On Farm Management Handbook - Untitled by hjkuiw354

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									Contacts
General Broomrape Enquiry: Free call – 1800 245 704

Program Manager – Phil Warren              enquiries: program management

Project Officer – Nick Secomb              enquiries: surveys, fumigation, program management

Research – Dr Jane Prider


Farming Systems – Rural Solutions SA       enquiries: agronomy, herbicide recommendations &
                                           herbicide grant scheme

                      Tamara Rohrlach      85356402 or 0428 115 205

                      Tanja Morgan         8535 6406 or 0428 831 278

                      Keith Bolto          8535 6403 or 0427 311 754

                      Tim Prance           8552 8058 or 0427 812 655

Broomrape Control Centre –                 enquiries: general, certificates, code, wash downs,
                                           grant schemes payments, compliance

                    Lance Holberton        enquiries: compliance

                    Luke Wilson            enquiries: grants

Rural Financial Counsellor –               enquiries: small landholder, liaison, queries, financial
                                           & social issues
                    Grant Crettenden       8362 1166

Farmer Liaison Officer – Steve Lamey       enquiries: aerial spraying, grant schemes, Project 8,
                                           special projects

Spray Contractors
• AD & BJ Golder Pest Plant & Animal Control (Tony Golder) – 8531 1281 or 0408 083 981
• Hannco Pty Ltd (David Hanna) 8267 2907
• LD Hampel Licenced Contractor (Leon Hampel) 8566 2436
• Mark’s Broadacre Spraying (Mark Zadow) – 8572 3051 or 0428 723 051
• Mid Murray Weed Control & Ag Services (Mark Curtis) 0429 804 887
• Natural State (Matt Rose) 0439 727 057
• Pro Pest Management Services (Brad Mann) 1800 242 221 or 8251 6700




                    Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010
                                            Contents
Disclaimer
1. Code – Control of Branched Broomrape Summary
   Broadacre Crops                                                       1.2
   Machinery                                                             1.2
   Hay                                                                   1.2
   Soil                                                                  1.2
   Horticultural Crops                                                   1.2
      Potatoes                                                           1.2
      Onions                                                             1.3
      Other Horticultural Crops                                          1.3
   Livestock                                                             1.3
2. Branched Broomrape – The Plant
   The threat from branched broomrape                                    2.2
   Identification of branched broomrape                                  2.2
   Lifecycle of branched broomrape                                       2.3
      Observations in the Containment Area                               2.3
      Seed and plant characteristics                                     2.3
      Host plants of branched broomrape                                  2.5
   Host risk for the SA strain of branched broomrape                     2.6
   Growing Degree Days                                                   2.10
3. Management Strategies and Considerations
      Broadleaf weed control                                             3.2
      Summer weed control                                                3.2
      Broomrape management strategies for different situations           3.3
      Checklist of considerations when choosing a strategy               3.4
   Glossary of products listed in this manual                            3.5
      Conversion formula                                                 3.6
      Phenoxy herbicide chart                                            3.7
   Using Growing Degree Days                                             3.7a
   Cropping                                                              3.8
      Cereals                                                            3.12
      Clearfield Canola                                                  3.16
      Field Peas                                                         3.17
      Vetch                                                              3.20
      Hay                                                                3.21
      Lupins                                                             3.22
   Pastures                                                              3.24
      Annual Pastures                                                    3.26
      Perennial Pastures                                                 3.28
   General Farm                                                          3.31
      Organic Farming                                                    3.31
      Native vegetation                                                  3.31
      Native grasses                                                     3.31
      Fumigated areas                                                    3.32
   Lifestyle / Small Enterprise                                          3.32
   Fence lines & non-arable areas                                        3.33
   Destroying emerged plants                                             3.34
4. Broadleaf weed identification
5. Herbicide use
   Herbicide resistance and branched broomrape control                   5.2
   A little about the herbicides being recommended                       5.4
      Ally                                                               5.4
      Amicide 625                                                        5.4
      Bladex 500SC                                                       5.5
      Broadstrike                                                        5.6
      Brodal Options                                                     5.6
      Bromicide 200                                                      5.7
      Buctril MA                                                         5.8
      Credit                                                             5.8
                       Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2009
     Diuron 500SC                                                         5.10
     Eclipse                                                              5.10
     Flowable Gesatop 600SC                                               5.11
     Glean                                                                5.12
     Jaguar                                                               5.12
     Lexone DF                                                            5.13
     Logran 750 WG                                                        5.14
     Lontrel 750 SG                                                       5.15
     LVE MCPA                                                             5.16
     MCPA 500                                                             5.16
     Midas                                                                5.17
     Intervix                                                             5.17
     Raptor                                                               5.18
     Roundup Powermax                                                     5.19
     Spinnaker 700 WDG                                                    5.19
     Spray.Seed 250                                                       5.20
     Tigrex                                                               5.21
  Adjuvants
     Agral                                                                5.22
     BS1000                                                               5.22
     Bonza                                                                5.23
     Uptake Spraying Oil                                                  5.23
     Hasten                                                               5.24
  Partner Herbicides
     Goal                                                                 5.24a
     Hammer                                                               5.24a
Glossary of commonly used terms in this chapter                           5.25
6. Getting the most out of spraying
   Equipment                                                              6.2
     Nozzle selection                                                     6.2
     Boom Height and Spray Pattern                                        6.2
     Markers                                                              6.2
     Water                                                                6.3
   Calibration                                                            6.3
     How to calibrate your boom sprayer                                   6.3
     Calculations                                                         6.3
     How to calibrate your handgun                                        6.3
     Calculations                                                         6.4
   Spraying conditions                                                    6.4
     Age and size of weeds                                                6.4
     Weed condition                                                       6.4
     Record keeping                                                       6.5
   Tank mixing order                                                      6.5
   Testing for Tank Mix Compatibility                                     6.5
     Procedure                                                            6.5
     Signs of incompatibility                                             6.5
     What to do if you find signs of incompatibility                      6.6
     Test Quantity Conversion from Field Rates                            6.6
7. Grant Schemes
   Farm Plan Grants Scheme                                                7.2
   Compliance Arrangement Grants Scheme                                   7.5
     Supporting Document                                                  7.8
     Decontamination Guide                                                7.11




                        Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2009
   Code – Control of
 Branched Broomrape
      Summary
      This chapter is to be used as a quick reference to the
              Branched Broomrape Control Code.
  Essentially, if anything is entering or leaving a paddock that has
    or has had branched broomrape found in it there are some
                    procedures you need to follow.

  These include obtaining a Written Approval issued by an inspector
appointed under the Plant Health Act, 2009 before moving any produce,
 machinery, soil and extracted material or agricultural waste from the
                           quarantine area




 Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 - Control of Branched Broomrape Summary
                                             1:2
                                                                    the infested paddock. If buffer zone hay is
Broadacre Crops                                                     moved, anywhere that hay is transported to
                                                                    will be treated as infested. All hay from
If branched broomrape is not found in the                           outside of the buffer zone can be moved as
paddock during annual surveys all grain is free to                  per points 1 & 2 above.
be sold on the open market with Written Approval.               •   If branched broomrape is found within the
                                                                    tillage line, hay should not leave the infested
If branched broomrape is found within 30 metres                     paddock. If hay is moved, anywhere that hay
of the crop but not actually within the tillage line, a             is transported to will be treated as infested
30 metre buffer zone from the nearest broomrape
plant is established. Grain from within the buffer
zone must go for processing (eg Ridley
Agriproducts), while all other grain from the                   Soil (including
paddock can be sold on the open market.

If branched broomrape is found within the tillage
                                                                rubble, rock,
line, all grain must go for processing (eg Ridley
Agriproducts).                                                  sand, gypsum)
If broomrape was found in the paddock during                    •   Soil must not be moved if branched
previous surveys, the paddock level does not                        broomrape has been found at the site.
change.                                                         •   All trucks/trailers must be sealed to prevent
                                                                    leakage during transport.
                                                                •   Before soil is moved, topsoil to a depth
Machinery                                                           approved by an Inspector must be cleared
                                                                    away from the extraction area.
Machinery must be washed down and then                          •   Soil samples need Written Approval to move
decontaminated:                                                     out of the area.
• Before leaving an infested paddock

    and/or
                                                                Horticultural
•   Before leaving the Quarantine Area.

An Inspector must inspect all machinery before it
                                                                Crops
                                                                All horticultural crops (and a 30 metre buffer)
leaves the Quarantine Area.
                                                                need to be inspected prior to each harvest.


Hay                                                             Potatoes
                                                                • If no broomrape is found, potatoes may leave
                                                                   the Quarantine Area for washing and
1. Hay that consists of known host plants (eg
   vetch hay, pasture hay) cannot be moved out                     processing.
   of the Quarantine Area.                                      • If broomrape has been found, potatoes may
                                                                   leave the Quarantine Area if they are washed
2. Hay that consists of non-host plants (eg                        clean in a Quarantine Area or packed in
   cereal hay) can move out of the Quarantine                      plastic bins and transported in an approved
   Area.                                                           tautliner to an approved processor.
                                                                • Seed potatoes from paddocks where
With all types of hay the following applies if                     branched broomrape has been found must
branched broomrape is found during annual                          not be sold or moved to another grower’s
surveys:                                                           property.
• If branched broomrape is found within 30                      • Seed potatoes grown inside the Quarantine
   metres of the crop but not actually in the                      Area must not be planted outside the
   tillage line, a 30 metre buffer zone from the                   Quarantine Area.
   nearest broomrape plant is established. Hay
   from within the buffer zone should not leave

      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 - Control of Branched Broomrape Summary
                                                          1:2
Onions                                                      Some of the information provided in this
• If no broomrape has been found, onions may                document has been abbreviated from the Code –
   leave the Quarantine Area for open sale.                 Control of Branched Broomrape. For full
• If broomrape has been found, onions may                   explanations regarding the movement of produce
   leave the Quarantine Area if they are packed             and/or machinery out of and within the Branched
   (including “topping and tailing”) in a                   Broomrape Quarantine Area please refer to the
   Quarantine Area or transported in an                     Code.
   approved tautliner to an approved processor.

Other Horticultural Crops
• If no broomrape has been found, other
   horticultural crops may leave the Quarantine
   Area for open sale.
• If broomrape has been found, other
   horticultural crops can leave the Quarantine
   Area if:
       In the case of root vegetables, they are
       washed, topped & packed in a quarantine
       area; or
       They are transported to an approved
       processor in an approved tautliner; or
       In the case of other horticultural produce,
       treated in a manner approved by an
       inspector.



Livestock
Livestock movement is not restricted from a
property that is completely free from branched
broomrape (although a Written Approval is still
required).
• To move from an infested paddock, livestock
    must be isolated on approved, non-infested
    areas for 2 days before:
        Moving to other non-infested parts of the
        Quarantine Area.
        Being sold direct to slaughter.
        Moving to an approved, non-infested area
        for an additional 15 days before being sold
        on the open market.
However
• Livestock can graze on a level 1 stubble
    paddock (a paddock in which a level 1 cereal
    was grown in the previous season) and then
    move with only a 48 hour withholding period
    until June 15th in the following year. This
    applies even if broomrape had been found in
    the paddock in the past.
• Livestock do not need to go through any
    withholding period between the dates of 15th
    June and 15th August of any year.

Stock must be grazed solely on infested or non-
infested paddocks (not a combination of the two).


     Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 - Control of Branched Broomrape Summary
                                                      1:3
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Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 - Control of Branched Broomrape Summary
                                            1:4
Branched Broomrape
    – The Plant
This Chapter is designed to provide information on the lifecycle and
                  biology of branched broomrape.

Understanding the lifecycle – how the plant behaves, how it disperses
  its seeds and spreads – will help target appropriate management
                 strategies and get the best results.
            To know the enemy is to be able to destroy it.




         Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – The Plant
                                       2:1
The threat from                                                  Identification of
branched                                                         branched
broomrape                                                        broomrape
Branched broomrape is a parasitic weed of a wide                 Branched broomrape is an annual root parasite that
range of broadleaf crops in the Mediterranean, Europe,           extracts all its nutrient and moisture from host plants.
Central Asia, the Middle East, South Africa and North,
                                                                 It has no leaves or chlorophyll and does not
South and Central America.
                                                                 photosynthesise, so needs a healthy host plant t
It is one of several broomrape species that infest 16            produce high numbers of flowers and seeds.
million hectares worldwide. They affect around 50% of
                                                                 The stems of branched broomrape branch form at or
the world’s sunflower crops, 35% of the world’s faba
                                                                 near ground level. Plants can have 10 or more branches
bean crops and 45% of the world’s lentil crops.
                                                                 but single-stemmed plants are quite common.
In some areas, production of pulses has been
                                                                 Branched broomrape flowering stems, which can
abandoned because of broomrape.
                                                                 emerge from as deep as 150mm below the soil surface,
Branched broomrape is reported to cause production               carry small, purplish scales instead of leaves. Stems
losses of up to 75% in tomatoes and 90% in rapeseed              range in colour from straw coloured through light brown
(canola), limiting farmers with the weed to growing only         to almost black on dead, very weathered plants.
non-host crops.
                                                                 The flowers are tubular, about 15mm long and are
The potential impact of broomrape is very serious for            usually light blue to violet in colour.
South Australian and Australian agriculture in terms of
                                                                 The minute dust-like seeds (about 0.2 mm long) are
production losses and threats to export markets.
                                                                 contained in an oval capsule about 5mm long.
Many importing countries will not buy any produce that
                                                                 Underground, branched broomrape’s attachment to the
could contain seeds of branched broomrape.
                                                                 root of the host plant is usually through a thickened
These countries include North Korea, New Zealand,                stem (up to 8 mm in diameter). It also develops
Indonesia, Malaysia, Iran and the United                         numerous root-like structures spreading into the soil.
States, which buy more than 40% of Australia’s export
wheat.
Broomrape threatens Australian export markets for
agricultural products including cereals (which may
contain seed from broomrape growing on host weed
species in the crop), oilseeds, pulse crops, hay and
many vegetable species.
To retain these markets we must ensure there is no
possibility of viable branched broomrape seed being
transported with any of our produce to any of these
destinations.
The presence of broomrape also threatens the sale of
produce to other parts of Australia where the weed may
become established.




                      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – The Plant
                                                           2:2
                                                               haustorium, the broomrape accumulates nutrients
Lifecycle of                                                   and water from its host, developing a bulb-like
                                                               structure called a tubercle.

branched                                                       A bud forms at the top of the tubercle, which
                                                               eventually becomes the flowering stem. Additional

broomrape                                                      root-like structures also grow from the tubercle, giving
                                                               it a star-like or spider-like appearance.
                                                               Soil temperature is the main factor that determines
                                                               the period between host root attachment and
                                                               emergence of the flowering stem. The higher the
                                                               temperature the shorter the time.
                                                               In host-testing studies of the South Australian strain
                                                               of broomrape, emergence of the parasite has been
                                                               seen from 90 to 120 days after sowing crops.
                                                               Flowering begins within six to nine days of
                                                               emergence and seed production takes place within a
                                                               further seven days.
                                                               Hosts that are slow to develop root systems will
                                                               result in later emergence of branched broomrape
                                                               because they will trigger germination of the parasite
                                                               later in the season.

                                                               Observations in the
                                                               Containment Area
     Diagram of the lifecycle of branched broomrape            Branched broomrape emergence has been observed
                                                               from July to December under rain-fed conditions but
Broomrapes spend most of their growing period                  peak emergence has consistently occurred in mid to
below ground, with only the flowering stem emerging            late September.
from the soil at plant maturity.                               Ripe seed is likely to be present as early as the first
Branched broomrape seeds, which are extremely                  week of August.
small and have few reserves, have two mechanisms               Dry branched broomrape plants can remain
that maximise their chances of attaching to host               recognisable for at least 12 months after flowering,
roots.                                                         provided they are not grazed or otherwise physically
They will germinate:                                           damaged.
• only after remaining continuously wet in the soil
  for a week, and                                              Seed and plant
• only in response to a chemical signal from the               characteristics
  roots of host plants.
                                                               The minute seeds (about 0.2mm long) of branched
The optimum temperature for broomrape seed                     broomrape are about the size of a particle of ground
germination in the laboratory is around 20°C but               pepper and need to be magnified at least 10 times to
germination does occur at lower temperatures.                  clearly see physical details.
In South Australia germination frequently occurs in            Branched broomrape plants have seed capsules that
mid-winter, when soil temperatures are around 10°C.            each contain around 500 seeds, so a plant with just
Germinating seeds have a root-like radicle that can            40 capsules could produce 20,000 seeds. This is
grow only several millimetres before seed reserves are         considered the seed production of an average plant in
exhausted.                                                     the Quarantine Area.
When the radicle reaches a host root, it forms an              Consequently, there is often a huge bank of branched
attachment called a haustorium. Through the                    broomrape seed in the soil where plants are found.

                       Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – The Plant
                                                         2:3
Ripe seeds may remain in the capsule and be
spread with the plant remains. However most                       Branched broomrape seeds
seeds fall to the ground as soon as they are ripe,                are:
landing within half a metre (0.5m) of the parent
plant.                                                            • size of ground pepper
Broomrape seeds can be dislodged from                             • heavy and don’t float in water
capsules by wind and are capable of                               • have a wrinkled surface – can cling to a
aerodynamic lift in the wind profile.                               range of materials
The seeds don’t float in water and need to be                     • survive up to 13 years in storage
subjected to direct water pressure to dislodge                      conditions.
them when washing down machinery.
Broomrape seeds have wrinkled surfaces, which
can help them cling to a range of materials, and
they also readily become electro statically charged
and cling to plastics and metals.
Some seeds have survived for up to 13 years in
good storage conditions. However, seed longevity
is likely to be less in hot, dry conditions in the
field. Early seed bank decline studies have found
that seeds at greater depths (around 100mm) can
remain viable for longer, but shallow seed (top
20mm) dies quickly.
In the Quarantine Area branched broomrape is
usually found in well-drained, sandy soils.
Overseas it also occurs in irrigated clay loam soils.
Broomrape is spread by:
• Farm machinery (particularly in attached soil                  Figure 1. Broomrape seeds germinating in response
  during wet periods).                                           to GR24 (chemical stimulant) in the lab.
• Contaminated soil, sand and animal manures.
• Contaminated fodder and seed.
• Livestock, especially through the gut but also in
  wool, hair and fur and in soil and manure that                                       Figure 2. A newly
  may adhere to the animal.                                                            germinated
                                                                                       broomrape seed
• Wind Erosion - Broomrape seeds can be
                                                                                       attaches to a host
  spread in soil that is drifting. The distance seeds
                                                                                       root via a structure
  can travel is difficult to measure, however factors
                                                                                       called the
  that will increase the spread include ground that
                                                                                       haustorium.
  has little protective cover and greater wind
  speeds.
Local studies with branched broomrape have
found seeds are still viable after they pass through
the gut of a sheep. However, it was concluded
that 7 days is all that is required for all the seeds to
pass through the animal.
Studies of external movement of broomrape
seeds on the fleece of sheep showed that most
seeds attached to the thigh and belly area fell off
in the first few days. Some seeds still remained in
the wool of all samples for at least 7 days after                Figures 3 & 4. Tubercles
attachment.                                                      (commonly known as ‘spiders’)

                     Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – The Plant
                                                           2:4
Figure 5. Attachment to sunflower roots after 10
weeks. Sunflower is a favoured host of branched
broomrape.                                               Figure 10. Dry branched broomrape post-flowering



                                                         Host plants of
                                                         branched broomrape
                                                         Branched broomrape, which parasitises a wide
                                                         range of broadleafed agricultural and horticultural
                                                         crops and weeds, has one of the widest host
                                                         ranges of all Orobanche species.
                                                         The main hosts in the Quarantine Area are
Figure 6. Attachment    Figure 7. Attachment
to a carrot.            to salvation jane. Note          broadleafed weeds and native daisies.
                        the thickness of the             Confirmed hosts of the South Australian strain of
                        haustorium and the               branched broomrape are listed below.
                        potential for nutrient
                                                         Crops that have been host-tested using the South
                        ‘drag’ by the parasite.
                                                         Australian strain of branched broomrape without
                                                         attachment being observed are onions and
                        Figure 8.                        various cucurbits (zucchini, pumpkin, cucumber,
                        Newly emerged                    squash, rockmelon and watermelon).
                        branched broomrape               Potatoes are a significant host of branched
                                                         broomrape overseas but only the variety ‘Shine’
                                                         has had attachments observed in host testing
                                                         with the SA branched broomrape strain.
                                   Figure 9.
                                   Flowering
                                                         No parasitic attachments have been observed on
                                   branched              roots of ‘Russet Burbank’, ‘Coliban’, ‘Atlantic’,
                                   broomrape.            ‘Nadine’, ‘Bison’, ‘Kennebec’, ‘Desiree’ or ‘Exton’
                                                         plants.
                                                         Lucerne has not been observed as a host in the
                                                         Quarantine Area. However, growers should be
                                                         wary (at least during stand establishment) because
                                                         potted seedlings of ‘Hunterfield’, ‘Sceptre’ and
                                                         ‘Eureka’ have hosted broomrape emergence.




                  Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – The Plant
                                                   2:5
 Host risk for the SA strain of
 branched broomrape
 Categorisation of host risk for the SA strain of branched broomrape, based on research and
 field observations. Data from the various experiments and field observations has been used to
 categorise hosts of the SA strain of branched broomrape as either:
 • D = definite host (emerged broomrape observed).
 • L = likely host (many attachments observed).
 • P = possible host (occasional attachment observed).
 • N = likely non-host (no viable attachments observed).




                                      Broadacre crops
Plant                  Species                            Family               Host Risk
safflower              Carthamus tinctorius               Asteraceae           D
sunflower              Helianthus annuus                  Asteraceae           D
canola                 Brassica napus                     Brassicaceae         D
white mustard          Sinapis alba                       Brassicaceae         D
chick pea              Cicer arietinum                    Fabaceae             D
faba bean              Vicia faba                         Fabaceae             D
vetch                  Vicia sativa                       Fabaceae             D
coriander              Coriandrum sativum                 Apiaceae             D
indian mustard         Brassica juncea                    Brassicaceae         D
lupin                  Lupinus angustifolius              Fabaceae             L
lentil                 Lens culinaris                     Fabaceae             P
linola                 Linum usitatissimum                Linaceace            P
field pea              Pisum sativum                      Fabaceae             N
lathyrus               Lathyrus cicera                    Fabaceae             N
purple vetch           Vicia benghalensis cv. ‘Popany’    Fabaceae             N




                 Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – The Plant
                                               2:6
                                             Vegetables
Plant                    Species                           Family                Host Risk
carrot                   Daucus carota                     Apiaceae              D
broccoli                 Brassica oleracea var. italica    Brassicaceae          D
cabbage                  Brassica oleracea var. capitata   Brassicaceae          D
cauliflower              Brassica oleracea var. botrytis   Brassicaceae          D
tomato                   Lycopersicon esculentum           Solanaceae            D
lettuce                  Lactuca sativa                    Asteraceae            D
eggplant                 Solanum melongena                 Solanaceae            D
                                                                                 N
potato                   Solanum tuberosum                 Solanaceae            (excluding
                                                                                 ‘Shine’ L)
capsicum                 Capsicum annuum var. annuum       Solanaceae            N
cucumber                 Cucumis sativus                   Cucurbitaceae         N
pumpkin                  Cucurbita maxima                  Cucurbitaceae         N
rockmelon                Cucumis melo ssp melo             Cucurbitaceae         N
squash                   Cucurbita pepo                    Cucurbitaceae         N
watermelon               Citrullus lanatus                 Cucurbitaceae         N
zucchini                 Cucurbita pepo                    Cucurbitaceae         N
onion                    Allium cepa                       Liliaceae             N


                                             Pastures
Plant                    Species                           Family                Host Risk
clover - white           Trifolium repens                  Fabaceae              D
medic - disc             Medicago tornata                  Fabaceae              D
medic - small burr       Medicago minima                   Fabaceae              D
                                                                                 D (but not
lucerne                  Medicago sativa                   Fabaceae              observed
                                                                                 in field)
clover                   Trifolium michelanium             Fabaceae              D
clover                   Trifolium resupinatum             Fabaceae              L
medic - annual burr      Medicago polymorpha               Fabaceae              L
medic - strand           Medicago littoralis               Fabaceae              L
clover - sub             Trifolium subterraneum            Fabaceae              P




               Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – The Plant
                                                2:7
                                            Native plants
                                                                                 Host
Plant                     Species                           Family
                                                                                 Risk
common everlasting        Chrysocephalum apiculatum         Asteraceae           D
golden everlasting        Xerochrysum bracteatum            Asteraceae           D
poached egg daisy         Polycalymma stuartii              Asteraceae           D
variable daisy            Brachycome ciliaris               Asteraceae           D
variable groundsel        Senecio pinnatifolius             Asteraceae           D
Sturt’s desert pea        Swainsona formosa                 Fabaceae             D
nasturtium                Tropaeolum majus                  Tropaeolaceae        D
cut-leaf daisy            Brachyscome mulitfida             Asteraceae           L
sweet pea                 Lathyrus odoratus                 Fabaceae             L
sticky goodenia           Goodenia varia                    Goodeniaceae         L
scarlet mintbush          Prostanthera aspalathoides        Lamiaceae            L
creeping boobialla        Myoporum parvifolium              Myoporaceae          L
sweet apple berry         Billardiera cymosa                Pittosporaceae       L
showy daisy bush          Olearia pimeleoides               Asteraceae           N
creeping saltbush         Atriplex semibaccata              Chenopodiaceae       N
ruby saltbush             Enchylaena tomentosa              Chenopodiaceae       N
spiny saltbush            Rhagodia spinescens               Chenopodiaceae       N
desert cassia             Senna artemisioides               Fabaceae             N
golden wattle             Acacia pycnantha                  Fabaceae             N
native lilac              Hardenbergia violacea             Fabaceae             N
running postman           Kennedia prostrata                Fabaceae             N
wild rosemary             Dampiera rosmarinifolia           Goodeniaceae         N
austral bugle             Ajuga australis                   Lamiaceae            N
black anther flax lily    Dianella revoluta                 Liliaceae            N
spreading emu bush        Eremophila divaricata             Myoporaceae          N
dryland tea tree          Melaleuca lanceolata              Myrtaceae            N
muntries                  Kunzea pomifera                   Myrtaceae            N
scarlet bottlebrush       Callistemon rugulosus             Myrtaceae            N
summer red mallee         Eucalyptus socialis               Myrtaceae            N
yorrell                   Eucalyptus gracilis               Myrtaceae            N
lavender grevillea        Grevillea lavandulacea            Proteaceae           N
rock correa               Correa glabra                     Rutaceae             N




               Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – The Plant
                                                2:8
                                       Ornamentals
Plant                    Species                          Family                Host Risk
nasturtium               Tropaeolum majus                 Trapaeolaceae         D
sweet pea                Lathyrus odoratus                Fabaceae              L
gazania                  Gazania sp.                      Asteraceae            N
alyssum                  Lobularia maritima               Brassicaceae          N
sweet william            Dianthus barbatus                Carophyllaceae        N
garden geranium          Pelargonium x domesticum         Geraniaceae           N
italian lavender         Lavandula stoechas               Lamiaceae             N
petunia                  Petunia x hybrida                Solanaceae            N
pansy                    Viola arvensis                   Violaceae             N


                                             Weeds
Plant                   Species                           Family                Host Risk
bathurst burr           Xanthium spinosum                 Asteraceae            D
capeweed                Arctotheca calendula              Asteraceae            D
cretan weed             Hedypnois rhagadioloides          Asteraceae            D
false sowthistle        Reichardia tingitara              Asteraceae            D
flatweed                Hypochoeris glabra                Asteraceae            D
skeleton weed           Chondrilla juncea                 Asteraceae            D

smooth catsear          Hypochoeris glabra                Asteraceae            D

sowthistle              Sonchus oleraceus                 Asteraceae            D
stemless thistle        Onopordum acaulon                 Asteraceae            D
tolpis                  Tolpis barbata                    Asteraceae            D
common heliotrope       Heliotropium europaeum            Boraginaceae          D
corn gromwell           Buglossoides arvensis             Boraginaceae          D
salvation Jane          Echium plantagineum               Boraginaceae          D
sheepweed               Buglossoides arvensis             Boraginaceae          D
indian mustard          Brassica juncea                   Brassicaceae          D
white mustard           Sinapis alba                      Brassicaceae          D
wild turnip             Brassica tournefortii             Brassicaceae          D
rough poppy             Papaver hybridum                  Papaveraceae          L




              Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – The Plant
                                                2:9
                                                        for Growing Degree Days can be calculated for
Growing Degree                                          every day in the year.

Days – a tool for                                       The GDD for branched broomrape development
                                                        in pasture paddocks are accumulated from the
                                                        date of the break of season rain. This is the
tracking branched                                       rainfall event that prompted the germination of
                                                        hosts in the paddock. Research has indicated
broomrape                                               that this date corresponds to when 10mm of
                                                        rain falls in two days, or 25mm of rain falls over
development                                             a fortnight period ending after 1st April.
                                                        However, subsequent rain and germination
Predicting the timing of branched broomrape             events prolong the germination of hosts and
emergence has not been easy. However,                   also broomrape attachments.
research undertaken by the Branched
                                                        Farm practices and broomrape control
Broomrape Eradication Program during the last
                                                        strategies can influence growing degree day
three years has looked at the lifecycle of
                                                        accumulation. For example, planting a crop
branched broomrape, in conjunction with a
                                                        delays the start date for accumulating GDD
concept known as Growing Degree Days.
                                                        from the time of the break of season rain until
This research has provided valuable data                the day of sowing (i.e. last soil cultivation).
on the timing of broomrape attachment,                  Similarly, early season host control delays the
development and emergence. By using                     start date until the next rainfall event that
GDD to predict branched broomrape                       stimulates a new flush of hosts.
emergence, seasonal variances in daily
temperatures are accounted for and                      How does GDD help
research has provided a way of determining
the optimum time for herbicide application              with broomrape
and a more accurate prediction of the
emergence date.                                         eradication?
                                                        Our research has shown that broomrape
What are Growing                                        attachments are first seen after 500 GDD. By
                                                        1000 GDD there are few new broomrape
Degree Days?                                            attachments on host plants. Emerged
                                                        broomrape plants are observed from 1500
Growing Degree Days (GDD) are used in other             GDD. These timings have been consistent for
industries in Australia and overseas, such as           broomrape development on different host
horticulture, to determine development rates            plants, at field sites and in laboratory trials, and
such as flowering and fruiting time of plants,          have been validated each year since 2006.
and also in determining optimal timing for
application of chemicals for pest and disease           In terms of broomrape eradication, prevention
control.                                                remains the best option with early control to
                                                        suppress host plants in your paddock. However,
For branched broomrape development, GDD                 we now also have a method to determine the
are calculated using average daily soil                 optimum timing to apply herbicides to host
temperatures. Every day, the maximum and                plants to prevent broomrape emergence.
minimum temperatures are recorded for the top
10cm of soil, added together, and then halved.          This tool can also be used to predict when
For example, the maximum soil temperature on            broomrape may emerge and is therefore
a given day was 20OC, and the minimum soil              used by the Branched Broomrape
temperature was 16OC. Added together this               Eradication Program to plan the start of the
gives 36. This result is then halved, giving a          survey season.
result of 18. This is the number of Growing
Degree Days accumulated for that day. A value           For an example of the application of GDD see
                                                        next page.

                 Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – The Plant
                                                 2:10
An example of GDD
application
                                                                                                                 line crosses the yellow line), with few new
Looking at the chart displaying data for
                                                                                                                 attachments occurring after 11th August (black
Mannum in 2008, the break of season occurred
                                                                                                                 line crosses the orange line). Emergence of
on 17th May and GDD are accumulated from
                                                                                                                 branched broomrape in 2008 would have
that date.
                                                                                                                 occurred following 21st September (i.e. where
Following the black GDD line, the chart                                                                          the black line crosses the red line). This data
indicates that branched broomrape attachments                                                                    was consistent with field observations in 2008.
occurred from 24th June (i.e. where the black




                                                             Growing Degree Days - Mannum 2008
                                      40                                                                                                                                                         2000

                                                                                                                                                                                                 1800
                                      35
                                                                                                                                                                                                 1600
                                      30
                                                                                                                                                                                                 1400
                      Rainfall (mm)




                                      25                                                                                                                                                         1200




                                                                                                                                                                                                        GDD
                                      20                                                                                                                                                         1000

                                                                                                                                                                                                 800
                                      15
                                                                                                                                                                                                 600
                                      10
                                                                                                                                                                                                 400
                                       5
                                                                                                                                                                                                 200

                                       0                                                                                                                                                         0
                                                                      10-May
                                                                               23-May




                                                                                                         1-Jul
                                                                                                                  14-Jul
                                                                                                                           27-Jul
                                                                                        5-Jun
                                                                                                18-Jun




                                                                                                                                    9-Aug
                                                                                                                                            22-Aug
                                           1-Apr
                                                    14-Apr
                                                             27-Apr




                                                                                                                                                     4-Sep
                                                                                                                                                             17-Sep
                                                                                                                                                                      30-Sep
                                                                                                                                                                               13-Oct
                                                                                                                                                                                        26-Oct




                                                   Rainfall                    500 GDD                           1000 GDD                            1500 GDD                           GDD




                 Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – The Plant
                                                                                                2:11
              This page has been intentionally left blank.




Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – The Plant
                               2:12
             Management
            Strategies and
            Considerations
   This chapter aims to provide you with management strategies,
    particularly for paddocks infested with branched broomrape.
It offers management strategies for a range of production situations
 such as cereal cropping or annual pastures under the headings of
broadleaf herbicides (host denial), broomrape herbicides (herbicides
   that kill branched broomrape), maximum control strategies and
                 options that are simply good agronomy.
   All the products listed in this manual may be substituted with
another product with the same concentration of active constituents.
The concentration of active constituents for each product is listed in
                               Chapter 5.
   This section contains recommendations that are directive and
 prescriptive so they are relatively easy to follow while highlighting
           some of the issues that need to be considered.
 Weeds listed as “also affected” are those listed on the herbicide
     label as weeds the herbicide is registered to control.
Note: all herbicide rates given in this section are given per ha, e.g.,
1.2L means that herbicide should be applied at the rate of 1.2L/ha.
Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                        3:1
Broadleaf Weed Control                                      Summer Weed Control
Effective broadleaf weed control is an essential part       Some summer weeds can host broomrape and it is
of the program to eradicate branched broomrape              possible that under the right conditions broomrape
because broadleaf weeds are the most common                 can emerge on summer weeds outside of the
host of the parasite in the broomrape area.                 typical July-October timing.
Branched broomrape can grow on a range of                   Summer weeds that are left untreated in season
broadleaf crops including canola, vetch lucerne,            with wet summers and mild temperatures cou
beans, peas and some pasture species but is more            enable broomrape to germinate and emerge earl
likely to be attached to broadleaf weeds.                   (prior to July) or late (well into December and
                                                            possibly January).
Wheat, barley, oats and other cereals do not host
the parasite but it is often found attached to              Summer weed control can be expensive, especially
broadleaf weeds growing in cereal crops.                    if more than one treatment is required. However the
                                                            benefits in most years outweigh the cost of control.
This means effective control of broadleaf weeds is
essential if branched broomrape is to be
                                                            Benefits:
successfully eradicated.
                                                            • Reduce weed growth in preparation for sowing
Good weed control will also improve crop yields.
                                                            • Prevent loss of stored soil moisture and nitrogen
Effective broadleaf weed management starts in the
spring prior to sowing a crop with inspection of the        • Possibly prevent broomrape emergence
paddock to see what broadleaf hosts and other               Summer weeds can be controlled by cultivation or
weeds are present.                                          herbicides and the implications of both needs to be
The weed profile will influence what crop you choose        considered.
to grow in the coming year and successive seasons.          Spraying is faster than cultivating, making timely
Issues include whether the broadleaf weeds present          control easier to achieve.
can be controlled in your preferred crop, what              Herbicides can be more expensive than cultivation
herbicides you can use and whether the herbicides           (depending on the chemical) but cultivation can
available will have residual effects that impact on         promote the germination of more weed seeds
your choice of crop for the following year.                 requiring more passes.
If broadleaf weed control is not possible in the crop       Secondary weed germination after spraying is
you are planning to grow you may need to rethink            generally less than after cultivation.
your crop choice and sow something that will allow
you to achieve good broadleaf control.                      Cultivation can no longer be viewed as a “cheap”
                                                            option since fuel costs have increased.
Cretan Weed (Hedypnois rhagadioloides)                      It also exposes paddocks to wind erosion which can
Cretan weed, a favoured host of branched                    spread broomrape seeds.
broomrape, is commonly found growing in the
Broomrape Quarantine Area. Before you can                   Critical Issues for summer spraying:
choose broomrape management strategies for a                • Keep water volumes high.
Farm Plan you will need to know whether cretan              • Use adjuvants where possible.
weed is present on your property and more
importantly in any broomrape infested paddocks.             • Don’t spray stressed plants.
Whether or not cretan weed is present has                   • Avoid off-target damage.
implications for your choice of strategy as many of         • Smaller, younger weeds are easiest to control.
the herbicides that will successfully control
broomrape can fail in the presence of cretan weed.          • Make sure the Delta T is below 8.
Refer to Chapter four – Broadleaf Weed                      For more information refer to Chapter 6 -
Identification, for pictures of cretan weed. If you are     “Maximising the effectiveness of spraying”.
unsure whether you have this weed growing in your
infested paddocks seek further advice from the
Farming Systems Team.




       Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                      3:2
   Broomrape management                                     Example: Map of an infested paddock
                                                            and possible management options.
   strategies for different                                  Land Use 2005 – Barley
   situations                                                Best Bet
   The available strategies are divided into two             - Knockdown with glyphosate, then 40g/ha
   broad categories:                                           Lontrel + 800ml Amicide 625 at early
                                                               tillering.
   Maximum eradication strategies that provide               - Fence line: 10g Logran in July. Spot
   highly reliable, high-impact solutions to assist            spray hosts in native vegetation with 3-7g
   in the eradication of branched broomrape.                   Ally.
   Maximum eradication strategies                            Land Use 2006 – Pasture
   include:
                                                             Maximum control
   • Broomrape herbicides (herbicides that kill              - Apply Broadstrike 25g/ha to entire
     branched broomrape)                                       paddock from 700-1000GDD
   • Maximum control strategies                              Best Bet
                                                             - Paddock: If cretan weed is present spray-
   Maximum eradication strategies should be
                                                               top areas where there has been
   used in all paddocks known to carry
                                                               emergence previously with 500ml/ha
   widespread branched broomrape infestations.
                                                               glyphosate (540g/L) in September.
   Best bets – agronomically sound options that              - Fence line and native vegetation: Spot-
   work in most instances but may not always                   spray hosts with 1L/ ha glyphosate
   guarantee total prevention of branched                      (540g/L).
   broomrape emergence. These are good
   strategies designed to be used in an
   integrated package; sometimes in conjunction
   with maximum eradication strategies.
   Best bet strategies include:
   • Broadleaf herbicides (effective by host
     denial).
   • Good agronomy (which may carry some
     risk of branched broomrape emergence if
     used alone).
   Interceptor Concentrate Weed Control soil
   drench may be available to “mop up” an
   outbreak should a planned management
   strategy fail.
                                                             Land Use 2007 – Triticale
                                                             Best Bet
                                                             - Paddock: Knockdown with glyphosate,
                                                               then 40g/ha Lontrel + 800ml Amicide 625
                                                               at early tillering.
                                                             - Fence line and native vegetation: Spot
                                                               spray in August with 3-7g Ally.




Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                      3:3
Checklist of considerations when choosing a strategy
               Question                Answer              Factors to consider                                         Possible solutions
                                                                                                 Best Bets - Broadleaf herbicides only in cereals; host crops/
                                       One or two   I can manage timely spraying.
                                                                                                 pasture with appropriate selective herbicide.
How many broomrape paddocks
do I have?                                                                                       Maximum Control - Grow cereals in as many paddocks as
                                                    I may struggle to manage
                                         Many                                                    possible. Use group Bs early where it may not be possible to spray
                                                    timely spraying.
                                                                                                 later on time.

                                         Small      I am confident of an isolated infestation.   Maximum Control -Treat the isolated infested area with a proven
                                                                                                 herbicide and apply a Best Bet strategy to the rest of the paddock.
How big is the recorded infestation?
                                       Widespread   Broomrape is spread throughout               Maximum Control - Use the most practical strategy across the
                                                    paddock.                                     entire paddock.
                                                                                                 Maximum Control - Group B and glyphosate products will be most
                                                    Cretan weed will affect how well
                                          Yes                                                    effective but will struggle. Consider two spray applications if condi-
                                                    herbicides control broomrape.
Do I have cretan weed?                                                                           tions allow.
                                                    I have a good chance of preventing
                                          No                                                     Best Bet or Maximum Control - depending on paddock factors.
                                                    broomrape with a range of herbicides.

                                                                                                 Use Best Bets where possible. Maximum control - use selective
                                          Yes       Strategies must prevent soil drift.
                                                                                                 herbicides, not glyphosate.
Is the infested area prone to drift?
                                                    Removing vegetative cover will not
                                          No                                                     Best Bets or Maximum Control - depending on paddock factors.
                                                    cause soil drift.
                                                                                                 Maximum Control options if cretan weed is present. If no cretan
Do I need to grow pasture in my           Yes       Paddock is not suitable to crop.
                                                                                                 weed then Best Bets may be sufficient.
broomrape paddock?
                                          No        I can grow alternative crops.                Best Bets in cereals, Maximum Control in break crops.

                                                                                                 Maximum Control - Broadstrike® where there is no cretan weed,
                                          Yes       I need maximum feed in the paddock.
Is maintaining adequate feed for                                                                 Best Bets with sown cereals.
livestock an issue?
                                          No        I do not need this paddock for feed.         Maximum Control - Raptor® or early spray topping with glyphosate.

                                                                                                 Maximum Control in cereal crops.
                                                    I have lots of native vegetation or
                                          Yes                                                    Consider aerial spraying non-arable country with appropriate
Are there spray accessibility                       inaccessible areas.
issues with my paddock?                                                                          herbicides, usually Maximum Control herbicides.

                                          No        I am able to spray the entire paddock.       Best Bets or Maximum Control - depending on paddock factors.
                                                         Lontrel 750 SG® (Herbicide Group I) -
Glossary of                                              750g/kg clopyralid
                                                         LVE MCPA® (Herbicide Group I) -
products listed                                          500g/L low volatile ester
                                                         MCPA 500® (Herbicide Group I) -

in this manual                                           500g/L MCPA (present as dimethylamine salt)
                                                         MCPA 750® (Herbicide Group I) -
The following list contains products mentioned           750g/L MCPA (present as dimethylamine salt)
throughout the rest of the manual.                       Midas® (Herbicide Groups B+I) - 288.5g/L MCPA
Active ingredients are listed so farmers can             (present as ethyl hexyl ester) + 22g/L imazapic +
substitute equivalent products.                          7.3g/L imazapyr
All herbicides on this list are approved for the         Pyresta® (Herbicide Groups G+I) - 2.1g/L
Herbicide Grants Scheme. They can be claimed             pyraflufen-ethyl + 421g/L 2,4-D (present as 2-
for use in Level 4 paddocks with an approved             ethylhexyl ester)
Farm Plan or Individual Herbicide Strategy.              Raptor® (Herbicide Group B) - 700g/kg
Ally® (Herbicide Group B) -                              imazamox
600g/kg metsulfuron-methyl                               Roundup CT® (Herbicide Group M) - 450g/L
Amicide 625 (Herbicide Group I) -                        glyphosate (present as isopropylamine salt)
625g/L 2,4-D amine                                       Roundup Powermax® (Herbicide Group M) -
Bladex 500SC® (Herbicide Group C) -                      540g/L glyphosate (present as potassium salt)
500g/L cyanazine                                         Spinnaker 700 WDG® (Herbicide Group B) -
Broadstrike® (Herbicide Group B) -                       700g/kg imazethapyr
800g/kg flumetsulam                                      Sencor 480 SC® (Herbicide Group C) - 480g/L
Brodal Options® (Herbicide Group F) -                    metribuzin
500g/L diflufenican                                      Spray.Seed 250® (Herbicide Group L) - 135g/L
Bromicide 200® (Herbicide Group C) -                     paraquat (present as paraquat dichloride) +
200g/L bromoxynil (present as n-octanoyl ester)          115g/L diquat (present as diquat dibromide
Buctril MA® (Herbicide Groups C+I) -                     monohydrate) for contol of Potato weed or use
200g/L Bromoxynil + 200g/L MCPA                          in horticulture where glyphosate can not be
                                                         used
Credit® (Herbicide Group M) - 540g/L glyphosate
                                                         Tigrex® (Herbicide Groups F+I) - 250g/L MCPA
Diuron 500 SC (Herbicide Group C) -
                                                         (present as ethyl hexyl ester) + 25g/L diflufenican
500g/L diuron
Diuron 900 DF (Herbicide Group C) - 900g/kg              Spray Adjuvants
diuron
                                                         Agral® - 600g/L nonyl phenol ethylene oxide
Eclipse® (Herbicide Group B) - 714g/kg
                                                         condensate non-ionic organic surfactant.
metosulam
                                                         BS1000® - 1000g/L alcohol alkoxylate
Ester 680 (Herbicide Group I) - 680g/L 2,4-D
(present as 2-ethylhexyl ester)                          Bonza™ - 450g/L paraffinic oil + 259g/L fatty acid
                                                         and fatty acid derivatives + 91g/L nonoxynol
Gesatop 900 WG® (Herbicide Group C) - 900g/kg
simazine                                                 Cropshield® - 838g/L petroleum oil
Glean® (Herbicide Group B) - 750g/kg                     DC Trate® - 763g/L petroleum oil
chlorsulfuron                                            Hasten™ - 704g/L fatty acid esters of canola oil +
Intervix® (Herbicide Group B) -                          surfactant>15%
33g/L imazamox + 15g/L imazapyr                          Kwickin™ - 704g/L fatty acid esters of canola oil
Jaguar® (Herbicide Groups C+F) -                         Uptake™ Spraying Oil - 582g/L paraffinic oil +
250g/L bromoxynil + 25g/L diflufenican                   240g/L non-ionic surfactants
Lexone DF® (Herbicide Group C) -
750g/kg metribuzin                                       Partner Herbicides
Logran 750 WG® (Herbicide Group B) -                     Goal® (Herbicide Group G) - 240 g/L oxyfluorfen
750g/kg triasulfuron                                     Hammer® (Herbicide Group G) - 240 g/L
Lontrel® (Herbicide Group I) - 300g/L clopyralid         carfentrazone-ethyl

     Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                   3:5
Conversion formula
 Conversion to alternative herbicide

           Rate/ha of              Recommended rate/ha                   Active constituent
           alternative    =         of listed herbicide      x concentration in listed herbicide
           herbicide                               Active constituent concentration
                                                        in alternative herbicide




Quick reference tables
(listed products in left column)
                                                                        Simazine
                Glyphosate                                600g/L (Flowable
                                                                                   900g/kg (Gesatop
        540g/L                                                                   granules, Simagranz,
                                  450g/L                  Gesatop 600 SC
  (Credit®, Roundup                                                               Simazine 900 DF)
                              (Roundup CT®)                    1.25L                     850g
     Powermax®)
        250mL                      300mL                        1.7L                    1.1kg
        400mL                      500mL
        700mL                      800mL
        800mL                        1L
          1L                        1.2L
         1.2L                       1.4L



                    Diuron
                                  900g/kg
        500g/L
                              (Diuron 900 DF,
   (Diuron 500 SC)
                              Diurex 900 WG)
        300mL                       200g
        500mL                       300g

                   Lontrel
  750g/kg clopyralid          300g/L clopyralid
   (Lontrel 750 SG)               (Archer)
          20g                       50mL
          40g                      100mL
          60g                      150mL
         120g                      300mL
         240g                      600mL

         Metribuzin (Lexone)
 750g/kg (Lexone DF,              480g/L
   Sencor 750 WG)             (Sencor 480 SC)
        180g                      280mL
        280g                      450mL




      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                   3:6
Phenoxy herbicide chart (per ha)
Rate of Phenoxy


                             Wheat                               Barley                               Oats                         Triticale




                                          Long Fruited




                                                                                Long Fruited




                                                                                                                 Long Fruited




                                                                                                                                                   Long Fruited
                             Capeweed




                                                               Capeweed




                                                                                                     Capeweed




                                                                                                                                      Capeweed
                                            Turnip




                                                                                  Turnip




                                                                                                                   Turnip




                                                                                                                                                     Turnip
    MCPA 500           2.1L             700mL             2.1L               700mL              2.1L            700mL           2.1L              700mL
                                        500mL-                              500mL -                             500mL                            500mL -
    LVE MCPA           1.7L              1.7L            1.6L*                1.6L             1.6L*            - 1.6L          1.6L*              1.6L

  Amicide 625     1.7L                  325mL             1.4L*             325mL              800mL* 325mL 1.4L*                                325mL
LV Estercide 600 900mL                  260mL            900mL              260mL                NR    NR   900mL                                260mL
 2,4-D ester 800 700mL                  200mL            700mL              200mL                NR    NR   700mL                                200mL
 5g Ally + MCPA
       500        2.1L                  700mL             2.1L              700mL               NR               NR             2.1L             700mL
 5g Ally + LVE
     MCPA              1.7L             500mL            1.6L*              500mL               NR               NR             1.6L*            500mL
    5g Ally +
  Amicide 625          1.7L             325mL            1.4L*              325mL               NR               NR             1.4L*            325mL
  5g Ally + LV
    ester 600         900mL             260mL            900mL              260mL               NR               NR             900mL            260mL
 5g Ally + 2,4-D
    ester 800         700mL             200mL            700mL              200mL               NR               NR             700mL            200mL
     Lontrel           120g              NC               120g               NC                120g              NC              120g             NC
  Lontrel 40g +
  Amicide 625           1L               325mL            1L                 325mL              1L              325mL            1L               325mL
Bromicide 200 ^         2L                 2L             2L                   2L               2L                2L            1.4L               1.4L
                                         500mL                              500mL -                                                              500mL -
     Jaguar ^           1L              -750mL            1L                 750mL              NR               NR              1L               750mL


NR    – not recommended

NC    – not controlled with this product

*     - maximum rate that can be used safely in the crop

^     - products recommended for cretan weed control.




Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations

                                                                          3:7
                                                     as its activity is maintained over the entire
Using Growing                                        season.


Degree Days for                                      Therefore it is necessary to consider the type of
                                                     herbicide to be used (does it have residual
                                                     activity?), the host situation (are hosts healthy or
timely spraying of                                   stressed?) and seasonal factors (is the season
                                                     long or short?) to determine whether additional

branched                                             spray applications may be necessary in a given
                                                     year. If unsure it is always best to seek advice
                                                     from the Broomrape Program Agronomists.
broomrape                                            This manual will specify the optimal spray timing
Growing Degree Days (GDD) can be used to             for different herbicides in terms of GDD where
determine the growth stage of branched               appropriate. Use label recommendations for
broomrape and the optimal spray timing to            spray timing if there is no reference to GDD. See
prevent subsequent emergence. GDD is                 Chapter 2 (pages 2:10-2:11) for more information
measured using average daily soil temperatures       on Growing Degree Days.
and the starting point needed to begin counting
GDD is taken as the opening rain that prompts a
germination of host weeds.

Research has found that once 500GDD are
reached the first broomrape attachments can be
found on host roots. Once1000GDD are reached
there are few new attachments on host roots and
at 1500GDD broomrape is likely to begin
emergence above ground.

Using GDD as a guide it is possible to determine
the best spray timing for broomrape control
depending on each situation and the nature of
the herbicide that is to be used.

In most situations, spraying herbicide just after
1000GDD (all broomrape attachments present on
host roots) and before 1300GDD are reached will
give optimal control of broomrape. This is
especially important when using herbicides with a
short residual or no residual activity (e.g.
Broadstrike® and glyphosate).

NB. Limited trial work in 2009 suggests that
spraying Broadstrike earlier in the season,
from 500GDD onwards may give better
control of broomrape. More trial work needs
to be done to confirm this result; however
principles of good weed control support early
spraying when weeds are small. The
suggested window for applying Broadstrike is
now 700-1000GDD.

If using group B herbicides with a long residual
activity (e.g. Logran® and Glean®), the timing of
the herbicide application becomes less important


     Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                               3:7a
Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2009 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                          3:7b
                                                        Timing and chemical choice is critical for success
Cropping                                                with seed bank elimination so branched
                                                        broomrape needs to be the number one priority in
Farmers can continue to farm profitably and             management of “break” crops in infested
sustainably while eradicating branched                  paddocks.
broomrape.                                              Roots of “break” crops and broadleaf weeds
This can be achieved by adopting best practice          stimulate germination of broomrape that then
eradication and farming methods which in many           becomes active underground for several weeks
instances complement each other.                        before it emerges.
Eradication will be achieved with a combination of      Branched broomrape can be destroyed during
approaches that incorporate the best use of             this period of pre-emergent activity by spraying
rotations, herbicides and fumigation.                   the crop with a suitable herbicide before
Rotations                                               1300GDD. The options are a selective herbicide
Rotations in paddocks with branched broomrape           that will destroy the broomrape but not the crop,
can be designed to achieve host denial and seed         OR a knockdown that will kill the crop and the
bank elimination as well as maintain profitability.     weed. Suitable herbicide options are listed later in
                                                        this chapter.
Broomrape is a parasite that requires a host plant
on which to grow. Host denial involves ensuring         NB. Many selective herbicides that would
there is no weed or crop that will host the             normally kill branched broomrape attachments in
parasitic plant.                                        host crops fail in the presence of cretan weed.
                                                        Seek further advice if you have cretan weed in
Cereals                                                 infested paddocks.
Growing a cereal crop and adopting a zero               Weed management
tolerance approach to broadleaved weeds will
prevent branched broomrape from emerging. The           Regardless of GDD, the basic principle of early
more cereals in a rotation the more effective it will   weed control applies for broomrape management
be in preventing the emergence of branched              and yield and quality benefits.
broomrape.                                              Clean seed is a good starting point.
Findings from the Mallee Sustainable Farming            Kill existing plants prior to seeding to ensure the
Project show increasing the frequency of cereal         crop has no competition from weeds. This will
crops in a rotation can improve profitability and       also delay the onset of GDD and give more time
sustainability.                                         for in-crop control of broomrape later in the
A long sequence of successive cereal crops can          season.
be sustained provided:                                  Small young weeds are easiest and cheapest to
                                                        kill and early control ensures weeds don’t become
• Grass weed control is good (use the full range
    of management options including ensuring            so large they can’t be killed once the crop
    grass numbers are low in the year before            emerges.
    crops are planted).                                 Effective early control requires a “no survivors”
                                                        approach.
• Root and leaf diseases are kept in check
    through choice of crop and variety.                 For more information on timing and herbicide
                                                        rates, refer to Chapter 5: “Herbicide use”
• Higher levels of crop nutrition (especially
    nitrogen, phosphorous and zinc) are applied         Reducing / preventing soil drift
    to more intensively cropped paddocks.               Preventing soil drift has always been important to
Break crops                                             maintain sustainability of the farming system. Soil
                                                        lost from a paddock through drift reduces fertility
All non-cereal “break” crops can host broomrape.
                                                        because nutrients and microbes are blown away
These include legumes, canola and pastures. To
                                                        with the soil. This can take decades to rectify if at
grow a “break” crop in an infested paddock can
                                                        all.
be a risky option (particularly with a widespread
infestation) but quite often essential to maintain      Recent studies have also found that there is a
sustainability.                                         high probability of branched broomrape seeds
                                                        being moved in drifting soil, so drift needs to be
A build up of grass weeds or disease that make it
                                                        prevented at all costs if broomrape is to be
necessary to grow a “break” crop or pasture
                                                        eradicated.
presents an opportunity to run down or eliminate
the broomrape seed bank.


      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2009 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                3:8
Factors that contribute to erosion and what                   complete desiccation may take 20-30 days under
we can do:                                                    cool conditions.
• Soil type. Sandy soils are most at risk due to              This product does not provide residual weed
  their weaker structure and need to be managed               control. Repeat treatments may be necessary to
  carefully to prevent erosion.                               control later-germinating weeds. For residual
                                                              control of annual weeds this product may be used
• Vegetative cover. The amount of stubble left on
                                                              as a tank mixture with some residual herbicides.
  the soil surface will influence the erosion
  potential. Bare paddocks are at maximum risk of             Target hosts - capeweed, salvation Jane, sow
  erosion. Aim for between 30-50% of anchored                 thistle, long fruited turnip.
  vegetative cover to prevent drift.
                                                              Also affects: amaranth, barley grass, barnyard
• Cultivation. Working the soil will hasten moisture          grass, brome grass, caltrop, canary grass, annual
  loss, break down soil structure and remove                  phalaris, cereals (volunteer wheat, barley, oats),
  vegetative cover. Cultivation increases the                 chickweed, cobbler’s pegs, deadnettle, fumitory,
  probability of drift occurring. No-till systems can         ground cherry, lesser swinegrass, liverseed grass,
  help prevent drift.                                         mintweed, paradoxa grass, pigweed, potato weed,
• Rotation. Some break crops and pastures have                ryegrass, saffron thistle, silver grass, sorghum,
  residues that are rapidly broken down so                    spear thistle, spiny burr grass, spurge, sub clover,
  paddocks are susceptible to drift after heavy               thornapple, three-cornered jack, wild mustard, wild
  grazing. Cereal residues can provide robust                 oats, winter grass, variegated thistle.
  vegetative cover.                                           Perennial weed control
• Stock management. Overstocking or overgrazing               HANDGUN: 1.3L/100L + Nufarm Bonus
  paddocks can contribute to erosion through                  KNAPSACK: 200mL/15L + Nufarm Bonus
  stock removing vegetative cover and loosening               Always add Nufarm Bonus adjuvant/surfactant. For
  surface soil. Feedlotting at high-risk times of the         specific rates refer to Credit under in Section 5 -
  year can reduce the incidence of drift caused by            Herbicide use. Use ONLY under good soil moisture
  stock.
                                                              conditions. Apply to actively growing plants at the
• Broomrape Control Strategies. Some broomrape                late flowering to berry stage. Repeat spraying will
  control options can cause drift because they                be necessary to restrict regrowth and seedling
  involve spraying out vegetative cover in paddocks           re-establishment.
  or along fence lines over an extended period of
  time. Each broomrape situation needs to be                  Target host - silverleaf nightshade.
  assessed individually. The risk of drift needs to
  be taken into account when deciding what                    When sowing a crop or pasture with full soil
  broomrape control strategies to adopt.                      disturbance by cultivation or sowing with a
                                                              tined implement:
For more information on implementing strategies
that prevent drift, contact the Farming Systems               330 to 670mL + Bonus for plants less than 8cm
Team. “Feedlotting Sheep” books are available for             330 to 670mL + Bonus for plants less than 8cm
landholders in the Broomrape Quarantine Area.                 diameter; 670mL to 1L + Bonus for plants greater
                                                              than 8cm diameter.
Knockdown herbicides                                          RATE SELECTION: Increase to higher rates late in
                                                              the season or when treating under cold/overcast
Credit                                                        conditions.
Non-cultivated situations                                     FULL DISTURBANCE with cultivation or sowing with
BOOM: 1.3-2L + Nufarm Bonus                                   a tined implement may start one day after treatment
                                                              (7 days if dock, phalaris, skeleton weed, soursob or
HANDGUN: 330-470mL/100L + Nufarm Bonus                        sorrel are present) and should occur within 21 days
KNAPSACK: 50-70mL/15L + Nufarm Bonus                          after treatment. Where cultivation or sowing does
                                                              not occur within 21 days, new weed growth may
Always add Nufarm Bonus adjuvant/surfactant. For              require further treatment.
specific rates refer to Credit in Chapter 5 -
Herbicide Use. Annual weeds may be sprayed any                When treating light infestations of seedling annual
time they are actively growing. Use the lower rate            grasses (pre-tillering) and annual broadleaf weeds
on weeds up to 15cm tall. Increase to the higher              (less than 8cm diameter/height), cultivation or
rate where weeds are more than 15cm tall. Visible             sowing may start six hours after treatment and
symptoms develop 3-7 days after spraying but                  should occur within 21 days.

      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                        3:9
Target host: Capeweed                                          RATE SELECTION:
Also affected: calomba daisy, three-cornered jack.             • 0.8 to 1.2L with weeds 1 to 5cm diameter; 1.2 to
                                                                  1.6L with weeds 5-10cm diameter; 1.6 - 2.4L
When sowing a crop or pasture with an                             with weeds 10-20cm diameter.
implement that gives minimal or no
                                                               Target host: long fruited turnip.
soil disturbance:
                                                               • 0.8 to 1.2L with weeds 1 to 4cm diameter; 1.2 to
630 to 830mL + Bonus for plants less than 12cm
                                                                 1.6L with weeds 4 to 8cm diameter.
in diameter; 830mL to 1L + Bonus for plants
greater than 8cm in diameter.                                  Target hosts: capeweed, medic, vetch.
RATE SELECTION: Use the lower rate on young                    • 0.8 to 1.2L with weeds 1 to 10cm diameter or 1
weeds; increase to higher rate where grasses have                 to 10 leaf.
reached full tillering or where broadleaf weeds have           Target host: sheep weed.
reached reach stem elongation/budding. Increase to
higher rates in spring or when treating under                  • 1.2 to 1.6L with weeds 1 to 5 leaf.
cool/overcast conditions.                                      Target host: salvation Jane.
PASTURE OR CROP ESTABLISHMENT: Do NOT
sow into excessive trash. Trash may be removed                 When direct drilling with an implement that
by grazing after treatment. Grazing may commence               gives minimal or no soil disturbance:
one day after treatment of annual weeds (small)                Apply to young or well-grazed weeds. In a typical
and seven days after treatment of perennial weeds.             mixed weed situation use the rate recommended
Delay grazing for three days where annual weeds                for the growth stage of the hardest-to-kill weed
are large.                                                     species. Rates shown are for optimum conditions
Sowing may proceed when excessive trash is                     using sowing equipment with narrow points.
removed, but no sooner than one day after                      Under less favourable conditions or where spraying
treatment of annual weeds and seven days after                 is delayed until winter or for fallow weed control, use
treatment of perennial weeds.                                  higher rates.
Target hosts: salvation Jane, long fruited turnip.             Cultivation can commence 30 minutes after spray-
                                                               ing and should be completed within seven days
Also affected: fumitory, salvation Jane, saffron
                                                               unless a suitable residual herbicide is added or
thistle, scotch thistle, spear thistle, variegated
                                                               weeds are sprayed again.
thistle, volunteer lupins.
                                                               Where heavy weed growth is present at spraying a
Spray.Seed                                                     better seed bed will result if cultivation is delayed
When used in conjunction with full soil                        three to five days to obtain maximum root release.
disturbance by cultivation or sowing with a
tined implement, with cultivation before                       RATE SELECTION:
spraying or with cultivation after spraying as                 • 1.2 to 1.8L with weeds 1-5cm diameter; 1.8 to
an aid in the establishment of crop:                              2.4L with weeds 5 to 10cm diameter; 2.4 to 3.2L
                                                                  with weeds 10 to 20cm diameter.
Apply to young or well-grazed weeds. In a typical
mixed weed situation use the rate recommended                  Target host: long fruited turnip
for the growth stage of the hardest-to-kill weed               • 1.2 to 1.8L with weeds 1 to 4cm diameter; 1.8 to
species. Rates shown are for optimum conditions                   3.2L with weeds 4 to 8cm diameter.
using sowing equipment with wide points and                    Target hosts: capeweed, medic, vetch.
overall soil disturbance.                                      • 1.2 to 3.2L with weeds 1 to 10cm diameter or 1
Under less favourable conditions or where spraying                to 10 leaf.
is delayed until winter or where narrow points are             Target host: sheep weed
fitted, use higher rates.                                      • 1.8 to 3.2L with weeds 1 to 5 leaf.
Cultivation can commence 30 minutes after                      Target host: Salvation Jane
spraying and should be completed within seven
days unless a suitable residual herbicide is added             NOTE: : Spray.Seed 250 is listed in this manual for
or weeds are sprayed again.                                    use only as an early-season knockdown herbicide. It
                                                               does not kill branched broomrape directly, due to its
Where heavy weed growth is present at spraying a               inability to transfer through plant root systems. It is
better seed bed will result if cultivation is delayed          not on the approved list of herbicides for
three to five days to obtain maximum root release.             reimbursement.

      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                        3:10
Lontrel + knockdown
60g Lontrel + knockdown herbicide - pre-sowing.
(Used only in tank mixtures with formulations of
paraquat/diquat or glyphosate)
Target hosts - capeweed, vetch (up to eight leaf
and maximum of 10cm diameter)
Also affected: volunteer faba beans, sub clover.
120 - 240g Lontrel - post-sowing, pre-emergence to
three leaf. Rates of 120 to 240g should give good
suppression (reduced seed set and up to 80% weed
control). 240g is required for good
control of capeweed and sub clover.
Apply to moist soil and time treatment for major
germination of weeds. Good soil moisture and
application timing close to weed germination is
essential for best control.
Target hosts - capeweed, sub clover.
Also affected: volunteer faba beans.




      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                   3:11
Cereals
        Broomrape                 Maximum control             Broadleaf            Good agronomy - some risk
        herbicides                   strategies               herbicides                 if used alone
 •   Glean (10-20g)           •    Continuous           •     Lontrel             •   Single or double
 •   Logran (15-35g)               cereals with         •     Diuron                  knockdown herbicides prior
                                   Group B                                            to sowing
 •   Ally (5g)                     herbicides           •     Bromicide 200
                                                                                  •   Use of non-Group B
 •   Eclipse 7g + MCPA                                  •     Jaguar                  broadleaf herbicides only
 •   Midas 900mL (on                                    •     LVE MCPA            •   Early weed control is
     Clearfield wheat)                                  •     2,4-D ester             essential to stop large
 •   *Broadstrike 25g                                   •     LV ester                uncontrollable weeds in
     applied at 700GDD                                                                crop and reduce problems
     to 1000GDD                                         •     2,4-D amine
                                                                                      with Rhizoctonia
                                                        •     MCPA 500
                                                                                  •   These herbicides do not
                                                        •     Broomrape               control broomrape,
                                                              herbicides              therefore 100% weed
                                                                                      control is necessary.



*Herbicide may fail to control broomrape in the presence of cretan weed



Herbicide options
Post-emergents                                              Logran
Ally                                                        • 15-35g Logran
• 5g Ally                                                   Apply pre-sowing or post emergent when the
                                                            crop is at the 3 leaf to early tillering stage and
Target hosts - volunteer lupins, medic, salvation           weeds at the 2-6 leaf stage.
Jane, skeleton weed (suppression only), long
fruited turnip.                                             Target hosts - cretan weed, capeweed, wild
                                                            turnip, salvation jane

Ally mixtures
                                                            Diuron 500SC + MCPA 500
• 5g Ally + 500mL Diuron 500SC + 350mL
    MCPA 500                                                • 500mL Diuron 500SC + 350mL MCPA 500
Apply when crop is at the 3 to 5 leaf stage                 Apply when crop is at the 3 to 5 leaf stage.
(Zadoks 13-15), and weeds are at the 2 to 5 leaf            Weeds must be in the 3 to 5 leaf stage. Do not
stage.                                                      spray if rain is imminent. Do not apply to under-
                                                            sown medic or lucerne.
Target host – capeweed.
                                                            Target hosts – capeweed, long fruited turnip.
• 5g Ally + 700mL MCPA LVE
                                                            Also affected: mustard, three-cornered jack,
Apply when crop is 4 to 5 leaf to 1st node stage            turnip weed, wild radish, Ward’s weed, common
and weeds are young rosettes up to 8 true leaves            iceplant, pimpernel.
and growing actively. Use BS1000 with tank mix.

                                                            Bromicide 200
Glean
                                                            • 1.4L Bromicide 200
• 10-20g Glean
                                                            Apply when crop is at the 3 leaf to full tillered
Apply pre-sowing for the control of broadleaf               (Zadoks 13-30) stage. Weeds must be up to the
weeds.                                                      4 leaf stage and no more than 3.5cm in diameter.
Target host – cretan weed, capeweed, wild                   • 2L Bromicide 200
turnip, salvation jane

      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                3:12
Apply when crop is at the 3 leaf to full tillered                • 60g Lontrel
(Zadoks 13-30) stage. Weeds can be sprayed
                                                                 Apply when crop is early post-emergence; two leaf
up to the 6 leaf stage and no more than 5cm in
                                                                 to 1st node.
diameter.
                                                                 Target host - volunteer field peas (maximum 10cm
Target hosts - cretan weed, capeweed, wild turnip,
                                                                 high or 6 nodes).
salvation jane.
                                                                 • 40g Lontrel
Also affected: sheepweed, variegated thistle,
fumitories                                                       Apply when crop is early post-emergence; two leaf
                                                                 to 1st node, and weed has runners up to 10cm up
Jaguar                                                           to a maximum of 16 leaf stage.
• 1L Jaguar                                                      Target host - volunteer vetch
Apply when crop is at the 2 leaf to full tillered
                                                                 Lontrel mixes
(Zadoks 12-29) stage. Weeds can be sprayed up
to the 8 leaf stage or less than 18cm in diameter.               • 40g Lontrel + 5g Ally + 500mL MCPA LVE
Target hosts - cretan weed, capeweed, wild turnip,               Apply when crop is 4 to 5 leaf up to 1st
salvation jane.                                                  node stage.
Also affected: sheepweed, wild radish, fat hen,                  Target hosts - capeweed (up to 4 leaf, 10cm
variegated thistle,                                              diameter), cretan weed.
                                                                 • 40g Lontrel + 750mL Tigrex
Midas
                                                                 Apply when crop is three leaf to 1st node stage,
• 900ml Midas
                                                                 but not on barley.
Apply when crop is at the 4 leaf stage (Zadoks 14) to
                                                                 Target host - capeweed (up to 4 leaf,
commencement of flag leaf stage (Zadoks 37).
                                                                 10cm diameter)
Grass weeds must be at the 3 leaf to 2 tillers stage
and broadleaf weeds at the 2-6 leaf stage.                       • 20g Lontrel + 1L MCPA 500
Weeds will be either killed or will be stunted and               Lontrel rate will depend on density, growth stage,
uncompetitive with the crop.                                     climatic conditions and time of application. Use up to
Target hosts - capeweed, salvation jane, wild turnip             40g Lontrel for best control where high density
Also affected: annual ryegrass, barley grass, brome              and/or large weeds occur. Apply from 4 to 5 leaf to
                                                                 1st node crop stage.
grass, mustard, wild radish
                                                                 Target host - stemless thistles (rosettes up to
                                                                 10cm maximum diameter).
Lontrel
                                                                 Also affected: other thistles including nodding,
• 120g Lontrel
                                                                 saffron, scotch, slender, spear and variegated.
Apply when crop is early post-emergence; two leaf
to 1st node. Weeds should be young, actively                     Broadstrike
growing and not larger than listed size. Weeds will
                                                                 • 25g Broadstrike
become stunted and non-competitive soon after
application but final results may not show for                   Apply when wheat is at three leaf until start of jointing
some weeks.                                                      (Zadoks 13-31) or barley, oats, triticale and cereal
                                                                 rye are at mid tillering to start of jointing (Zadoks 23-
Target hosts - capeweed (up to 10cm diameter; 4
                                                                 31). Long fruited turnip can be sprayed up to 10 leaf
to 8 leaf), cretan weed.
                                                                 and up to 10cm diameter.
Also affected: soldier thistle, St Barnaby’s thistle. •
                                                                 Always apply with a 100% concentrate non-ionic
60-80g Lontrel                                                   wetting agent such as BS1000 at 100mL/100L or
                                                                 Uptake Spraying Oil at 500mL/100L.
Apply when crop is early post-emergence; two leaf
to 1st node. For best control of hairy-leaved                    In barley and oats use only with a wetting agent
medics such as snail medic, add 500mL Uptake                     such as BS1000.
Spraying Oil/100L water.
                                                                 Transient stem shortening and crop discolouration
Target hosts - volunteer medic, seedling lucerne.                may occur, although yields are normally unaffected.


      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                          3:13
Where barley and oats are under-sown a vigorous                  Eclipse mixtures
legume component may lengthen the time needed
                                                                 •       5-7g Eclipse + 350-500mL MCPA ester
for the cereal to recover, especially if the cereal is
stressed by moisture, trace element deficiency                   Apply when crop is at three leaf to 1st node stage
or disease. In severe cases yields may be                        (Zadoks 13-31). Weeds will be controlled up to
suppressed.                                                      eight leaf or 15cm diameter.
Target hosts - long fruited turnip, capeweed                     Use with Uptake at 500mL/100L water or a
(registered WA only), volunteer lupins.                          non-ionic wetter such as BS1000 at 100mL/100L
                                                                 water. Use the higher rates of Eclipse + MCPA
Also affected: ball mustard, Buchan weed, white ball
                                                                 where the weed populations are high or growing
mustard, charlock, hedge mustard, Indian
                                                                 conditions are less than ideal.
hedge mustard, pheasant’s eye, shepherd’s purse,
three-horned bedstraw, three-cornered jack, turnip               Target hosts - long fruited turnip, volunteer canola. •
weed, volunteer canola, ward’s weed, wild radish,                5-7g Eclipse + 350-500mL MCPA ester +
wireweed, yellow burrweed.                                         100mL Lontrel
Buctril MA                                                       Apply when crop is at three leaf to 1st node stage
                                                                 (Zadoks 13-31). Long fruited turnip and volunteer
• 1.4 - 2L Buctril MA
                                                                 canola will be controlled up to eight leaf or 15cm
Five leaf to fully tillered crop stage for rates of 2L.          diameter, capeweed up to four leaf stage, volunteer
                                                                 medics up to six leaf, 5cm diameter, volunteer peas
Target hosts - (plants up to the 6 leaf stage but
                                                                 up to six nodes, and volunteer vetch up to four
not more than 5cm in diameter) capeweed, corn
                                                                 branch, 10cm diameter. On larger weeds refer to the
gromwell (sheep weed), salvation Jane, long
                                                                 Lontrel and MCPA ester labels.
fruited turnip.
                                                                 Target hosts - long fruited turnip, volunteer canola,
Also affected: yellow burr weed, chamomile,
charlock, fat hen, field madder, Hexham scent,                   capeweed, volunteer medics, peas and vetch.
horned poppy, Indian hedge mustard, lesser                       • 5-7g Eclipse + 500-700mL Buctril MA +
swinecress, Mexican poppy, mintweed, rough                          100mL Lontrel
poppy, saffron thistle, shepherd’s purse, slender
                                                                 Apply when crop is at three leaf to 1st node stage
thistles, tree hogweed, turnip weed, wild radish,
                                                                 (Zadoks 13-31). Long fruited turnip and volunteer
long fruited turnip.                                             canola will be controlled up to eight leaf or 15cm
                                                                 diameter, capeweed up to four leaf stage, volunteer
Eclipse
                                                                 medics up to six leaf, 5cm diameter, volunteer peas
• 7g Eclipse                                                     up to six nodes, volunteer vetch up to four branch,
Apply when crop is at two leaf to 1st node stage                 10cm diameter, and sheep weed up to four leaf,
(Zadoks 12-31). Medics will be controlled up to five             5cm diameter.
leaf stage, peas up to seven node stage, and long                Use with Uptake or a non-ionic wetter such as
fruited turnip up to eight leaf or 15cm diameter.                BS1000. To control sheep weed only, use 5-7g
Use with Uptake at 500mL/100L water or                           Eclipse + 500-700mL Buctril MA. Use the higher
D-C-Trate at 1L/100L water on high weed                          rates of Eclipse + Buctril MA where weed
populations (greater than 100 plants/m2) or on                   populations are high or growing conditions are less
lower populations when competition is poor.                      than ideal. On larger weeds refer to the Lontrel and
Alternatively use a non-ionic wetter such as                     Buctril MA labels.
BS1000 at 100mL/100L water on low populations                    Target hosts - long fruited turnip, volunteer canola,
(less than 100 plants/m2) where crop competition                 capeweed, volunteer medics, peas, vetch, and
is good.                                                         sheep weed.
Target hosts - volunteer medics*, volunteer peas*,
long fruited turnip.
* Eclipse will give useful suppression on medics
  and peas.




      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                          3:14
Canola                                                 Use trifluralin when sowing and Intervix herbicide
To maximise the benefits from canola production        in-crop as early as provided for in the label
opportunities in the mallee it is important to meet    recommendations.
the crop’s nutritional needs and match inputs to
the available moisture and crop development            Intervix is a group B herbicide that has some
stages.                                                residual activity in the soil but, unlike Glean and
                                                       Logran, breaks down faster in high pH soils
Canola can host branched broomrape, but                provided there is sufficient moisture.
Clearfield canola which is able to be sprayed by
Intervix, a Group B herbicide, can provide             Cereals and pasture legumes can be sown eight
effective broomrape control.                           months after spraying Intervix provided at least
                                                       250mm of rainfall has been received between
Intervix provides effective control of branched        spraying and sowing.
broomrape and many of the weeds that host it.
Trial work in 2009 has shown that Intervix can         If dry conditions makes it necessary to delay
prevent broomrape emergence at rates as low as         sowing until the second season after using
300ml/ha. NB further testing is required.              Intervix, Clearfield wheat can be sown safely,
Consequently, Clearfield canola can provide a          though neither variety yields well in low rainfall
disease or weed control break in a cereal rotation     conditions. Using lower rates of Intervix for
in broomrape-infested paddocks. It can also be a       broomrape control will help to reduce the
profitable crop given a season with good stored        incidence of herbicide carryover in subsequent
soil moisture and early opening rains.                 years.

Early maturing Clearfield varieties are                If grasses are a problem use a grass-selective
recommended for the broomrape quarantine               herbicide.
area.

Canola, which has low seedling vigour, may seem
difficult to grow but is a vigorous crop with a
tremendous ability to compensate for poor plant
density and presents few problems once it is
established.

Correct establishment is the key to success and
the keys to good establishment are correct seed
placement, fertiliser application and pest
management.

Canola will grow in most soil types but will
perform better in more fertile soils, with good
wheat country also good for canola. Sandy soils
will require greater inputs, particularly sulphur.

Canola is best sown into standing stubble
because seedlings are very susceptible to
sandblasting. Worked paddocks increase the risk
of seedlings being damaged by drifting soil.

Canola has a long growing season and is best
sown as early as possible, especially in lowrainfall
areas, so risk increases with time of sowing.

Canola seedlings are sensitive to weed
competition so it is important to control weeds
prior to sowing.

      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                3:15
Clearfield (CF) Canola
            Broomrape               Maximum control                  Broadleaf       Good agronomy - some
            herbicides                 strategies                    herbicides        risk if used alone
    •     Intervix 300-750mL    •   Grow CF canola or            •   Lontrel 60g     •   Use knockdown
                                    mustard varieties and                                herbicides prior to
                                    use Intervix herbicide                               sowing



Intervix
                                                             Lontrel
•        300-750mL Intervix + Hasten or Kwickin at
        0.5L/100L spray volume.                              •   60g Lontrel + 600mL Intervix.

Apply to crops in the 2 to 6 leaf stage. Apply early         Use at two to eight leaf crop stage. Where
post-emergence to actively growing grass weeds               capeweed is a significant component of the weed
in the 3 leaf to 2 tiller stage and broadleaf weeds          spectrum a tank-mix of Lontrel 750 SG may be
in the 2 to 6 leaf stage.                                    needed post-emergence. Do NOT exceed this
Target hosts - medics (suppression only),                    rate as reduced control of grass weeds may
salvation Jane, sheep weed (corn gromwell), long             occur.
fruited turnip, volunteer vetch (suppression only).          Target hosts – capeweed (up to six leaf), cretan
Also affected: yellow burr weed, annual ryegrass,            weed.
barley grass, bedstraw, brome grass, climbing
buckwheat, clover, crassula, deadnettle, fumitory,
hedge mustard, Indian hedge mustard, London
rocket, phalaris, shepherd’s purse, silver grass
(suppression only), storksbill (suppression only),
three-cornered jack, toadrush, volunteer barley,
volunteer canola (other than varieties with
Clearfield technology), volunteer wheat,
wireweed, wild oats, volunteer oats, wild radish.




           Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                     3:16
Legume Break Crops
Field Peas

       Broomrape                Maximum control                                     Good agronomy - some
                                                       Broadleaf herbicides
       herbicides                  strategies                                         risk if used alone
 •   *Raptor 45g (not       •    Spinnaker 70g         •   Diuron 500SC            •   If non-Group B
     on Parafield or             (Alma, Dundale            (post-sow, pre-             herbicides are used,
     Alma)                       only)                     emergent)                   Parafield, Kaspa or
 •   *Spinnaker 70g         •    Raptor 45g (Alma      •   Brodal Options              Alma peas are the
                                 0-10% yield loss,         150mL + MCPA                preferred varieties
                                 Dundale only)             amine 150mL (Alma       •   Control broadleaf
                                                           peas only)                  weeds prior to sowing
                                                       •   Bladex 1.1kg (post-
                                                           sowing, pre-
                                                           emergent), 1.7kg
                                                           pre-sowing (careful
                                                           on sands)
                                                       •   Metribuzin (careful
                                                           on sands)



*Herbicide may fail to control broomrape in the presence of cretan weed



Bladex 500SC                                               Post-emergence: apply from second node until
• 3 to 4L Bladex 500SC                                     the appearance of first flower buds. Use the
                                                           higher rate on heavier soil types. DO NOT apply
Pre-sowing: Apply between 14 days before and               post-emergence to Wirrega field peas.
up to sowing. Use the higher rate on heavier soil
types. Where annual ryegrass and wireweed are              Target hosts – capeweed, sow thistle, long
                                                           fruited turnip.
a major problem add trifluralin at recommended
rates.                                                     Also affected: annual ryegrass, blackberry
                                                           nightshade, chickweed, crassula, deadnettle,
Target hosts – capeweed, sow thistle, long                 mouse ear chickweed, prickly lettuce, rough
fruited turnip.                                            poppy, three-cornered jack, stagger weed,
Also affected: annual ryegrass, blackberry                 stinging nettle, turnip weed, wild mustard.
nightshade, chickweed, crassula, deadnettle,
mouse ear chickweed, prickly lettuce, rough
poppy, three-cornered jack, stagger weed,                  Broadstrike
stinging nettle, turnip weed, wild mustard.                • 25g Broadstrike
• 2-3L Bladex 500SC                                        Apply when peas are at 2 to 6 nodes (no later
Post-sowing/pre-emergence: apply from                      than six weeks after emergence). DO NOT use
immediately after sowing to one week after                 any spray additives or tank mix any other
sowing. Use the higher rate on heavier soil types.         chemicals with Broadstrike when using on field
                                                           peas.
Target hosts – capeweed, sow thistle, long
fruited turnip.                                            Long fruited turnip will be affected up to six leaf
                                                           and 5cm in diameter. Capeweed will be
Also affected: annual ryegrass, blackberry
                                                           suppressed under ideal growing conditions.
nightshade, chickweed, crassula, deadnettle,
mouse ear chickweed, prickly lettuce, rough                Best results will be achieved when a pre-
poppy, three-cornered jack, stagger weed,                  emergence herbicide has already been used.
stinging nettle, turnip weed, wild mustard.                DO NOT apply to any crops affected by disease
• 1.5-2L Bladex 500SC                                      or previous herbicide treatment (eg triazines or

      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2009 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                3:17
sulphonylureas). Broadstrike may cause transient                   Also affected: hedge mustard, Indian hedge
crop yellowing and height suppression. On light                    mustard, wild radish.
soils in dry seasons flowering may be delayed,                     Also suppressed: yellow burr weed, crassula,
resulting in yield suppression.                                    marshmallow, shepherd’s purse, chickweed,
Target hosts - long fruited turnip, capeweed                       hyssop loosestrife, mouse-eared chickweed,
(suppression only).                                                night-scented stock, rough poppy, sorrel,
                                                                   speedwell, toadrush, wireweed.
Also affected: yellow burrweed, ball mustard, Indian
hedge mustard.
                                                                 MCPA 500
Brodal Options                                                   • 700mL MCPA 500
                                                                   Apply when crop is 10 to 15cm high. Do not
• 150mL Brodal Options
                                                                   apply after flowering has started. MCPA may
   Apply to the crop early post-emergence; after the               delay crop maturity by up to two weeks. Some
   3rd node stage and before the start of flowering.               cultivars may be susceptible, so apply to small
   Long fruited turnip can be sprayed up to the four               trial area first. Long fruited turnip must be
   leaf stage and not more than 12cm in diameter.                  sprayed early (up to rosette stage).
   Warning: Field peas grown on high pH soils in
                                                                   Target hosts - long fruited turnip, volunteer lupins
   the presence of free lime may be less tolerant to
                                                                   (registered NSW/ACT only).
   Brodal Options.
   Where weeds are present at application, good                    Also affected: charlock, hedge mustard, Lincoln
   spray coverage is important. Apply before the                   weed, pimpernel, scotch and variegated thistle.
   crop canopy obscures weeds. Weed control may
   be reduced in areas where trash or burnt straw                Raptor
   from previous harvest is dense, such as in                    • 45g + BS1000 or equivalent at 200mL/100L
   header trails. Best results will be obtained if there is         water.
   good soil moisture at and after application.
                                                                   Do not apply to field peas beyond the 4-node
   Target host - long fruited turnip
                                                                   stage. DO NOT use adjuvants other than
   Also affected: hedge mustard, Indian hedge                      BS1000 or equivalent. Apply to actively growing
   mustard, wild radish.                                           broadleaf weeds in the cotyledon to three leaf
• 200mL Brodal Options                                             stage. Apply to grass weeds up to the two tiller
                                                                   stage. Good crop growth will aid weed control.
   Apply to the crop early post-emergence after the                Weeds may not be totally controlled but
   3rd node stage and before the start of flowering.               populations will be significantly reduced and
   Long fruited turnip can be sprayed up to the four               surviving plants will generally be severely retarded
   leaf stage and not more than 12cm in diameter.                  and will not compete with good crop growth.
   Capeweed, sheep weed (corn gromwell) and
   skeleton weed will be suppressed when up to                     Refer to crop safety section of label. Refer to
   six-leaf stage and not more than 18cm in                        FOLLOW CROPS sections of this label regarding
   diameter. Salvation Jane will be suppressed                     following crops.
   up to two leaf stage and not more than 6cm                      The withholding period for grazing or cutting for
   in diameter.                                                    stock food in peas is six weeks after application.
   Warning: Field peas grown on high pH soils in
                                                                   Target hosts - long fruited turnip, volunteer
   the presence of free lime may be less tolerant to
                                                                   lupins.
   Brodal Options.
   Where weeds are present at application good                     Also affected: barley grass, brome grass,
   spray coverage is important. Apply before weeds                 deadnettle, hedge mustard, turnip weed,
   are obscured by the crop canopy. Weed control                   volunteer barley, volunteer oats, volunteer
   may be reduced in areas where trash or burnt                    triticale, volunteer wheat, wild oats, *shepherd’s
   straw from previous harvest is dense, such as in                purse, *three-cornered jack, *three horn
                                                                   bedstraw, *wild radish, *wireweed.
   header trails. Best results will be obtained if there
   is good soil moisture at and after application.                 Do not spray on Alma, Excell or Parafield
   Target hosts - long fruited turnip, suppression                 pea varieties.
   of capeweed, sheep weed (corn gromwell),                      * Surviving plants will generally be retarded and will
   salvation Jane and skeleton weed.                               not compete with good crop growth.
      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                          3:18
Spinnaker
70g Spinnaker + non-ionic surfactant (BS1000) at
200mL/100L water.
Apply to actively growing weeds in the cotyledon to
three leaf stage. Weeds may not be totally
controlled but populations will be significantly
reduced and surviving plants will generally be
severely retarded. Good crop growth will aid weed
control. Refer to the FOLLOW CROP section of
this label regarding follow crops.
Target - branched broomrape.
Also affected: deadnettle, hare’s ear, Indian hedge
mustard, toadrush.




      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                      3:19
Vetch

      Broomrape               Maximum control                                Good agronomy - some
                                                     Broadleaf herbicides
      herbicides                 strategies                                    risk if used alone
 •   Glyphosate           •    Remove the vetch •      Lexone 180g           •   Control weeds prior to
                               crop with a high   •    Bladex 1.1kg (post-       sowing.
                               rate of glyphosate      sowing, pre-          •   Broadleaf herbicides
                               after 1000GDD           emergent), 1.7kg          on their own will not
                               and before              pre-sowing (careful       prevent attachment to
                               1300GDD.                on sands)                 vetch but will prevent
                          •    Spray any vetch                                   attachment to
                               variety with 500mL                                broadleaf weeds.
                               glyphosate and 5g
                               Ally after
                               1000GDD and
                               before 1300GDD
                               and graze heavily
                               or green manure.




Bladex 500SC                                          Lexone
2-3L Bladex 500SC                                     180g Lexone on light sandy soils to 280g Lexone
Post-sowing/pre-emergence: apply from                 on medium soils such as loams and silt plus 40-
immediately after sowing until one week after         60% clay.
sowing. Use the higher rate on heavier soil types.    Apply post-sowing pre-emergence only and when
Post-emergence application will result in crop        crop is at least 5cm deep. DO NOT apply post-
damage.                                               emergence as crop injury will occur.
Target hosts – capeweed, sow thistle, long            Weeds should be from pre-emergence to three
fruited turnip.                                       leaf stage except wireweed which should not be
Also affected: annual ryegrass, blackberry            beyond the cotyledon stage. Best results for
nightshade, chickweed, crassula, deadnettle,          grass and wireweed control are obtained when
mouse ear chickweed, prickly lettuce, rough           rain or irrigation follows within a few days of
poppy, three-cornered jack, stagger weed,             spraying.
stinging nettle, turnip weed, wild mustard.           Target hosts – capeweed, sheep weed, sow
                                                      thistle, long fruited turnip.
                                                      Also affected: catsear, charlock, chickweed,
                                                      common cotula, corn spurry, creeping speedwell,
                                                      dogweed, deadnettle, dock seedlings, fat-hen,
                                                      field madder, fumitory, hare’s ear, heliotrope,
                                                      horehound, Indian hedge mustard, lesser
                                                      swinecress, mountain sorrel, rough poppy,
                                                      scarlet pimpernel, wireweed..




     Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2009 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                               3:20
Cereal Hay
       Broomrape                Maximum control                                  Good agronomy - some
                                                       Broadleaf herbicides
       herbicides                  strategies                                      risk if used alone
 •   Glean (10-20g)         •    Straight cereal       •   Lontrel               •   Straight cereal hay
 •   Logran (15-35g)             hay can be            •   Diuron                    can be sprayed with a
                                 sprayed with a                                      non-Group B broadleaf
 •   Ally (5g)                   Group B herbicide.    •   Bromicide 200             herbicide
 •   *Broadstrike 25g            Only use              •   Jaguar                •   A single or double
                                 Broadstrike if it     •   LVE MCPA                  knockdown is
                                 can be applied
                                                       •   2,4-D ester               recommended prior to
                                 between 700 –                                       sowing
                                 1000GDD for           •   LV ester
                                 broomrape control     •   2,4-D amine
                                                       •   MCPA 500
                                                       •   Broomrape
                                                           herbicides



*Herbicide may fail to control broomrape in the presence of cretan weed




       Broomrape                Maximum control                                  Good agronomy - some
                                                       Broadleaf herbicides
       herbicides                  strategies                                      risk if used alone
 •   Glyphosate 1L          •    Spray the hay         •   Diuron in oats &      •   A single or double
                                 crop one day prior        vetch (post-sowing,       knockdown herbicide
                                 to cutting                pre-emergent)             is recommended prior
                            •    Apply glyphosate                                    to sowing
                                 before 1300GDD



Mixed Hay (Cereal + Vetch)
Diuron
850mL Diuron
In wheat and barley sown at least 5cm deep.
Spray when the crop has reached the 2-4 leaf
stage. Spray when weeds have germinated and
are at the 2-4 leaf stage, are actively growing and
are less than 6 weeks old.




      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                3:21
Lupins

       Broomrape                Maximum control                      Broadleaf           Good agronomy – some
       herbicides                  strategies                        herbicides             risk if used alone

 • Eclipse 7g (no adju-      • Apply simazine and               • Diflufenican           • Apply simazine
   vants or mixes)             Eclipse to lupins                  (Brodal 200mL)           pre-sowing and Brodal
                                                                • Simazine 1.25L           post-sowing to lupins



Brodal Options                                                    be obtained if there is good soil moisture at and
                                                                  after application.
• 150mL Brodal Options
                                                                  Target hosts – long fruited turnip, suppression
 Apply to the crop early post-emergence after the                 of capeweed, sheep weed (corn gromwell),
 3rd node stage and before the start of flowering.                salvation Jane and skeleton weed.
 Long fruited turnip can be sprayed up to the four
 leaf stage and not more than 12cm in diameter.                   Also affected: hedge mustard, Indian hedge
                                                                  mustard, wild radish.
 Warning: Field peas grown on high pH soils in
 the presence of free lime may be less tolerant to                Also suppressed: yellow burr weed, crassula,
 Brodal Options.                                                  marshmallow, shepherd’s purse, chickweed,
                                                                  hyssop loosestrife, mouse-eared chickweed,
 Where weeds are present at application good                      night-scented stock, rough poppy, sorrel,
 spray coverage is important. Apply before the                    speedwell, toadrush, wireweed.
 crop canopy obscures weeds. Weed control may
 be reduced in areas where trash or burnt straw                 Eclipse
 from previous harvest is dense, such as in
 header trails. Best results will be obtained if there          7g Eclipse (no adjuvants or mixes)
 is good soil moisture at and after application.                Spray when the lupins are at the two to 10 leaf
 Target host – long fruited turnip.                             stage. Weeds should be up to eight leaf and up to
                                                                20cm diameter. Crop oils, wetters, surfactants,
 Also affected: hedge mustard, Indian hedge                     insecticides or grass herbicides should not be
 mustard, wild radish.                                          mixed with Eclipse as unacceptable crop damage
                                                                may occur.
• 200mL Brodal Options
                                                                Delay application of Eclipse until all major
 Apply to the crop early post-emergence after the               germinations have occurred which is normally
 3rd node stage and before the start of flowering.              when the majority of weeds are at the four leaf
 Long fruited turnip can be sprayed up to the four              stage (6-8 weeks after sowing). A minimum of
 leaf stage and not more than 12cm in diameter.                 10 days should elapse between application of
 Capeweed, sheep weed (corn gromwell) and                       grass herbicide and Eclipse.
 skeleton weed will be suppressed when up to six
                                                                Lupins should be actively growing at the time of
 leaf stage and not more than 18cm in diameter.
                                                                treatment with no evidence of brown leaf spot
 Salvation Jane will be suppressed up to two leaf
                                                                or insect damage. A slight yellowing (often
 stage and not more than 6cm in diameter.
                                                                accompanied by a height reduction) may be
 Warning: Field peas grown on high pH soils in                  noticeable from one to four weeks after application.
 the presence of free lime may be less tolerant to              This is transient and does not reduce yield.
 Brodal Options.                                                Avoid spraying double overlaps.
 Where weeds are present at application, good                   Merrit variety only: DO NOT spray beyond the
 spray coverage of the weeds is important. Apply                eight leaf stage. Under conditions of growth stress,
 before weeds are obscured by the crop canopy.                  crop damage and reduced yields may result.
 Weed control may be reduced in areas where
                                                                Target – branched broomrape.
 trash or burnt straw from previous harvest is
 dense, such as in header trails. Best results will             Also affected: wild radish.


     Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                         3:22
Flowable Gesatop 500 SC
1.25 – 1.7L on light soils,
Can be applied up to a week before sowing, or
post-sowing pre-emergent (ideally incorporated
by harrows). Best results are achieved when
application is made to bare moist soil and when
sufficient rain to wet soil through to the weed root
zone (2-3cm) occurs within two to three weeks
of application.
Results can be variable if seasonal conditions are
dry prior to sowing and lupins are sown into a dry
or low moisture seedbed.
Heavy, intense rainfall after application can cause
crop damage.
Do not apply to ridged or excessively cloddy soils.
Apply 50 to 100L of spray/ha.
Use a tank mix of Gesatop and 1L of a 400g/L
trifluralin where annual ryegrass and wild oats are
the major problem. Incorporate the tank mixture to
a depth of 5cm just prior to sowing. Incorporation
of the tank mixture should be within four hours
of application.
Target hosts – capeweed, salvation Jane, sheep
weed, long fruited turnip.
Also affected: annual ryegrass, barley grass,
fumitories, geraniums, ivy-leaf speedwell,
mustards, shepherd’s purse, turnip weed
and winter grass.
Suppressed: wild oats, brome grass and soursob.




     Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                       3:23
                                                                   District-practice medic pastures in low rainfall areas
Livestock                                                          are typically low-input and often weedy, with low
                                                                   medic production and poor nodulation. These factors
The impact of livestock on the spread or containment               contribute to poor nitrogen fixation and low
of broomrape seeds is difficult to measure.                        productivity and increase the risk of branched
                                                                   broomrape emergence.
However, studies have shown that seeds can travel
through the gut of sheep and remain viable, so relying             Such pastures may be costing farmers money
on grazing to control branched broomrape on its own                through lost income-generating opportunities, rather
is not a useful management tool. It is possible that if            than providing the benefits for which they are being
sheep ingest branched broomrape seeds they can                     grown.
actually cause further spread across a paddock once
the seeds have passed through.                                     Like a crop
And branched broomrape seeds can stay attached, to                 To get maximum benefit from a pasture, treat it like a
the fleece and feet of sheep for an indefinite period of           crop.
time.
                                                                   A well-managed pasture given the same care and
This means it is important to try and prevent branched             attention as a crop will provide all the benefits claimed
broomrape emergence and minimise the chance of                     for pastures: weed control, disease control, nitrogen
seed set and the chance of animals coming into                     contribution, organic matter input and more sheep
contact with seeds.                                                feed.
Non-arable infested areas should be sprayed from the               It will also minimise the potential for branched
air with an appropriate herbicide rather than be left              broomrape emergence.
untreated or grazed as the only means of
management.                                                        Good weed and insect control, with adequate
                                                                   fertiliser and appropriate grazing management, will
                                                                   increase medic seed set potential sufficiently to
Pastures                                                           replenish the seed bank without the need for re-
                                                                   sowing.
Growing good medic pastures maximises the benefits                 Aim for 100 medic burrs per 25cm x 25cm quadrat in
from the pasture phase while preventing broomrape                  late March. This will provide enough seed for a dense
emergence.                                                         regenerating medic stand in winter and allow for false
                                                                   breaks
Every year that the branched broomrape quarantine
area has been surveyed between 40% and 70% of
branched broomrape infestations were found in                      Best-practice management
pasture, indicating improved pasture management is                 The following guidelines are good pasture-
vital for farmers working their way out of quarantine.             management practice whether or not broomrape is
Preventing broomrape emergence in pasture depends                  an issue:
on eliminating broadleaf weeds and preventing                      • Ensure good medic density.
attachment to medic, which is a potential – but not
favoured – host of the parasite.                                   • Ensure adequate phosphorus (P).
                                                                   • Medics need P for nodulation and growth. An
Management the key                                                   application of P fertiliser may stimulate growth and
                                                                     seed set.
Observations at the branched broomrape trial site
indicate branched broomrape doesn’t attach to the                  • Soil test pasture paddocks to determine P
newer barrel medics when they are in dense, strongly                 availability and apply fertiliser where levels are low.
growing stands.
                                                                   • Ensure zinc levels are adequate.
However, it does attach to host weeds growing in
                                                                   • Control weed
medic stands, so it is important to control weeds and
encourage good medic growth to maximize the
benefits of the pasture and minimise the risk of
broomrape emergence.

     Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – Management Strategies & Considerations

                                                           3: 24
Controlling broadleaf and grass weeds is essential for
productive pastures. Dense legume pastures provide                 Managing branched
maximum grazing for livestock.                                     broomrape-infested pasture
Weedy pastures cause problems. In addition to                      paddocks
competing with the pasture:
                                                                   Lay the foundations with good pasture management,
• Grass weeds carry-over root disease to the                       as outlined above.
  following cereal crop.
                                                                   Build on that with appropriate herbicide applications
• Grass seed set in the pasture phase increases                    as set out in your farm plan to control branched
  competition in the following crop.                               broomrape.
• Broadleaf weeds compete with the pasture and, in                 There are two herbicide options for Level 4 (infested)
  the broomrape area, introduce the risk of                        paddocks carrying medic pasture:
  broomrape attachment and emergence.
                                                                    Selective.
Spray-graze or hayfreeze to control broadleaf weeds.
Spray grazing is cost-effective and will sweeten up                   Use Raptor or Broadstrike* at maximum label
weeds so livestock preferentially graze them,                         rates to take broadleaf weeds out of medic.
increasing the chance of reducing seed set. Long                        * Broadstrike alone is not effective against
fruited turnip, a preferred host of broomrape, is easily                  cretan weed.
removed with spray grazing.
                                                                    Non-selective.
Grazing management                                                    Use glyphosate to spray out the medic stand and
                                                                      any weeds in it. Always spray-top with glyphosate
Correct grazing management will maximise medic                        after spray-graze to ensure total weed control.
seed production and control weeds.
Start grazing as soon as the medic has six leaves                  Growers taking the non-selective option need to:
(plants 2.5 to 3cm in height) and the ground is                     • ensure they have enough feed for their stock once
covered.                                                              the pasture is no longer available.
Maintain consistent grazing pressure during winter                  • make sure spray-grazed paddocks are not
and spring. Don’t let the pasture get away and don’t                  exposed to soil erosion.
“crash graze” (graze heavily after a long spell).
Keep pasture height at three to six centimeters during
winter.                                                              Grazing benchmarks for
During spring, increase grazing pressure so the                      medic pastures
pasture doesn’t become rank. Aim to keep pasture
height to 6 to 10cm.                                                   • Early winter – start grazing at 6-leaf stage,
                                                                         when pasture height reaches 2.5-3cm
Consistent, relatively hard grazing pressure while the                   [approx 1,000 kg/ha of dry matter].
soil is still moist will promote leaf and runner
production and produce more flowers. Crash grazing                     • Winter – maintain at 3 to 6 cm [1,200 –
will remove flowers.                                                     1,700 kg/ha].

To ensure good seed set reduce the grazing pressure                    • Spring – maintain at 6 to 10 cm [2,000 –
or remove the stock as soon as the season dries off.                     3,000 kg/ha].
Livestock can be transferred to spray-topped grass                     • Reduce stock pressure (or remove stock)
pastures or used to put extra pressure on weedy                          during seed set.
paddocks.
                                                                       • Monitor burr removal in late
When seed set is complete and the medic burrs have                       summer/autumn.
hardened, livestock can be re-introduced but should
be removed once they start eating medic burr.                          • Aim for 100 burrs per 25cm x 25cm
                                                                         quadrat in late March.



      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – Management Strategies & Considerations

                                                           3: 25
Annual Pastures
      Broomrape                 Maximum control                                       Good agronomy – some
                                                            Broadleaf herbicides
      herbicides                   strategies                                           risk if used alone

•    *Broadstrike (no       •   Apply Broadstrike          •     Broadstrike (if no   •   Improving current
     Cretan weed)               from 700GDD until                Cretan weed) 25g.        medic density (at least
     25g                        1000GDD.                         Apply early when         30% required)
                                                                 broadleaf weeds
•    *Raptor 45g            •   A second                                              •   Sowing newer
                                                                 are small for host
                                application of                                            varieties (barrel medic)
•    Glyphosate                                                  denial control
                                Broadstrike may be                                        that are better adapted
     (540g/L) 500mL-                                             strategy
                                required in an                                            to the environment
     1.2L
                                above average              •     Spray grazing (no
                                                                                      •   Sowing balansa
     Glyphosate                 growing season                   capeweed or cretan
                                                                                          clovers as short-term
     (450g/L) 600mL-                                             weed control) +
                            •   Max rates of                                              pastures
     1.2L                                                        spraytop
                                glyphosate after
                                                                                      •   Sowing Angel medic
                                1000GDD and                •     LVE MCPA 150mL
                                                                                          (SU residue-tolerant
                                before 1300GDD
                                                           •     2,4-D ester 75-          medic)
                            •   Use Raptor at                    100mL
                                                                                      •   Use of fertiliser, trace
                                maximum rates
                                                           •     LV ester 100-            elements and
                            •   Graze standing                   130mL                    broadleaf herbicides
                                cereals as feed                                           (spray grazing + spray
                                                           •     2,4-D amine 150-
                                crops and spray                                           top is an option in
                                                                 200mL
                                with selective                                            pastures with large %
                                broadleaf                  •     MCPA amine 300-          of medic)
                                herbicides + 5g Ally             500mL
                                                                                      •   Spray grazing early in
                                                           •     Glyphosate               the season + spray
                                                                 (540g/L) spray top       topping with 500mL-
                                                                 500mL-1.2L               1.2L glyphosate
                                                                                          (540g/L) after
                                                                 Glyphosate
                                                                                          1000GDD and before
                                                                 (450g/L) spray top
                                                                                          1300GDD (with high
                                                                 600mL-1.2L.
                                                                                          medic %)
                                                                 Apply glyphosate
                                                                 before 1300GDD


*Herbicide may fail to control broomrape in the presence of cretan weed
GDD = Growing Degree Days

It is important to consider the risk of wind erosion when determining branched broomrape
management strategies. Strategies chosen should maximise branched broomrape control without
increasing the risk of drift.




    Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 – Management Strategies & Considerations

                                                         3: 26
Pasture herbicide options                                       Broadstrike
Spray grazing - MCPA 500                                        25g Broadstrike
Spray actively growing six to eight-week-old weeds              Apply when pasture is at two to three trifoliate
with 300 to 500mL MCPA 500. Introduce stock                     leaves onwards. Long fruited turnip and volunteer
(sheep are most effective) seven to 10 days after               lupins can be sprayed up to 10 leaf and up to
spraying, at a stocking rate at least five times                10cm diameter.
heavier than normal. Maintain grazing pressure                  Always apply with Uptake Spraying Oil at
until weeds have been reduced but remove stock                  500mL/100L or a 100% concentrate non-ionic
before survival of desirable pasture species
                                                                wetting agent such as BS1000 at 100mL/100L.
is threatened.
                                                                Target hosts - long fruited turnip, volunteer lupins.
Medics may be damaged by the higher
rates of MCPA and should be grazed short                        Also affected: ball mustard, Buchan weed, white
before spraying.                                                ball mustard, capeweed (registered WA only),
                                                                charlock, hedge mustard, Indian hedge mustard,
Target hosts: capeweed, annual thistles, long                   pheasant’s eye, shepherd’s purse, three-horned
fruited turnip.                                                 bedstraw, three-cornered jack, turnip weed,
Also affected: dandelion, seedling dock,                        volunteer canola, ward’s weed, wild radish,
three-cornered jack, geranium, erodium, mustard,                wireweed, yellow burrweed.
turnip weed, wild radish.

Raptor
45g Raptor + Hasten or Kwickin at 500mL/100L
water:
Seedling weeds: Apply to legumes after full
emergence of the third trifoliate leaf but before start of
flowering.
Established weeds: Apply to actively growing
broadleaf weeds in the cotyledon to three leaf
stage. Apply to grass weeds up to the two
tiller stage.
Good pasture growth will aid weed control. Weeds
may not be totally controlled but populations will
be significantly reduced and surviving plants will
generally be severely retarded. In poor pasture
weed control may be inadequate due to lack of
competition.
Ensure sufficient spray coverage of weeds
particularly in dense pastures.
Target hosts: volunteer lupins, long fruited turnip.
Also affected: barley grass, brome grass,
deadnettle, hedge mustard, turnip weed, volunteer
barley, volunteer oats, volunteer triticale, volunteer
wheat, wild oats.
Suppressed: three-cornered jack, shepherd’s
purse, three-horn bedstraw, wild radish, wireweed.




      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                         3:27
Maximizing the effectiveness of                       In 2010 recommendations for Broadstrike
                                                      applications in pastures will be to apply 25g/L
Broadstrike®                                          Broadstrike plus Uptake spray oil (500ml/100L)
Broadstrike® is a group B herbicide commonly          between 700 and 1000 GDD.
used in medic and self-regenerating weedy
                                                      This will give an approximate spray window of
pastures in the broomrape quarantine area. The
                                                      25-30 days, if GDD accumulate between 10-12
reason it is used widely is that it does not have
                                                      degrees per day over winter.
an affect on medic and has limited control of
broadleaf weeds, particularly once they are larger    The advantage will be that it is likely to increase
in size. This maintains adequate feed for             weed control particularly on smaller weeds. Early
livestock in a medic or self regenerating weedy       applications of Broadstrike are also unlikely to
pasture.                                              coincide with medic flowering which has in the
                                                      past affected seed set when sprayed at a later
Broadstrike has been used over many years with
                                                      timing.
varying results on broomrape emergence. In
many pasture situations Broadstrike has been          Disadvantages include spraying Broadstrike in
successful in preventing emergence and where it       the colder months which may have some affect
has failed to prevent emergence, Broadstrike has      on herbicide efficacy; therefore it will be
in many cases reduced the size and viability of       necessary to monitor weather and spray
the infestation. It is important to note that         conditions closely from 700GDD onwards. See
Broadstrike does struggle to prevent broomrape        ‘conditions at spraying’ or achieving best results
emergence in the presence of Cretan weed.             at spraying.
Additional strategies will need to be employed in     Conditions at spraying
paddocks with Cretan weed
                                                      To achieve the best possible results when using
Broadstrike is a sulfonamide group B herbicide.       Broadstrike there are a number of factors to
Therefore it has some residual activity but much      consider:
shorter than the sulfonylurea group B herbicides
such as metsulfuron methyl (e.g. Ally®) and           •   Warm conditions greatly improve the activity
triasulfuron (e.g. Logran®). For this reason it is        of Broadstrike, therefore aim to spray later in
necessary to use Broadstrike strategically in             the day. Best results will be achieved either
pastures, and ensure spray timing is optimal for          early or late in the season when
preventing broomrape emergence.                           temperatures are milder.

Spray Broadstrike early for weed control              •   Spraying in sunny conditions is better than
                                                          spraying in overcast conditions. It is also
In pasture paddocks that have a good density of           advisable to finish spraying by mid afternoon
medic (over 50%) it is possible to spray                  in winter to allow time for Broadstrike to be
Broadstrike early to remove all broadleaf weeds           absorbed into host weeds.
when they are small.
                                                      •   Avoid frosty conditions – delay spraying if
In the past it was thought that Broadstrike was           necessary.
best applied later in the growing season, once all
broomrape attachments were likely to have             •   Use higher water rates where possible (up to
occurred. The recommended spray timing for this           100L/ha).
was between 1000 and 1300GDD.                         •   Ensure the quality of spray water.
More recent trials now suggest applying               •   Use Uptake spraying oil or wetter depending
Broadstrike early, from 700GDD is likely to give          on crop type.
better control of broomrape and that later
applications beyond 1000GDD may increase the
chance of emergence. This was the case in
2009, a year with a good early break of season
and good spring rainfall.
Although these trials need to be repeated, many
years of farmer observation support these
findings in that Broadstrike applied early to
smaller weeds has a better chance of preventing
branched broomrape emergence.



      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                               3:27a
Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                         3:27b
Perennial Pastures

      Broomrape                  Maximum control                          Broadleaf           Good agronomy - some
      herbicides                    strategies                            herbicides             risk if used alone

 • Perennial veldt grass          • Maximum label                  • Diuron                • Sowing perennial pastures
   - use a phenoxy + 5g             rates of Group B                 + Spray.Seed            in infested paddocks can
   Ally mix                         herbicides (Caution:                                     give more herbicide options
                                                                   • MCPA
                                    Cretan weed is hard                                      (especially after year
 • Lucerne - *Spinnaker
                                    to control with Group          • 2,4-D                   of sowing)
   70g or *Raptor 45g
                                    Bs, particularly               • Jaguar 500mL- • Selective non-Group B
   or *Broadstrike
                                    Broadstrike)                     1L or Bromicide
   25-50g                                                                            herbicides only
                                                                     200 1.4-2L

*Herbicide may fail to control broomrape in the presence of cretan weed



Perennial veldt grass                                                 Ensure thorough coverage of weeds. Where crop
                                                                      or weed density is high, increase water volume.
Phenoxy + 5g Ally                                                     In most situations the rate specified for each
Limited trial data suggests these rates should be                     weed size will give satisfactory control.
safe on perennial veldt grass.                                        However, under certain conditions such as: •
Lucerne                                                               high crop and weed density,
                                                                      • late season germinations,
Broadstrike
                                                                      • abnormal weed growth
• 25g Broadstrike
                                                                         (including early flowering);
  Apply when pasture is at two to three trifoliate
                                                                      higher rates of product (up to the maximum rate
  leaves onwards. Long fruited turnip and volunteer
                                                                      of application specified for that weed) may be
  Lupins can be sprayed up to 10 leaf and up to
                                                                      required.
  10cm diameter.
                                                                      Jaguar will not effectively control regrowth of
  Always apply with Uptake Spraying Oil at
                                                                      suppressed weeds, transplanted weeds,
  500mL/100L or a 100% concentrate non-ionic                          regrowth from rhizomes or roots, weeds growing
  wetting agent such as BS1000 at 100mL/100L.                         under stress from previous herbicide applications
  Target hosts - long fruited turnip, capeweed                        or radish plants beyond rosette stage.
  (registered WA only), volunteer lupins.
                                                                      Warning: Jaguar may affect growth and seed
  Also affected: ball mustard, Buchan weed, white                     set of some varieties of lucerne (Refer to Jaguar
  ball mustard, charlock, hedge mustard, Indian                       in Herbicide Use section of this manual).
  hedge mustard, pheasant’s eye, shepherd’s
                                                                      Cover crops in vineyards: When using in
  purse, three-horned bedstraw, three-cornered jack,
                                                                      vineyard situations, apply during vine dormancy
  turnip weed, volunteer canola, ward’s weed, wild
                                                                      only. Contact with vines must be avoided.
  radish, wireweed, yellow burrweed.
                                                                      Particular care should be taken if applied in late
                                                                      autumn or early spring, when vines may not be
Jaguar                                                                fully dormant.
• 500mL Jaguar                                                        Target hosts - capeweed (up to 4 leaf stage and
  Apply prior to lucerne reaching the eight trifoliate                not more than 12cm in diameter), sheep weed
  leaf stage; however, applications prior to the                      (up to 4 leaf), volunteer canola (up to two leaf
  three leaf stage may result in crop damage,                         stage and not more than 6cm in diameter), long
  especially under stressed conditions and in                         fruited turnip (up to two leaf stage and not more
  sandy soils. DO NOT apply to annual medics.                         than 6cm in diameter).
  Apply when weeds are early post-emergence                           Also affected: charlock, turnip weed, wild mus-
  and actively growing.                                               tard, wild radish.


       Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                               3:28
• 750mL Jaguar                                                     Ensure thorough coverage of weeds. Where crop
                                                                   or weed density is high, increase water volume.
  Apply prior to lucerne reaching the eight trifoliate
                                                                   In most situations the rate specified for each
  leaf stage; however, applications prior to the
                                                                   weed size will give satisfactory control.
  three leaf stage may result in crop damage,
  especially under stressed conditions and in                      However, under certain conditions such as: •
  sandy soils. DO NOT apply to annual medics.
                                                                   high crop and weed density,
  Apply when weeds are early post-emergence
                                                                   • late season germinations,
  and actively growing.
                                                                   • abnormal weed growth
  Ensure thorough coverage of weeds. Where crop
                                                                      (including early flowering)
  or weed density is high, increase water volume. In
  most situations the rate specified for each                      Higher rates of product (up to the maximum rate
  weed size will give satisfactory control.                        of application specified for that weed) may be
                                                                   required.
  However, under certain conditions such as: •
                                                                   Jaguar will not effectively control regrowth of
  high crop and weed density,
                                                                   suppressed weeds, transplanted weeds, and
  • late season germinations,                                      regrowth from rhizomes or roots, weeds growing
  • abnormal weed growth                                           under stress from previous herbicide applications
     (including early flowering)                                   or radish plants beyond rosette stage.
                                                                   Warning: Jaguar may affect growth and seed set
  Higher rates of product (up to the maximum rate
                                                                   of some varieties of lucerne (Refer to Jaguar in
  of application specified for that weed) may be
                                                                   Herbicide Use section of this manual).
  required.
                                                                   Cover crops in vineyards: When using in
  Jaguar will not effectively control regrowth of
                                                                   vineyard situations, apply during vine dormancy
  suppressed weeds, transplanted weeds, and
                                                                   only. Contact with vines must be avoided.
  regrowth from rhizomes or roots, weeds growing
                                                                   Particular care should be taken if applied in late
  under stress from previous herbicide applications
                                                                   autumn or early spring, when vines may not be
  or radish plants beyond rosette stage.
                                                                   fully dormant.
  Warning: Jaguar may affect growth and seed set
                                                                   Target hosts - capeweed (up to eight leaf stage
  of some varieties of lucerne (Refer to Jaguar in
                                                                   and not more than 18cm in diameter).
  Herbicide Use section of this manual).
                                                                   Also affected: charlock, shepherd’s purse, turnip
  Cover crops in vineyards: When using in
                                                                   weed, wild mustard, wild radish.
  vineyard situations, apply during vine dormancy
  only. Contact with vines must be avoided.
  Particular care should be taken if applied in late             Raptor
  autumn or early spring, when vines may not be                  45g + BS1000 or equivalent at 200mL/100L water
  fully dormant.                                                 + Boost at 2L/100L water.
  Target hosts - capeweed (up to six leaf stage and              Apply to actively growing weeds at growth stages
  not more than 15cm in diameter), sheep weed (up                as for field peas. DO NOT use adjuvants other
  to six leaf), volunteer canola (up to four leaf stage          than BS1000 or equivalent.
  and not more than 12cm in diameter), long fruited
  turnip (up to four leaf stage and not more than                Apply to actively growing broadleaf weeds in the
  12cm in diameter).                                             cotyledon to three leaf stage. Apply to grass weeds
                                                                 up to the two tiller stage. Good crop growth will aid
  Also affected: charlock, turnip weed, wild
                                                                 weed control. Weeds may not be totally controlled
  mustard, wild radish
                                                                 but populations will be significantly reduced and
• 1L Jaguar                                                      surviving plants will generally be severely retarded.

  Apply prior to lucerne reaching the eight trifoliate           Refer to Crop Safety section of label about varieties
  leaf stage; however, applications prior to the                 of lucerne.
  three leaf stage may result in crop damage,                    Seedling: apply when crop is at the two trifoliate
  especially under stressed conditions and in                    leaf stage and before start of flowering.
  sandy soils. DO NOT apply to annual medics.
                                                                 Established: apply as above following cutting
  Apply when weeds are early post-emergence                      or grazing.
  and actively growing.


      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                          3:29
In lucerne the withholding period for grazing
or cutting for stock food is seven days
after application.
Target hosts - long fruited turnip, volunteer lupins.
Also affected: barley grass, brome grass,
deadnettle, hedge mustard, turnip weed,
volunteer barley, volunteer oats, volunteer triticale,
volunteer wheat, wild oats, *shepherd’s purse,
*three-cornered jack, *three horn bedstraw,
*wild radish, *wireweed.
* Surviving plants will generally be retarded and will
not compete with good crop growth.

Spinnaker
100g Spinnaker
Use pre-emergent to weeds in established
lucerne only.
Apply following cutting or grazing, if necessary in
mixtures with registered knockdown products.
Sufficient rainfall is required after application and
prior to weed emergence to wet soil to a depth
of 5cm.
Under adverse conditions weeds may not be totally
controlled but populations will be significantly
reduced and surviving plants will generally be
severely retarded. Good crop growth will aid
weed control.
Target hosts - capeweed (surviving plants will
generally be retarded and will not compete with
the crop).
Also affected: annual ryegrass, Indian hedge
mustard, shepherd’s purse, stinging nettle,
storksbill, toad rush, turnip weed, wild radish.




      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                         3:30
General Farm
Organic Farming

      Broomrape               Maximum control                                    Good agronomy - some
                                                    Broadleaf herbicides
      herbicides                 strategies                                        risk if used alone
 •   Interceptor          •    Heavily graze    •       Interceptor              •   Wait for emergence
     Concentrate               infested areas           Concentrate Weed             and control with
     Weed Control         •    Spray infested           Control                      Interceptor
                               areas with       •       Use molasses to              Concentrate Weed
                               Interceptor              sweeten weeds for            Control by drenching
                               Concentrate Weed         grazing in infested          one metre around
                               Control prior to         areas                        each plant
                               broomrape                                         •   Wait for emergence
                               emergence                                             then remove
                                                                                     broomrape in plastic
                                                                                     bag and burn
                                                                                 •   Burn plants in situ

Focus on post-emergent control for branched             when used as a soil drench and appears the
broomrape escapes.                                      most promising eradicant for branched
It is extremely important to know where                 broomrape in organic systems.
infestations are located on the property.               The key to eradication is to prevent seed set and
Organic farmers face extra challenges in                the best way to do that is to eliminate all potential
eradicating branched broomrape because they             hosts including broadleaf weeds.
are unable to use chemical herbicides.                  Control options in organic systems include
Interceptor Concentrate Weed Control, a                 intensive grazing, with or without the use of
herbicide certified for use in organic systems in       supplements or treatments to improve the
Australia, can kill broomrape seed in the soil          palatability of broadleaf weeds, cultivation and
                                                        hand hoeing or pulling host weeds.

Native vegetation

      Broomrape               Maximum control                                    Good agronomy - some
                                                    Broadleaf herbicides
      herbicides                 strategies                                        risk if used alone
 •   Ally 3g              •    Apply a sub-lethal   •   Interceptor              •   Apply Interceptor
                               dose of Ally to          Concentrate Weed             Concentrate Weed
                               areas of known           Control                      Control to infested
                               infestation                                           areas

Native grasses
      Broomrape               Maximum control                                    Good agronomy - some
                                                    Broadleaf herbicides
      herbicides                 strategies                                        risk if used alone
 •   Ally 5g              •    Ally 5g applied      •   2,4-D amine              •   Use rates as per
                               after 700GDD and     •   2,4-D ester                  cereal crops for
                               before 1000GDD                                        broadleaf weed control
                                                    •   MCPA (when
                                                        grasses < 15cm in
                                                        height and not in
                                                        head)



      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2010 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                3:31
Fumigated areas
       Broomrape                Maximum control                 Broadleaf          Good agronomy - some
       herbicides                  strategies                   herbicides            risk if used alone

                             • Treat the entire                                  • Strategies for broomrape
                                paddock as                                         management are not
                                recommended for                                    required in the
                                the relevant paddock                               fumigated area
                                situation and status
                                                                                 • Sow a cereal crop in the
                                prior to fumigation
                                                                                    fumigated area and a buffer
                                                                                    zone around it to avoid
                                                                                    erosion, minimise the risk
                                                                                    of broomrape attachment
                                                                                    from any broomrape seeds
                                                                                    outside the fumigated area
                                                                                    and allow for selective
                                                                                    broadleaf weed control
                                                                                  • Apply Group B herbicides
                                                                                    or non-Group B broadleaf
                                                                                    herbicides


Lifestyle/Small Enterprise

       Broomrape                Maximum control                   Broadleaf         Good agronomy - some
       herbicides                  strategies                     herbicides           risk if used alone

 • Glean                      • Continuous cereals/        • Phenoxys               • Single or double
                                native grasses with                                   herbicide knockdown
 • Logran (1/2 rate)                                       • Lontrel
                                Group B herbicides                                    prior to sowing
 • Ally (minimum 5g)                                       • Diuron
                              • Seek further advice                                 • The use of non-Group B
 • Eclipse + MCPA               for your individual sit-                              broadleaf herbicides only
 • Midas on Clearfield          uation
                                                                                    • Early weed control is
   wheat                                                                              essential to stop large
                                                                                      uncontrollable weeds
                                                                                      in-crop, and reduce
                                                                                      problems with
                                                                                      rhizoctonia


Being able to accurately identify weeds is essential          This chapter contains possible management
for effective weed control.                                   strategies for control of these broadleaf
                                                              host weeds.
To be able to control branched broomrape we need
to control broadleaf weeds that might act as hosts            Further assistance on how to manage branched
(Listed in Chapter 2).                                        broomrape is available from Grant Crettenden
                                                              (08 8578 1344) or Steve Lamey (1800 245 704).
Chapter 4 contains pictures of branched
broomrape host plants to assist in identification
of these weeds.




      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                       3:32
Fence Lines & Non-Arable Areas
It is important to control host plants along fence lines and in other non-arable areas, particularly around
infested paddocks, because they can be a haven for weeds and a source of re-infestation of hosts or
branched broomrape.



     Broomrape             Maximum control                 Broadleaf               Good agronomy - some
     herbicides               strategies                   herbicides                risk if used alone
 •   Glyphosate        •   Apply glyphosate          •   Spray.Seed            •    Use rates of non-Group
 •   Ally                  before 1300GDD            •   2,4-D amine                B broadleaf herbicide
                       •   Maximum label rates                                      that can kill capeweed:
 •   Glean                                           •   MCPA amine                 eg 2.1L MCPA amine or
                           of glyphosate can be
 •   Logran                used to control all                                      1.4L MCPA amine + 75
                           growing vegetation                                       to 100mL Lontrel
                       •   Use Ally 7g or Glean                                •    Spray when plants are
                           or Logran to control                                     young for best results
                           growth of most                                      •    Use glyphosate as a
                           weeds                                                    knockdown to kill all
                       •   Ally 5g plus phenoxy                                     growth in the fence line
                           herbicide will                                           or non-arable area
                           selectively take out
                           broadleaf weeds and
                           leave some growth to
                           stabilise the soil



Refer to chapter 6 for advice on spraying.               added to the mix at full or reduced rates. The
A knockdown herbicide will control all growth.           higher the rate the longer the residual activity.
In areas of native vegetation spot-spray with 3g         Adjuvants should be used with glyphosate to
of Ally or low rates of other effective chemicals        improve the effectiveness of the herbicide. The
that are not lethal to native vegetation.                recommended adjuvant is on the label.
Heavy grazing is an alternative control option for       Smaller weeds will be easier to kill so fence lines
areas that can’t be easily accessed with spray           should be sprayed as soon as most weeds have
equipment but is not recommended as a stand-             emerged.
alone treatment.                                         Spraying can be carried out before emergence is
Livestock grazing infested areas must be held in         complete if a residual herbicide is added to the
an approved area in the paddock and cleaned              mix.
out for 15 days prior to leaving the paddock.            For non-crop areas such as fence lines, stock
Supplementary feeding is likely to be required.          camps and stock yards, spot spray 25g/100L
                                                         Broadstrike®* when weeds are at the rosette
Herbicide options                                        stage prior to running up to flower. Apply to
Non-selective control                                    actively growing rosettes.
Glyphosate is the best option for general knock          To ensure complete coverage, spray to the point
down of most weeds.                                      of run-off. Use Uptake Spraying Oil at
Use maximum label rates of product                       500mL/100L.
recommended for the weeds present.                       Target hosts: capeweed, salvation Jane
Tank-mixing other herbicides with glyphosate can         Also affected: marshmallow (suppression), wild
help kill harder to control broadleaf weeds.             radish.
For residual control of broadleaf weeds and              * Broadstrike is not effective against Cretan
some grasses one of the sulfonylurea Group B             weed, a major host of branched broomrape.
herbicides such as Ally, Logran or Glean can be


      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2009 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                3:33
Selective control                                            on the host still being fresh enough to take
                                                             up herbicide.
Selective herbicides may be used to control hosts,
leaving grasses to stabilise erosion-prone areas.            Use 150mL of glyphosate per 10L of water,
                                                             plus recommended wetters and spray dye so you,
For selective weed control that leaves grass weeds
                                                             and broomrape officers, can see what has
only, use a phenoxy herbicide such as one of the
                                                             been sprayed.
MCPA or 2,4-D products.

                                                             Later discovery
Destroying                                                   Branched broomrape plants emerge and flower
                                                             very quickly and it must be assumed any flowering

Emerged Plants                                               plant has already set viable seed.
                                                             Consequently, no flowering plant should be moved
                                                             except in a sealed plastic bag.
Discovery action strategy                                    Plants can be burned on site using a mixture of
If a new infestation of branched broomrape is                one part petrol and four parts diesel. This mixture
discovered, mark the site and advise the                     helps maintain a hot fire for longer than using
Broomrape Control Centre of the location of the              petrol alone or attempting to burn plants without
outbreak by calling the Branched Broomrape                   an accelerant.
Hotline, phone 1800 245 704.
                                                             The mixture will also spread over the soil,
The key to containing and eradicating branched               which increases the chance of killing seed lying
broomrape is to prevent it setting seed so emerged           on the surface.
plants need to be destroyed immediately.
                                                             If burning is not an option, saturation of young or
The best control strategy will depend on the scale           mostly dry plants and the soil around them with
of the infestation and the stage and vigour of the           pure diesel will desiccate the plants and kill
host plant and the branched broomrape.                       partly-developed seeds.
                                                             Isolated individual plants can be picked and placed
Control vital                                                immediately into a sealed plastic bag - to ensure
Branched broomrape, a parasite, flowers and sets             seeds are not spread during transportation - for
seed within two weeks of emerging, so using a                later incineration. Be careful not to dislodge any
herbicide to kill host plants prior to emergence is          of the minute, dust-like seeds when the plant is
the best way to be sure of preventing seed set.              being picked.
It is possible to kill emerged broomrape plants by           Burn the entire bag in an incinerator with an
spraying the host plants to which they are                   actively burning hot fire.
attached, but timing sprays to prevent emerged
                                                             Drenching
plants setting seed is extremely difficult.
In most circumstances, emerged plants need to                Almost all of the seeds produced by a branched
be picked and placed in sealed plastic bags                  broomrape plant fall within one metre of the
for destruction by burning or burnt where they               emerged plant, and 90% within half a metre.
are discovered.                                              It is therefore recommended drenching around
If you find a branched broomrape plant, clearly              emerged plants cover an area with radius of one
mark the location with an easy-to-find peg for               metre around each plant.
future reference and report the discovery to the             This applies whether you are drenching with diesel
Broomrape Control Centre.                                    or the work is being done by Broomrape Control
                                                             Officers using Interceptor Concentrate Weed
Early discovery                                              Control™ drench.
Branched broomrape plants found before they                  In both cases the aim is to prevent fresh seed
flower can be killed by spraying the host plants             entering the branched broomrape seed bank.
with glyphosate herbicide, but this depends on
being able to identify which plant is the host and



      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                      3:34
              Broadleaf weed
               identification
This chapter contains photographs designed to assist in the identification
          of plants that commonly host branched broomrape.




     Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook – Broadleaf Weed Identification

                                          4:1
     Capeweed                           Sheep weed                        Salvation jane
Arctotheca calendula              Lithospermum arvensis                Echium plantagineum




   Skeleton weed                       Sow thistle                         Wild turnip
  Chordrilla juncea                 Sonchus oleraceus                  Brassica tournefortii




           Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook – Broadleaf Weed Identification

                                                4:2
Cretan Weed                 Variable Groundsel




                                       Tolpis




              Poached Egg
                 Daisy
                           Skeleton Weed




Mustard
          Salvation Jane
                     Sow Thistle
Stemless Thistle




    Variable Daisy       Capeweed
                Cretan Weed Information Sheet
                       (Hedypnois rhagadioloides)
Family:
Asteraceae (same family as skeleton weed, capeweed, variable groundsel)

Characteristics:
•   Usually occurs as scattered plants in mixed pastures, or in areas that have been
    disturbed.
•   Can form extensive mats of plants 20cm high that can smother crop seedlings.
•   Is readily eaten by stock.
•   Usually germinates early, generally in autumn.
•   Early maturing, so may set seed prior to the normal spray-topping window for
    grasses.
•   Quite hard seeded (like thistles.
•   A favoured and common host of branched broomrape.

Distinguishing features:
•   Leaves are rough, hairy and up to 7cm long.
•   Flower heads are yellow on leafless erect hollow stalks.
•   Stems are branched and have hairs.
•   Seeds are cylindrical to 6mm long.
•   Seed head “claw-like” when dry.




    Cretan weed seedling                                A mat of cretan weed


Cretan Weed Management
Cretan weed, a favoured host of branched broomrape, is common in the Broomrape
Quarantine Area. Whether or not cretan weed is present on your property has
implications for your choice of broomrape control strategy, as many herbicides that
can successfully control broomrape may fail in the presence of cretan weed.
  Herbicide Options
  No herbicide gives effective cretan weed control without damaging medic plants.
  Broadstrike® and Raptor®, both Group B herbicides, can offer some protection
  against broomrape in pastures but may fail in the presence of cretan weed and
  cannot be relied on to prevent broomrape emergence.

  If Broadstrike® and Raptor® are the only options for broomrape management they
  should be used early (when the weeds are small). Doing something is better than
  doing nothing and these herbicides may control cretan weed if conditions and timing
  are good. They will reduce the risk of broomrape emergence by eliminating some
  other hosts commonly found in pastures.

  The only reliable method of controlling broomrape in pastures containing cretan
  weed is to spray-top with glyphosate. Spray topping should not be used if there is a
  high chance of causing soil drift.

  There are more herbicide options available for cretan weed control in cereal crops
  and control during the cropping phase is the best option to eliminate or reduce the
  population of this problem weed.

  Cretan weed management needs to be effective and on-going from year to year
  because plant numbers can increase rapidly if even a few plants are allowed to set
  seed.

  Cretan Weed Herbicide Efficacy Trials
  One year of herbicide efficacy trials in pasture has shown that some herbicides can
  give effective control of cretan weed. These herbicides, which include Jaguar®,
  Bromicide 200® and Bromoxynil M®, all contain the active ingredient bromoxynil,
  which affects medics. Consequently, they are best used to reduce cretan weed
  numbers in the cereal phase.

   Work is continuing to try and find a suitable herbicide(s) and rates for control of
  cretan weed and broomrape in pasture.




Flowering cretan weed plants                      Dried cretan weed with “claw
                                                  like” seed heads (circled) &
                                                  broomrape (centre)
 Management Strategies for the Control of Cretan Weed (Hedypnois rhagadioloides)
                           G.M. Fromm - Senior Field Crop Consultant, Murray Bridge
                            T.M. McInerney – Field Crop Consultant, Murray Bridge

PRELIMINARY TRIAL RESULTS (Visual assessment - 29/10/05):
Treatments:
                                                          Cretan       Cretan        MEDIC   Capeweed
                                                           weed        weed            %         %
  Treat No.             Product             Rate            %            %         Reduction Reduction
                                                        Reduction       dead           In        In
                                                            In                      biomass   flowers
                                                         biomass
      1        Agtryne MA                   1.0L             3            0            23           92
      2        Diuron                       500g             0            0             3           53
      3        Jaguar                       1.0L           100          100            72          100
      4        Starane                      1.0L            73           10            95           53
      5        Bromicide 200                2.0L            99           99            70          100
      6        Bromoxynil M                 1.4L            97           97            73          100
      7        Tigrex                       1.0L            87           85            67           85
      8        Midas                       900mL            23            0            92          100
      9        Broadstrike                   25g             0            0             0          100
     10        Raptor                        45g            28            0            37          100
     11        Lontrel (Low)               100mL             3            0            82          100
     12        Lontrel (High)              300mL            22            0            99          100
     13        Lontrel + MCPA          100mL + 1.0L         72            3            97          100
     14        Banvel M                     1.0L            37            0            93           92
     15        Banvel 200                  550mL             2            0            93           90
     16        MCPA LVE                     1.7L            35            0            93           70
     17        MCPA Amine                   2.1L            30            0            85           75
     18        Amicide 625                  1.7L            30            0            87           75
     19        LV Estercide (Low)          600mL            27            0            88           78
     20        LV Estercide (High)         900mL            53            0            96           80
     21        Control                       Nil             0            0             0            0




G:\Broomrape Farming Systems\Farm Plans\Handbook\Chapter 4 - Broadleaf Weed Identification\Cretan Weed
Trial_Results.newdoc.doc             (updated 01/04/03)                                 25/02/10
  TRIAL PLAN:
Rep      Plot                                         Treatment                                            Treatment
        Number                                                                                              Number
 1         1      Diuron (500g/Ha)                                                                             2
           2      LV Estercide (600mL/Ha)                                                                     19
           3      Raptor (45g/Ha)                                                                             10
           4      Bromicide 200 (2.0L/Ha)                                                                      5
           5      MCPA Amine (2.1L/Ha)                                                                        17
           6      MCPA LVE (1.7L/Ha)                                                                          16
           7      Bromoxynil M (1.4L/Ha)                                                                       6
           8      Midas (900mL/Ha)                                                                             8
           9      Agtryne MA (1.0L/Ha)                                                                         1
          10      Banvel M (1.0L/Ha)                                                                          14
          11      Jaguar (1.0L/Ha)                                                                             3
          12      Tigrex (1.0L/Ha)                                                                             7
          13      Lontrel + MCPA (100mL/Ha + 1.0L/Ha)                                                         13
          14      Amicide 625 (1.7L/Ha)                                                                       18
          15      Banvel 200 (550mL/Ha)                                                                       15
          16      Starane (1.0L/Ha)                                                                            4
          17      Control                                                                                     21
          18      Broadstrike (25g/Ha)                                                                         9
          19      Lontrel (300mL/Ha)                                                                          12
          20      LV Estercide (900mL/Ha)                                                                     20
          21      Lontrel (100mL/Ha)                                                                          11
 2         1      Lontrel (100mL/Ha)                                                                          11
           2      Diuron (500g/Ha)                                                                             2
           3      Banvel M (1.0L/Ha)                                                                          14
           4      Jaguar (1.0L/Ha)                                                                             3
           5      MCPA LVE (1.7L/Ha)                                                                          16
           6      Lontrel + MCPA (100mL/Ha + 1.0L/Ha)                                                         13
           7      Lontrel (300mL/Ha)                                                                          12
           8      Bromoxynil (1.4L/Ha)                                                                         6
           9      Amicide 625 (1.7L/Ha)                                                                       18
          10      LV Estercide (600mL/Ha)                                                                     19
          11      Banvel 200 (550mL/Ha)                                                                       15
          12      Agtryne MA (1.0L/Ha)                                                                         1
          13      Bromicide 200 (2.0L/Ha)                                                                      5
          14      Midas (900mL/Ha)                                                                             8
          15      Broadstrike (25g/Ha)                                                                         9
          16      MCPA Amine (2.1L/Ha)                                                                        17
          17      LV Estercide (900mL/Ha)                                                                     20
          18      Raptor (45g/Ha)                                                                             10
          19      Tigrex (1.0L/Ha)                                                                             7
          20      Starane (1.0L/Ha)                                                                            4
          21      Control                                                                                     21
 3        1       Lontrel + MCPA (100mL/Ha + 1.0L/Ha)                                                         13
          2       Amicide 625 (1.7L/Ha)                                                                       18
          3       Starane (1.0L/Ha)                                                                            4
          4       Control                                                                                     21
          5       Bromoxynil M (1.4L/Ha)                                                                       6
          6       MCPA Amine (2.1L/Ha)                                                                        17
          7       Banvel 200 (550mL/Ha)                                                                       15
          8       LV Estercide (600mL/Ha)                                                                     19
          9       Banvel M (1.0L/Ha)                                                                          14
          10      Tigrex (1.0L/Ha)                                                                             7
          11      Raptor (45g/Ha)                                                                             10
          12      Diuron (500g/Ha)                                                                             2
          13      LV Estercide (900mL/Ha)                                                                     20
          14      Jaguar (1.0L/Ha)                                                                             3
          15      Lontrel (100mL/Ha)                                                                          11
          16      Agtryne MA (1.0L/Ha)                                                                         1
          17      Broadstrike (25g/Ha)                                                                         9
          18      Bromicide 200 (2.0L/Ha)                                                                      5
          19      MCPA LVE (1.7L/Ha)                                                                          16
          20      Midas (900mL/Ha)                                                                             8
          21      Lontrel (300mL/Ha)                                                                          12



  G:\Broomrape Farming Systems\Farm Plans\Handbook\Chapter 4 - Broadleaf Weed Identification\Cretan Weed
  Trial_Results.newdoc.doc             (updated 01/04/03)                                 25/02/10
              Herbicide use
                            5
    This chapter contains a summary of important information about
     herbicides mentioned in the Management Strategies chapter.
    This includes the mode of action, application timing, crop damage
(crop tolerance), mixing instructions, recommended wetters or adjuvants,
                        and the withholding period.
  However, this manual is not designed to cover all aspects relevant to
herbicides mentioned and it is expected that you, as a herbicide user, will
 read the label and check with the reseller about any possible additional
                ramifications of using a particular product.




            Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 - Herbicide use
                                            5:1
                                                    Eradication strategies for branched broomrape
Herbicide                                           rely mainly on herbicide use over many years,
                                                    which raises the issue of herbicide resistance in

resistance and
                                                    susceptible weed species.
                                                    While there are still some gaps in the knowledge
                                                    about resistance, the advice listed here is a
branched                                            reasonable guide for herbicide use in the Mallee,
                                                    whether or not broomrape is present.

broomrape                                               Risk rating
                                                                       Herbicide
                                                                        group
                                                                                            Example

control                                                 High risk     A, B             Grass selectives,
                                                                                       sulfonylureas
                                                        Moderate      C, D, E, F,      Triazines, Treflan,
                                                        risk          G, H, I, J, K,   Brodal, Phenoxys
                                                                      L, M, N, O,      (2,4-D & MCPA),
                                                                      P, Q, R, Z       gramoxone,
                                                                                       glyphosate


                                                    Guidelines
                                                    The risk of weeds developing resistance can be
                                                    minimised by building the following guidelines
                                                    into your farming systems and management.
                                                    The key is to “keep the weeds confused” and
                                                    ensure they have no opportunity to adapt to any
                                                    one management strategy or herbicide group. To
                                                    achieve this:
                                                    •     Keep weed numbers low
                                                    •     Rotate herbicide modes of action
                                                    •     Where possible use Group Bs in mixes with
                                                          herbicides from other groups, particularly in
                                                          cereals. This ensures the weeds are
                                                          subjected to multiple modes of action at the
                                                          same time, which reduces the likelihood of
                                                          any weed plant surviving the sprays.
                                                    Resistance mechanisms
Herbicides are categorised into 19 different        Most of the herbicides effective against branched
herbicide groups labelled A to Z. These             broomrape are Group B chemicals. These
groupings are based on the mode of action - how     include Logran, Ally and Intervix.
the chemical kills weeds.                           The risk of getting a significant herbicide
Weeds that can tolerate a normally lethal dose of   resistance problem in weeds depends on:
herbicide are said to be herbicide resistant.       •     The number of applications of herbicide from
Herbicide resistance is caused by repeated use            the same group
of products from the same herbicide group.          •   The size of the weed populations being
Resistance is more likely to occur to some              treated.
herbicide groups than others and resistance         So the need to use (mainly) Group B herbicides
appears more often in some weed species than        each year to combat branched broomrape
in others.                                          significantly increases the risk of weed
Consequently, the herbicide groups are classified   populations in broomrape paddocks developing
as being of high risk or moderate risk according    resistance.
to how likely they are to cause weeds to develop
resistance.
                 Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2009 - Herbicide use
                                                5:2
In general, the time it takes to develop a resistant   Host denial is an effective and cheap strategy in
population is determined by the number of              cereal crops or grass pastures.
applications of herbicide from one group on a          In crops that are hosts or in crops where weedy
particular paddock.                                    hosts are difficult to remove, using a Group B to
The actual number of applications seems to be          kill broomrape or glyphosate to kill the crop and
different for different herbicide groups.              broomrape are the only options.
Group A and B herbicides generate resistance           Repeated use of only Group B herbicides in
fairly quickly (4-6 applications) in some weeds        cereals creates a high risk of weeds developing
while other herbicides take a lot longer (10-15        herbicide resistance. Use of MCPA or 2,4-D,
applications).                                         however, poses almost no risk, whether they are
                                                       applied as separate sprays or in mixtures with
The Group I herbicides, on the other hand, seem
                                                       other herbicides.
to pose a very low resistance risk, with very little
resistance to MCPA and 2,4-D (both Group I             Intervix is the only choice for killing broomrape in
chemicals) evident despite their having been           Clearfield canola as triazines (Group C) have no
used for 50 years. Group I products probably           effect on broomrape and will not kill the parasite
present the lowest herbicide resistance risk.          when it is attached to canola. Consequently, TT
                                                       (triazine tolerant) canola is not recommended for
The speed at which a population develops
                                                       high-risk broomrape areas.
resistance can also be slowed by cleaning up
survivors with methods other than spraying or          In peas, vetch, lucerne or medic, “softer” Group B
with low-risk herbicides such as MCPA or 2,4-D.        herbicides such as Raptor, Broadstrike and
                                                       Spinnaker can be effective against broomrape.
Development of resistance requires that the
                                                       Correct timing - which varies with the season -
target weeds are genetically variable, with
                                                       and rates are critical for success with these
individual weeds able to resist the action of the
                                                       herbicides.
herbicide and set seeds. The resistant plants that
grow from these seeds are the first of the             Glyphosate is also effective on broomrape and
resistant strain.                                      carries a low risk of resistance.
Annual ryegrass and wild turnip seem the most
likely of our weeds to become resistant to Group       Summary
B herbicides, as they have in other places. In
contrast, little resistance has been reported in       •   The safest strategy for broomrape control in
capeweed or cretan weed so far.                            cereals is to use good rates of the Group I
                                                           herbicides MCPA, 2,4-D or Lontrel in
Capeweed has some resistance to paraquat but               mixtures with other herbicides to kill all the
that is not relevant to broomrape management.              hosts so there is no food source for
Based on this evidence it appears broomrape’s              broomrape.
weedy hosts other than wild turnip are relatively
                                                       •   Consider using triasulfuron (Logran) and
less likely to develop resistance to the chemicals         chlorsulfuron (Glean) at half rates and
being used to control branched broomrape.                  metsulfuron methyl (Ally) at 5g/ha in a mix
Crop varieties generally have little genetic               with other herbicides. The local practice of
diversity so it is unlikely herbicide-resistant crop       2,4-D + Lontrel (Group I) + Ally (Group B) is a
hosts such as Clearfield canola and herbicide-             very good mix for stopping hosts, stopping
tolerant medic will develop resistance to other            broomrape and minimising the risk of getting
herbicide groups. Consequently they should                 resistance.
always be easily controlled.
                                                       •   Occasional use of glyphosate to spray-top
                                                           pastures also reduces the risk of resistance.
Branched broomrape control                             •   Reserve Group B herbicides for use where
There are two basic approaches to branched                 they are the only practical option and use
broomrape control:                                         chemicals from other groups in cereals.
•   Kill all the hosts and deny broomrape the          •  If you don’t grow host crops, occasional use
    opportunity to germinate (host denial)                of a Group B by itself in a cereal is OK.
•   Use herbicides that kill broomrape as it is        Resistance is a paddock-by-paddock issue.
    germinating or growing.                            Weeds are most likely to develop resistance in
                                                       any paddock where only Group B herbicides are
                                                       used all the time.

                   Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2009 - Herbicide use
                                                  5:3
A little about the                                             Mixing Instructions
                                                               Partially fill the spray tank with water. Using the
                                                               measuring cone provided, measure the amount of
herbicides being                                               Ally required for the area to be sprayed. Add the
                                                               measured Ally to the spray tank with the agitation

recommended                                                    system engaged. Top up to the correct volume
                                                               with water. The material must be kept in
The aim of this manual is not to cover all the                 suspension at all times by continuous agitation.
implications of the herbicides that might be                   • In tank mixes Ally must be kept in suspension
recommended and it is expected you, as a user of                 while adding the companion herbicide or
herbicides, will check the label and with the reseller           surfactant
about any possible additional ramifications of using           • For application of Ally in liquid fertiliser, slurry the
the products suggested.                                          Ally in water then thoroughly mix the slurry into
Decisions about the use of any product need to be                the liquid fertiliser. Check the compatibility before
considered in light of your particular situation.                mixing Ally in fertiliser solutions. DO NOT add a
                                                                 surfactant/wetting agent.
The information in this section is available from the
Kondinin Group's Field Crop Herbicide Guide,                   Recommended Wetter
Edition 7 and on the chemical manufacturer's label.            Non-ionic surfactant at a rate of 0.1% (active
                                                               constituent) of final spray volume; eg BS1000 at
Ally®                                                          100mL/100L. Do NOT add a surfactant/wetting
                                                               agent when Ally is tank mixed with terbutryn
Group B - 600g/kg metsulfuron-methyl                           or diuron.
Mode of Action                                                 Other Additives
Post-emergent, foliar translocated. Some root                  NOT RECOMMENDED. The addition of crop oil
absorption may occur after rainfall.                           can increase crop yellowing by Ally.
Application Timing                                             Withholding Period
Three leaf to before booting stage of the crop.                Ally only – 0 days, but if the area is to be grazed
If applying a tank mix always adhere to the crop               suggest one to two days to allow product to be
stage recommendations for the companion                        translocated throughout target plant.
product. Best weed control is obtained when
                                                               Tank mixes with Agtryne, MCPA, 2,4-D Tigrex,
rainfall wets the soil to a depth of 5-7.5 cm four
                                                               Tordon 242 or terbutryn – DO NOT graze or cut for
weeks before application.
                                                               stock food for seven days after application.
Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)                                   Tank mixes with Brominil M – DO NOT graze or cut
Increased risk of adverse crop effect if applied to a          for stock food for 14 days after application.
crop stressed by disease or any other cause.
                                                               Amicide 625®
Effect on Crop
                                                               Group I - 625g/L 2,4-D amine (present as the
Temporary yellowing, stunting. Amery wheat                     dimethylamine and diethanolamine salts)
(replacement for Kulin and Bodalin) most sensitive
variety. Effects vary greatly but are generally worse          Mode of Action
on alkaline soils. Injury shows as early yellowing             Absorbed by the leaves and roots of susceptible
resulting in less tillers and less spikelets per head.         plants and translocated throughout the plant. 2,4-D
                                                               affects the balance between the plant’s synthesis of
Effect on Legume Species
                                                               sugars and its ability to use the sugars produced.
Knockdown and residual effects will occur. DO                  Post-emergent.
NOT use on crops under-sown with legume
pasture species such as clovers or medics.                     Application Timing
                                                               Crop: apply from tillering to boot stage.
Effect on Lucerne
Very sensitive. Ensure boom spray is                           Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)
decontaminated if this chemical has been                       Mortlock oats are more susceptible to damage
used previously in equipment.                                  than other oat varieties. Maximum tolerance for use


                    Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 - Herbicide use
                                                         5:4
in wheat, barley, oats and triticale including               Bladex 500 SC®
tolerance for undersown legumes.
                                                             Group C - 500g/L cyanazine
           Crop                        SA                    Mode of Action
        Cereal Rye                   1.4L/ha                 Primarily absorbed by roots, but some scorching of
                                                             foliage in susceptible plants will occur. Pre and
          Wheat                      1.7L/ha                 post-emergent.
          Barley                     1.4L/ha                 Application Timing
           Oats                     900mL/ha                 Pre-sowing: apply between 14 days prior to and up
                                                             to sowing.
          Triticale                  1.4L/ha
                                                             Pre-emergent application: weed control is generally
   Under-sown Clovers                    -                   most effective when Bladex is applied immediately
                                                             after sowing and not incorporated.
   Under-sown Medics                     -
                                                             Post-emergent: apply from crop emergence to
  Under-sown Lucerne                     -                   three to five node stages.
                                                             Chickpeas, faba beans, lentils and vetches:
Effect on Crop                                               apply any time up to one week after sowing.
Crop effects only noticeable if applied at incorrect         Post-emergent applications will result in
growth stage and/or excessive rates.                         crop damage.
Effect on Clover Species
                                                             Incorporation Requirements
Research done by Nufarm shows that clover
                                                             When mixing with trifluralin or Avadex BW,
tolerance increases at later growth stages and that
                                                             incorporation should be carried out according to
1.1L/ha causes minimal to light but acceptable
                                                             the trifluralin or Avadex BW labels respectively.
damage to Paradana (Balansa) clover and
subterranean clover varieties Mt Barker, Trikkala,           Where a range of incorporation depths is indicated
Larissa, Woogenellup and Northam.                            these mixtures should be incorporated as shallow
                                                             as possible.
Generally not as safe as MCPA 250 and 500
except on white clover. Few weed control                     Heavy rain following deep incorporation (more
advantages so MCPA is preferred.                             than 5 cm deep) may result in Bladex being
                                                             leached below the layer of germination for
Effect on Medic Species                                      shallow-germinating weeds such as wild mustard
Damage trials as carried out by Nufarm. Low rates            and deadnettle. For this reason, separate
of 280mL/ha cause minimal to light but acceptable            application of Bladex is always preferable.
damage for barrel medic varieties Parragio, Sephi,           Bladex applied alone should be incorporated to a
Cyprus and Parabinga; Paraponta (gamma medic);               depth of only 2 cm.
Sava and Serena (Circle Valley); and Harbinger
(strand medic). Higher rates cause unacceptable              Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)
damage.                                                      Growth stages definition: pre-sowing, post
                                                             sowing/pre-emergence, post-emergence (two to
Effect on Lucerne                                            four node stage).
Death of seedlings or established plants very                Field peas, processing peas: pre-sowing
common, even at low rates. Damage is usually
                                                             Lentils, vetches, chickpeas: post sowing/
unacceptable and severe. Herbicide drift onto
                                                             pre-emergence
lucerne is a common cause of damage to
lucerne pastures.                                            Faba beans: post-emergence

Recommended Wetter                                           Effect on Crop
Nil.                                                         Temporary crop damage (yellowing) may occur,
                                                             particularly where Bladex 500SC is applied to
Other Additives                                              crops grown on sand over clay (duplex) soils.
None, may cause crop damage.
                                                             Soil Moisture at Application
Withholding Period                                           DRY – Under dry conditions there is no root uptake
Pasture, cereal crops: DO NOT graze or cut for               and results, especially against grass weeds and
stock food within seven days of application.                 wireweed, may be poor.


                      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 - Herbicide use
                                                       5:5
MOIST – Ideal. Best results are obtained if irrigation         When tank-mixing: Broadstrike should be added to
is applied immediately after spraying.                         the tank first, followed by wettable powders or
WATERLOGGED – Likelihood of crop damage                        other dry flowable formulations, suspension
increased.                                                     concentrates (flowables), aqueous concentrates
                                                               (eg. Lontrel), emulsifiable concentrates (eg. Verdict)
Mixing Instructions                                            then Uptake or a wetting agent last (if used).
Shake or roll the container several times before
                                                               Recommended Wetter
measuring out product to ensure the ingredients
are well mixed. There is no need for pre-mixing.               BS1000 at 100 mL/100 L spray solution.
Add the product to the half-filled spray tank while
                                                               Other Additives
agitating. Continue to agitate while topping up the
tank and during spraying.                                      Uptake Spraying Oil at 500 mL/100L spray
                                                               solution.
Recommended Wetter
                                                               Withholding Period
DO NOT use wetting agents with post-emergence
applications.                                                  HARVESTING WITHHOLDING PERIODS:
                                                               Chickpeas, field peas, lentils, maize, peanuts,
Other Additives                                                soybeans – not required when used as directed.
When mixing with Roundup it is necessary to add                Winter Cereals – DO NOT harvest within four
crystalline ammonium sulphate (2% w/v) according               weeks after application.
to the directions on the Roundup label.
                                                               GRAZING/STOCKFOOD WITHHOLDING PERIODS:
Withholding Period                                             Chickpeas, field peas, lentils, peanuts, soybeans,
Nil on treated areas. DO NOT graze immature                    vetch (Popany only) – DO NOT graze or cut for
crops or cut immature crops for stockfood.                     stock food within four weeks after application.
                                                               Barley, cereal rye, oats, triticale, wheat - DO NOT
Broadstrike®                                                   graze or cut for stock food for eight weeks
                                                               after application.
Group B - 800g/kg flumetsulam
                                                               Maize - DO NOT graze or cut for stock food for
Mode of Action                                                 two weeks after application.
Absorbed by the roots and foliage of plants and                Clover, fenugreek, lathyrus, lucerne, medic,
translocated to the growing points where it acts by            serradella - DO NOT graze, cut for stockfood or
inhibiting the enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS)              harvest for seed for three days after application.
which is essential for amino acid synthesis.
Effect on Cereal Crop
                                                               Brodal Options®
Possible transient chlorosis and shortening.                   Group F - 500g/L diflufenican
Symptoms will disappear after two to three weeks.
                                                               Mode of Action
Effect on Legume Species                                       Shoot absorbed contact, with limited translocation.
Possible yellowing or chlorosis (transient) and                Germinating seedlings absorb diflufenican through
shortening. Do not spray lentils, field peas or                the shoots causing inhibition of photosynthesis in
chickpeas later than stated on the label or the crop           susceptible species. Pre- and post-emergent with
may not recover from any phytotoxic effect. This is            up to eight weeks of residual control.
particularly important in dry years.
                                                               Application Timing
Broadstrike is safe in Popany Vetch, but is very
damaging to other vetch varieties.                             Post sow/pre-emergence (lupins)
                                                               Post-emergence: Apply once from two to six
Mixing Instructions                                            leaf stage of crop (4 to 10 cm high) following
Quarter fill the spray tank and add the required               pre-emergent treatment of simazine. The most
amount of Broadstrike. Add the remaining water                 effective control occurs when applied to very small
with the agitator running. Add Uptake or the                   weeds. Use on larger plants will frequently result in
wetting agent last (if used). Maintain agitation               failure and higher rates will not necessarily improve
during spraying. Only mix sufficient spray solution            control. Field peas – after 3rd node prior to start
for immediate use and avoid storing.                           of flowering.


                   Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 - Herbicide use
                                                         5:6
Rate selection                                                tank with clean water and add the required
150 – 200 mL/ha. For optimum results apply four               amount of Brodal Options. Agitate thoroughly then
to six weeks post-sowing. Application beyond eight            add the remainder of the water. Agitate thoroughly
weeks post-sowing may result in reduced levels of             while spraying.
weed control. If a lower rate is used there will be
                                                              Recommended Wetter
less residual control and later germinations will not
be controlled. Rate selection depends on weed                 None. If applying as a tank-mix, use the
numbers and weed size. Best returns are achieved              recommended surfactant for the grass herbicide.
when weeds are small.                                         Other Additives
Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)                                  NOT recommended. DO NOT use crop oils
Not available.                                                with Brodal Options or Brodal Options/grass
                                                              herbicide mixtures.
Effect on Crop
                                                              Withholding Period
Some transient crop yellowing or bleaching may
occur after application. In lupins this usually               Nil when used according to label directions.
appears as yellow or white banding on leaves. In
field peas or clover it often appears as white/pink           Bromicide 200®
coloration of the leaf veins and tips. Crop height            Group C - 200g/L bromoxynil
reduction may also occur.                                     (present as n-octanoyl ester)
Provided the crop is not under any stress from
pre-emergent herbicide, disease, insect damage,               Mode of Action
nutrient deficiency, frost, extremes of pH or dry or          Contact, minimal foliar translocation. Inhibits
excessively moist conditions, the development of              respiration and photosynthesis. Post-emergent.
the crop and all subsequent growth will not
be affected.                                                  Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)
                                                              All registered crops: 2.1L/ha. Olympic and Shortim
Effect on Clover Species                                      wheat yields reduced.
Persian (Kyambro) and subterranean (Seaton Park
and Trikkala) clovers show minimal (0 to 20%)                 Effect on Crop
reduction in vegetative growth when sprayed with              Crop damage on lucerne is greater as the
Brodal Options.                                               temperature increases. Bromoxynil products often
• Arrowleaf (Zulu), Balansa (Paradana), Strawberry            cause temporary scorching of oat leaves.
  (Palestine), subterranean (Clare, Junee, Karridale,         Effect on Medic Species
  Larissa, Mt Barker and Woogenellup) and white
  (Haifa) clovers all suffer moderate (20 to 50%)             Barrel medic: very sensitive, with large growth
  reduction in vegetative growth when sprayed                 check and reduction in seed production even when
  with Brodal Options.                                        applied in cool weather. Adverse effects can be
                                                              more severe if maximum temperature is above
• Some seed yield reduction may occur with the                20°C. Plant death is possible. Work done by
  cultivar Trikkala.                                          Nufarm has shown that snail medic, gama medic,
Effect on Medic Species                                       burr medic, spineless burr medic and strand medic
                                                              suffer severe and unacceptable damage when
DO NOT apply to medics.
                                                              sprayed with 2.1L/ha bromoxynil. No trials have
Effect on Lucerne                                             been done at 1.4L/ha.
Established plants moderately tolerant. Trial results         Murex medic is moderately sensitive (at five to six
by NSW Department of Agriculture & Fisheries                  leaf stage), sustaining leaf burn and a significant
show moderate to severe foliar damage can occur.              growth check. Under good growing conditions
However, symptoms are temporary with slight to no             Murex can recover well. Damage is more likely to
effect on either yield or plant density. Damage may           be severe at temperatures approximating 20°C
be greater if mixed with bromoxynil.                          or more.

Mixing Instructions                                           Effect on Lucerne
Stir product or invert container several times before         Tolerant. Some leaf scorching or seedlings with
use as settling may occur after storage for some              associated retarding of growth and yield reduction
weeks. To ensure even mixing, half fill the spray             when the temperature is 20°C or more on and for

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                                                        5:7
several days after application. Seedling death                 Other Additives
can occur.                                                     No.
Recommended Wetter                                             Withholding Period
Not required. Addition of surfactants may lower the            Cereals, pasture: do not graze or cut for stock food
tolerance of many legumes to herbicides.                       within 14 days of application.
Other Additives
May damage crop.                                               Credit®
Withholding Period                                             Group M - 540g/L glyphosate (present as
                                                               isopropylamine and mono-ammonium salts).
Do not graze treated crops or cut for stock food for
14 days after application.                                     Mode of Action
                                                               This product is a non-selective translocated
Buctril MA®                                                    herbicide that is absorbed by foliage and
Groups C + I - 200g/L bromoxynil + 200g/L                      green stems.
MCPA                                                           Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)
Mode of Action                                                 Not applicable.
MCPA is absorbed mainly through leaves, stems                  Mixing Instructions
and a little via roots then translocated within the
plant to disrupt cell division and enlargement.                Half fill the spray tank with clean water and start
Bromoxynil is mainly contact in action.                        agitation. Add Nufarm Bonus adjuvant/surfactant.
Post-emergent.                                                 Add Credit and the remaining water. Mix thoroughly.
                                                               Always maintain adequate agitation during
Application Timing                                             application and use promptly.
Cereals: three leaf to fully tillered (Z13 – Z29),             ALWAYS ADD BONUS TO THE SPRAY MIXTURE
         1.0 (WA rate only) to 1.4L/ha                         BEFORE CREDIT.
         five leaf to fully tillered, 2.0 L/ha                 Placing the filling hose below the surface of the
                                                               spray solution will prevent excessive foaming.
Effect on Crop
                                                               Removing the hose from tank immediately after
Temporary wilting of crop and pasture may occur                filling will prevent back-siphoning to the
soon after spraying. Crop scorch may occur,                    water source.
particularly on oats, if treatment is delayed to later
                                                               Do NOT use mechanical agitators as these may
growth stages.
                                                               cause excessive foaming.
Effect on Clover Species
                                                               Instructions for mixing of additional products
Uses are limited on clover. Do NOT apply to crops
or pastures under-sown with lucerne, clover or                 Half fill the spray tank with clean water and start
medics unless damage is acceptable.                            agitation. Add Bonus adjuvant/surfactant. Add
                                                               the additional products to the spray tank. Mix
Effect on Medic Species                                        thoroughly. Add Credit and the remaining water.
Severe and unacceptable damage to medics.                      Mix thoroughly. Always maintain adequate agitation
                                                               during application and use the tank mix promptly.
Effect on Lucerne
Far too active on lucerne. Will destroy stands.                Recommended Wetter
                                                               DO NOT mix with other surfactants or oils.
Mixing Instructions
To ensure even mixing, half fill the spray tank with           Additives
clean water and add the required amount of                     Bonus at 1:1 ratio Credit to Bonus.
product. Agitate thoroughly, then add the
remainder of the water. Agitate thoroughly before              Withholding Period
spraying commences.                                            A withholding period for grazing is not required.
                                                               However, it is recommended that treated annual
Recommended Wetter                                             weeds not be grazed until six hours after spraying
Not recommended except with diclofop-methyl,                   and stock be excluded for seven days after
when BS1000 250mL/100L should be added.                        spraying if perennial weeds are present.

                    Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Herbicide use
                                                         5:8
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Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2006 - Herbicide use
                                  5:9
Diuron 500 SC®                                           Withholding Period
                                                         Not required when used as directed.
Group C - 500g/L diuron
Mode of Action                                           Eclipse®
Largely root absorbed and moves upward in the
                                                         Group B - 714g/kg metosulam
xylem of the plant to inhibit photosynthesis.
Pre- and post-emergent.                                  Mode of Action
Application Timing                                       Absorbed by roots and foliage of plants and
                                                         translocated to growing points where it inhibits the
Cereals: two to five leaves only (Z12–Z15).
                                                         enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS), which is
Lucerne: apply only to stands older than one year        essential for synthesis of amino acids.
during dormant period.
Grass crops: apply only to crops older than              Application Timing
one year during dormant period before weed               Crop: cereals two leaf to first node (Z12–Z31).
emergence.                                               Lupins in SA – two to 10 leaf stage.
Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)                             Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)
Can cause damage by leaching. Heavy rains after          Eclipse is recommended on all varieties of wheat
application may cause severe crop damage.                except Cadoux, barley, oats, triticale and rye. Lupin
                                                         varieties – use only on Gungurru, Kiev, Danja, Kalya
Effect on Crop                                           and Tanjil.
Can cause temporary yellowing.
                                                         Effect on Crop
Effect on Clover Species                                 Cereals: usually no effect on wheat, barley, oats,
Subterranean clover has variable tolerance.              triticale or rye but occasionally a transitory crop
Seedlings are moderately tolerant to 500mL/ha.           yellowing will occur.
Damage can be worse on light-textured soils.
                                                         DO NOT apply Eclipse to Cadoux wheat variety as
Limited trial data indicates Trikkala and Dalkieth
                                                         unacceptable crop injury may occur.
have greater tolerance to MCPA/diuron than
Seaton Park, Junee, Woogenullup, Karridale               Lupins: avoid spraying overlaps as slight stunting
and Clare.                                               and yellowing may occur. This is transient and does
                                                         not reduce yield (except in Merrit variety under
Effect on Medic Species                                  conditions of growth stress).
Trial results indicate moderate tolerance of barrel      DO NOT apply Eclipse to the Merrit variety in WA.
medic seedlings (four to eight leaves) to 900mL/ha.      Eclipse causes severe damage to Luteus (yellow)
                                                         lupins such as Woodjil.
Effect on Lucerne
Established plants are tolerant up to 3.5 L/ha.          Effect on Legume Species
Slight leaf scorch and yield reduction has been          Sub clover, medics and lucerne are severely
observed from winter application to established          suppressed by Eclipse. Faba beans and chickpeas
lucerne. Tolerated by lucerne more than one              are also damaged.
year old.
                                                         Mixing Instructions
Mixing Instructions                                      Quarter fill the spray tank and add the required
Prior to pouring, shake container vigorously, then       amount of Eclipse. Add any other compatible
add the required amount of product when the              herbicides, then surfactant, crop oil or wetter and
spray tank is half full and being continuously           complete filling with the agitator running. Maintain
agitated. IMPORTANT: always mix diuron with              agitation during spraying.
the water in the spray tank first then add the           Only mix sufficient spray solution for immediate use
other herbicide. Maintain agitation during mixing        and avoid storing.
and spraying.
                                                         When tank mixing: wettable powder or water
Recommended Wetter                                       dispersible granule formulations should be added
Not recommended.                                         to the spray tank first, followed by suspension
                                                         concentrates (flowables), aqueous concentrates,
Other Additives                                          emulsifiable concentrates and finally surfactant or
No.                                                      crop oil.

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                                                      5:10
Recommended Wetter                                           Karridale appearing less tolerant than Dalkieth.
Cereals: DO NOT apply without a crop oil or                  Trikkala is very tolerant. Woogenellup, Seaton
wetting agent, except where specified in the                 Park and Junee have been inconsistent in
Directions for Use table. Use BS1000 at                      their reactions.
100mL/100L (see label for details).                          White clover: tolerant. Limited trial information
Lupins: DO NOT apply with crop oils, wetters,                indicates plants beyond the five leaf stage are
surfactants, insecticides or grass herbicides.               capable of tolerating 1.25L/ha of simazine on
Insecticides and grass herbicides may be applied             light-textured soils and up to 2.5L/ha on
10 days after Eclipse.                                       heavy-textured soils.

Other Additives                                              Effect on Medic Species
Uptake spraying oil at 500mL/100L or D-C-Tron or             Barrel medic seedlings of Parragio (four to eight
other crop oils at 1L/100L.                                  leaves) have shown good to moderate tolerance to
                                                             1.25L/ha.
DO NOT add crop oils or surfactants when
applying to lupins.                                          Murex medic: limited trial data indicate seedlings
                                                             are moderately tolerant. Greater damage is noted
Withholding Period                                           where low water rates are used (<100L/ha).
Do not cut or graze for stock foods for 14 days
                                                             Effect on Lucerne
(cereals) or four weeks (lupins) after application.
When using Eclipse in a tank mix with another                Established plants tolerate up to 1.25L/ha applied
product take the withholding period of the other             in winter.
product into consideration.
                                                             Mixing Instructions
                                                             Settling may occur after storage for some weeks.
Flowable Gesatop 600 SC®                                     Stir product or invert container several times
Group C - 600g/L simazine                                    before opening. Pour the Flowable Gesatop into
                                                             the spray tank through a strainer to remove any
Mode of Action                                               dry particles or flakes, which can occur under hot
Mainly absorbed through plant roots. Its                     storage conditions.
effectiveness depends upon rainfall or irrigation            Add the full quantity of Gesatop to the partly-filled
soon after application to move it to the weed root           spray tank while agitating. Fill the tank and agitate
zone. Root uptake improves with soil moisture.               to ensure thorough mixing. Continue agitation while
Pre-emergent.                                                spraying. Agitate vigorously from the bottom if
                                                             allowed to stand.
Application Timing
Can be applied up to a week before sowing, or                Recommended Wetter
post-sowing pre-emergent. Best results are                   Plus 50.
achieved when application is made to bare moist
soil and when sufficient rain to wet the soil through        Other Additives
the weed root zone (20-30mm) occurs within two               If using saline water add LI 700 (100mL/100L).
to three weeks of application
                                                             Withholding Period
Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)                                 Sub clover: do not graze for 14 days after appli-
All Victorian cultivars show good tolerance. Yorrel                       cation.
and Gungurru lupins have increased tolerance to                           do not cut for stock food for 21 days
simazine as compared to Danja or Yandee.                                  after application.
Effect on Crop                                               Chickpeas: do not graze or cut for stock food for
                                                                          nine weeks after application.
Intense heavy rainfall after application can cause
crop damage.                                                 Faba beans: do not use treated produce for
                                                                          human consumption within 23
Effect on Clover Species                                                  weeks of treatment.
Sub clover: tolerant to 1.25L/ha after three leaf                         do not graze or cut for stock food for
stage. Damage may be more severe when growing                             eight weeks after application.
in light-textured soils. Limited trial information from      Canola:      do not graze or use for stock food
Nufarm indicates varieties differ in tolerance, with                      for 15 weeks after application.

                    Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 - Herbicide use
                                                          5:11
Glean®                                                       before mixing Glean in fertiliser solutions. DO NOT
                                                             add a surfactant.
Group B - 750g/kg chlorsulfuron
                                                             Where prepared sprays have been allowed to
Mode of Action                                               stand, thoroughly re-agitate before using.
Pre-emergent: root absorbed.                                 Recommended Wetter
Post-emergent: foliar translocated followed often            Non-ionic surfactant.
by root absorption after rainfall.
                                                             For post-emergent application always add
Selectivity due to detoxification in resistant species.      surfactant/wetting agent such as BS1000 at a rate
Action is by inhibition of cell division in the growing      of 0.1% (active constituent) of final spray volume.
tips of roots and shoots in susceptible species.
                                                             DO NOT add a surfactant/wetting agent when
Tolerant and susceptible species absorb
                                                             tank mixing with another product that has a
chlorosulfuron.
                                                             surfactant/wetting agent in the formulation.
Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)
                                                             Other Additives
Use of Glean on early sowing-date wheat varieties
                                                             Not recommended.
sown out of season (late) on acid soils may result in
some yield suppression under stressed conditions.            Withholding Period
Do NOT apply pre-sowing incorporated by sowing               Nil days. If the crop is to be grazed, suggest one
to wheat varieties Avocet and Durati.                        to two days to allow translocation of product
                                                             throughout target plant.
Effect on Crop
Temporary yellowing and stunting. Although
                                                             Jaguar®
generally considered safe on all oat varieties, some
damage has been observed on very light soils. Do             Groups C + F - 250g/kg bromoxynil + 25g/L
not apply before the two leaf stage (three leaf stage        diflufenican
SA only) of oats or barley.
                                                             Mode of Action
Do not apply to Stirling barley, which is more
susceptible to damage from Glean than                        Diflufenican: foliar translocation. Bromoxynil:
other varieties.                                             primarily contact. Early post-emergence.

Effect on Legume Species                                     Application Timing
Knockdown and residual control of clovers. DO                Crop: two leaf to fully tillered (Z13-Z29). Optimum
NOT use in crops under-sown with legume pasture              results achieved when sprayed at four to eight
species such as medics and clovers.                          weeks post-sowing.
                                                             Clover and lucerne: application before the three
Mixing Instructions                                          trifoliate leaf stage may result in crop damage.
Partly fill the spray tank with water. Using the
graduated flask available from your supplier,                Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)
measure the amount of Glean required for the area            Seek advice before spraying recently-released
to be sprayed. Tap the flask lightly until the surface       cereal varieties.
of the Glean is level.
                                                             Effect on Crop
Add the desired amount of Glean to the spray
tank with the agitation system engaged. Top up               Cereals: some transient crop yellowing may occur.
to the correct volume with water. The material               This usually appears as yellow or white banding on
must be kept in suspension at all times by                   leaves. Subsequent development of the crop and
continuous agitation.                                        yield will be unaffected. This effect may be
                                                             increased in crops suffering from stress and
Note: the measuring flask provided is graduated in
                                                             growing in cold, excessively moist conditions.
grams of Glean only. DO NOT use for measuring
                                                             Development of the crop and subsequent growth
other materials.
                                                             will be unaffected.
In tank mixes Glean must be in suspension before
                                                             Some pre-emergent herbicides, such as atrazine,
adding companion herbicides or surfactant.
                                                             can cause stress to certain crops resulting in an
For application of Glean in liquid fertilisers, slurry       increase in crop damage when using Jaguar.
the Glean in water, then thoroughly mix the slurry           Lucerne and sub clover are particularly sensitive.
into the liquid fertiliser. Check the compatibility

                    Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 - Herbicide use
                                                          5:12
Effect on Clover Species                                    Soil Moisture at Application
The tolerance of sub clover species to Jaguar can           DRY: Do NOT apply if crop or weeds are stressed
vary with the rate of application, soil type, crop          due to dry conditions.
health, stage of growth and degree of moisture and          MOIST: Ideal
temperature stress.
                                                            WATERLOGGED: poor control due to stress. Crop
Jaguar may result in transient crop yellowing and           injury may occur if stressed.
suppression of growth with a resultant initial
reduction in dry matter. For this reason Bayer              Mixing Instructions
CropScience recommends application prior to the             To ensure even mixing, half fill the spray tank with
eight trifoliate leaf stage.                                clean water and add the required amount of
Under normal growing conditions subsequent                  Jaguar. Agitate thoroughly while spraying. Re-seal
growth and seed yield should not be affected.               part-used container immediately after use.
Crop damage may be increased if rates higher
than 500mL/ha are used in areas where spray                 Recommended Wetter
overlapping has occurred.                                   Wetter not recommended when Jaguar is used
Under normal growing conditions the following               alone. When Jaguar is used in a tank mix with
varieties of sub clover have shown acceptable               other grass herbicides, follow the surfactant
levels of foliage tolerance to Jaguar applied at            addition recommendations for the grass herbicide.
500mL/ha: Daliak, Dalkieth, Denmark, Goulburn,
                                                            Other Additives
Larissa, Nungarin, Seaton Park, Trikkala and
Woogenellup.                                                Do NOT use crop oils with Jaguar or Jaguar
                                                            tank-mixtures in cereals.
Varieties not listed above should be tested
before using Jaguar over large areas. Consult your          Withholding Period
Bayer CropScience representative for advice on              Harvest: cereals, grapes – not required when used
specific varieties.                                         as directed.
The following varieties of clover have shown
                                                            Grazing: do not cut or graze for stock food for
increased sensitivity to Jaguar: Big Bee,
                                                            14 days after application.
Sacromonte (Berseem), Haifa (white), Zulu
(arrowleaf), Kyambro, Lupers and Mara (Persian).
Care should be exercised if these clovers are part          Lexone DF®
of the pasture sward.                                       Group C - 750g/kg metribuzin
Effect on Medics
                                                            Mode of Action
DO NOT apply to annual medics.
                                                            Major method of uptake is via the root system
Effect on Lucerne                                           resulting in inhibition of photosynthesis and plant
The tolerance of lucerne varieties to Jaguar can            growth. Some contact. Little translocation.
vary with rate of application, soil type, crop health,      Pre- and post-emergent.
stage of growth and degree of moisture and                  Application Timing
temperature stress. Jaguar may result in transient
                                                            Lexone DF should be applied when weeds are in
crop yellowing and suppression of growth with
                                                            the young seedling stage (no more than three
resultant initial reduction in dry matter.
                                                            true leaves).
For this reason Bayer CropScience recommends
application prior to the eight trifoliate leaf stage.       Peas: apply after rain when crop is pre-emergence
                                                            to three node stage. Do not apply as a
Under normal growing conditions subsequent                  post-emergent because crop injury may occur.
growth and seed yield should not be affected.
Crop damage may be increased if rates higher                Lupins: pre-emergent.
than 500mL/ha are used in areas where spray                 Barley: five leaf stage.
overlapping has occurred.
                                                            Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)
Under normal growing conditions the following
                                                            Barley: prior to five leaf stage on moist soil.
lucerne varieties have shown acceptable levels of
foliage tolerance to Jaguar applied at 500mL/ha:            Do not apply to crops grown on sandy soils or
Hunter River, Nova, Dekalb 185.                             soils low in organic matter. Do not apply to
                                                            Morrell barley.
Varieties not listed should be tested before using
Jaguar over large areas.                                    Field peas: sow crop three to four
                                                            centimetres deep.
                    Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 - Herbicide use
                                                         5:13
Effect on Crop                                             Maintain agitation then add trifluralin at the
DO NOT apply Lexone to stressed crops as crop              recommended rates (refer to trifluralin label).
injury may result. Potential causes of stress include
                                                           Recommended Wetter
severe weather conditions, waterlogging, drought,
excessive soil acidity or alkalinity, poor nutrient        No wetter required.
status, disease, nematode and insect damage.               Other Additives
Barley:     DO NOT apply to crops grown on sandy           None recommended.
            soils or soils low in organic matter.
Lupins:     DO NOT apply to varieties Danja, Kiev          Withholding Period
            Mutant or Albus lupins. DO NOT apply           Barley: DO NOT graze or cut for stock food for
            to lupin crops that have received 2.5 L        14 days after application.
            or more of simazine pre-seeding, or            Other crops: withholding period not required when
            lupin crops that are showing symptoms          used as directed.
            of atrazine or simazine damage.
Peas:       DO NOT apply to Laura, Pennant or              Logran 750 WG®
            White Brunswick varieties as
            phytotoxicity may occur. DO NOT apply          Group B - 750g/kg triasulfuron
            later than the one node stage to Alma          Mode of Action
            and Dinkum peas. DO NOT spray pea
            crops in soils or areas where collar or        Leaf and root absorption. Acetolactate synthase
            stem rot is likely to occur.                   (ALS) inhibitor. Pre-emergent.
Potatoes: DO NOT apply to crops grown on sandy             Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)
            soils as injury to the crop may result,        Excellent tolerance demonstrated in trials on more
            appearing as chlorosis or minor                than 70 wheat varieties. Special care should be
            necrosis.                                      taken with regard to the application of Logran to
DO NOT apply to Kurell potatoes as phytotoxicity           durum wheat as these may be more sensitive
may occur.                                                 where stress factors such as waterlogging,
DO NOT apply to Atlantic and Pontiac varieties             drought, excessive acidity or alkalinity, nutrient or
(WA only).                                                 trace element deficiency, root disease or soil
                                                           insects are present or occur following application.
DO NOT use Lexone on dry-grown,
                                                           In these situations crop recovery will be rapid
non-irrigated crops.
                                                           provided the stress factors DO NOT continue
Soil Moisture at Application                               exerting a negative effect on the crop’s growth.
DRY: there is no root uptake of Lexone DF and              Effect on Crop
results against grass weeds and wireweed will
                                                           Slight retardation on early crop growth may be
be poor.
                                                           observed when crops are planted in sandy soils
MOIST: best results if six to 12 mm rain falls within      with 5 < pH > 8.5. Retardation may also occur in
two weeks of application.                                  some instances where considerable late
WATERLOGGED: poor control as plants stressed.              summer/early autumn weed growth occurs. Weeds
Crop injury may occur if stressed.                         such as goosefoot (Chenopodium spp) can release
                                                           herbicidally active compounds into the soil.
Mixing Instructions
Partially fill the spray tank with water. Add the          Effect on Legume Species
Lexone bags. Top up to the correct volume with             Do NOT apply to crop undersown with legumes.
water. The bags should be completely dissolved
within five minutes. The material must be kept in          Mixing Instructions
suspension at all times by continuous agitation.           Partly fill the spray tank with water and start the
In tank mixes Lexone DF must be in suspension              agitation. Add the correct amount of product to the
before adding the companion herbicide or                   spray tank with the agitation system running.
liquid fertiliser.                                         Continue agitation while topping up the tank with
                                                           water and while spraying. Use the spray mix within
Pre-plant Incorporated Treatment                           24 hours of preparation.
Lexone DF + trifluralin. Add Lexone DF to water in         When using a tank mix of Logran and Spray-Seed,
spray tank with agitation running as above.                fill the tank with approximately half the required

                   Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 - Herbicide use
                                                        5:14
water volume with constant agitation and add the            Add the water-soluble bags of Lontrel 750 SG
Logran. Ensure the Logran is fully dispersed before         granules one at a time into fast-moving water. DO
adding the Spray.Seed then complete filling the             NOT dump product into tank all at once.
tank and mix thoroughly. Apply tank mix                     Spray rigs that top fill. For spray rigs that fill
immediately under constant agitation.                       through hoses into the top of the tank, quarter-fill
Recommended Wetter                                          the tank, add the Lontrel 750 SG one bag at a
                                                            time then continue to fill the tank. Direct water
None.
                                                            onto the water-soluble bags and the surface of
Other Additives                                             the tank contents.
Avadex BW where wild oats are anticipated as                Spray rigs with pre-mix hoppers. For spray rigs
a problem.                                                  with a drop-down induction hopper, three-quarter
                                                            fill the hopper with water and have the rinsing
Withholding Period                                          sprinkler operating.
Pre-emergent application: DO NOT graze or cut               Add the Lontrel 750 SG and when dissolved,
for stock food for seven weeks after application.           transfer this batch into the quarter-filled main tank.
Post-emergent application: DO NOT graze or cut              Continue to rinse the hopper until the entire
for stock food for 14 days after application.               product has been rinsed through.
                                                            Spray rigs with limited bypass agitation. For these
Lontrel 750 SG®                                             rigs, pre-dissolve each bag of Lontrel 750 SG in a
Group I - 750g/kg clopyralid                                bucket, stirring until all the granules have dissolved,
                                                            before adding the mix to the main tank.
Mode of Action
                                                            Tank mix sequence
Foliage translocation. Some root absorption.
Absorbed mainly via foliage and moves within the            1. Quarter fill the spray tank while maintaining
plant to interfere with cell division and enlargement.         agitation.
Post-emergent.                                              2. Add the Lontrel granules, using the mixing
Application Timing                                             procedure above.
Winter cereals: from two leaf stage (Z12–Z31) and           3. Add Verdict 520 if it is to be used in the
no later than the 1st node stage.                              tank mix.
Canola: two to eight leaf stage.                            4. Add water to half fill the spray tank.

Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)                                5. Add wettable powders, water dispersable
                                                               granules or suspension concentrates.
Wheat: apply two leaf stage (Z12-Z31) and no
later than the 1st node stage for control of a range        6. Add emulsifiable concentrates including other
of broadleaf weeds. (Registered in WA from two                 selective grass herbicides.
leaf to jointing.)                                          7. If Uptake Spraying Oil is to be used, add this to
Canola: apply from two leaf stage up to no later               the spray tank when it is half full.
than eight leaf stage.                                      8. If other adjuvants or a wetting agent are to be
Effect on Legume Species                                       used, add these according to their label.
Neither sub clover nor medic species tolerate               9. Add water to bring up to the final spray volume.
higher rates of Lontrel (200g/ha). The low rate of          Only mix sufficient spray solution for immediate use
Lontrel + 1.0L/ha MCPA is damaging to sub clover            and avoid storing.
but only marginally more than 1.0L/ha of MCPA
alone. Medics do not tolerate this mixture.                 Recommended Wetter
                                                            BS 1000.
Effect on Lucerne
Established plants are moderately to highly                 Other Additives
sensitive. Symptoms include yellowing, leaf                 Uptake Spraying Oil.
cupping, retarding of growth and death.
                                                            Withholding Period
Mixing Instructions
                                                            Pastures: Do NOT graze or cut treated pastures for
Lontrel 750 SG granules are highly soluble in               stock feed for seven days after application of 1600
water and will dissolve rapidly once added to               g/ha of less.
fast-moving water.

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                                                         5:15
Cereals: Do NOT graze or cut treated cereals for             Withholding Period
stock feed for four weeks after application if rate is       DO NOT graze or cut for stock food for seven days
in excess of 120 g/ha.                                       after application.
Do NOT apply later than 10 weeks before harvest.
Canola: Do NOT harvest, graze or cut for stock               MCPA 500®
feed earlier than 12 weeks after application.
                                                             Group I - 500g/L MCPA
                                                             (present as dimethylamine salt)
LVE MCPA®
                                                             Mode of Action
Group I - 500g/L low volatile ester
                                                             Absorbed through leaves and roots of susceptible
Mode of Action                                               plants in a ratio dependent on plant and soil
Foliar translocation, some root absorption, little           moisture levels. MCPA is translocated throughout
contact. Post-emergent.                                      the plant where, like 2,4-D, it affects the balance
                                                             between the plant’s synthesis of sugars and its
Application Timing                                           ability to utilise them. It is a post-emergent
Low rate when crop is at three to five leaf stage            herbicide.
(Z13–Z15). Higher rates from five leaf to
                                                             Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)
commencement of flag leaf stage (Z15–Z37).
                                                             Rate variations: 700mL two to three leaf; 2.0L
Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)                                 fully tillered.
As per label.
                                                             Effect on Crop
Effect on Crop                                               Crop effects only noticeable if applied at incorrect
Damage may occur when crop is sprayed outside                growth stage and/or excessive rates.
recommended application timing.
                                                             Effect on Clover Species
Effect on Legumes                                            Nufarm trials show most sub clover cultivars are
Low Volatile Ester MCPA will cause greater damage            minimally damaged at 700 mL/ha. Higher rates
to legumes than MCPA amine formulations.                     cause more damage.
Damage trials carried out by Nufarm show that                Sub clover cv. Karridale is less tolerant than many
high rates of 1.8L/ha are quite damaging.                    varieties.
Effect on Clover                                             Persian clover cv. Shaftal – moderate tolerance
Low rates of 600mL/ha are safer on most clovers              with variable effects. Young seedlings are more
but still cause unacceptable damage to Haifa                 prone to damage than older, more hardened
(white clover) and Maral (persian clover). Strawberry        seedlings.
clover has a high tolerance. Can be quite useful             Red clover – relatively tolerant, with the amine
when used in conjunction with                                formulation causing more damage than the salt,
spray-grazing.                                               especially where higher rates are applied.
Effect on Lucerne                                            Serradella – very sensitive, with moderate to heavy
                                                             damage and obvious leaf and stem damage.
Medic and lucerne are less tolerant. DO NOT spray
cereal crops under-sown with lucerne as damage               White clover – moderately tolerant of low to
may result.                                                  moderate rates, but the setback to growth at the
                                                             higher recommended rates for controlling weeds in
Mixing Instructions                                          pastures can be unacceptable. More damaging
Half fill the spray tank with clean water and add the        than 2,4-D at equivalent rates of active constituent.
required amount of product. Agitate thoroughly
before adding the rest of the water. If left overnight,      Effect on Medics
agitate thoroughly before spraying.                          Barrel medic – variable effects on established
                                                             plants with unacceptable damage and significant
Recommended Wetter                                           yield reduction even at relatively low rates
Activator 90 (125mL/100L).                                   (300mL/ha). Seed yields have been reduced.
                                                             Parragio appears more susceptible to a growth
Other Additives
                                                             check than Sephi.
None. May cause crop damage.

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                                                          5:16
Effect on Lucerne                                      Severe crop damage will result from use of Midas
                                                       on conventional wheat varieties.
Can cause severe damage and death to seedling
and established plants. Death is common even at        Effect on Crop
low rates of herbicide and even if leaf growth is at   This product may in some circumstances lead to
a minimum when sprayed.                                transient crop yellowing and temporary slowing of
Cutting prior to spraying can reduce damage,           growth but plants soon recover and yield is
which is often severe with plant death common.         unaffected. This effect may be more pronounced
The amine and salt formulations can both cause         when the product is used under poor growth
severe loss.                                           conditions.
Mixing Instructions                                    Mixing Instructions
Half fill the spray tank with water and add the        Part fill the spray tank with water and, with
required amount of product. Agitate thoroughly         agitator engaged, add the required amount of
before adding the remaining water.                     Midas then fill with water.
When tank mixing add the required amount of            If tank mixing, add other product first and mix
compatible product (and surfactant if                  thoroughly before adding Midas.
recommended) when the spray tank is nearly full        Recommended Wetter
and while continuously agitating. If left overnight,   Not applicable.
agitate thoroughly before spraying.
                                                       Other Additives
Recommended Wetter
                                                       Hasten or Kwickin at 500mL/100L of spray
None                                                   volume.
Other Additives                                        Withholding Period
No, because of risk of crop phytotoxicity.             Do not graze or cut for stock food for four weeks
Inclusion of certain insecticides can increase the     after application.
risk of alkaline hydrolysis.
LI-700 can be used in these situations.
                                                       Intervix®
Withholding Period
                                                       Group B + B - 33g/L Imazamox + 15g/L
Cereals and pasture: DO NOT graze or cut for           Imazapyr
stock food for seven days after application.
                                                       Note: Intervix herbicide is ONLY to be applied to
                                                       certified canola varieties with Clearfield
Midas®                                                 technology.
Group B + B - 288.5g/L MCPA (Present as ethyl          Mode of Action
hexyl ester) + 22g/L Imazapic + 7.3g/L                 Intervix is a member of the imidazolinone group
Imazypyr                                               of herbicides. The product has the inhibitors-of-
Note: Midas herbicide is for use only in wheat         acetolactate-synthase (ALS) mode of action. It is
varieties with Clearfield technology.                  absorbed through the leaves, green stems and
                                                       roots of susceptible weeds and moved
Mode of Action
                                                       throughout the plant.
Midas is a Group BI herbicide which has modes
                                                       Weeds will either die or will remain stunted and
of action, inhibiting ALS and disrupting plant cell
                                                       will not compete with the crop.
growth.
                                                       Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)
The imidazolinone component of Midas inhibits
plant-specific enzymes required for the formation      Apply only to certified canola varieties with
of three key amino acids used for protein              Clearfield technology. DO NOT apply to any
synthesis. The MCPA component disrupts cell            other canola variety.
growth by mimicking plant hormones.                    Effect on Crop
This dual action makes Midas effective against a       Intervix may lead to some transient crop
broad range of weeds.                                  yellowing and temporary slowing of growth but
Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)                           plants soon recover and yield is unaffected. This
                                                       effect may be more pronounced when the
DO NOT use this product on any wheat variety
                                                       product is used under poor growth conditions.
other than those with Clearfield technology.



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                                                 5:17
DO NOT use this product on any canola variety        The yellowing effect is more pronounced under
other than certified varieties with Clearfield       poor growth conditions including conditions of
technology.                                          prolonged moisture stress.
Extreme crop damage will result to triazine          Effect on Field Peas
tolerant and conventional canola varieties.          Do not apply to field peas beyond the four node
Effect on Clover Species                             stage. Do not apply if frost is forecast.
DO NOT use on clover species.                        DO NOT use Raptor after simazine (unregistered
Effect on Lucerne                                    in field peas) and do not exceed 250g active
                                                     constituent/ha diuron if use of Raptor is planned.
DO NOT use on lucerne.
                                                     Do not roll field peas after germination if use of
Mixing Instructions
                                                     Raptor is planned.
Pour the required amount of the product into a
                                                     Before using this product on field peas other than
spray tank containing almost the total amount of
                                                     Bohatyr, Bonzer, Dun, Dundale, Glenroy, Laura,
water required. Mix thoroughly. If Intervix is
                                                     Magnet, Mukta, Santi or Wirrega contact BASF
added during filling, foaming may occur.
                                                     Australia Ltd for up-to-date information.
When tank mixing this product with other
                                                     DO NOT use on Alma, Excell and Parafield
recommended compatible products, first add the
                                                     varieties.
other product(s) to the tank and mix thoroughly
before adding Intervix.                              Effect on Legume Species
Recommended Wetter                                   Safety to medic varieties may be lower than
                                                     clover varieties. Safety to seedling pastures less
Not applicable.
                                                     than one year old may be lower than to older
Other Additives                                      established pastures.
Product must be mixed with Hasten or Kwickin as      Transient biomass reduction and leaf yellowing
per the Directions for Use.                          may occur to pasture legumes and perennial
Withholding Period                                   grass numbers may be reduced as a result of
Canola with Clearfield Technology: DO NOT            unfavourable seasonal conditions following
graze or cut for stock food for five weeks after     application.
application.                                         For up-to-date information on all clover and
Harvest for grain: not required when used as         medic varieties, contact CropCare Australia
directed.                                            before use.
                                                     Effect on Lucerne
                                                     Before using this product on lucerne varieties
Raptor®                                              other than Hunterfield, Sceptre, Sequel, Siriver or
Group B - 700g/kg Imazamox                           Trifecta contact BASF Australia Ltd for up-to-date
Mode of Action                                       information.
Mainly through leaf absorption, with some limited    Do not use the Hasten or Kwickin mix on
soil uptake and residual activity. It is quickly     seedling lucerne.
transported to the growing points where it           Mixing Instructions
interferes with the activity of a key plant enzyme   Part fill the spray tank with water then, with the
involved in protein synthesis and cell growth.       agitator running, add the required amount of
Affected weeds do not die immediately, but stop      product then fill the tank with water.
growing and competing for water and nutrients.       When tank mixing Raptor with other
It is important to note that not all weed            recommended compatible products, first add the
populations will be controlled.                      other product to the tank and mix thoroughly
Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance): Effect on              before adding this product.
Crop
This product may cause shortening of plant
internodes and may in some circumstances lead
to transient crop yellowing, but plants will soon
recover.




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                                                5:18
Recommended Wetter                                      streams or irrigation channels or high levels of
BS1000 or equivalent at 200 mL/100L water.              calcium, magnesium or bicarbonate ions.
                                                        Fill the spray tank one third to half full with clean
Other Additives                                         water and start agitation.
Hasten or Kwickin at 500 mL/100L water plus
                                                        If adding ammonium sulphate, use a 2% v/v and
Boost liquid ammonium sulphate at 2L/100L water.
                                                        mix thoroughly.
Withholding Period                                      If tank mixing, add recommended herbicide/
GRAZING lucerne, pastures: do not graze or cut          insecticide/additive to the spray tank and
for stock food for seven days after application.        mix thoroughly.
Field peas: do not graze or cut for stock food for      Add Roundup Powermax and the remaining water.
six weeks after application.                            Mix thoroughly.
Peanuts, soybeans: do not graze or cut for stock        If required, add pulse Penetrant or Wetter TX near
food for four weeks after application.                  the end of the filling process.
HARVEST field peas, peanuts, and soybeans: not          Always maintain adequate agitation during
required when used as directed.                         application and use the tank mix promptly.
                                                        Recommended Wetter
Roundup Powermax®
                                                        Wetter TX is recommended for the control of silver
Group M - 540g/L glyphosate                             grass and annual ryegrass in late winter and spring.
(present as potassium salt).                            Wetter TX should be used only where recommended
                                                        at a rate of 0.2% (200 mL/100L) spray solution.
Mode of Action                                          Pulse Penetrant is recommended for the control of
This product is a member of the Glycines group of       bracken and many woody weeds at a rate of 2
herbicides. It is absorbed by plant foliage and         L/100L spray solution.
green stems and translocated to growing points
and stolons or rhizomes where it inhibits EPSP          Other Additives
synthase. Post-emergent, non-selective.                 Crystalline (or solution) ammonium sulphate may
                                                        be used as an adjuvant to alleviate the adverse
Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)                            effects of high levels of calcium, magnesium and
Non-target crops damaged by drift or accidental         bicarbonate ions in water and may enhance the
spraying.                                               knockdown weed control where tank mixes of
                                                        atrazine are used. Rate: 2L or 1 kg/100 L
Effect on Crop                                          spray solution.
Sub clover: seedlings are sensitive. When applied
                                                        Withholding Period
in spring for “pasture topping” it can reduce seed
set. In paddocks with low clover seed reserves,         Cereals and pulses: Do not harvest, graze or cut
regeneration of plants the following season may         for stock food for seven days after application.
be reduced.                                             A withholding period for grazing is not required. It
Burr medic: very sensitive when the plant has           is, however recommended that grazing of treated
abundant green leaf. Seedlings are sensitive.           plants be delayed to ensure herbicide uptake.
Tolerant when fully dormant (dry summer                 Certain plants such as soursob, variegated thistle,
conditions).                                            sorghum and Johnson grass may be naturally toxic
                                                        to stock when eaten in large quantities under
Lucerne: variable effects on established plants
                                                        certain conditions. In these situations delay grazing
with unacceptable damage including plant death
                                                        until complete desiccation of treated plants
frequently occurring in established pastures at         has occurred.
recommended rates.
Severe damage has been observed from late               Spinnaker 700 WDG®
autumn to early spring application. Seedlings are
very sensitive.                                         Group B - 700g/kg imazethapyr
Mixing Instructions                                     Mode of Action
Roundup Powermax mixes readily with water.              Root and shoot absorbed, translocated
Reduced results may occur if water contains             acetolactate synthase inhibitor that inhibits the
suspended clay or organic matter from dams,             production of several essential amino acids.


                  Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 - Herbicide use
                                                     5:19
Application Timing                                          Spray.Seed 250®
Pre-emergence and post-emergence.
                                                            Group L + L - 135g/L paraquat (present as
Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)                                paraquat dichloride) + 115g/L diquat (present as
Usually excellent crop selectivity. Short-term crop         diquat dibromide monohydrate).
effects can be seen where environmental or
                                                            Mode of Action
nutritional stress affects the crop. In field peas use
only on the cultivars Alma, Dun, Dundale, Early Dun         Contact, some foliage translocation.
and Wirrega.                                                Post-emergent. Very rainfast, with 90% of
                                                            Spray.Seed absorbed into the plant within
Effect on Crop                                              two minutes of contact.
This product may cause slight shortening of plant
internodes but plants soon recover and yield is             Application Timing
unaffected. This effect may be more pronounced              See label for details.
when the product is used post-emergence or
under poor growth conditions.                               Application Rates
                                                            Young seedlings   0.8 to 1.6L/ha
Effect on Clover Species
                                                            Young weeds       1.6 to 2.4L/ha
Spinnaker has been tested on Dalkieth and
Nungarin sub clovers. Results indicate sub clover           Older weeds       2.4 to 3.2L/ha
biomass may be reduced by use of Spinnaker.                 Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)
Effect on Lucerne                                           Not applicable.
Spinnaker is recommended for use as a                       Effect on Legumes
post-emergence application in seedling lucerne
after the crop has developed to at least the first          See pasture manipulation strategies.
trioliate (spring) or second trifoliate (autumn)            Effect on Clover Species
leaf stages.
                                                            Sub clover seedlings are very sensitive. Established
It is safe to use in established lucerne.
                                                            plants are moderately tolerant. Leaf scorch damage
Damage to plants establishing in treated soils has          is likely at higher rates but plants recover. Seed set
been observed.                                              can be adversely affected if applied at flowering to
Mixing Instructions                                         early seed development.
Half to three-quarters fill spray tank with clean           Effect on Lucerne
water then, with agitator running, add the required         Causes rapid, severe leaf scorching of top
amount of this product then fill the tank with water.
                                                            growth of plants. In healthy, well established plants
Note: When tank mixing this product with other              (more than one season old), regrowth is rapid
recommended compatible products, first add the              and vigorous.
other product to the tank and mix thoroughly
before adding Spinnaker.                                    Suppression and death of weak plants can occur,
                                                            especially in summer.
Recommended Wetter                                          Seedlings are very sensitive and can be killed.
200mL/100L water non-ionic surfactant such
as BS1000 or 300mL/100L water MONSOON                       Mixing Instructions
or equivalent non-ionic wetter (if used                     The recommended rate of Spray.Seed 250 should
post-emergence).                                            be added to water in the spray tank and agitated
                                                            to give even mixing. Agitate again if left standing.
Other Additives
In certain situations Hasten or Kwickin at                  Recommended Wetter
500mL/100L water may be used instead of wetter.             Agral at 100mL/100L, 200mL/100L if spray volume
The addition of Boost liquid ammonium sulphate              exceeds 100L/ha.
at a rate of 2L/100L water may assist in                    BS1000 at 60mL/100L, 120mL/100L if spray vol-
post-emergence control of summer-growing weeds.
                                                            ume exceeds 100L/ha.
Withholding Period
                                                            Other Additives
Do not graze or cut for stock feed for two weeks
                                                            None recommended.
after application.


                   Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 - Herbicide use
                                                         5:20
Withholding Period                                         At recommended rates safe on wheat from three
Do not graze or cut for stock feed for one day after       leaf to late tillering (Z13–Z29).
application. Do not graze horses for seven days            For barley to be safe the crop must be at the five
after application.                                         leaf stage (Z15). Spraying at an earlier growth stage
                                                           can cause head deformities in all WA barley varieties.
Other Comments
                                                           Warning (oats): The tolerance of some oat
Weeds must be free from dust on leaves as                  varieties to Tigrex has not been tested. Test a
Spray.Seed 250 is de-activated on contact                  small area of crop before using Tigrex over large
with soil.                                                 areas. Consult your local Bayer CropScience
Leaves of weeds should not be wet from rain or             representative for advice on specific varieties.
heavy dew. In such cases delay spraying until
leaves dry.                                                Pasture
Increased plant uptake occurs when this product is         The tolerance of clover varieties to Tigrex can
applied in the morning and evening.                        vary with rate of application, soil type, crop health,
                                                           stage of growth and degree of moisture and
Not translocated at high light intensities as leaf         temperature stress.
tissue is quickly killed.
Under low light or dark conditions Spray.Seed 250          Effect on Crop
acts more slowly and may move some distance                Tigrex may result in transient crop yellowing and
from the point of application.                             suppression of growth with a resultant initial
Thorough spray coverage is essential to ensure             reduction in dry matter, particularly at rates in
good weed control.                                         excess of 500mL/ha and in areas of spray overlap.
                                                           However, at 500mL/ha and less and under normal
Deep-rooted species such as sub clover and
                                                           growing conditions, subsequent growth and seed
lucerne will recover from spray application.
                                                           yield should not be affected.
Can sow within one hour of application in all weed
situations.                                                Effect on Clover Species
Important Note: Spray.Seed 250 is listed in this           Under normal growing conditions, the following
manual for use only as a knockdown herbicide               varieties have shown acceptable levels of foliage
early in the season.                                       tolerance to Tigrex applied at 500mL/ha: Zulu
It does not kill branched broomrape directly due to        (arrowleaf), Paradana (balansa), Sacromonte
                                                           (berseem), Kyambro, Lupers, Maral, (persian), Haifa
its inability to transfer through plant root systems.
                                                           (white), Daliak, Dalkieth, Denmark, Esperance*,
Tigrex®                                                    Geraldton, Goulburn*, Karridale, Larissa*, Leura,
                                                           Mt Barker, Nungarin, Rosedale, Seaton Park*,
Group I + F - 250g/L MCPA (present as ethyl                Trikkala* and Woogenellup (subterranean).
hexyl ester) + 25g/L diflufenican                          * The effects of Tigrex on clover seed yield have
Mode of Action                                               been tested on these varieties. Under normal
                                                             growing conditions they show acceptable levels
Foliar translocation, absorption by shoots and               of tolerance to Tigrex applied at 500mL/ha.
roots. Early post-emergence.
                                                           Warning
Application Timing
                                                           Rose and strawberry clover have exhibited
CROP: up to 715mL/ha - apply from three leaf to            increased sensitivity to Tigrex.
        late tillering (Z13–Z29).
                                                           Tigrex may affect seed yield of Woogenullup
        over 750mL/ha - apply from five leaf to            sub clover.
        late tillering (Z15–Z29).
                                                           Some pasture grasses, including phalaris and
Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)                               cocksfoot, may show some initial reduction in
                                                           vegetative growth after application of Tigrex.
Cereals: some transient crop yellowing may occur.
This usually appears as yellow or white banding on         Mixing Instructions
leaves. Provided the crop is not under stress from         To ensure even mixing, half fill the spray tank with
pre-emergent herbicide, root disease, insect               clean water and add the required amount of the
damage, frost, dry or excessively moist conditions,        product. Agitate thoroughly then add the remainder
the development of the crop and subsequent                 of the water. Agitate again before spraying
growth will be unaffected.                                 commences.


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                                                        5:21
Recommended Wetter                                         It should NOT be added direct to undiluted sprays
Not required when using alone. Can use wetter              containing wetting agents.
with a grass herbicide combination.
                                                           Container Sizes
Other Additives                                            5L, 20L
None. DO NOT use crop oils with Tigrex or Tigrex
tank-mixtures with other products in cereals.
                                                           BS1000®
Withholding Period
                                                           Active Constituent: 1000g/L alcohol alkoxylate
Do not graze or cut for stock feed for seven days
after application.                                         Product Appearance
                                                           Clear pale straw-coloured, non-flammable liquid.

Adjuvants                                                  Overview
                                                           Biodegradable spray additive containing 100% w/v
                                                           non-ionic surfactant suitable for all types of weed
Agral®                                                     killers. It increases herbicide activity by better
Active Constituent: 600g/L nonyl phenol                    wetting, adsorption and improved spray coverage.
ethylene oxide condensate non-ionic organic                BS1000 can be used with acid and alkaline sprays
surfactant                                                 and mixes with all types of water.

Product Appearance                                         Recommended uses
Pale straw coloured liquid with an alcohol odour.          Wetter should be added only where directed on
                                                           individual labels. Use with selective herbicides
Overview                                                   outside label directions may reduce crop selectivity.
Agral is a spray additive designed for use with
fungicides, insecticides and herbicides. It increases      Application
wetting and improves spray coverage.                       For foliar-active herbicides, spray to the point
Agral can be used with alkaline sprays and mixes           where the leaves and stems are just wet. Spraying
easily with all types of water.                            beyond this encourages run-off and subsequent
                                                           loss of spray chemicals.
Spray only to the point where leaves are just wet.
Spraying beyond this point will encourage run-off,         In general, use a high-volume spray for soil-residual
resulting in loss of product and efficacy.                 herbicides.
As with BS1000, Agral should be added only to              When spraying waxy or hairy-leafed plants that are
post-emergent herbicides.                                  normally hard to wet, increased activity will be
                                                           obtained by increasing the rate of BS1000.
Do not add this product to herbicides known
to include adequate wetting agent in their                 Mixing
formulations.                                              Mixes readily with water and should be added
Mode of Action                                             directly to the spray tank. It should not be added
                                                           directly to undiluted sprays containing
When added to the spray tank, Agral helps reduce           wetting agents.
the natural surface tension of spray droplets so that
upon contacting the target they resist bouncing off        Avoid eye contact, repeated or prolonged skin
and adhere to the surface where they then spread           contact and inhalation of the vapour. Wear overalls,
out, improving spray coverage.                             safety glasses and impervious gloves.
These features help improve contact between the            Use as a herbicide additive and for fire-fighting
crop protection product and the target, maximising         activities.
the product’s effectiveness even on waxy or hairy          Toxic to fish. Avoid contamination of waterways.
material that would otherwise tend to resist
                                                           Container Sizes
spray contact.
                                                           5L, 20L
Mixing
Agral mixes easily and quickly with water and
should be added directly to the spray tank.


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                                                        5:22
Bonza™                                                   Overview
                                                         An adjuvant spraying oil developed specifically
Active Constituent: 450g/L paraffinic oil +
                                                         for use with certain crop-selective herbicides to
259g/L fatty acid and fatty acid derivatives +           improve the spreading and wetting of
91g/L nonoxynol                                          herbicides, insecticides and defoliants on plant
Overview                                                 surfaces.
Bonza is a penetrating spray adjuvant                    Compatibility
especially suitable for use with most systemic           Broadstrike, Eclipse and Lontrel 750SC.
herbicides requiring uptake through waxy leaf
cuticles for optimum activity. It improves               Situation
herbicide performance by utilising the three-            Broadacre cropping including fallow: where
way combination of paraffinic oil, fatty acid            specified use 500mL Uptake/100L water,
penetrants and nonoxynol to provide efficient            applying a minimum of 250mL Uptake/ha.
wetting, spreading and uptake. Bonza is also             Spot and high volume spraying: where
suitable to use with other agricultural chemicals        specified use 500mL Uptake/100L water,
including insecticides and defoliants.                   applied to the point of runoff.
Compatibility                                            Mixing
This product is compatible with a wide range of          Always follow the mixing instructions of each
herbicides including but not restricted to those         ingredient in the spray tank mix. Add water to
specified in the Directions for Use table.               the spray tank 10cm above the agitation source
Application Rate                                         and ensure vigorous agitation.
Refer to the Directions for Use table on the             There must be a minimum of 100L of water in
Bonza label.                                             the spray tank before the pesticide is added.
Rates range from 0.5-2L/100L of spray mixture            If tank mixing, use the following order for mix
depending on the circumstances and the                   partners:
product used.                                            • Water dispersible granules (e.g. Eclipse)
                                                         • Flowable formulations (e.g. simazine)
Mixing
                                                         • Emulsifiable concentrates (e.g. Starane)
Follow the directions on the companion                   • Water soluble liquids (e.g. Lontrel)
agricultural chemical label. Fill the spray tank at
                                                         • Uptake and other adjuvants
least half full and add the required amount of
the agricultural chemical (or chemicals in the           Allow at least one minute between the addition
correct order) whilst agitating the tank contents        of each ingredient to ensure thorough mixing
– refer to the respective agricultural chemical          before the next tank mix partner is added.
labels for full directions. Continue filling the tank    Explosion warning
to the required volume and add the                       Apparently EMPTY containers may contain
recommended rate of Bonza last. Maintain                 liquid and/or vapour residue which can be
agitation throughout the spraying operation.             explosive if exposed to an ignition source at
Where a suction (filling) probe or hopper is             temperatures above 90°C. Such conditions may
used slowly add Bonza to the tank last, in at            occur during cutting or welding. DO NOT cut or
least 10 times its volume of water to minimise           weld Uptake containers.
the likelihood of an invert emulsion forming.
                                                         Container Sizes
Withholding period
                                                         5L, 20L, 110L.
To be determined according to the choice of
active chemical.
Container Sizes
10L, 20L, 110L.

Uptake™ Spraying Oil
Active Constituent: 582g/L paraffinic oil +
240g/L non-ionic surfactants


                    Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2009 - Herbicide use
                                                  5:23
Hasten®                                                           included on the label. Any specific directions or
                                                                  restrictions listed on the label of the crop
Active Constituent: 704g/L ethyl and methyl                       protection product take precedence over
esters of Vegetable Oil                                           directions for use listed on this product’s label.
Product Appearance                                                Mixing
Bright, clear liquid                                              Follow the crop protection product’s label. Half
Overview                                                          fill the spray tank with clean water and add the
Blend of esterified vegetable oil and non-ionic                   crop protection product while agitating. Finish
surfactants suitable for a range of crop                          filling the spray tank with water, add the
protection products including herbicides,                         required amount of Hasten last and continue
pyrethroid insecticides, defoliants and                           agitation until completion of spraying.
desiccants where oil based adjuvants are
Compatibility and use rates
Select (clethodim)                    1L/100L spray mixture           Do NOT use Hasten when mixing Select with Brodal,
                                                                      Basagran or Blazer
Topik (clodinafop-propargyl)          0.5L/100L spray mixture         Hasten is preferred to mineral spray oils under cold water
                                                                      conditions (<10°C). Do NOT use Hasten when mixing
                                                                      Topik with Jaguar or Tigrex
Spinnaker (imazethapyr)               0.5L/100L spray mixture         Apply to actively growing weeds in the 2 to 4 leaf stage
Correct (propazquizafop)              0.5L/100L spray mixture         Hasten is preferred to mineral spray oils under cold water
                                                                      conditions (<10°C)
OnDuty (imazapic + imazapyr)          0.5L/100L spray mixture         Hasten is recommended for all applications where
                                                                      OnDuty is used
Hussar (iodosulfuron-methyl sodium)   1L/100L spray mixture           Hasten is recommended for all applications where Hussar
                                                                      is used
Midas (MCPA + imazapic + imazapyr)    0.5L/100L spray mixture         Hasten is recommended for all applications where Midas
                                                                      is used
Gesaprim (atrazine)                   0.5-1L/100L spray mixture       For post emergent use in TT canola
Raptor (imazamox)                     0.5-1L/100L spray mixture       There are some applications where Hasten should not be
                                                                      used with Raptor WG. Refer to Raptor label.
Logran B-Power (triasulfuron +        0.5L/100L spray mixture         Hasten is recommended for all applications where Logran
butafencil)                                                           B-Power is used
Touchdown B-Power (glyphosate +       0.5L/100L spray mixture         Hasten is recommended for all applications where
butafenacil)                                                          Touchdown B-Power is used
Arvesta Motsa & Motsa (clethodim +    1.0L/100L spray mixture         Hasten is recommended for all applications where
halxyfop)                                                             Arvesta Motsa or Motsa is used.
Targa Bolt (quizlofop-P-ethyl)        1.0L/100L spray mixture         Hasten is recommended for all applications where Targa
                                                                      Bolt is used.
Aramo (tepraloxydim)                  1.0L/100L spray mixture         Hasten is recommended for all applications where Aramo
                                                                      is used.
                                                                  approximately 0.5-1.0 L and should not be less
Directions for use
                                                                  than 0.2 L/ha.
Hasten may be used wherever an oil-based
adjuvant is recommended on the label of the                       Withholding period
agricultural chemical, unless Hasten or                           To be determined according to the choice of
esterified seed-oil adjuvants are specifically                    active chemical
excluded. The recommended usage rate of
                                                                  Container Sizes
Hasten for all such applications should be
                                                                  20L




                        Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2008 - Herbicide use
                                                      5:24
                                                        Mode of Action
Partner Herbicides                                      Contact.
                                                        Application Timing
Goal®
                                                        Application should be made to small, actively
Group G - 240g/L oxyfluorfen                            growing weeds less than 6-8 leaf in stage. As
Mode of Action                                          Hammer is a contact herbicide, best control is
                                                        achieved when weeds are exposed and are not
Post-emergent foliar desiccation.                       shielded by other weeds and/or stubble.
Application Timing                                      Application Rate
Use prior to sowing winter cereals.                     Apply at 25-75 mL/ha as a tank mix with
Goal is a knockdown herbicide.                          recommended rates of knockdown herbicides.
Application Rate                                        Addition of Hammer to knockdown herbicides
Apply at 75 mL/ha as a tank mix with Roundup            will increase the speed at which treated
at recommended label rates.                             broadleaved weeds in general develop visible
                                                        symptoms and may improve final control of
Addition of Goal to Roundup will improve                broadleaved weeds including certain hard-to-kill
knockdown and increase the speed at which               weeds, marshmallow in particular.
treated weeds develop visible symptoms of
phytotoxicity, and give control of annual nettles       Use the lower rates on younger plants growing
and marshmallow.                                        under good conditions and the higher rates on
                                                        older plants or plants growing under less than
Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)                            optimum conditions.
Not applicable.                                         Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance)
Effect on Crop                                          Not applicable.
Spike rate none.                                        Effect on Crop
Effect on Legume Species                                Not applicable.
Not applicable.
                                                        Mixing Instructions
Mixing Instructions                                     Add half the required volume of water to spray
When tank mixing add Roundup after Goal                 tank and start agitation. Add any partner
during the filling operation. A non-ionic               suspension concentrate or wettable granule
surfactant, if required by label directions, should     herbicide next if it should be added before an
be added near the end of the filling process to         EC or knockdown herbicide. Add the measured
minimise foaming.                                       amount of Hammer next, followed by the
Maintain adequate agitation and use the tank            required amount of knockdown herbicide. Add
mixture promptly. Do not allow mixed solutions          balance of water to tank and add any adjuvant
containing Goal to stand for prolonged periods          or additive if recommended for use with the
without agitation.                                      knockdown herbicide. Maintain good agitation
                                                        at all times until spraying is completed.
Other Additives
                                                        Recommended Wetter
None recommended.
                                                        BS 1000 or Shirwet 600.
Withholding period
                                                        Other Additives
Harvest - not required when used as directed.
Grazing/Stockfood - slaughter stock do not              Supercharge or Hasten 500mL − 1L/100L.
graze treated weeds for 30 days.
                                                        Withholding period
Non-slaughter stock can be grazed straight
away.                                                   Harvest: Not required for Hammer when used
                                                        as directed. Refer also to withholding period of
Hammer®                                                 product/s mixed with Hammer.
                                                        Grazing: 14 days.
Group G - 240g/L carfentrazone-ethyl



                   Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2008 - Herbicide use
                                                 5:24a
Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2008 - Herbicide use
                              5:24b
Glossary of commonly                                        The Decimal Growth Scale
used terms in this chapter                                  – Zadoks Scale
Active constituent - The biologically active part of        0 Germination
                      the chemical present in a               00 Dry seed
                      formulation.                            01 Start of imbibition (water absorption)
                                                              02 -
Chlorosis –           Abnormal condition in plants            03 Imbibition complete
                      characterised by loss of green          04 -
                      colour. The yellowing of the            05 Radicle (root) emerged from caryopsis (seed)
                      plant’s normally green tissue           06 -
                      because of a partial failure of         07 Coleoptile (shoot) emerged from caryopsis
                      the chlorophyll to develop.             08 -
                      Plants showing chlorosis are            09 - Leaf just at coleoptile tip
                      described as being chlorotic.
Cuticle -             The waxy layer on the                 1 Seedling growth
                      surfaces of leaves and stems            10 First leaf through coleoptile
                      of plants. It protects the plant        11 First leaf emerged
                      against excessive water loss            12 2 leaves emerged
                      and mechanical injury.                  13 3 leaves emerged
                                                              14 4 leaves emerged
Necrosis –            Localised death of living tissue        15 5 leaves emerged
                      (e.g. desiccation, browning).           16 6 leaves emerged
                      The death of cellular material          17 7 leaves emerged
                      within the body of an                   18 8 leaves emerged
                      organism.                               19 9 or more leaves emerged
Transient –           Of short duration,
                      not permanent.                        2 Tillering
                                                              20 Main shoot    only
Translocation –       The process whereby a                   21 Main shoot    and 1   tiller
                      chemical is absorbed into the           22 Main shoot    and 2   tillers
                      plant via the leaves or roots           23 Main shoot    and 3   tillers
                      and is then moved to other              24 Main shoot    and 4   tillers
                      parts of the plant.                     25 Main shoot    and 5   tillers
                                                              26 Main shoot    and 6   tillers
                                                              27 Main shoot    and 7   tillers
                                                              28 Main shoot    and 8   tillers
                                                              29 Main shoot    and 9   or more tillers

                                                            3 Stem elongation
                                                              30 Pseudostem (leaf sheath) erection
                                                              31 First node detectable
                                                              32 2nd node detectable
                                                              33 3rd node detectable
                                                              34 4th node detectable
                                                              35 5th node detectable
                                                              36 6th node detectable
                                                              37 Flag leaf just visible
                                                              38 -
                                                              39 Flag leaf ligule just visible




                   Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 - Herbicide use
                                                         5:25
4 Booting                                              8 Dough development
  40 -                                                   80 -
  41 Flag leaf sheath extending                          81 -
  42 -                                                   82 -
  43 Boots just visibly swollen                          83 Early dough
  44 -                                                   84 -
  45 Boots swollen                                       85 Soft dough
  46 -                                                   86 -
  47 Flag leaf sheath opening                            87 Hard dough
  48 -                                                   88 -
  49 Fist awns visible                                   89 -

5 Inflorescence (ear/panicia) emergence                9 Ripening
  50 -                                                   90 -
  51 First spikelet of inflorescence just visible        91 Caryopsis hard (difficult to divide)
  52 -                                                   92 Caryopsis hard (not dented by thumbnail)
  53 Inflorescence _ emerged                             93 Caryopsis loosening in daytime
  54 -                                                   94 Overripe straw dead and collapsing
  55 Inflorescence _ emerged                             95 Seed dormant
  56 -                                                   96 Viable seed giving 50% germination
  57 Inflorescence _ emerged                             97 Seed not dormant
  58 -                                                   98 Secondary dormancy induced
  59 Emergence of inflorescence completed                99 Secondary dormancy lost

6 Anthesis (flowering)
  60 -
  61 Beginning of anthesis
  62 -
  63 -
  64 -
  65 Anthesis half-way
  66 -
  67 -
  68 -
  69 Anthesis complete

7 Milk development
  70 -
  71 Caryopsis (kernel) water ripe
  72 -
  73 Early milk
  74 -
  75 Medium milk
  76 -
  77 Late milk
  78 -
  79 -




                  Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 - Herbicide use
                                                    5:26
                Maximising the
                 effectiveness
                  of spraying

The control of branched broomrape and broadleaf weeds relies heavily on
                   the effective spraying of herbicides.

To ensure a good result when spraying, you need to get as many things as
                             possible right.

  This chapter looks at the keys to successfully using herbicides and how to calibrate your
                                  boom spray or handgun.




  Branched Broomrape On-Farm management Handbook 2010 – Maximising the Effectiveness of Spraying

                                               6:1
                                                             distorted spray pattern caused by one side of a
Equipment                                                    nozzle generating larger droplets. This leads to
                                                             uneven application – strips of higher and lower
Given the cost of herbicides, it makes sense to              rates – across the paddock and increased
ensure that you achieve maximum efficacy and                 volumes of spray material per plant or per
efficiency with the chemical applied.                        hectare, reducing efficiency and increasing cost.
“Misses” caused by blocked nozzles, deformed                 Larger droplets reduce the effectiveness of
nozzle spray patterns or gaps between spray                  contact herbicides in two ways.
swaths are one of the main causes of weed                    Larger droplets mean fewer droplets in a given
control “failures” that allow weeds to build up in           area, so there is a reduced chance of hitting the
the crop and cause problems in future years.                 target weeds.
Feedback from the Broomrape Control Centre                   They also reduce the chance of coating the leaf
indicates broomrape re-infestations are also often           surface with the spray material because they tend
caused by spray misses, so it pays to make sure              to slide off instead of staying on and wetting the
spray equipment is in top condition when                     surface as fine droplets do.
spraying starts and continues to work effectively
throughout the job.                                          Finding the right balance between reducing
                                                             droplet drift and obtaining good coverage is
Nozzle selection                                             critical, particularly when spraying grasses, and
                                                             can be achieved only by having the right nozzles
The nozzles on a boom sprayer are the single                 operating at maximum efficiency.
most important factor in achieving a successful
spray job.                                                   Boom height and spray pattern
No matter how good or how expensive the spray                The boom needs to travel at a constant height
unit, if the nozzles are worn or not right for the           above ground level to achieve consistent
application the chemical will not achieve the                coverage.
desired result.
                                                             The height at which the boom is set varies with
The type of nozzle to be used generally depends              the number and type of nozzles it carries.
on the droplet size and the output (L/ha) required.
                                                             Flat fan nozzles are commonly used in a double
Nozzles can be classified depending on whether               overlap pattern to prevent spray misses and
they produce fine, medium, coarse, or very                   ensure adequate plant coverage (See Figure 1).
coarse droplets.
                                                             To achieve an even double overlap pattern, a
Fine droplets are used for contact herbicides                boom carrying nozzles set 50 centimetres apart
such as Spray.Seed® that require maximum                     needs to be set 50cm above the surface of the
coverage of the leaf surface to be most effective.           target weeds.
Medium droplets, which are useful in windier
conditions because they are heavier and less
prone to drift and cause off-target damage, are
suitable for soil-applied or translocated herbicides
such as trifluralin or glyphosate.
Nozzles determine the spray pattern as well as               Fig. 1. Double overlap - Rear view. The nozzles
the droplet size.                                            need to be turned slightly off-centre so the spray
                                                             from one nozzle doesn’t affect the pattern from
Modern nozzle tips are constructed of materials              the adjacent nozzle.
chosen specifically to prolong tip life. These
extremely hard materials have considerably                   Filters should be checked and cleaned regularly
longer lives than the brass used in earlier-                 to ensure they provide minimal resistance to the
generation nozzles but even they wear under                  flow of the spray.
constant bombardment from the physically and
chemically corrosive compounds in spray
chemicals.
One of the most common signs of tip wear is a

    Branched Broomrape On-Farm management Handbook 2010 – Maximising the Effectiveness of Spraying

                                                       6:2
Markers
A good marking system is essential.                      How to calibrate your boom
There is no point in taking the trouble to get           sprayer
everything right then miss patches because
                                                     1. Select the correct nozzles and pressure for
you can’t see where you are going.
                                                        spray job.
A good marker will help maximise spray               2. Run water through boom and measure the
efficiency.                                             output from each nozzle by catching the water
                                                        from each nozzle for 30 seconds.
In the broomrape quarantine area just one
spray miss can be all it takes to change a                If you are not checking for nozzle wear and
paddock from Level 1 to Level 4.                          only want to determine output you can test a
                                                          selection of nozzles rather than every one.
Water It is important to use adequate water
rates. If water rates are too low the spray may           Nozzles that deliver 5% more or less than the
not reach the target weed.                                average or 10% more than manufacturer
                                                          specifications should be replaced with new
It is also important to check the quality and pH
                                                          nozzles.
of water being used.
                                                         3. Record the nozzle outputs, e.g.
Water that is too acid or alkaline may break
down the spray chemicals.
                                                                 320 321 322 320 322 321mL for 30 seconds.
Dirty water, particularly if it contains organic
matter or clay particles, is likely to absorb
some of the chemical and effectively reduce              4. Calculate the output.
the rate being applied.
Buffers can be added to the spray mix to
                                                         Calculations      (example)
compensate for some water quality                        Total output of boom
characteristics but may change the nozzle
                                                                = 1926mL per 30 seconds
droplet quality. Buffers are mixed before the
spray chemical is added.                                        = 3852mL per 1 minute
Using warm water for spraying may increase the                   = 3.852L per 1 minute
rate of alkaline hydrolysis, which degrades and          Boom width
breaks down pesticides in spray solution
                                                                = Number of nozzles x

Calibration                                                     distance between nozzles
                                                                = 6 x 0.5m
Accurate calibration of spray equipment is the                  = 3.0m
only way to ensure you are actually applying
chemical at the rate that you think you are.             Speed =         Distance travelled (m) x 3.6*
It can save you money and make sure you                              Time taken to travel distance (sec)
get the best possible spray results.                            =                   100m x 3.6
We recommend calibrating your boom                                                     36
sprayer at least once a year.
                                                                =                    10 km/h
Boom sprayer calibration determines:
                                                         L/Ha
    •   The application rate of the sprayer
                                                            =      600** x boom output (L/min)
        (L/ha)
                                                                 Boom width (m) x Speed (km/h)
    •   The level of variation of each nozzle
        across the boom                                     =           600 x 3.852
    •   The volume of water required for a                                3 x 10
        particular spray job.                               =            77.04 L/Ha

    Branched Broomrape On-Farm management Handbook 2010 – Maximising the Effectiveness of Spraying

                                                   6:3
* Conversion factor from m/sec to km/h
** Compound conversion factor for minutes to hours
   & metres to kilometres.                                 Spraying
How to calibrate your handgun
– spot spraying
                                                           conditions
                                                           Spray conditions play a vital role in the
Handguns need to be calibrated so the operator             effectiveness of herbicides.
knows the correct amount of water to add to the
chemical.                                                  Best results will be achieved by avoiding strong
                                                           winds, hot days, low humidity or spraying after
This will ensure the correct amount of chemical            frosts.
is applied to the target weed.
                                                           However, conditions are often less than ideal
Calibration will need to be done for each                  when spraying needs to be done and it may be
operator because everyone sprays at a                      necessary to adjust herbicide rates (up to the
different speed.                                           maximum rate for the crop), increase water
1. Measure out 10m2 (5m x 2m or 1m x 10m)                  volumes or change nozzles to get the best spray
   of weeds or vegetation similar to the target            performance in the prevailing conditions.
   you are going to spray.                                 Spraying in the morning can minimise the
2. Time yourself to see how long it takes to               chances of low humidity, strong winds and hot
   spray the area marked out.                              weather, but increases the likelihood of
3. Spray water into a measuring bucket for as              encountering other risk factors such as frost and
   long as it took to spray the 10m2.                      inversion layers.
4. Measure and record the amount of water in               Inversion layers significantly increase the risk of
   the bucket.                                             off-target damage because the spray droplets are
5. Multiply this value by 1000 to get the litres           trapped under the upper layer of cold air and can
   per hectare (L/ha) the handgun is applying.             drift off target.
6. To work out how much chemical to add to                 For frosts, the general rule if plants have been
   the tank, divide the volume of the tank by the          stressed by frost is to wait one day if you’ve had
   litres per hectare figure you have just                 one frost, two days if you’ve had frosts two days
   calculated, then multiply the result by the             in a row and so on.
   rate of chemical you need to apply.
                                                           However, it may be possible to choose to spray in
                                                           the afternoon after a minor frost depending on
Calculations (example, Credit @ 1L/ha)                     temperature, crop condition and other factors like
                            2                              soil moisture levels.
Time taken to spray 10m = 20.5 seconds
                                                           The type of herbicide being used is also a factor
Litres applied in that time =            0.950L            in determining whether or not to spray when frost
L/Ha                            = Litres to spray          is an issue.
                                        2
                                   10m x 1000              Generally, the effectiveness of grass-selective
                                     = 950 L/ha            herbicides is more likely to be reduced by the
                                                           effects of frost than phenoxys, which in turn are
Volume of chemical (Volume of tank ÷ L/ha)                 more sensitive than soil-applied herbicides.
                       =
to be added                 Rate of chemical               Frost may have very little effect on soil-applied
                                                           herbicides provided the plant starts growing
                      = 15L* /950 L/ha x 1 L/ha            again.

                      = 0.015L                             Another tool that can be used for making
                                                           decisions on whether or not to spray is the Delta
                      = 15mL Credit                        T figure.
                           * Knapsack sprayer              Delta T, the difference between wet bulb and dry
                                                           bulb thermometer readings, relates to humidity
                                                           and provides a guide to how long a droplet will

    Branched Broomrape On-Farm management Handbook 2010 – Maximising the Effectiveness of Spraying

                                                     6:4
survive in the air.
Copies of the Delta T table are available from
Rural Solutions SA agronomists or Mobilong
                                                           Tank mixing
House in Murray Bridge.
Age and size of weeds
                                                           order
                                                           With tank mixes and additives it can be difficult –
Weeds are easier to kill when they are young, so           and confusing – working out the mixing order
plan ahead and spray early.                                needed to get the best out of all the products
                                                           being used.
Weed condition
                                                           While mixing order for some products is specified
Make sure weeds are actively growing and not
                                                           in the Herbicide Use chapter, the following is a
stressed from frost or drought. If plants are
                                                           guide to the order in which products should go
under stress it may be necessary to increase the
                                                           into the tank.
rate of chemical (up to the maximum allowable
for the crop).                                             1. 60 – 80% of the total volume of water
                                                           2. Compatibility agents/water
Record keeping                                                conditioners/acidifiers
It is good practice to keep records on each spray          3. Wettable powders
operation and the conditions before and after the
                                                           4. Granular flowables (Water Dispersable
application.
                                                              Granules)
If a chemical fails or performs particularly well,         5. Liquid flowables (Suspension Concentrates)
good records can help work out why, allowing
                                                           6. Wetter* – if using ECs
you to learn from your mistakes or repeat your
successes.                                                 7. Emulsifiable concentrates (ECs)
                                                           8. Soluble concentrates
Records are also very important for legal
purposes because they mean you can                         9. Adjuvants - surfactants/oils**
confidently report what has been sprayed when               * Wetter to be added at this stage if an ECs is being
and the conditions at the time of spraying.                   used. If no EC is being used add wetter at stage
                                                              nine.
They are also an important part of the quality              ** Oils must be added last to all mixes
assurance process being increasingly demanded
by grain marketers and buyers.
Not keeping accurate records puts your business
                                                           Testing for tank
at risk if anything goes wrong and makes it more
difficult to repeat successes.                             mix compatibility
Keeping a list of simple set-up and checking               Follow the steps below to check compatibility of
steps in the tractor with the boom sprayer is a            the proposed tank mix.
simple way of making sure fewer mistakes are
made and can save significant amounts of                   Use 2% of the volume of the per-hectare field mix
money.                                                     (e.g. 2% of 75 L/Ha = 1520 mL) for convenience
Using chemicals need not be as difficult as it is          and ease of handling.
often made out to be.
                                                           Procedure
Following the simple guidelines above and
seeking the right advice when setting up spray             1. Add 80% of final water volume to a glass jar
equipment are good starting points.                           with firm-fitting lid.
                                                           2. Add the first chemical (refer to list above for
The most expensive spray job is the one that                  mixing order).
doesn’t work.
                                                           3. Replace lid and invert jar five times to mix.
                                                           4. Add further chemicals separately in correct
                                                              mixing order, repeating step 3 after each
                                                              chemical.


     Branched Broomrape On-Farm management Handbook 2010 – Maximising the Effectiveness of Spraying

                                                     6:5
5. Add remaining 20% of water, replace lid and         What to do if you find signs of
   invert jar five times to mix thoroughly.
6. Examine contents for incompatibility (refer         incompatibility
   incompatibility notes below).                       If settling, solid residue or separation of
7. Let contents stand for one hour.                    liquids is observed, invert jar 20 times. If the
8. Re-examine contents for signs of                    mixture integrates satisfactorily the mix may be
   incompatibility.                                    used provided good agitation is maintained
9. Place a mesh screen over the top of the jar         while it is applied.
   and pour the contents through the screen
   into another container.                             If the mixture does not integrate satisfactorily
10. Examine mesh for signs of                          the products are incompatible – DO NOT MIX.
    incompatibility.                                   If solid residues, lumps or gel remain on the
                                                       mesh after straining products are physically
Signs of incompatibility
                                                       incompatible – DO NOT MIX.
•   Settling/precipitation
•   Separation of liquids                              If heat is generated (mixture feels warm),
•   Lumps                                              products are chemically incompatible – DO
•   Solid residues                                     NOT MIX .
•   Heat
•   Gel formation


Test quantity conversion from field rate/Ha
         Liquid Products
     Rate/ha         Test Volume      Rate/ha          Test Wt (g)       Teaspoons         Tablespoons
     100mL               2mL            100g                2g                 1
     200mL               4mL            200g                4g                1.5
     300mL               6mL            300g                6g                1.5
     400mL               8mL            400g                8g               3.25
     500mL               10mL           500g               10g                 4                 1
     600mL               12mL           600g               12g                 5
     700mL               14mL           700g               14g                5.5
     800mL               16mL           800g               16g                6.5
     900mL               18mL           900g               18g               7.25
     1000mL              20mL          1000g               20g                 8                 2


         Disclaimer:
         This test will indicate physical and chemical compatibility of tank mix
         components. It will not indicate the efficacy (weed control capability) of the
         mixture.




    Branched Broomrape On-Farm management Handbook 2010 – Maximising the Effectiveness of Spraying

                                                 6:6
      Grant Schemes

The Grant Schemes available to landowners in the Branched
                         Broomrape
Quarantine Area are listed in this section with their terms and
                         conditions,
        and how to go about applying for each one.


All of the grants are designed to provide financial support to
   help landowners undertake the eradication of branched
                          broomrape
                      on their properties.




    Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 – Grant Schemes

                                    7:1
                                                        Broomrape Farm Plan. Other representatives
Farm Plan                                               from the property may accompany the Contact
                                                        Person at training.

Grants Scheme                                           4. PROVISION OF SUPPORT
                                                        Grants of $2.50 per hectare per year are
                                                        available to approved Landowners in respect
Terms & Conditions                                      of property within the quarantine area for the
                                                        purpose of assisting with the cost of
1. INTRODUCTION                                         implementing and administering their Farm
The State Government is providing                       Plan. A grant of $250 per business per year is
financial support to assist Landowners                  also available for attending a Farm Plan
undertake the eradication of branched                   workshop.
broomrape on their properties. Use this
                                                        5. CONDITIONS OF SUPPORT
application form to apply for Branched
Broomrape Farm Plan Grant (the Farm                     The financial support will be
Plan).                                                  subject to the following:
The scheme is intended to assist                        •   The Landowner must own at least 5
Landowners in the quarantine area who are                   hectares of land within the Branched
required to meet the conditions laid out in the             Broomrape Quarantine Area. If the property
Code – Control of Branched Broomrape.                       is less than 5 hectares, support may be
The quarantine measures are legally the                     considered at the discretion of the Executive
responsibility of the Landowner; hence                      Director, Sustainable Resources, DWLBC,
Landowners are responsible for fulfilling all               subject to demonstration that the
conditions required to meet eligibility for the             Landowner is operating a farm business
grants.                                                     required to meet conditions of the Code –
                                                            Control of Branched Broomrape and that all
The Landowner, or another person, e.g. a                    other conditions are met.
manager, leasee or sharefarmer, may be the
                                                        •   The Landowner or their Contact Person
Contact Person for the property. This person                must be successful in gaining accreditation
will undertake the work involved with the Farm              to enter into a Branched Broomrape Farm
Plan and represent the property during audits               Plan with the Branched Broomrape
and other matters relevant to it.                           Eradication Program, DWLBC.
The Grant Recipient may be any person the               •   Land owned by more than one party cannot
Landowner nominates and in most cases is                    be included in more than one Property.
either the Landowner or the Contact Person.                 Where more than one party owns land, only
                                                            one of the parties may nominate that land
2. PURPOSE OF SUPPORT
                                                            as part of their Property.
This grant assists Landowners with the                  •   Where more than on person/entity owns the
costs of implementing and administering                     land all owners must approve the Contact
their Branched Broomrape Farm Plan.                         Person.
The mechanism for Landowners to meet                    •   Officers of the DWBLC must be satisfied
their obligations is a Branched Broomrape                   that only one grant is applicable to each
Farm Plan attained following appropriate                    property within the quarantine area.
training and consultation with members of               •   The Landowner agrees to officers of
the Branched Broomrape Eradication                          DWBLC or PIRSA undertaking an
Program, Department of Water Land and                       inspection of their property to verify the
Biodiversity Conservation (DWLBC).                          validity of this application. Where
The Farm Plan is renewed annually by                        permission is refused or where there is no
DWLBC subject to satisfactory audits.                       evidence to support the claim the
                                                            Landowner will be required to refund any
3. ACCREDITATION                                            monies paid.
To become accredited Landowners must                    •   GST applies to the provision of grants.
nominate a Contact Person who will attend a                 Those grant recipients that have an ABN
workshop where they will prepare a Branched                 and are registered for GST must submit a
                                                            tax compliant invoice to the Program for the
             Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 – Grant Schemes

                                                  7:2
    grant amount plus 10% (i.e. $275.00 to                 • ensuring that all conditions of the
    Primary Industries & Resources SA (PIRSA)                Broomrape Eradication Farm Plan are
    ABN 53 763 159 658). Grant recipients with               met.
    an ABN that aren’t registered for GST will
                                                           • issuing a tax compliant invoice for the
    need to invoice the Program for $2.50 per
    hectare only. Grant Recipients without an
                                                             grant payment(s).
    ABN will need to fill out a Statement by               “PIRSA” means Primary Industries and
    Supplier form and invoice the                          Resources SA
•   Program for $2.50 per hectare.                         “Property” is defined as all of that land within
•   This scheme and the conditions of support              the Quarantine Area that is owned by a
    may be varied without notice or obligation.            Landowner. Where more than one party owns
                                                           several titles they are aggregated against the
6. PAYMENT                                                 most common party and this is counted as one
                                                           property.
One third of the grant payment plus $250 for
attending a Farm Plan workshop will be made                e.g. 1 Title 1 is owned by John Smith, and
to the Grant Recipient on approval of the                         Title 2 is owned by John Smith and
Branched Broomrape Farm Plan by DWBLC,                            Matthew Smith, and
with the remaining two thirds payable at the end                  Title 3 is owned by John Smith and Joy
of the year, following completion of an audit that                Smith.
meets the requirements of DWBLC. Payment of
the grant will be upon presentation of a GST               These three titles would be aggregated into one
compliant invoice to Rural Finance and                     property owned by John Smith. A “Property” is
Development, addressed to PIRSA ABN 53 763                 further defined as all of that land which an
159 658.                                                   accredited Contact Person has been nominated
                                                           to represent.
7. DEFINITIONS                                             e.g. 2 Title 1 is owned by Owner A with Jack
“Branched Broomrape Farm Plan” or “Farm                           Jones as the Contact Person, and Title
Plan” is a document describing how the                            2 is owned by Jack Jones and Jack
Landowner will work towards eradication of                        Jones is the Contact Person
branched broomrape.
                                                           These two titles would also be aggregated into
“Code – Control of Branched Broomrape” or                  one property controlled by Jack Jones.
“Code” means that document recognised
                                                           Where land is jointly held by more than one
under section 29 of the Act as the
description of those measures which are                    person/entity, all owners must nominate one
deemed necessary for the control or                        person as the Landowner to apply on their
eradication of branched broomrape.                         behalf.
“Contact Person” is the person responsible for             e.g. 3 John, Matthew and Joy Smith own
undertaking the Farm Plan. The Contact                            the land, hence any of the three may
Person may be a Landowner, sharefarmer,                           be appointed by the others to be the
lessee, farm manager or any person providing                      applicant Landowner.
it is demonstrated that they have sufficient
control over the property to undertake the                 “Quarantine area” is defined as that
Farm Plan.                                                 published in the South Australian
                                                           Government Gazette most recent to the date
“DWBLC” means the Department of Water,                     of application.
Land
                                                           “Year” is defined as twelve months from the
and Biodiversity Conservation. “Farm
                                                           date on which the applicant’s Farm Plan was
Business” is the business of primary                       approved.
production (as defined in the Stamp Duties
Act 2000) in South Australia.                               8. HOW TO APPLY
“Landowner” is the person/entity owning the                Please complete and return the following
land and is responsible for:                               application form to the Broomrape Control
                                                           Centre (see address below):
• applying for the Branched Broomrape Farm
  Plan grant.
              Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 – Grant Schemes

                                                     7:3
9. CONTACTS
CONTACT FOR FARM PLANS
Tanja Morgan
Field Crop Consultant
Rural Solutions SA
Po Box 469,
MURRAY BRIDGE SA 5253
Phone: 08 8535 6400
Fax:     08 8535 6427
Mobile: 0428 831 278

BROOMRAPE CONTROL CENTRE
Broomrape Control Centre
SES Building
Thomas St
MURRAY BRIDGE, SA 5253
Phone: 1800 245 704
Fax: 08 8531 1611
RURAL FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT
Rural Finance & Development Primary
Industries & Resources SA 25 Grenfell St GPO
Box 1671
ADELAIDE SA 5001
Phone: 1800 182 235
Fax:      08 8226 0229




            Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 – Grant Schemes

                                               7:4
                                                           3. ACCREDITATION
Compliance                                                 To become accredited Landowners must
                                                           nominate a Contact Person who will be
Arrangement                                                required to attend an accreditation
                                                           workshop where they will be trained in the
                                                           implementation of the Compliance
Grants Scheme                                              Arrangement. Other representatives from
                                                           the Property may accompany the Contact
Terms & Conditions                                         Person at training.
1. INTRODUCTION                                            4. PROVISION OF SUPPORT
The State Government is providing                          A grant of $250 per year is available to an
financial support to assist Landowners                     approved Landowner in respect of
undertake the eradication of branched                      Property within the quarantine area for the
broomrape on their properties. Use this
                                                           purpose of assisting with the cost of
application form to apply for the Branched
                                                           implementing and administering the
Broomrape Compliance Arrangement
Grant.                                                     Compliance Arrangement.
The scheme is intended to assist                           5. CONDITIONS OF SUPPORT
Landowners in the quarantine area who are
                                                           The financial support will be
required to meet the conditions laid out in the
                                                           subject to the following:
Code – Control of Branched Broomrape.
The quarantine measures are the responsibility             • The Landowner must own at least 5
of the Landowner; hence Landowners are                       hectares of land within the Branched
responsible for fulfilling all conditions required           Broomrape Quarantine Area. If the
to meet eligibility for the grant.                           Property is less than 5 hectares, support
The Landowner, or another person, eg a                       may be considered at the discretion of the
manager, lessee or sharefarmer, may be the                   Executive Director, Sustainable
Contact Person for the Property. This person                 Resources, DWLBC, subject to
will undertake the work involved with the                    demonstration that the Landowner is
Compliance Arrangement and represent the                     operating a farm business required to
Property during audits and other matters                     meet conditions of the Code - Control of
relevant to it.                                              Branched Broomrape and that all other
The Grant Recipient may be any person                        conditions are met.
the Landowner nominates. In most cases                     • The Landowner or their Contact Person
it will be either the Landowner or the
                                                             must be successful in gaining
Contact Person.
                                                             accreditation to enter into a Compliance
2. PURPOSE OF SUPPORT                                        Arrangement with the Branched
This grant assists Landowners with the                       Broomrape Eradication Program,
administrative costs of carrying out                         DWLBC.
requirements of the Code – Control of                      • Land owned by more than one party
Branched Broomrape under a long term Written                 cannot be included in more than one
Approval.                                                    Property. Where more than one party
The mechanism for Landowners to meet their                   owns land, only one of the parties may
obligations under the Code is an approved                    nominate that land as part of their
Compliance Arrangement attained following                    Property.
appropriate training and consultation with
members of the Branched Broomrape
                                                           • Where more than one person/entity owns
Eradication Program, Department of Water                     the land all of the owners must approve
Land and Biodiversity Conservation (DWLBC).                  the Contact Person.
The Arrangement is renewed annually by                     • Officers of the DWLBC must be satisfied
DWLBC subject to satisfactory audits.                        that only one grant is applicable to each
                                                             Property within the quarantine area.
              Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 – Grant Schemes

                                                     7:5
• The Landowner agrees to officers of                     and Biodiversity Conservation “Farm
  DWLBC or PIRSA undertaking an                           Business” is the business of primary
  inspection of their Property to verify the              production (as defined in the Stamp Duties
  validity of this application. Where                     Act 2000) in South Australia.
  permission is refused or where there is no              “Landowner” means the person/entity owning
  evidence to support the claim, the                      the land that is subject to the application and
  Landowner will be required to refund any                is responsible for:
  monies already paid to it.                              • applying for the Compliance Arrangement
• GST applies to the provision of grants.                   grant;
  Those Grant Recipients that have an ABN
  and are registered for GST must submit a                • ensuring that all conditions of the Compliance
  tax compliant invoice to the Program for                  Arrangement are met; and
  the grant amount plus 10% (i.e. $275.00                 • issuing a compliant tax invoice for the grant
  to Primary Industries & Resources SA                      payment(s).
  (PIRSA) ABN 53 763 159 658).                            “PIRSA” means the Department of Primary
  Recipients with an ABN that are not                     Industries and Resources SA
  registered for GST will need to invoice the
  Program for $250 only. Recipients without an            “Property” means all of that land within the
  ABN will need to fill out a Statement by                Quarantine Area that is owned by a Landowner.
  Supplier form and invoice the Program for               Where more than one party owns several titles
  $250.                                                   they are aggregated against the most common
• This scheme and the conditions of support               party and this is counted as one Property. A
  may be varied without notice.                           ‘Property’ is further defined as all of that land
                                                          which an accredited Contact Person has been
6. PAYMENT                                                nominated to represent.
Payment of the grant will be made upon                    Eg. 1 Title 1 is owned by John Smith, and Title
presentation of a GST compliant invoice or                2 is owned by John Smith and Matthew Smith,
statement by supplier form and invoice, as                and Title 3 is owned by John Smith and Joy
the case may be and satisfactory completion               Smith. These three titles would be aggregated
of all conditions of approval. Payment will be            into one Property owned by John Smith.
made to the Grant Recipient.                              Eg. 2 Title 1 is owned by Owner A with Jack
7. DEFINITIONS                                            Jones as the Contact Person. Title 2 is owned
                                                          by John Smith and Jack Jones is the Contact
“Code - Control of Branched Broomrape” or                 Person.
“Code” means that document recognised                     These two titles would also be aggregated into
under section 29 of the Act that describes                one
those measures that are deemed necessary
for the control or eradication of branched                Property controlled by Jack Jones. Where land
broomrape.                                                is held jointly by more than one person/entity,
                                                          all owners must nominate one person/entity to
“Compliance Arrangement” is a document                    apply as the Landowner on their behalf.
describing the measures to be undertaken by
the Landowner to meet the requirements of the             Eg: John, Matthew and Joy Smith own the
Code.                                                     land, hence any of the three may be
“Contact Person” is the person responsible for            appointed by the others to be the applicant
undertaking the Broomrape Eradication                     Landowner.
Compliance Arrangement. The Contact Person                “Quarantine area” is defined as that
may be a Landowner, sharefarmer, lessee,                  published in the South Australian
farm manager or any other person providing it             Government Gazette most recent to the date
is demonstrated that they have sufficient control         of application.
over the Property to ensure observance with
the terms of the Compliance Arrangement.                   “Year” is defined as twelve months from the
                                                          date on which the applicant entered into a
“DWLBC” means the Department of Water,                    Compliance Arrangement.
Land
              Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 – Grant Schemes

                                                    7:6
8. HOW TO APPLY
Please complete and return the following
application form to the Broomrape Control
Centre (see address below):
9. CONTACTS
CONTACT FOR COMPLIANCE
ARRANGEMENT
 Nick Secomb
 Project Officer,
 Department of Water, Land and
 Biodiversity Conservation
 GPO Box 2834
 ADELAIDE SA 5307
 Phone: 08 8303 9619
 Fax: 08 8303 9555

BROOMRAPE CONTROL CENTRE
 Broomrape Control Centre
 SES Building
 Thomas St
 MURRAY BRIDGE, SA 5253
 Phone: 1800 245 704
 Fax: 08 8531 1611

RURAL FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT
 Rural Finance & Development Primary
 Industries & Resources SA
 25 Grenfell St
 GPO Box 1671 ADELAIDE SA 5001
 Phone: 1800 182 235
 Fax: 08 8226 0229




             Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 – Grant Schemes

                                             7:7
                                                           Biodiversity Conservation or the
Supporting                                                 Department of Primary Industries and
                                                           Resources South Australia to operate
Document                                                   under this CA.
                                                          Accredited Decontamination Site:
Compliance Arrangements for the                            means the specific area(s) on a Property
control of Branched Broomrape                              which have been approved as suitable for
                                                           the decontamination of machinery.
1. PURPOSE                                                Accredited Livestock Holding Area:
The purpose of this CA is to describe –                    means the specific area(s) on a Property
  1. the Accreditation Process; and                        which have been approved as suitable for
  2. the standards required for a Landowner to             holding livestock.
enter into a CA for the control of branched               Act:
broomrape (Orobanche ramosa). Branched                     means Plant Health Act, 2009.
broomrape (Orobanche ramosa) is a                         Application:
declared ‘disease’ in South Australia under the
                                                           means an application for accreditation by a
Plant Health Act, 2009.
                                                           Property to perform under this CA.
2. SCOPE
This CA will cover all of the specifications              Branched broomrape infested paddock:
and requirements to be met by a Property to                 means those paddocks found to be infested
become an Accredited Property for the                       with branched broomrape during
control of branched broomrape.                              PIRSA/DWLBC surveys.
3. APPLICATION                                            Branched Broomrape Quarantine Area:
This CA will enable an Accredited Property to               means that area defined in the government
carry out specific requirements of the Code –               gazette as a quarantine area with respect to
Control of Branched Broomrape under a 12                    the disease Branched Broomrape.
month Written Approval.                                   CA:
The specific requirements included in this CA               means this Compliance Arrangement.
are described in Section 9. In essence, most
                                                          Compliance Arrangement:
requirements which concern movement within
the Branched Broomrape Quarantine Area                      means the measures described in this
are eligible for inclusion in this CA. Properties           document which, if complied with, will enable
which are not infested with branched                        an Accredited Property to carry out specific
broomrape will be able to include the                       requirements of the Code – Control of
movement of livestock across the Quarantine                 Branched Broomrape under a 12 month
Boundary in their Compliance Arrangement.                   Written Approval.
Special consideration will be given to those              Code – Control of Branched Broomrape
Properties which own land either side of the                means that document recognised under
Branched Broomrape Quarantine Area                          section 29 of the Act as the description of
boundary.                                                   those measures which are deemed
                                                            necessary for the control or eradication of
4. DEFINITIONS                                              branched broomrape.
In this Compliance Supporting Document:                   DWLBC:
Accrediting Authority:                                      means the Department of Water Land
 means the Department of Water, Land and                    Biodiversity and Conservation South
 Biodiversity Conservation or the                           Australia.
 Department of Primary Industries and                     Inspector:
 Resources South Australia.                                 means an Inspector authorised under the
Accredited Property:                                        Fruit and Plant Protection Act 1992.
 means a Property that has been accredited                Non compliance:
 by the Department of Water, Land and                       means a non-fulfilment of a specified
              Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 – Grant Schemes

                                                    7:8
  requirement
PIRSA:                                                     To be an Accredited Livestock Holding
                                                           Area, the area must;
  means the Department of Primary Industries
  and Resources South Australia.                           • be adequately fenced to prevent livestock
Property:                                                    from escaping;
  means all of that land within the Branched               • not be located where branched broomrape
  Broomrape Quarantine Area (as gazetted by                  plants have previously been found to be
  the Minister for Primary Industries and                    growing;
  Resources or his delegate) that is owned by a            • provide adequate water for livestock; and
  landholder. A ‘Property’ is further defined as           • be located so that livestock can be removed
  all of that land which the accredited Contact              directly from the Accredited Livestock Holding
  Person has been nominated to represent.                    Area and out of the infested paddock(s)
  Where land is owned by more than one entity,               without coming into contact with areas where
  only one of the parties may nominate that                  branched broomrape plants have previously
  land as part of their Property. Land owned by              been found to be growing.
  more than one party cannot be included in
  more than one Property. Each parcel of land              7. APPLICATION
  may only be included in one Property.                    A Landowner seeking accreditation or re-
Written Approval:                                          accreditation for its property under this CA must
                                                           make an Application. After the Contact Person
  means written approval given by an Inspector
                                                           attends an accreditation workshop, the
  to move machinery, soil, livestock or other
                                                           Application (with invoice) must be forwarded to
  produce from the branched broomrape
                                                           the;
  infested paddock and/or the branched
  broomrape quarantine area.                                 Broomrape Control Centre
                                                             Compliance Arrangements
                                                             Application for Accreditation
5. CONTACT PERSON FOR PROPERTY TO                            P.O. Box 469
    BE ACCREDITED UNDER THIS CA                              Murray Bridge South Australia 5253
In the Application, the Landowner must
nominate a Contact Person to;                              Property Information
• represent the Property during audits and                 In the Application, the Contact Person must
  other matters relevant to the CA;                        provide a map detailing the location of all
• provide the Accrediting Authority with the               proposed accredited decontamination sites and
  information as requested from time to time to            accredited livestock holding areas.
  verify requirements under this CA;
• train staff in their duties and responsibilities         Audit Process
  under this CA;                                           When a Landowner makes an Application an
• ensure the Landowner and his/her staff                   Inspector will carry out an initial audit of the
  comply with their responsibilities and duties            Property. The initial audit is to verify that the
  under this CA;                                           CA can be implemented and the Contact
• ensure that all Accredited Decontamination               Person is capable of operating in accordance
  Sites and Accredited Livestock Holding Areas             with the CA.
  are nominated in the Application.
                                                           Compliance Audit
6. RECOMMENDATIONS                                         A Compliance Audit will be conducted to verify
                                                           a Contact Person is continuing to operate in
To be an Accredited Decontamination Site,
                                                           accordance with the CA. An initial Compliance
the site must;
                                                           Audit will be carried out within the first 12
• be located on a hard surface which will not              months of a Property being Accredited. Other
  become boggy when wet;                                   Compliance Audits may be carried out at any
• not be located directly on a vehicle and/or              time, with or without notice.
  livestock thoroughfare; and
• be located as close as possible to an exit               8. THE CODE – CONTROL OF
  point from the paddock.                                     BRANCHED BROOMRAPE
              Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 – Grant Schemes

                                                     7:9
The Code – Control of Branched Broomrape               Records and References to be maintained
describes those measures which are deemed
                                                       The Compliance Diary must be maintained and
necessary for the control or eradication of
                                                       be available to an Inspector for audit at any
branched broomrape. Accreditation under this
                                                       time, with or without prior notice. A copy of the
CA will allow the Contact Person to carry out
                                                       Compliance Diary must be forwarded to the
specific requirements of the Code – Control of
                                                       Broomrape Control Centre at the end of each
Branched Broomrape under a Written Approval
                                                       financial year.
for a period of 12 months.
                                                       11. NON COMPLIANCE
All of the requirements of the Code
must still be carried out (ie. all                     Non-compliance is categorised into two types;
machinery must be decontaminated
                                                       major and minor. A major non-compliance
before leaving an infested paddock
                                                       relates to the failure of the Contact Person to
and/or the Branched Broomrape
                                                       carry out the operational and documentation
Quarantine Area and all livestock must                 procedures that are crucial to the effectiveness
be isolated on clean pasture for the                   of the CA. An example of a major non-
appropriate length of time). This CA                   compliance is failure of the Contact Person to
allows the Contact Person more                         adequately decontaminate machinery before
responsibility in making certain that                  moving from a branched broomrape affected
certain requirements of the Code –                     paddock or from the Branched Broomrape
Control of Branched Broomrape are                      Quarantine Area.
carried out.
                                                       A minor non-compliance is one which does
Application for further 12 month Written               not compromise the effectiveness of the
Approvals can be made to an Inspector.                 operational or assurance procedures but which
Approval may be given for a further 12-month           varies sufficiently or is omitted from the
period subject to compliance with the CA               documented procedures so as to be of
during the previous 12-month period.                   concern. An example of a minor non-
                                                       compliance is occasional failure by the
9. REQUIREMENTS INCLUDED IN THIS CA
                                                       Property to keep accurate records.
Not all items referred to in the Code – Control
                                                       12. ACTION UPON DETECTION
of Branched Broomrape are eligible for
                                                           OF NON-COMPLIANCE
inclusion in this CA. Any Property can be
accredited to undertake measures that take             Major Non Compliances
place within the Branched Broomrape
                                                       The confirmation of a major non-compliance will
Quarantine Area. Properties which are not
                                                       result in suspension or cancellation of
infested with branched broomrape will be able
                                                       accreditation, or very intensive monitoring of the
to include the movement of livestock across
                                                       CA (eg. weekly audits) and/or an investigation.
the Quarantine Boundary in their Compliance
Arrangement.                                           Minor Non Compliances
10. DOCUMENTATION                                      Repeated minor non-compliances of a
                                                       similar nature may result in the issue of a
The Compliance Diary
                                                       major non-compliance in subsequent
The Contact Person for each Accredited                 audits.
Property will be required to maintain a record of
                                                       Cancellation of accreditation will result in the
all actions that are carried out in accordance
                                                       cancellation of any or all Written Approvals
with The Code – Control of Branched
                                                       current at the time of cancellation.
Broomrape. The record will be maintained in
The Compliance Diary (see Attachment).




              Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 – Grant Schemes

                                                    7:10
13. NOTICE OF SUSPENSION OR
    CANCELLATION OF
    ACCREDITATION
Notice of Suspension or cancellation of the
CA and/or cancellation of Written Approvals
will be given in writing to the Contact
Person by the Accrediting Authority.


14. APPEALS
A Contact Person that has had accreditation
refused, suspended or cancelled may appeal to
the Manager – Broomrape Program, outlining
the reasons for the appeal. Suspension /
cancellation of the CA and subsequent
cancellation of Written Approvals will remain in
force pending the outcome of the appeal.
15. REINSTATEMENT OF ACCREDITATION
Following a period of suspension, a Contact
Person may reapply for accreditation to the
Accrediting Authority. The Accrediting Authority
will assess the application and conduct an audit
to ensure compliance with the CA.




             Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 – Grant Schemes

                                                   7:11
                                                          11. If possible, stonerollers should be
Decontamination                                               elevated off the ground either by stones
                                                              or planks of wood. This enables the
Guide                                                         underside to be decontaminated.
                                                              Alternatively the operator should move
Branched broomrape seed is easily spread                      the stoneroller forward to expose the
via machinery. All earth working machinery,                   area that was in contact with the ground
harvest machinery and transport vehicles                      and then spray this area down.
are capable of spreading the seed.
                                                          12. Diluted chemical should be disposed of
                            ®
1. Read the Niproquat MSDS and label                          fortnightly.
   carefully. Put on adequate protective
   clothing. This may include waterproof
   gloves, a face shield and rubber boots.
2. All soiled areas must be cleaned prior to
                        ®
   applying Niproquat solution. Wash all farm
   and earthmoving machinery with water or
   clean with compressed air prior to the
                                    ®
   application of Niproquat .
3. Once soil has been removed, inspect
   machinery to ensure there is no remaining
   soil or plant matter. Upon inspection look
   for hazards that will require extra care.
                                ®                ®
4. Dilute neat Niproquat at 1 part Niproquat
    to 100 parts clean water.
5. Position the decontamination unit where as
    much of the implement is accessible as
    possible. As a general rule the best place to
    start is at the hitch, working around the
    implement ensuring all dirt is removed.
6. Cultivator shears and plough blades usually
    have soil compacted on the underside. This
    is a high-risk area and requires close
    attention.
7. With the tyres and hubs, ensure the inner
    side of the wheel and the underside of the
    wheel arches are covered. The inside of
    the wheels can be reached from the
    opposite side, spraying underneath the
    machine.
8. Spray the underside of the machine
    including the axles and any guards that will
    collect soil.
9. Move the unit forward and spray down the
    area of tyres that were in contact with the
    ground.
10. Machinery with caterpillar tracks needs to
    be moved forward the length of the tread
    that is in contact with the ground, removing
    all soil. (It is easier if the machine is loaded
    onto the float prior to decontamination or
    when the tracks are to be done.

              Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2005 – Grant Schemes

                                                       7:12
                                                          Lontrel® (Herbicide Group I) - 300g/L clopyralid
Glossary of                                               Lontrel 750 SG® (Herbicide Group I) -
                                                          750g/kg clopyralid
products listed                                           LVE MCPA® (Herbicide Group I) -
                                                          500g/L low volatile ester

in this manual                                            MCPA 500® (Herbicide Group I) -
                                                          500g/L MCPA (present as dimethylamine salt)
The following list contains products mentioned            MCPA 750® (Herbicide Group I) -
throughout the rest of the manual.                        750g/L MCPA (present as dimethylamine salt)
Active ingredients are listed so farmers can              Midas® (Herbicide Groups B+I) - 288.5g/L MCPA
substitute equivalent products.                           (present as ethyl hexyl ester) + 22g/L imazapic +
All herbicides on this list except Spray.Seed are         7.3g/L imazapyr
approved for the Herbicide Grants Scheme. They            Pyresta® (Herbicide Groups G+I) - 2.1g/L
can be claimed for use in Level 4 paddocks with           pyraflufen-ethyl + 421g/L 2,4-D (present as 2-
an approved Farm Plan or Individual Herbicide             ethylhexyl ester)
Strategy.                                                 Raptor® (Herbicide Group B) - 700g/kg
Ally® (Herbicide Group B) -                               imazamox
600g/kg metsulfuron-methyl                                Roundup CT® (Herbicide Group M) - 450g/L
Amicide 625 (Herbicide Group I) -                         glyphosate (present as isopropylamine salt)
625g/L 2,4-D amine                                        Roundup Powermax® (Herbicide Group M) -
Bladex 500SC® (Herbicide Group C) -                       540g/L glyphosate (present as potassium salt)
500g/L cyanazine                                          Spinnaker 700 WDG® (Herbicide Group B) -
Broadstrike® (Herbicide Group B) -                        700g/kg imazethapyr
800g/kg flumetsulam                                       Sencor 480 SC® (Herbicide Group C) - 480g/L
Brodal Options® (Herbicide Group F) -                     metribuzin
500g/L diflufenican                                       Spray.Seed 250® (Herbicide Group L) - 135g/L
Bromicide 200® (Herbicide Group C) -                      paraquat (present as paraquat dichloride) +
200g/L bromoxynil (present as n-octanoyl ester)           115g/L diquat (present as diquat dibromide
Buctril MA® (Herbicide Groups C+I) -                      monohydrate)
200g/L Bromoxynil + 200g/L MCPA                           Tigrex® (Herbicide Groups F+I) - 250g/L MCPA
Credit® (Herbicide Group M) - 540g/L glyphosate           (present as ethyl hexyl ester) + 25g/L diflufenican
Diuron 500 SC (Herbicide Group C) -                       Spray Adjuvants
500g/L diuron                                             Agral® - 600g/L nonyl phenol ethylene oxide
Diuron 900 DF (Herbicide Group C) - 900g/kg               condensate non-ionic organic surfactant.
diuron                                                    BS1000® - 1000g/L alcohol alkoxylate
Eclipse® (Herbicide Group B) - 714g/kg                    Bonza™ - 450g/L paraffinic oil + 259g/L fatty acid
metosulam                                                 and fatty acid derivatives + 91g/L nonoxynol
Ester 680 (Herbicide Group I) - 680g/L 2,4-D              Cropshield® - 838g/L petroleum oil
(present as 2-ethylhexyl ester)                           DC Trate® - 763g/L petroleum oil
Gesatop 900 WG® (Herbicide Group C) - 900g/kg             Hasten™ - 704g/L fatty acid esters of canola oil +
simazine                                                  surfactant>15%
Glean® (Herbicide Group B) - 750g/kg                      Kwickin™ - 704g/L fatty acid esters of canola oil
chlorsulfuron
                                                          Uptake™ Spraying Oil - 582g/L paraffinic oil +
Intervix® (Herbicide Group B) -                           240g/L non-ionic surfactants
33g/L imazamox + 15g/L imazapyr
                                                          Partner Herbicides
Jaguar® (Herbicide Groups C+F) -
250g/L bromoxynil + 25g/L diflufenican                    Goal® (Herbicide Group G) - 240 g/L oxyfluorfen
                                                          Hammer® (Herbicide Group G) - 240 g/L
Lexone DF® (Herbicide Group C) -
                                                          carfentrazone-ethyl
750g/kg metribuzin
Logran 750 WG® (Herbicide Group B) -
750g/kg triasulfuron

     Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2009 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                    3:5
Conversion formula
 Conversion to alternative herbicide

           Rate/ha of              Recommended rate/ha                   Active constituent
           alternative    =         of listed herbicide      x concentration in listed herbicide
           herbicide                               Active constituent concentration
                                                        in alternative herbicide




Quick reference tables
(listed products in left column)
                                                                        Simazine
                Glyphosate                                600g/L (Flowable
                                                                                   900g/kg (Gesatop
        540g/L                                                                   granules, Simagranz,
                                  450g/L                  Gesatop 600 SC
  (Credit®, Roundup                                                               Simazine 900 DF)
                              (Roundup CT®)                    1.25L                     850g
     Powermax®)
        250mL                      300mL                        1.7L                    1.1kg
        400mL                      500mL
        700mL                      800mL
        800mL                        1L
          1L                        1.2L
         1.2L                       1.4L



                    Diuron
                                  900g/kg
        500g/L
                              (Diuron 900 DF,
   (Diuron 500 SC)
                              Diurex 900 WG)
        300mL                       200g
        500mL                       300g

                   Lontrel
  750g/kg clopyralid          300g/L clopyralid
   (Lontrel 750 SG)               (Archer)
          20g                       50mL
          40g                      100mL
          60g                      150mL
         120g                      300mL
         240g                      600mL

         Metribuzin (Lexone)
 750g/kg (Lexone DF,              480g/L
   Sencor 750 WG)             (Sencor 480 SC)
        180g                      280mL
        280g                      450mL




      Branched Broomrape On-Farm Management Handbook 2009 - Management Strategies & Considerations
                                                   3:6

								
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