of uninterrupted time
to
plan, research or design projects are staying home one day each week,
calling up their research material on the computer.

Listed on the following pages are selected jobs and corresponding job
duties
that can be performed at home or near home. The Occupational
Employment
Statistics (OES) classification system is used in determining job
titles.
The OES program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau
of
Labor Statistics (BLS) and is conducted jointly in every state by BLS
and
the State Employment Security Agency -- in California by the Labor
Market
Information Division of the Employment Development Department (EDD).
The
OES classification system includes approximately 750 occupational
categories.

Also listed is the estimated number of jobs for each occupation in
California by the year 2005. These projections are from the
California
Projections of Employment published by EDD, and do not include figures
on
self-employed workers in the field. It is important to note that of
these
86 job titles, 25 are listed in the California Projections either
among the
50 Fastest Growing Occupations in California or the 50 Occupations in
California with the Largest Absolute Growth.



                       TELECOMMUTING OPPORTUNITIES

                              California
                              Estimated
                              Employment
Occupational Title            by 2005      Telecommutable Job Duties

Accountant                      139,780    Field, Repair Work
                                            Reports,Casework & Research
                                            Reading/Response to Mail
                                            Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                            Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                            Computing, Desktop
Publishing
                                            Information Dissemination

Actuary                           1,360     Reports,Casework & Research
                                            Reading/Response to Mail
                                            Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Airline Reservation and           13,610    Sales, Purchasing
  Passenger Service Agent                   Computing, Desktop
Publishing
                                            Data Entry, Typing, Editing
                                            Information Dissemination

Appliance Repairer                 8,650    Field, Repair Work
                                            Sales, Purchasing

Architect                         12,520    Field, Repair Work
                                            Project
Design,Planning,Tracking

Astronomer                         1,480    Reports,Casework & Research
                                            Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Bookkeeping, Accounting and       264,860   Computing, Desktop
Publishing
  Auditing Clerk                            Data Entry, Typing, Editing
                                            Payroll, Timekeeping,
Billing
                                            Information Dissemination

Building Inspector                10,800*   Field, Repair Work
                                            Reports,Casework & Research

Burglar & Fire Alarm Installer/   48,900*   Field, Repair Work
  Repairer                                  Sales, Purchasing

Buyer (Retail Trade)              65,020    Field, Repair Work
                                            Sales, Purchasing
                                            Reading/Responding to Mail

Cartographer (Map Maker)           5,530    Field, Repair Work
                                            Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                            Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Ceramic Engineer                   1,940*   Reports,Casework & Research
                                            Computer Programming
                                            Reading/Responding to Mail
                                            Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                        Project
Design,Planning,Tracking

Chemical Engineer              6,250    Reports,Casework & Research
                                        Reading/Responding to Mail
                                        Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                        Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                        Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Chemist                        8,330    Reports,Casework & Research
                                        Reading/Responding to Mail
                                        Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                        Project Design,Planning,
Tracking

Civil Engineer                30,930    Field, Repair Work
                                        Reports,Casework & Research
                                        Reading/Responding to Mail
                                        Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                        Project
Design,Planning,Tracking

Clerks, General Office       485,190    Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                        Computing, Desktop
Publishing
                                        Data Entry,Typing,Editing
                                        Payroll,Timekeeping,Billing

Commercial Artist             21,280    Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                        Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Computer Programmer          107,540    Computer Programming

Computer Systems Analyst      76,720    Reports,Casework & Research
                                        Computer Programming
                                        Reading/Responding to Mail
                                        Project
Design,Planning,Tracking

Computer Software Engineer    45,950    Reports,Casework & Research
                                        Computer Programming
                                        Reading/Responding to Mail
                                        Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                        Project
Design,Planning,Tracking

Contract Administrator        43,670*   Reports,Casework & Research
                                        Reading/Responding to Mail
                                        Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                        Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                            Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Copy Editor                       23,150*   Reports,Casework & Research
                                            Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                            Computing, Desktop
Publishing
                                            Data Entry,Typing,Editing

Copywriter                        23,150*   Reports,Casework & Research
                                            Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                            Computing, Desktop
Publishing

County Agricultural Inspector     49,520*   Reading/Responding to Mail
                                            Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                            Computing, Desktop
Publishing
                                            Payroll,Timekeeping,Billing

Data Entry Keyers                 73,100    Data Entry,Typing,Editing

Data Processing Equipment         18,160    Field, Repair Work
  Repairer                                  Sales, Purchasing

Dietitian                          5,370    Reports,Casework & Research

Drafting Occupations              41,740    Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                            Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Economist & Market Research        4,020    Reports,Casework & Research
  Analyst                                   Reading/Responding to Mail
                                            Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                            Computing, Desktop
Publishing
                                            Information Dissemination

Electrical/Electronics Engineer   84,160    Reports,Casework & Research
                                            Computer Programming
                                            Reading/Responding to Mail
                                            Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                            Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Environmental Health Specialist   22,610*   Field, Repair Work
                                            Reports,Casework & Research
                                            Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                            Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Fashion Designer                  21,540    Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
Field Service Representative    3,890     Field, Repair Work
                                          Sales, Purchasing

Financial Analyst               4,420     Reports,Casework & Research
                                          Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Food Product Sales             177,380*   Field, Repair Work
  Representative                          Sales, Purchasing

Health Physicist                2,650     Reports,Casework & Research
                                          Reading/Responding to Mail
                                          Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                          Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                          Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Human Resources Manager/       33,440     Reports,Casework & Research
  Professionals                           Sales, Purchasing
                                          Reading/Responding to Mail
                                          Project
Design,Planning,Tracking

Industrial Engineer             23,350    Field, Repair Work
                                          Reports,Casework & Research
                                          Reading/Responding to Mail
                                          Project
Design,Planning,Tracking

Instrumentation Technician     75,130*    Field, Repair Work
                                          Sales, Purchasing
                                          Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Insurance Adjuster, Examiner   19,100     Field, Repair Work
  and Investigator                        Reports,Casework & Research
                                          Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Insurance Sales Agent          35,390     Field, Repair Work
                                          Sales, Purchasing
                                          Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Insurance Underwriter          13,540     Reports,Casework & Research
                                          Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                          Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Interior Designer               7,510     Field, Repair Work
                                          Project
Design,Planning,Tracking

Labor Relations Specialist     36,420     Reports,Casework & Research
                                          Reading/Responding to Mail

Landscape Architect             7,360     Field, Repair Work
                                      Project
Design,Planning,Tracking

Lawyer                      78,850    Reports,Casework & Research
                                      Reading/Responding to Mail
                                      Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                      Information Dissemination

Legal Secretary            54,340     Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                      Payroll,Timekeeping,Billing

Librarian (Research)        11,390    Reports,Casework & Research
                                      Computing, Desktop
Publishing
                                      Data Entry, Typing, Editing
                                      Information Dissemination

Loan Officer                22,790    Reports, Casework &
Research
                                      Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Manager, General and       415,240    Reports, Casework &
Research
  Top Executive                       Reading/Responding to Mail
                                      Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                      Project
Design,Planning,Tracking

Manufacturers' Sales       177,380    Field, Repair Work
  Representative                      Reports,Casework & Research
                                      Sales, Purchasing

Mathematician               19,050    Reports,Casework & Research
                                      Reading/Responding to Mail
                                      Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                      Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Mechanical Engineer         31,660*   Field, Repair Work
                                      Reports,Casework & Research
                                      Reading/Responding to Mail
                                      Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                      Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Medical Secretaries         31,630    Data Entry,Typing,Editing
                                      Payroll,Timekeeping,Billing
                                      Information Dissemination

Medical Transcriptionist     8,810*   Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                      Data Entry,Typing,Editing

Meeting Planners            49,570*   Field, Repair Work
                                      Reports,Casework & Research
                                      Project
Design,Planning,Tracking

Meteorologist                  800    Field, Repair Work
                                      Reports,Casework & Research
                                      Computer Programming
                                      Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Newspaper Reporter           6,750    Field, Repair Work
                                      Reports,Casework & Research
                                      Computing, Desktop
Publishing
                                      Data Entry, Typing, Editing

Nuclear Engineer             1,190    Reports,Casework & Research
                                      Reading/Responding to Mail
                                      Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                      Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                      Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Office Machine Servicer      7,150    Field, Repair Work
                                      Sales, Purchasing

Paralegal Personnel        17,210     Reports,Casework & Research
                                      Information Dissemination

Physicians and Surgeons     71,510    Reports,Casework & Research
                                      Reading/Responding to Mail
                                      Information Dissemination

Physicists                   1,480    Reports,Casework & Research

Post Secondary Teacher     151,000    Reports,Casework & Research
                                      Reading/Responding to Mail
                                      Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                      Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Production and Material     41,240    Reports,Casework & Research
  Coordinator                         Sales, Purchasing
                                      Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Production Planner          23,350*   Reports,Casework & Research
                                      Project
Design,Planning,Tracking

Psychologist                11,830    Reports,Casework & Research
                                      Reading/Responding to Mail

Purchasing Agent            65,020    Sales, Purchasing
                                      Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Real Estate Appraiser        7,380    Reports,Casework & Research
                                              Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Robotics Engineer                   84,160*   Reports,Casework & Research
                                              Computer Programming
                                              Project
Design,Planning,Tracking

Secretary                          429,520    Transcribe to/from tape or
script
                                              Data Entry,Typing,Editing
                                              Payroll, Timekeeping,
Billing

Securities Broker                   21,160    Reports,Casework & Research
                                              Reading/Responding to Mail
                                              Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                              Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Social Worker                       37,120    Field, Repair Work
                                              Reports,Casework & Research

Statistician                         1,940    Reports,Casework & Research
                                              Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Surveying Occupations, Land         12,640    Field, Repair Work
                                              Reports,Casework & Research

Tax Preparer                        14,460    Reports,Casework & Research
                                              Computing, Desktop
Publishing
                                              Data Entry, Typing, Editing

Technician Illustrator              41,740    Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                              Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Technical Writer                     9,120    Reports,Casework & Research
                                              Computing, Desktop
Publishing
                                              Data Entry, Typing, Editing

Telephone Operator                  38,040    Data Entry, Typing, Editing
                                              Information Dissemination

Telephone Service Representative    15,050    Field, Repair Work
  (Utilities)                                 Sales, Purchasing

Telephone Solicitor                 29,750    Sales, Purchasing
                                              Data Entry, Typing, Editing

Title Officer/Title Searcher         6,030    Reports,Casework & Research
                                              Data Entry, Typing, Editing

Tool Designer                       31,660*   Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                              Computing, Desktop
Publishing

Travel Agent                         19,680   Project
Design,Planning,Tracking
                                              Computing, Desktop
Publishing
                                              Data Entry, Typing, Editing
                                              Information Dissemination

Typist & Work Processing            164,170   Computing, Desktop
Publishing
  Technician                                  Data Entry, Typing, Editing

Urban Planner                         6,720   Reports,Casework & Research
                                              Project
Design,Planning,Tracking

_______________________________
* These figures represent a larger occupational group that includes
this job
   title.



TELECOMMUTING AND GOVERNMENT


LEGISLATION

Over the past few years, four laws have been enacted or amended that
deal
specifically with and encourage telecommuting:

     -- The California Clean Air Act mandates large California
employers,
        public and private, to help meet or exceed local and regional
air
        quality standards. Traditionally this has been achieved by
setting
        up carpool and public transit incentive programs, however in
1992
        the Act was amended (AB 2783) to give credit to these
regulated
        employers for each employee who telecommutes at least one day
each
        week.

        -- The California Government Code was amended (AB 2963) in 1990
           enabling California state agencies, boards and commissions to
           "incorporate the telecommuting work option as an element of
their
           transportation management plan."

     -- The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 urges U.S.
        employers to allow for telecommuting programs within their
        businesses (Section IV), and promotes telecommuting as a
viable way
        for employers to provide reasonable accommodations to
individuals
        with disabilities.
      -- The Internal Revenue Code (Section 44), as a result of ADA,
now
          allows a one-time $5,000 tax credit to enable eligible small
          businesses to comply with applicable requirements under the
          Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. This credit may be
used in
        financing telecommuting programs for employees with
disabilities.



GOVERNMENT IN ACTION


The State Department of General Services coordinated a two-year
Telecommuting Pilot Project in 1988 which involved 150 telecommuters
and
their employers.   As a result of the pilot, a multi-agency
Telecommuting
Advisory Group was formed made up of members from the Department of
Youth
Authority, the Franchise Tax Board, Department of Personnel
Administration,
Department of Justice, the California Energy Commission, Department of
General Services, the California Public Utilities Commission, the
State
Teachers Retirement System and the California Unemployment Insurance
Appeals
Board.

  In 1992, the Telecommuting Advisory Group published step-by-step
  guidelines and a model policy for implementing telecommuter
programs.
  The report, entitled "Telecommuting Work Option", is geared for both
  public and private employers. Issues covered in the publication
include
  the concerns of confidentiality, sample telecommuter/employer
contract
  agreements, managing by results, cost factors, selection criteria,
  employee and supervisor selection, technology needs, and employee
  reimbursement procedures. Also covered are tips on avoiding
pitfalls
  and securing management support. (See bibliography for ordering
  information.)

The first of four telecenters recently opened in Placer County as part
of
another pilot project funded by Caltrans and administered by the
University
of California, Davis. The telecenters are available to south Placer
County
residents who usually would commute long distances into Sacramento.
Workers
can use the space to work and to communicate with their offices via
computer, fax and phone. Those using the telecenters aren't allowed
to
drive there unless they use a car pool, a natural-gas vehicle,
electric-powered vehicle, ride a bicycle or come on foot. Rates for
using
these telecenters were still negotiable at the time of this printing.
A similar center is also open in Coronado near San Diego, and two more
telecenters are planned outside of Modesto and Santa Cruz. The
Caltrans
pilot includes a workshop for supervisors on how to manage employees
working
away from the office.



HOW WIDESPREAD IS TELECOMMUTING?


Telecommuters are hard to count since definitions of telecommuting
still
differ among demographers. As mentioned above, some researchers also
include consultants and self-employed home workers in their numbers.
In
addition, many employers allow telecommuting on an informal basis and
may
not report it when surveyed. LINK Resources, a New York City-based
research
and consulting firm specializing in employment trends, reports that in
early
1993 the number of daytime telecommuters on company payrolls was 7.6
million, more than double the number reported in 1989.



THE NUMBER OF DAYTIME TELECOMMUTERS ON COMPANY PAYROLLS IN U.S.


    1989:   3.0   million
    1990:   4.0   million
    1991:   5.5   million
    1992:   6.6   million
    1993:   7.6   million

Source: LINK Resources, New York, NY



The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported 20 million people working at
home
part- or full-time in 1991. However, this larger figure includes
self-
employed home workers, those on contract with companies, as well as
payrolled telecommuters.


BENEFITS TO THE EMPLOYER

In the past five years California employers have demonstrated a
remarkable
change in attitude toward having their workers perform duties from a
remote
location. An increasing number have made a change in their management
style
from a production-based to an end-results based approach. They have
found
that managing the work of information workers is different from
managing
production units -- the products are often intangible and employers
must
rely on management techniques other than the observation of activity.
Employers who employ telecommuters enjoy some or all of the following
benefits:

        -- Improved quality and quantity of work.
        -- Reduced operating costs, such as leased office space and
           utilities.
        -- Improved continuity of services when employees are temporarily
           disabled or ill.
        -- Decreased absenteeism and sick leave use.
        -- Enlarged pool of qualified workers.


TO THE WORKER

        -- Expanded employment opportunities for persons who live in
rural
        areas, as well as those who are disabled and mobility-
restricted.
     -- Reduced transportation, food and clothing costs.

     -- Improved use of time, matching peak performance hours to
working
        hours.


TO SOCIETY



      -- Reduced commuter trips, and therefore traffic congestion, air
         pollution, and fuel consumption. These benefits, in turn,
reduce
         health costs related to pollution and traffic accidents.
      -- Helps solve the problems associated with elder care, child
care,
         serious illnesses of family members, and emergency child care.
      -- Continued uninterrupted services during natural disasters that
         historically have prevented routine access to conventional
office
         sites.



CONCLUSION



Opportunities are plentiful for people who want to work from home or
near
home. The growth of these opportunities are spurred by:


     -- the affordability and sophistication of information technology
     -- employers who have adopted a "manage by end-results"
philosophy
     -- governments who endorse the concept of telecommuting, and by
          -- workers who see it as an attractive alternative to traditional
             in-office employment

Pioneering employers have shown that with proper orientation,
management
support, training, monitoring, and evaluation, telecommuting is an
effective
management work option.



BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Baldwin; N.; Power, N. Telecommuting Work Option ; State of
California
      Telecommuting Advisory Group; (1992).
      (Note: To request a copy of this publication, write to:
      Department of General Services; Telecommunications Division;
      Attention: Mark Phigler, Deputy Director; 601 Sequoia Pacific
      Blvd.;Sacramento, CA 95814)

  2.       Transportation Performance Standards of the California Clean Air
Act:
           Guidance Revision - California Air Resources Board; Part II -
           Alternative Strategies (1993).

  3. Olmsted, Barney and Smith, Suzanne; Creating a Flexible
Workplace,
      New York: AMACOM (1989); pp 349-371.

  4.       Huws, Ursula; Korte, Werner; Robinson, Simon; TELEWORK - Towards
the
           Elusive Office; Empirica (1990); pp 111-112.

     5.    P.C. Week,   Telecommuting Option,   April 19, 1993; pp 23.

     6.    Government Technology; Telecommunications - If you were
           Telecommuting, You'd be Home right Now", (July 1993); pp 44-46.

     7.    Schneider, Jerry; Francis, Anita; An Assessment of the Potential
of
           Telecommuting as a Work-Trip Reduction Strategy: An Annotated
           Bibliography, Council of Planning Librarians; (September 1989).

     8.    Braus, Patricia, American Demographics, Homework for Grownups,
           August 1993, pp 38-42.

     9.    Wall Street Journal, Labor Letter, May 18, 1993; pp A1.

 10.       Aden, David; Government Technology, Telecommunications - Radio
Link
           for Florida Agencies, May 1993; pp 53.

 11. Sacramento Bee, Placer Paves the Way for Telecommuting,
September 21,
      1993; pp 1,11.

 12.       Employment Development Department; California Projections of
           Employment, December 1993; pp 32-51.
Source:   State of California, Employment Development Department, Labor
          Market Information Division, Information Services Group,
          (916) 262-2162.

				
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