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PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY MORPHOPHONEMICS Solution 1. Examine the

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					                         PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY

                               MORPHOPHONEMICS
                                   Solution


1. Examine the prefixes in the following words and identify the phonologically
conditioned allomorphs of {-un} and {-in}.

“undo”                 [ɐ̃ndʉː]                “intolerable”      [ɪntʰɔləɹəbɫ̩]
“uncover”              [ɐ̃ŋkʰɐvə]              “inconsolable”     [ɪŋkənsɔoɫəbɫ̩]
“unfinished”           [ɐ̃ɱfɪnɪʃt]             “invincible”       [ɪɱvɪnsəbɫ̩]
“unbelievable”         [ɐ̃mbə liːvəbɫ ̩]       “impenetrable”     [ɪmpʰenəṯɹəbɫ̩]
“unthinkable”          [ɐ̃n̪θɪŋkəbɫ̩]
“unusual”              [ɐ̃ɲjʉːʒʉːəɫ̩]          “injurious”        [ɪɲʤʉːɹiːəs]

The allomorphs have the form {V+N} where N assimilates to the POA of the
following consonant.

2. The following data is simplified from Warlpiri

“maliki”        a dog                   “malikiki”    for a dog
“karli”         a boomerang             “karliki”     for a boomerang
“kurdu”         a child                 “kurduku”     for a child
“ngapa”         water                   “ngapaku”     for water
“karnta”        a woman                 “karntaku”    for a woman
“wawirri”       a kangaroo              “wawirriki”   for a kangaroo

Identify the morpheme corresponding to “for”. Phonologically conditioned
allomorphs are [ki-] ~ [ku-]. If the stem ends in [i] then [ki] else [ku].

3. The following data is based on Yoruba. Identify the individual morphemes.

[alije]         we might eat
[momaje]        I will eat
[emaba]         you (pl.) will fight
[osiba]         you (sing.) begin to fight
[etije]         you (pl.) have eaten
[mosiba]       I am beginning to fight
[[atije]       we have been eating
[oliba]         you (sing.) might fight
[mosije]        I begin to eat
[atiba]         we have fought
[esije]        you (pl.) are beginning to eat
[otiba]        you (sing.) have been fighting

   a) How would “I might eat” be structured?          [molije]
   b) What does [elisiba] mean?         You (pl.) might begin to fight
[-je] eat
[-ba] fight
[a-] 1st person plural “we”
[mo-] 1st person singular “I”
[e-] 2nd person plural “you”
[o-] 2nd person singular “you”
[ma-] will
[li-] might
[ti-] past perfect “have”
[-] progressive
[si-] “begin”
person, auxiliary, aspect, stem

4. Identify the morphemes in the following artificial data.

til           a camel
tilemuz       my smelly camel
tilyuz        my noisy camel
tilanjo       large camels
tilanyjo      large noisy camels
tilanyuz      my large noisy camel
tilanemuz     my large smelly camel
tilemjo       smelly camels
tilanyem      a large smelly noisy camel
tilyjouz      my noisy camels

til = camel
an = large
y = noisy
em = smelly
jo = plural
uz = genitive (possessive)

5. Examine the following data and establish the roots and affixes.

[apsuki]      I’m sighing
[sutsuki]     I’m grinning
[supsuka      I’m squatting
[ussuka]      I’m walking
[iksuki]      I’m laughing
[tiksuka]     I’m running
[appaki]      I sighed
[ustaka]      I walked
[sutsuk]      He’s grinning
[iksuk]       He’s laughing
[suttak]      He grinned
[ustaku]      He walked
[tikkaku]     He ran
[apsuti]      We’re sighing
[iksuti]      We’re laughing
[supsuta]     We’re squatting
[tiksuta]     We’re running
[ikkati]      We laughed
[ustata]      We walked
[apsut]       They’re sighing
[ussutu]      They’re walking
[suppatu]     They squatted
[ikkat]       They laughed

sigh [ap-]
grin [sut-]
laugh [ik-]
squat [suk-]
walk [us-]
run    [tik-]
present progressive [-su-]
past [-pa] following stems ending in [p]
       [-ka] following stems ending in [k]
       [-ta] following other stems
1st person singular [-ki] [-ka]
1st person plural [-ti] [-ta]
3rd person singular [-k] [-ku]
3rd person plural [-t] [-tu]

There appear to be two classes of verbs one involving emotion and one
involving whole body actions. These two classes of verbs take different
person allomorphs.
emotion verbs take [-ki], [-ti], [-k], [-t] whereas body action verbs take [-ka], [-
ta], [-ku], [-tu]. This is a case of lexical rather than phonological conditioning.

6. Identify the morphemes in the following simplified data from Sierra
Popoluca

[ankpa]             I go
[tankgakpa]         you and I go again
[miktamgakum]     you all went again
[nkyahpe]           they go
[nkneyahun]         they have gone
[anknetamgakum]    we (excluding addressee) have gone again
[nkyahgakpa]        they go again

go = [Nk] where N = [n] except when the prefix ends in [mi] then []
again = [-gak]
present tense = [-pa] except following /h/ then [-pe]
past tense = [-um] except following /h/ then [-un]
perfect aspect = [-ne]
1st person (singular) = [a-]
2nd person (singular) = [t-]
2nd person plural = [mi-]
3rd person plural = [-yah]
everyone [tam]