Docstoc

Love

Document Sample
Love Powered By Docstoc
					 Lennart Lönngren
University of Tromsø



    LOVE


                       1
Let us start with a sentence in the active
   voice and its passive counterpart.




                                             2
 Everybody loves her.



She is loved by everybody.




                             3
    The preposition by in the passive
sentence must be marked as syntactic: it
 does not occupy a node in the semantic
             representation.




                                           4
  Everybody loves her.



She is loved (by) everybody.




                               5
 Is in is loved, as opposed to was in was
loved, is a tense marker, functioning as a
        predicate. The carrier of the
   corresponding meaning in the active
sentence is a morpheme, which we mark
              as incorporated.



                                             6
      Everybody love<s> her.


     She is loved (by) everybody.


Alternatively, we could extract a portmanteau
  morpheme from is: (is)<PRES>, but that
   would be an unnecessary complication.
                                          7
This is not a complete representation. The
tense markers in both sentences function
as a two-place predicate, the first valency
   position of which is occupied by the
      implicit speech act verb «say».



                                          8
«s.» Everybody love<s> her.



«s.» She is loved (by) everybody.


           «s.» = «(I) say»
                                    9
The implicit verb also dominates the
    syntactic top node, i.e. love.




                                       10
«s.» Everybody love<s> her.



«s.» She is loved (by) everybody.


           «s.» = «(I) say»
                                    11
In the following tense markers and speech
     act predicates will be disregarded.




                                        12
«s.» Everybody love<s> her.



«s.» She is loved (by) everybody.


           «s.» = «(I) say»
                                    13
   Everybody loves her.



She (is) loved (by) everybody.




                                 14
 Now let us compare an ordinary
sentence with its cleft counterpart.




                                       15
   I love Mary.



It is Mary that I love.




                          16
 Three words in the cleft sentence are
syntactic. (The topicalization of Mary
 can be handled by a special implicit
 predicate, which we disregard here.)




                                         17
     I love Mary.



(It is) Mary (that) I love.




                              18
Paraphrases can also be created by means
        of certain role-markers:

        He loved his new car.


The object of his love was his new car.



                                          19
We mark four of the words in the
   paraphrase as syntactic.




                                   20
          He loved his new car.



(The object of) his love (was) his new car.


 Note that his in his love is not a predicate,
whereas his in his car is a two-place predicate.
                                              21
  The same syntactic function as object
  can be fulfilled by a derivative of the
verb, meaning ’object of love’. Compare:




                                        22
      He loved only Mary.


Mary was the only one he loved.


    Mary was his only love.



                                  23
        He loved only Mary.


Mary (was the) only (one) he loved.


 Mary (was) his only (love)<love>.



                                      24
In a small shop in Tucson I found the
            following text:




                                        25
Choose your love

Love your choice


                   26
Instead of buying it and putting it on the
      wall I decided to analyse it.
The first step is to extract the verbs out
  of the nouns love and choice. After
that we can easily establish the subject
          and object relations.


                                             27
 Choose your love<love>


Love your choice<choose>



                           28
Finally, let us conflate the two parts into one
sentence. The comma separating the clauses
  represents a two-place predicate with the
                meaning «then».




                                            29
 Choose your love<love>,


love your choice<choose>.


   , (comma/pause) = «then»
                              30
Now we can compare this sentence with
 a more basic and explicit paraphrase:

    Choose the person you love,
  then love the person you chose.
    … or still more explicitly:

     Choose the person that you love,
   then love the person that you chose.
                                          31
 We see that the object relation arrows
    in each clause now point to two
separate words. These are connected by
 means of the definite article, here with
         a cataphoric function.

  Choose the person that you love.


     The content of the connection is
            coreferentiality.
                                            32
   Note also in the explicit paraphrase the
different tenses: … you love vs … you chose.
   To account for this we must extract the
       corresponding tense morphemes:

   Choose the person you love<PRES>,

    Love the person you chose<PRET>,


                                         33
  In the original sentence this difference is
totally implicit, but we can still represent it:


      Choose your love<love>«PRES»,


     love your choice<choose>«PRET».



                                              34
The difference in tense can be traced back to a
 semantic distinction between the two verbs,
    namely the opposition athelic / thelic.




               THE END

                                           35
Whoops, I forgot overt derivatives, i.e. words
 formed from love and its equivalents by
           means of suffixation.

                cat <lov>er

             Mary’s <lov>er



                                           36
In Russian, different nouns are used in this
                   case.

           <ljubi>tel’ koshek


         Mashin <ljubov>nik




                                           37
There are also derivatives expressing the
            converse relation.
       <ljubim>ec caricy

    the queen’s «like» favourite

     min <älsk>lingsmelodi

       my favourite tune

                                        38
  Empty verbs in English:

Peter (makes) love (to) Mary.

   Peter älskar (med) Mary.

Mary (fell in) love (with) Peter.

Mary förälskade (sig i) Peter.


                                    39
 Cf. also the paraphrases:

Peter (is) Mary’s (<lov>er).

Peter (makes) love (to) Mary.




                                40
In Russian, the equivalent of make love
   cannot realize the second position.

   Oni (zanimajutsja) ljubov’ju.


       They (make) love.



                                      41
The following could be a way of representing
  substantivized adjectives and participles.

       Moi <ljubim>ye menja zhdali.

 My loved ones (were) waiting (for) me.




                                          42
Now truly:



THE END



             43

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:24
posted:2/12/2011
language:English
pages:43