Docstoc

Transport Sector Report

Document Sample
Transport Sector Report Powered By Docstoc
					Regional Assessment on HIV-Prevention Needs
of Migrants and Mobile Populations in Southern Africa


Transport Sector Report
IOM, February 2010
                                                                                                              Transport Sector Report




Table of Contents

List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


1    Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5


2    HIV Vulnerability in the Transport Sector in Southern Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
     2.1 Transport Corridors in Southern Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
     2.2 HIV Vulnerability along Transport Corridors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8


3    Policies Relevant to HIV in the Transport Sector in Southern Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9


4    Assessment Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.1 Sector-specific Vulnerabilities . . . . . . . . . . . .    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   . . . . . . . . . . 10
     4.2 HIV-prevention Services and Programs . . . . . .          . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   . . . . . . . . . . 13
         4.2.1 Regional Programs and Services . . . . . . .        ..................                . . . . . . . . . . . .13
         4.2.2 National Programs and Services . . . . . . .        ..................                . . . . . . . . . . . .15


5    Gaps, Challenges and Corresponding Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18


6    Localized, Detailed Mapping of Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22


7    Migrant Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24


8    References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26


Annex 1:
Details of the Transport Corridors in Southern Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29


Annex 2:
Regional Framework to Upscale HIV Responses
in the Transport Sector in Southern Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36




                                                                                                                                        1
    Transport Sector Report




        List of Abbreviations

          AIDS                Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

          ART                 Antiretroviral Therapy

          ARV                 Antiretroviral

          AU-NEPAD            African Union-New Partnership for Africa’s Development

          BCC                 Behavior Change Communication

          CBO                 Community Based Organizations

          CDC                 Center for Disease Control

          CIDB                Construction Industry Development Board

          CoH                 Corridors of Hope

          CoL                 Change of Lifestyle

          CRS                 Catholic Relief Services

          DRC                 Democratic Republic of Congo

          EGPAF               Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation

          EU                  European Union

          FBO                 Faith Based Organizations

          FGD                 Focus-group discussion

          FHI                 Family Health International

          GDP                 Gross Domestic Product

          GTZ                 Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit

          HAMSET              HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis Control Project

          HIV                 Human Immunodeficiency Virus

          HTC                 HIV Testing and Counseling

          ICBT                Informal Cross-border Trade

          ICAP                International Center for AIDS Care and Treatment Programs

          ICMM                International Council on Mining and Metals

          ICSW                International Committee on Seafarer’s Welfare

          IEC                 Information, Education, Communication
2
                                                                     Transport Sector Report




IFC      International Finance Corporation

ILO      International Labor Organization

IMHA     International Maritime Health Authority

INLS     National Institute to Fight HIV and AIDS (Angola)

IOM      International Organization for Migration

ISF      International Shipping Federation

ITWF     International Transport and Workers Federation

JHU      John Hopkins University

KII      Key Informant Interview

MARP     Most-at-risk population

MCP      Multiple and Concurrent Partners

MHSS     Ministry of Health and Social Sciences

MoH      Ministry of Health

MOHSW    Ministry of Health and Social Welfare

MOU      Memorandum of Understanding

NAAF     National HIV/AIDS Action Framework

NABCOA   Namibia Business Coalition on AIDS

NAC      National AIDS Commission

Nasoma   National Social Marketing Program

NBCRFI   National Bargaining Council for the Road Freight Industry

NGO      Non-governmental Organization

NSF      North Star Foundation

NSO      National Statistics Office

NSP      National Strategic Plan

OHEAP    Occupational Health Education and Awareness Program

OSBP     One Stop Border Post


                                                                                               3
    Transport Sector Report




          OVC                 Orphaned and Vulnerable Children

          PEP                 Post-exposure prophylaxis

          PHAMSA              Partnership on HIV and Mobility in Southern Africa

          PMTCT               Prevention of mother-to-child transmission

          PPP                 Public Private Partnership

          PSI                 Population Services International

          RSSC                Royal Swazi Sugar Company

          SADC                Southern Africa Development Community

          SCC                 Social Change Communication

          SDI                 Spatial Development Initiative

          SMA                 Social Marketing Association

          SRH                 Sexual and Reproductive Health

          STI                 Sexually transmitted infections

          TB                  Tuberculosis

          UN                  United Nations

          UNAIDS              Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS

          USAID               United States Agency for International Development

          USD                 United States Dollar

          VCT                 Voluntary Counseling and Testing

          WBCG                Walvis Bay Corridor Group

          WBMPC               Walvis Bay Multi Purpose Center

          ZBCA                Zambian Business Coalition on AIDS

          ZHECT               Zambia Health Education and Communication Trust




4
                                                                                          Transport Sector Report




1. Summary

This sector report forms part of a regional                 accessible health facilities and HIV-prevention
assessment commissioned by USAID entitled                   programs in all countries in the region.
Regional Assessment on HIV-prevention Needs of          •   Relevant line ministries as well as industry
Migrants and Mobile Populations in Southern Africa,         associations should promote and facilitate
which examines the migration patterns and the               development and implementation of
HIV vulnerabilities faced by migrants and mobile            workplace policies for all companies.
workers in the southern African region.

The Regional Assessment examined the transport          Awareness Raising
sector in the following countries: Angola, Namibia      and Information Dissemination:
and South Africa. This report investigates the          •   An evidence-based behavior and social
specific challenges faced by mobile populations              change communication (BCC/SCC) strategy
working in the transport sector in accessing HIV-           with appropriate communication messages
prevention services. It identifies opportunities             and materials that are linguistically and
for programming and prioritizes key activities              culturally appropriate should be developed
that should be pursued in the region so as to               and implemented.
lessen the overall HIV vulnerabilities of migrants,
                                                        •   The government should introduce relevant
mobile workers and the communities with which
                                                            mechanisms to reach small-scale bus, taxi and
they interact.
                                                            truck companies with HIV messages.

In summary, the assessment makes the following
specific recommendations:                               Programs and Services:
                                                        •   SADC should standardize customs clearance
Policies and Regional Coordination:                         procedures at border posts to reduce waiting
•   At the national level, all governments should           time of transport workers, cross-border traders
    sign, ratify and domesticate the UN International       and other mobile populations.
    Covenant on the Protection of Migrant Workers       •   Government, the private sector and NGOs
    and their Families.                                     should invest in establishing alternative
•   National Departments/Ministries of Transport            entertainment facilities at high-risk zones such
    should facilitate policies that address HIV             as truck stops and border posts, and implement
    prevention for transport workers, and offer              programs to encourage wellness.
    HIV-prevention services to both transport           •   Greater coordination is needed among SADC
    workers and the communities with whom                   countries to provide accessible health facilities
    they interact.                                          and HIV-prevention programs in all countries
•   Greater coordination is needed at the regional          in the region. For health facilities, ‘Wellness
    level among SADC countries to provide                   Centers’may act as service points through which

                                                                                                                    5
    Transport Sector Report




             to reach those working in the road transport            and the level of concurrent sexual partnerships
             sector and other vulnerable populations                 that exist along major transport routes and at
             along transport corridors. For HIV-prevention           border posts in the SADC region.
             programs, condom distribution and BCC/SCC
             interventions should be strengthened around
             border posts and truck stops.                       Other:
        •    Specific efforts should be made by national           •   Governments should improve and expand
             authorities to reach families of truck drivers in       statistical data collection on migration,
             the places of origin.                                   disaggregated by age, sex and country of
                                                                     origin, as well as the nature of mobility in the
                                                                     transport sector (days spent on road, at stops/
        Research:                                                    borders, etc.).
        •    More research should be conducted on the            •   Donors should strive to harmonize their
             various determinants of HIV in the transport            funding strategies in the area of migration and
             sector, such as the nature of sexual networks           HIV.




6
                                                                                            Transport Sector Report




2. HIV Vulnerability in the Transport Sector in Southern Africa

2.1         Transport Corridors in Southern Africa

The SADC region shares a common vision                   However, due to various infrastructural challenges
for economic integration with eventual free              and/or delays experienced at border crossings,
movement of capital, labor, goods and services.          the work of transporting goods from one area
To further the economic integration goal, SADC           to another is neither an easy nor a fast one. Thus,
has committed itself to freeing up the movement          many truck stops or ‘hot spots’ have sprung up
of people and goods in the region, evidenced by          along the routes and borders to cater for long-
the introduction of the Free Trade Area Protocol         distance truck drivers and others traveling along
and the Protocol on the Facilitation of Movement         transport corridors. For example, the journey from
of Persons. Furthermore, there are various regional      Kolwezi in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
and continental initiatives which aim to facilitate      (DRC) to Johannesburg in South Africa takes on
trade through efficient transport corridors and            average 15–20 days for general cargo, with 10–15
border crossings, such as the African Union-NEPAD        days in down time at the border crossings. Another
program on One Stop Border Posts (OSBP), or the          example is the travel from Malawi to South Africa.
recently launched North–South Corridor Pilot Aid         The distance between Lilongwe and Johannesburg
for Trade Program.1                                      is about 1,900 km, which, traveling at an average
                                                         speed of 60 km per hour and driving at eight hours
In southern Africa, much of the freight that moves       per day, should take less than four days. However,
between North and South (e.g. the North–South            the maximum number of journeys a truck can do on
Corridor, which links South Africa to the countries to   this route, if all goes well, is two a month, with most
its north), as well as between East and West (e.g. the   time spent waiting rather than traveling.2
Walvis Bay Corridor, which links the port of Walvis
Bay to the central and southern SADC region) is by
road. This is because road transport is more flexible,
more reliable and usually cheaper per ton/kilometer
than rail transport.




                                                         2   Final Report from the North-South Corridor -
                                                             International Financing Conference (6–7 April 2009,
1     See www.nepad.org and www.northsouthcorridor.          Lusaka, Zambia). See http://www.northsouthcorridor.
      org/                                                   org/conference_documents.php



                                                                                                                      7
    Transport Sector Report




        Figure 1: Southern Africa Corridor Routes




                                                                       Source: Wlvis Bay Corridor Group, 2007




        The main southern Africa transport corridors are as   2.2 HIV Vulnerability along Transport Corridors
        follows (see Annex 1 for corridor details):
        •    Beira and Zambezi Development Corridors              Better roads and railways and faster transit
                                                                  routes not only facilitate trade and investment
        •    Limpopo Development Corridor
                                                                  but also facilitate improved access to health
        •    Lobito Development Corridor                          facilities and other health benefits such as
        •    Maputo Development Corridor                          faster, wider and safer distribution of drugs and
        •    Mtwara Development Corridor                          medical equipment. However, on the other
        •    Nacala Development Corridor                          hand, there are inherent risks with expanding
                                                                  opportunities for mobility in this region.
        •    North-South Development Corridor
             (also known as the Durban Corridor)
                                                                  Mobility and migration are key livelihood
        •    Tazara Development Corridor                          strategies in Africa and expose more individuals
             (also known as the Dar es Salaam Corridor)           to vulnerable risk zones along transport
        •    Walvis Bay Development Corridor                      corridors. Hot spots along transport corridors,


8
                                                                                          Transport Sector Report




    including truck stops and border areas, have            affected. The environment in such locations
    been associated with unsafe sexual practices            and mobility of populations is conducive to
    both among people who move through                      both men and women engaging in multiple
    the corridors (e.g. truck drivers and informal          concurrent sexual partnerships.
    traders) and among sedentary populations
    (i.e. people who live and work on the corridor).        An example is the Mombasa–Kampala
    Greater movement of people inevitably creates           transport corridor, which has an estimated
    increased risk of spreading HIV, TB and other           3,000 trucks (or approximately 6,000 drivers and
    communicable diseases, and HIV vulnerability            assistants) working each day, and an estimated
    is known to be high along transport routes,             8,674 female sex workers (Morris & Ferguson,
    particularly around ‘hot spots’ such as truck           2005). Hot spots along this corridor alone may
    stops and border posts.                                 contribute up to 3,200–4,148 new primary HIV
                                                            infections per year (Morris & Ferguson, 2006).
    Hot spots can be generally defined as locations          This equates to a contribution of 3–5% in
    where alcohol is served and where sex is                Kenya’s annual 55,000 new infections.
    negotiated or takes place. This includes bars,
    lodgings, restaurants, seaports, fish landings and       Limited health-seeking behavior and poor
    parking lots. Land transport corridors intersect        service delivery further contribute to the HIV
    with water corridors in fishing communities              vulnerability of these populations, as most of
    and freshwater and saltwater ports. Along               them require access to services at night and
    regional ports and land transport corridors,            within the risk zone itself, which is a challenge
    there is an environment which increases                 for health systems. Furthermore, services
    vulnerability to HIV and therefore the whole            need to be interlinked along the cross-border
    community in these hot spots, including truck           corridors in terms of minimum service packages
    drivers and seagoing personnel, are specifically         and maintenance of client health records.




3. Policies Relevant to HIV in the Transport Sector in Southern Africa
Out of eight countries reviewed for this assessment,    and to provide a framework that can be used by the
transport workers (truck drivers) are mentioned         transport sector employers and workers:
as a specific vulnerable group in need of special
attention in all the National Strategic Plans, except   •   Malawi: The HIV/AIDS Policy and Strategic
for Mozambique and Lesotho.                                 Framework of Action for the Transport Sector
                                                            in Malawi (2003) presents a set of guidelines
Although there is no regional HIV policy for the            for HIV prevention, care and support, non-
transport sector, the Departments/Ministries of             discrimination in the workplace, establishment
Transport of Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland,               of a healthy working environment and for the
Zambia and Zimbabwe have developed specific                  promotion of gender equality in the workplace.
HIV policy documents to guide the sector response

                                                                                                                    9
     Transport Sector Report



                                                                              and testing services in the workplace, stigma
         •     South Africa: The Transport sector HIV and
                                                                              and discrimination, and confidentiality, care
               AIDS Strategic Plan (2007–2011), which is
                                                                              and support for infected workers.
               aligned to the National Strategic Plan for the
               same period prioritizes: prevention, treatment,          •     Zimbabwe: The HIV/AIDS policy for the
               care and support, research, monitoring and                     transport sector of Zimbabwe (2003) provides
               surveillance, and human and legal rights.                      a framework in which the transport sector
                                                                              employees and employers should formulate
         •     Swaziland: Swaziland has an HIV policy for
                                                                              their workplace policies. The policy contains
               the Transport sector (2002) which provides
                                                                              key principles which include: HIV-prevention
               a framework for the expansion of access to
                                                                              programs; non–discrimination, no screening
               prevention commodities for long-distance
                                                                              for purposes of exclusion from employment
               truck drivers and taxi drivers both within
                                                                              or work processes, and confidentiality and
               Swaziland and those engaged in cross-border
                                                                              gender equality.
               long-distance travel.
         •     Zambia: The strategies contained in the HIV/
               AIDS policy for the Transport Sector (2004) for          Angola, Mozambique, Lesotho and Namibia have
               Zambia have been identified as: awareness                 no specific transport sector policies on HIV.
               raising, promotion of voluntary counseling


         4. Assessment Findings
         4.1 Sector-specific Vulnerabilities
         Based on the field findings, the following factors make
         workers in the road transport sector vulnerable to HIV.


                                       While a truck driver’s job is highly mobile in nature, it also involves periods of immobility,
                                       long waits and boredom in unfamiliar and often inhospitable environments. This is
                                       because drivers have to wait, often for a day or two, while loading or unloading at
                                       ports and, due to paperwork delays, sometimes for a week or more, depending on the
             Poor living and           border post (Le Beau, n.d.: 41). These places of waiting seldom have adequate facilities
             working conditions:       for drivers to use and they typically sleep in their trucks. This is both to avoid paying for
             long delays at            accommodation and often a way to protect their vehicles from theft.
             border posts
             and ports                 At some border posts, conditions are so poor that drivers talk of going without showers
                                       for days and having to defecate in plastic bags which they then throw out of the truck
                                       window since there is no alternative. In such miserable conditions, it is unsurprising
                                       that truck drivers often look for women who can offer them comfort, food and a place
                                       to wash.

                                       Hot spots can be generally defined as locations where alcohol is served and where
                                       sex is negotiated or takes place. Along transport corridors, border towns, truck stops
             Time spent in             and parking lots may become ‘hot spots’ with bars, lodgings and restaurants catering
             ‘hot spots’               for truck drivers, other mobile populations and the local sedentary population. The
                                       environment in such locations and mobility of populations is conducive to both men
                                       and women engaging in multiple concurrent sexual partnerships.
10
                                                                                               Transport Sector Report




                     Road transport workers face dangerous working conditions on a regular basis, with a
                     high number of road accidents. Furthermore, in a country like Angola, where landmines
                     pose a constant risk, the dangers and risks are amplified. Such working conditions
                     foster a sense of fatalism and the daily dangers can make truck drivers discount the
                     importance of looking after their long-term health.
Dangerous            This was also noted by Bouare (2009) and Meyer-Weitz (2005) who argue that in the
working conditions   current social structures, with their multitude of stress factors, many people might find
                     it difficult to give meaning to their lives and therefore struggle to see a purpose. Unless
                     they feel that they have a reason to live and work, it cannot be expected that they will
                     care for themselves and others. In such conditions, HIV may be perceived as a distant
                     threat compared to daily survival, while the often ‘macho’ coping strategies adopted by
                     male truck drivers also feed into high-risk sexual behavior.

                     The time spent on the road by long-distance truck drivers is a serious vulnerability
                     factor identified by drivers themselves. Recent regional studies on migration and HIV
                     have found that people who spend time away from home are much more likely to have
                     multiple concurrent sexual partners than those who remain in home areas, putting
                     migrants and mobile populations at great risk of HIV (De la Torre et al., 2009: 34). Drivers
                     are often away for weeks at a time, increasing the probability that they will engage in
                     high-risk sexual activity to assuage the boredom, loneliness and stress of their jobs.
Long periods
                     Being away from normal community structures also serves to create a sense of
of time spent
                     anonymity and decreased responsibility, which increases the likelihood of risky sexual
away from home
                     activities. Most truck drivers said that even if they did not intend to have sex with sex
                     workers, there are many temptations – they are constantly approached by sex workers
                     at truck stops, border posts and ports.

                     Many drivers who work for transport companies establish ‘second homes’ with new
                     wives in the city while their first wife remains behind in the rural areas. The risky sexual
                     practices of many drivers while on the road make their multiple concurrent partners
                     especially vulnerable to HIV infection (De la Torre et al., 2009: 19).

                     Boredom and loneliness are experienced by many truck drivers in their working
                     and living environments, especially since there are rarely any healthy recreational
                     opportunities available in truck stops and border posts where they spend much of
                     their time. The most common ‘entertainment’ is found at taverns in nearby settlements/
                     towns where alcohol and sex are often used to fulfill the emotional and recreational
                     needs of truck drivers.
Boredom              José (not his real name), an Angolan truck driver, explained that when night falls, he
and loneliness       always finds a village, hopefully one with a bar since, as he says, ‘the night is long’. ‘These
                     villages have a lot of movement. Everywhere you find five or six truckers … there is
                     a cool ambience: you exchange experiences, talk with the local people and drink a
                     couple of beers. You must have beer, as you are outside home and if you don’t use
                     alcohol you are not in the mood. Normally when a man or a woman goes to these kinds
                     of places, the intention is to make friendship. So you dance, meet ladies …’ (one-on-one
                     interview, Luanda, Angola, 2009).



                                                                                                                         11
     Transport Sector Report




                                  There is a dearth of HIV-prevention programs and products, especially in smaller towns,
                                  truck stops and border posts throughout the region (particularly in countries such as
            Limited access        Angola and Namibia). Transport workers do not have time to go to clinics that cater for
            to health services    local populations, especially since these facilities are open at hours and located in areas
                                  which are inconvenient or inaccessible. Thus many truck drivers only report to a clinic
                                  when they are critically ill and often beyond help.

                                  Despite the availability of free condoms, their use is still reported to be low and
                                  inconsistent (De la Torre et al., 2009: 30). As drivers acknowledged: ‘When you get
                                  erected, you won’t think anymore’.

                                  Some truck drivers in Namibia have good levels of basic knowledge about HIV but
                                  admitted to not consistently using condoms because the government-issued condoms
            Low and               were ‘too lubricated’, ‘caused rashes’ and commonly burst. They said they did not like
            inconsistent          using them but could not afford to buy quality condoms (FGD with 45 truck drivers
            condom use            from three different companies in Namibia, September 2009).

                                  A peer educator at one transport company in Namibia explained that misconceptions
                                  and stigma were still a challenge but that she has noticed an increase in condom
                                  use and knowledge since their workplace program has been introduced, as well as a
                                  reduction in the stigma associated with issues relating to sex and HIV (FGD, Windhoek,
                                  September 2009).

                                  The ready availability of sex workers in and/or around border posts and along major
            Availability of sex
                                  transport routes, coupled with the availability of disposable cash among truck drivers,
            workers
                                  further places them at risk of contracting STIs and/or HIV.

                                  A female peer educator in the trucking sector in Namibia stated: ‘Alcohol is the cause of
            Alcohol abuse         AIDS. Under the influence you do things with people you don’t know and you don’t use
                                  a condom’ (one-on-one interview, Windhoek, Namibia, 2009).

                                  While larger road transport companies are increasingly adopting workplace HIV
            Lack of workplace     programs and signing up for initiatives such as Trucking Against Aids/Trucking Wellness
            policies              (South Africa) or the Walvis Bay Corridor Group (Namibia), smaller companies typically
                                  do not provide any health or HIV-prevention programs to their employees.

                                  Inter-generational sex has been identified as one of the major drivers of the epidemic
                                  in the region: young people are at greater risk of contracting HIV from older partners
                                  than from their age-mates given the higher HIV prevalence in older age groups and
                                  the probability that older partners have had more sexual encounters (De la Torre et al.,
            Inter-generational    2009: 24).
            sex
                                  Often truck drivers are men in their later 30s and above, while many young women
                                  engaging in transactional sex or sex work are in their teens or early 20s. Thus the
                                  character of the sexual interactions is predominantly inter-generational, which increases
                                  the risk of HIV spread through such liaisons.




12
                                                                                              Transport Sector Report




4.2 HIV-prevention Services and Programs                   Love campaign, and the International Organization
                                                           for Migration. At the national level, there are also a
This section, while not a comprehensive list, mentions     few public–private partnerships and NGO initiatives –
the most well known programs and services that             most notably by the Population Services International
specifically target migrants and mobile populations         (PSI) in Angola, the Walvis Bay Corridor Group (WBCG)
and their families in the transport sector.                in Namibia, and the Corridors of Hope in Zambia.
                                                           There is a short summary of a South African initiative
Compared to other sectors where very limited               (Trucking Wellness) at the end of this section.
initiatives are in place, the assessment found several     Although South Africa was not one of the countries
initiatives in the region specifically targeting HIV and    specifically chosen for the transport sector, it was
mobility in the transport sector. At the regional level,   felt that the initiative deserved special mention as a
there are three organizations with regional programs,      innovative and successful intervention in addressing
namely the North Star Foundation, Soul City One            HIV and mobility in the transport sector.



4.2.1 Regional Programs and Services


  The North Star Foundation (NSF)

  NSF is a public–private initiative established in 2006 by TNT and the World Food Program to promote
  the health of long-distance truck drivers, their assistants and other transport workers in Africa and
  Asia. NSF works with local partners to provide a network of drop-in health clinics (Wellness Centers)
  at border crossings, ports and truck stops along transport corridors in Africa, including in the SADC
  region. The clinics are conveniently located and open during hours when the truckers are resting for
  the night and therefore have time to seek health services.

  The Wellness Centers offer the following services: training of outreach workers to provide sexual
  health education and counseling, distribution of male and female condoms and provision of primary
  healthcare, including screening and treatment of STIs and most upper respiratory tract infections,
  hypertension, etc. Nurses also screen for malaria and TB. Alongside truck drivers, NSF provides services
  for sex workers, border officials, dockers, police and transport communities. In southern Africa, these
  Wellness Centers are currently in the following areas: Malawi (Mwanza-border with Mozambique),
  Namibia (Walvis Bay), Swaziland (Oshoek-border with South Africa), Zambia (Chirundu-border with
  Zimbabwe) and Zimbabwe (Chirundu-border with Zambia).




                                                                                                                        13
     Transport Sector Report




               Soul City ‘One Love Campaign’

               Soul City, a regional SCC organization, embarked on a three-year prevention campaign focusing
               on multiple concurrent partnerships (MCP) in 2008. The ‘One Love Campaign’ is a multi-media,
               multi-country HIV-prevention campaign targeted specifically at countries in southern Africa. The
               central message of the campaign focuses on eliminating secrets and lies in core relationships by
               communicating effectively and challenging harmful cultural practices that put people at risk of HIV.

               The campaign was informed by an extensive 10-country research study conducted by Soul City
               and its regional partners in South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland,
               Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Tanzania. The study confirmed MCP as a key driver and sought
               to identify further the reasons why people have MCPs. Some of the common reasons included
               sexual dissatisfaction and lack of communication in relationships. Through the research and through
               consultation with IOM, it was also made evident that mobility, and the loneliness and isolation this
               generates, contributes to the phenomenon of MCP.

               Based on the above findings, Soul City, in collaboration with IOM and Trucking Wellness, is providing
               relevant information and educational materials to migrants and the communities with which they
               interact in key border communities and ‘hot spots’ along transport corridors, as part of the One
               Love Campaign.




               International Organization for Migration (IOM):
               Partnership on HIV and Mobility in Southern Africa (PHAMSA)

               In order to reduce the HIV incidence and impact of AIDS among migrant and mobile workers and
               their families in southern Africa, IOM has been implementing the regional PHAMSA program since
               2004. PHAMSA targets six sectors with high levels of migrant and mobile workers (commercial
               agriculture, construction, cross-border trade, maritime, mining and transport) and has four main
               program components: (1) advocacy for policy development; (2) research and learning; (3) regional
               coordination and technical cooperation; and (4) pilot projects.

               Specifically in the transport sector, PHAMSA has been active in regional coordination (e.g. Regional
               Workshop on HIV in the Road Transport Sector for Southern Africa in September 2007 in Swaziland
               – see Annex 2 for details) and advocacy activities (e.g. transport sector country consultations in
               Namibia, Zambia, Malawi and South Africa).



14
                                                                                               Transport Sector Report



4.2.2 National Programs and Services
      At the national level, the assessment reviewed
      programs and services in the transport sector in
      three countries: Angola, Namibia and Zambia.



  Angola

  Government:
  The Angolan government has prioritized the rehabilitation of the country’s infrastructure in general and
  the road transport in particular. Since 2002, the government has been undertaking several emergency
  programs to repair the principal roads, construct new bridges, rehabilitate the oldest ones and connect key
  provinces to the main roads. This process has also included a huge effort in de-mining important roads.

  As indicated above, truck drivers are one of the targeted groups identified in the National Strategic
  Plans. They also appear in the targeted groups of the HIV/AIDS, Malaria and TB Control Project (HAMSET)
  and Global Fund programs. HAMSET, which is a Ministry of Health initiative co-funded by the World
  Bank, has three components: civil society support, private sector articulation and public technical
  support and assistance (for prioritized ministries and INLS – National Institute of AIDS Control).
  HAMSET prioritizes the following population groups: young people (the most emphasized), pregnant
  women, people living with HIV/AIDS, and risk groups such as sex workers and truck drivers.

  Despite efforts such as this, it is difficult to find concrete programs specifically for truck drivers.
  Discussions with key informants revealed that there is a total lack of HIV-prevention programs or
  facilities among the private transport companies.

  The government’s concrete action for truck drivers is the Behavioral and Zero Prevalence study that
  they designed in partnership with Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Currently, the
  study is in its preliminary stages, and implementation will be carried out in 2010.

  Non-Governmental Organizations:
  •   Population Services International (PSI), an American NGO that works with sex workers
      and truckers, has two major approaches. One is education on prevention of STIs and HIV,
      through interpersonal communication and mass media campaigns. In order to reach the target
      populations PSI works together with trained activists from 12 local NGOs. The other approach is
      based on condom sales and communication interventions. This activity is localized at borders
      zones, transport routes, ports and urban centers. PSI has also developed IEC materials in
      Portuguese for the truck drivers.

  •    OXFAM-GB has an HIV-prevention project in four Angolan provinces: Benguela, Huambo, Bié,
       Moxico and the capital Luanda. The project, financed by the European Union (EU), targets youth
       in general, informal traders, sex workers and truck drivers. With truck drivers OXFAM-GB works on
       HIV prevention through awareness raising, distribution of condoms and IEC materials (designed
       specifically for truckers). Their approach takes gender and human rights into account.
                                                                                                                         15
     Transport Sector Report




               Namibia

               Government/Public–private Partnerships:
               The Government of Namibia has pushed for workplace HIV programs to be implemented
               through which transport workers can access HIV-prevention services. There are two private sector
               organizations, the Walvis Bay Corridor Group (WBCG) and the Namibian Business Coalition
               on AIDS (NABCOA), working to assist transport companies in this regard. While larger companies
               have signed up to programs such as the HIV Help Desk of WBCG and/or NABCOA, many of the
               medium and small companies have yet to buy into the idea of workplace HIV policies (PwC, 2007:
               11–12). Out of an estimated 70 transport companies, only 14 have currently signed up to WBCG.
               Thus, while larger companies such as TransNamib are providing HIV-prevention services and medical
               aid to their workers, smaller ones are not. In particular, the taxi and bus industry is still unregulated
               and characterized by small businesses, which are not providing any HIV-prevention services.

               Even where health facilities do exist along transport routes, in port towns or border posts, accessibility
               is a major problem for transport workers. Location is another problem as health facilities are often
               located in areas inaccessible to large trucks, such as congested township settlements. Often reluctant
               to leave their trucks for long periods, drivers will most likely not attend health centers that are not
               close to where they may park their trucks. The only place in Walvis Bay, Namibia, where truck drivers
               can leave their trucks in a safe place is the North Star Foundation’s wellness centre.

               Those who are not covered by workplace policies can at least access HIV-prevention services
               through the relatively numerous NGOs and state facilities in centers such as Windhoek and Walvis
               Bay. Unfortunately the North Star Foundation’s wellness centre, which focused specifically on truck
               drivers in Walvis Bay, had suspended operations at the time of the assessment field visit in September
               2009 due to funding problems, and only resumed services in November 2009.

               For truck or bus drivers on the road, there is a dearth of HIV-prevention facilities, especially in smaller
               towns, truck stops and border posts. This situation is similar or worse throughout the SADC region
               where the drivers travel. WBCG, in partnership with SMA and GTZ, is trying to address this problem
               by providing HIV toolkits, containing condoms and IEC materials, which the drivers can carry with
               them when they travel to other countries.




16
                                                                                         Transport Sector Report




Zambia

International Organization for Migration:
•   In December 2007, working with the Ministry of Home Affairs, International Organization for
    Migration (IOM) established a Migrant Support Centre in Chirundu border town with the key
    objective of increasing the knowledge of migrants and host communities on issues of HIV, health
    and safe migration. Migrant Support Centre activities include the provision of condoms, psycho-
    social counseling and referrals for VCT (Voluntary Counseling and Testing) and clinical care.

Public–private Partnerships:
•   The Zambia Business Coalition on AIDS (ZBCA) is the official voice for the private sector
    in Zambia on HIV and AIDS. Launched in 2000, it is made up of large and small companies,
    including those that employ migrants, such as mining and transport companies. It assists
    companies to implement workplace policies through its implementing partners, and has
    advocated for companies to recognize and appreciate the importance of workplace policies
    and programs on HIV.

Non-governmental Organizations:
•   The Corridors of Hope (CoH) initiative has been instrumental in reaching long-distance truck
    drivers, commercial sex workers, and the communities along transport corridors in Zambia. One
    of the major goals of Corridors of Hope is to decrease the transmission of HIV and STIs through
    increased condom accessibility and offering STI treatment facilities along transport corridors.
    The initiative has targeted high-risk mobile populations in at least ten sites in Zambia including
    Lusaka and Chirundu (border of Zambia and Zimbabwe).




                                                                                                                   17
     Transport Sector Report




               Public–private Partnership Program
               targeting Truck Drivers in South Africa

               Trucking Wellness, a partner of North Star Foundation, runs 15 Wellness Clinics throughout the
               transport routes of South Africa. These Wellness Clinics were started through the National Bargaining
               Council for the Road Freight Industry (NBCRFI) in 1999 in order to raise awareness on STIs, including
               HIV, and promote health-seeking behavior among long-distance truck drivers and ‘women at risk’,
               most notably sex workers, and the communities along the main transport corridors. They provide
               a holistic approach to health and wellness which encompasses a wide range of free health-related
               products and services, including: counseling and HIV/AIDS awareness, education and testing,
               general health services, treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), treatment of diabetes
               and TB, food and nutrition supplements, condom distribution, and free ARV treatment to all drivers
               whose employers are registered with the NBCRFI.

               In Durban, for example, the Ethekwini Wellness Centre at the truck port in Mariannhill on the N3
               highway caters for truck drivers visiting the port of Durban. Many drivers go to this truck stop to wait
               until their trucks are ready to be loaded. It is operated at convenient times for drivers (4pm–10pm) by
               a trained nurse, and offers treatment for all the usual ailments faced by drivers (such as hypertension)
               as well as HIV-prevention and care. The centre does VCT, hands out condoms and IEC materials, treats
               STIs and refers all HIV-positive drivers whose employers are registered with the National Bargaining
               Council for the Road Freight Industry (NBCRFI) to CareWorks for ART.




         5. Gaps, Challenges and Corresponding Recommendations
         The following table summarizes the gaps and               of road transport corridors in this region, there
         challenges identified during the assessment, as well       are still various gaps and challenges that exist in
         as the corresponding recommendations. Unlike              reaching transport workers, and those that live and
         other sectors, there are examples of programs             work along transport corridors, with HIV-prevention
         directly targeting road transport workers in the three    services and programs.
         countries assessed. However, given the magnitude




18
                                                                                                     Transport Sector Report




Gaps/Challenges                                            Recommendations

Policies and Regional Coordination

                                                           •   At the national level, all governments should
                                                               sign, ratify and domesticate the UN International
                                                               Covenant on the Protection of Migrant Workers
 Limited legal protection for migrant and mobile
                                                               and their Families. This would afford migrant and
 workers, including undocumented workers.
                                                               mobile workers with increased legal protection,
                                                               such as better living and working conditions and
                                                               access to health.

                                                           •   National Departments/Ministries of Transport
                                                               should facilitate policies that address HIV
 Limited national policies addressing
                                                               prevention for transport workers, and offer HIV-
 HIV for transport workers.
                                                               prevention services to both transport workers and
                                                               the communities with whom they interact.

                                                           •   Greater coordination is needed at the regional
 Lack of regional coordination on matters relating             level among SADC countries to provide accessible
 to health and HIV along transport corridors. While            health facilities and HIV-prevention programs in all
                                                               countries in the region. There is a need to create a
 there is commitment among SADC member states
                                                               regional (SADC) HIV/AIDS prevention mechanism,
 in facilitating trade and strengthening transport
                                                               such as a card system that mobile populations,
 infrastructure, little attention has been given to some       including transport workers, can use to access
 of the possible negative implications of greater              ART and other services in the region, as well as to
 movement of goods, services and people.                       standardize ARV treatment regionally to ensure
                                                               prevention and treatment sustainability.

                                                           •   Relevant line ministries, as well as industry
                                                               associations, should promote and facilitate
 Limited workplace policies, particularly among
                                                               development and implementation of workplace
 smaller sized companies
                                                               policies for all companies involved, including
                                                               smaller sized companies.

Awareness Raising and Information Dissemination

 Limited behavior and social change communication          •   An evidence-based behaviour and social change
 targeting transport workers: The existing material            communication (BCC/SCC) strategy should be
 used to educate transport workers about HIV has               developed and implemented, with appropriate
 improved basic knowledge among the target                     communication messages and materials that are
                                                               linguistically and culturally appropriate.
 population but has had limited impact on behavior
 change. However, there are limited resources to
 develop and implement effective behavior and social
 change interventions.

 For some migrants, language is a barrier as IEC
 materials are not in their home languages. This
 challenge is particularly acute for foreign transport
                                                                                                                               19
 operators who do not speak local languages.
     Transport Sector Report




            Gaps/Challenges                                                 Recommendations

             The informal and unregulated nature of the bus and             •   The government should introduce relevant
             taxi sector rules out the possibility of providing HIV             mechanisms to reach small-scale bus, taxi and truck
             prevention through workplace programs. Smaller                     companies with HIV messages by including such
             trucking companies usually do not have money to                    messaging on license application forms, license disc
             invest in their staff, and those that use mostly contract           holders and other documentation. Furthermore,
                                                                                the government should make it mandatory for
             or casual labor also do not provide any health
                                                                                such transport companies to display HIV posters in
             benefits for these workers. In addition, many of these
                                                                                or on their vehicles, and distribute condoms and
             companies will not release their employees for VCT or              IEC materials as a condition of licensing.
             other services offered by NGOs.

            Programs and Services

                                                                            •   SADC should standardize customs clearance
                                                                                procedures at border posts to reduce waiting
             Long delays at border posts: A truck driver’s job often            time of transport workers, cross-border traders
             involves long waits at border posts and ports, often               and other mobile populations. For example,
             for a day or two while loading or unloading, and due               implementation of ‘one-stop’ border posts, such
             to various customs and immigration procedures that                 as the one currently being piloted in Chirundu
             may even take up to a week or more to process. With                (Zambia/Zimbabwe border), may be facilitated.
             limited facilities at these ‘hot spots’, truck drivers often   •   Government, the private sector and NGOs should
             look for women who can offer them comfort, food                     invest in establishing alternative entertainment
             and a place to wash.                                               facilities at high-risk zones such as truck stops
                                                                                and border posts, and implement programs to
                                                                                encourage wellness.

                                                                            •   Greater coordination is needed among SADC
                                                                                countries to provide accessible health facilities
             Difficulties in providing services to mobile truck drivers           and HIV-prevention programs in all countries in
             and sedentary populations with whom they interact:                 the region.
             The high mobility of migrant and mobile workers,
                                                                            •   For health facilities, ‘Wellness Centres’ may act
             especially in road transport, means that programs
                                                                                as service points through which to reach those
             established to service the more settled population
                                                                                working in the road transport sector and other
             are not easily accessible to migrant/mobile workers in             vulnerable populations along transport corridors.
             terms of location and opening hours.                               Such centres should be open after hours to
             The ‘unseen’ migrant populations who follow other                  accommodate the needs of mobile workers, and
                                                                                have support from crucial stakeholders such as
             migrant populations around (such as commercial sex
                                                                                governments, civil society and the private sector
             workers that may move to truck stops and border
                                                                                so as to ensure sustainability.
             posts to cater for truck drivers) are a challenge to
             target because of the illegal nature of their profession       •   For HIV-prevention programs, condom distribution
             and the invisibility they prefer to maintain.                      should be strengthened around border posts
                                                                                and truck stops, on top of the BCC/SCC strategy
                                                                                outlined above.




20
                                                                                                    Transport Sector Report




Gaps/Challenges                                                Recommendations

 While reaching mobile truck drivers may be a                  •   Specific effort should be made by national
 challenge, targeting their families may present an                authorities and employers to reach families of
 even greater challenge given the remote and diverse               truck drivers in the places of origin. Such efforts
 places of origin of most of the workers. There are also           should also take into consideration issues related
                                                                   to stigma and discrimination.
 issues around HIV-related stigma present in many
 rural communities that exacerbate the difficulties.

Research and Strategic Information

 Although some research has been conducted                     •   More research should be conducted on the
 along transport corridors or among certain mobile                 various determinants of HIV in the transport sector
 populations such as truck drivers, there is still a general       such as the nature of sexual networks and the
 lack of adequate data on HIV in the transport sector.             level of concurrent sexual partnerships that exist
                                                                   along major transport routes and at border posts
 Too often, programs are based on assumptions and
                                                                   in the SADC region.
 perceptions instead of evidence. For instance, mobile
 truck drivers are often targeted for HIV-prevention
 activities whereas the little research conducted on this
 topic shows that workers at the depot level and other
 sedentary populations along corridors are equally
 if not more at risk. Better information needs to be
 collected on health-seeking behavior of both mobile
 and sedentary populations along transport corridors.

Others


 Lack of statistical data: Although, relative to other         •   Governments should improve and expand
                                                                   statistical data collection on migration,
 sectors, some data exist on the dynamics of labor
                                                                   disaggregated by age, sex and country of origin,
 migration in the transport sector, further data is
                                                                   as well as the nature of mobility in the transport
 needed for effective implementation of HIV programs.               sector (days spent on road, at stops/borders, etc.).


 Funding is identified by most role players as a                •   Donors should strive to harmonize their funding
 challenge in reaching migrants. Most programs                     strategies in the area of migration and HIV.
 are funded year by year so there is no certainty or           •   Non-traditional funding sources (e.g. private
 continuity of effort.                                              sector) should be explored.




                                                                                                                              21
     Transport Sector Report




         6. Localized, Detailed Mapping of Services

         The localized, detailed mapping of services was           policies. In partnership with GTZ, WBCG recently
         undertaken in Walvis Bay, Namibia. Walvis Bay is          launched a ‘toolkit’ for truck drivers, consisting of
         Namibia's largest commercial port and deepwater           a regular first aid kit which includes IEC materials
         harbor, and is the transport hub linking the Trans-       and condoms. The WBCG HIV Help Desk works with
         Caprivi and Trans-Kalahari highways. In other words,      partners such as the New Start Centre, to which it
         most Namibian truck drivers’ journeys start or finish      refers transport workers for VCT.
         in Walvis Bay. The port hosts a mixture of different
         migrant and mobile workers (truck drivers, seafarers,     The North Star Foundation (NSF) has a Wellness
         construction workers, workers in the fish-processing       Center conveniently located and open during
         industry, etc.) and is consequently recognized as a       hours when the truckers are resting for the night
         high-risk zone for HIV. Because of this recognition, it   and therefore have time to seek health services. See
         is relatively well-provisioned with medical facilities.   Section 4.2.1 for details on NSF Wellness Centers.
         These facilities are outlined below.
                                                                   Non-governmental Organizations:
         Government Health Facilities:                             Social Marketing Association (SMA) is the local
         Walvis Bay has a government hospital and three            representative of Population Services International
         clinics available free of charge.                         (PSI). The overall goal of SMA is to decrease HIV
                                                                   transmission, morbidity and mortality among most-
         Public–private Partnerships:                              at-risk populations and the general population,
         The Walvis Bay Corridor Group (WBCG) is a                 change community norms of sexual behavior
         public–private partnership (PPP) of the Namibian          and build local capacity. SMA’s Corridors of Hope
         Government and private companies working in               program specifically targets the transport sector
         the transport and logistics area, with the core           and the populations which interact with transport
         business being business development, cross-border         workers. Through this program SMA undertakes
         facilitation and infrastructure development. It offers     interpersonal communication activities at bars
         the services of an HIV Help Desk for the employees        (especially in Walvis Bay) and truck stops, peer
         of its member companies. Although the Helpdesk is         education and condom distribution. SMA also refers
         based in Windhoek, several of its member companies        transport workers to partner organizations (such as
         operate from Walvis Bay (e.g. Namport, MANICA             New Start) for STI treatment or VCT. In Walvis Bay, the
         Group) and access the services offered. WBCG thus          SMA office is based at the entrance to the harbor,
         has a strong presence in Walvis Bay through the           from where truck drivers are easily accessible.
         workplace HIV programs which it implements with
         its members. The WBCG HIV Help Desk provides IEC          National Social Marketing Program (Nasoma)
         materials, condoms, referral to its partners for VCT      is a national HIV-prevention program which has
         and treatment of STIs, peer educator training and         an office in Walvis Bay. It has three main activities,
         assistance with the development of workplace HIV          namely (1) the social marketing of subsidized



22
                                                                                           Transport Sector Report




condoms to both the general population and target        Although not specifically targeting transport
populations such as truck drivers and sex workers (in    workers, there are further various NGOs working
acknowledgment that not everyone wants to use the        in the local townships of Walvis Bay (Kuisebmond,
free government-provided condoms), (2) behavior-         Narraville, etc.):
change activities targeting sex workers, truck drivers
and out-of-school youth, and (3) workplace HIV           •   The Catholic AIDS Action based in Kuisebmond
programs in sectors such as the road construction            has two major activities. Firstly, it offers home-
industry. Nasoma refers its clients for VCT to partner       based care for those suffering from AIDS-
organizations and works in collaboration with SMA            related illnesses and, secondly, it provides
and WBCG on transport HIV issues.                            various means of support to orphans and
                                                             vulnerable children (OVCs).
One of the Walvis Bay Multipurpose Centre
                                                         •   The Nawa Life Trust is a Namibian NGO that was
(WBMPC) projects (funded by IOM/PHAMSA) aims
                                                             first established in 2003 as the field office for the
to reduce HIV vulnerability among foreign and
                                                             US-based Health Communication Partnership.
local seagoing personnel who live, work and move
                                                             It has since registered as a local NGO and
through Walvis Bay, Namibia. It targets both foreign
                                                             offers HIV-prevention outreach through mass
seafarers while they are working and temporarily
                                                             media campaigns, sports, cinema and other
residing in the Walvis Bay area and local Namibian
                                                             ‘edutainment’ methods. Nawa Life Trust sends
seafarers in the Walvis Bay area. The Multipurpose
                                                             those it works with to the New Start Centre for
Centre is also accessible to road transport workers.
                                                             VCT. It is funded by USAID.
Key activities of the project include: training and
capacity development in gender and in SCC for            •   Change of Lifestyle (COLS) is a Walvis Bay faith-
the WBMPC staff, development of targeted IEC and              based program which works with churches and
SCC material, and development of ‘Positive Living’           schools to educate them on HIV-related issues.
programs for seafarers.                                      COLS operates from, and mainly targets the
                                                             predominantly colored (mixed race) suburb of
Based is Kuisebmond next to the WBMPC, the                   Narraville.
New Start Centre specializes in VCT services and         •   True Love Waits, based in Kuisebmond, is a
the distribution of condoms and IEC materials                local initiative which encourages abstinence
produced by its partners and the government.                 and faithfulness among the local population.
Many organizations working with transport workers
do not conduct VCT themselves but refer workers
to the New Start Centre. In addition, the New Start
Centre regularly visits prisons and companies in
Walvis Bay to conduct VCT.




                                                                                                                     23
     Transport Sector Report




         7. Migrant Stories
         Below are two stories of migrants working in the transport sector.


               Migrant Story:
               Angolan long-distance truck driver

               José Almeida (not his real name) was born in Moxico province in 1974 and has lived his whole
               life in Angola. He trained as an electrician but because of the war had to quit. He first studied in
               Moxico, in Luena. In 1987 he moved to Luanda where he completed his secondary studies. He also
               did basic courses on systems and accounting. He recalls first arriving in Luanda: ‘I remember like it
               was yesterday, I was amazed: the big city, all these cars, all these people.’

               His first job was as an electrician for an international NGO. In 1999, he quit his job at the NGO and
               applied for a job as a driver in the Ministry of Industry. He was the driver of the vice minister for
               almost three years, after which he worked for another NGO as a driver. In 2007 a Portuguese friend
               invited him to work with him in his transport company and Jose started off as an assistant, but was
               soon promoted to a truck driver.

               He recalls his first long-distance journey: ‘One day my boss told me: “you have to go to Huambo so get an
               assistant because you leave tomorrow morning”. I talked to my colleague’s assistant and I told him: “epa!,
               we are going to Huambo:”. “I haven’t been before”, he answered. “Me neither”, I replied. So we checked our
               breaks, our tires and all the rest of the truck. We found many obstacles on the way: mountains that I’ve
               never seen before, roads in bad conditions and so on. We drove about 200 km and then we had to stop in a
               village to rest and eat. The next morning before we arrived in Huambo, we almost lost the truck’s breaks. It
               was very dangerous and we were very scared. Fortunately we were able to overcome the situation. Finally,
               once in Huambo we had to stay for 15 days waiting for new parts for the truck. After that I began to realize
               that it is one thing to drive a car, like I did before, and another to handle a big truck with heavy cargo.’

               José planned his own journeys. Unlike some drivers, who prefer to drive at night, José believes the
               nights ‘are for rest and sleep’. So when night falls, he always finds a village, hopefully one with a bar
               since, as he says, ‘the night is long’. ‘These villages have a lot of movement. Everywhere you find
               five or six truckers, you got a cool ambience: you exchange experiences, talk with the local people
               and drink a couple of beers. The beer can’t miss: epa!, you are outside home and if you don’t use
               alcohol you are not in the mood. Normally when a man or a woman goes to these kind of places the
               intention is to make friendship. So you dance, meet ladies…’

               Although José admits that the life of a truck driver is hard and risky, he likes it. He enjoys the wonderful
               landscapes he sees while driving, as well as his chats with colleagues in parking places who advise
               each other: ‘Hey, you have to stop over there, there is a good music; and beautiful meninas; or be
               careful with that road…’. He enjoys the new experiences, new friends and meeting people.
                                                               (One-on-one interview, Luanda, Angola, September 2009)
24
                                                                                             Transport Sector Report




Migrant Story:
Namibian long-distance truck driver

Richard (not his real name) is a 50-year-old truck driver from Okakakara in the north of Namibia. He
completed a few years of high school but worked on the family farm after leaving school aged 16.
Richard has been married several times and has eight children from six different women. Although
he describes multiple partners as ‘dangerous’ and ‘exhausting’, he also says: ‘there is nobody who is
having only one partner: our fathers had many wives so why not us?’

At the age of 35, Richard decided to become a truck driver, and has been doing this job for the last
15 years. His current wife and children remain in Okakakara, while his other children and various ex-
partners are in various locations in the north.

The truck Richard drives transports containers from the port at Walvis Bay to various locations in
southern Africa, particularly Angola, Zambia and Botswana. He works on six-month contracts and,
like others who transport containers, is paid per delivery. He does not get any extra benefits, such as
medical aid, and the small transport company he works for has never provided him or his colleagues
with condoms, HIV education or HIV-training courses. What he knows about HIV he has heard on the
radio or seen in adverts for the New Start Centre.

When Richard and his fellow drivers arrive in Walvis Bay they typically have to wait for several days
to pick up a new load of containers. They park their trucks near a service station and wait for their
bosses to call them to give them instructions of where to go next. Richard is never sure where he
will be sent. While Richard waits, he spends the days chatting to other drivers or sleeping in his truck.
At night, he might go to a shebeen or a club to have some drinks and meet women. He says that
women like truck drivers because they perceive them as having lots of money.

While he is parked in Walvis Bay, Richard has to use the service station toilets as there are no other
facilities available. If he wants a shower, he occasionally makes use of a friend’s place, but he normally
goes for three days without a bath.

At the border posts, conditions are even worse. He normally waits for a week for a departure permit and he
once had to wait a whole month. The border between Namibia and Zambia is the worst in his experience.

On the routes traveled by Richard he has never seen a place which offers HIV prevention or treatment.
He only knows of the New Start Centre in Walvis Bay and the clinic in his home town. In the other
countries he has visited he has also never come across HIV-prevention services although he confides
that he ‘does not even think of such things’ when he is traveling outside Namibia.

                                           (One-on-one interview, Walvis Bay, Namibia, September 2009)
                                                                                                                       25
     Transport Sector Report




         8. References

         Breen, D. and Gwyther, L. 2009. ‘Refugees and Other       Human Rights Watch (HRW). 2008. Neighbors in
         Potentially Vulnerable Groups’. In Hospice Palliative     Need: Zimbabweans Seeking Refuge in South Africa.
         Care Association of South Africa and Open Society         New York: HRW.
         Institute, 2009. Legal Aspects of Palliative Care.
         Pinelands: HPCA.                                          International Labour Organization (ILO). 2005. HIV/
                                                                   AIDS in the Transport Sector of Southern African
         Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB).           Countries. Geneva: ILO and World Bank.
         2004. SA Construction Industry Status Report: Synthesis
         Review on the South African Construction Industry         International Organization for Migration (IOM). 2003.
         and Its Development. <www.cibd.org.za/Resources/          Mobility and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa: A Field Study in
         report.pdf>.                                              South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Pretoria: IOM.

         De la Torre, C., Khan, S., Eckert, E., Luna, J. and       International Organization for Migration (IOM). 2006.
         Koppenhaver, T. 2009. HIV/AIDS in Namibia:                Ships, Trucks and Clubs: The Dynamics of HIV Risk
         Behavioral and Contextual Factors Driving the             Behaviour in Walvis Bay Namibia. Paper presented
         Epidemic. Windhoek: MEASURE Evaluation and                to International Conference Responding to HIV and
         USAID/Namibia.                                            AIDS in the Fishing Sector in Africa.

         Driver, A. and Platzky, L. 1995. Southern Cape Regional   International Organization for Migration (IOM).
         Development Study. Cape Town: Development                 2007a. Regional Guidelines on HIV and AIDS for the
         Action Group.                                             Construction Sector in the SADC Region. Pretoria: IOM.

         Dubbeld, B. 2001. ‘The Decline of Stevedoring             International Organization for Migration (IOM).
         Labour in Durban: 1959–1990’. Unpublished paper           2007b. Briefing Note on HIV and Labour Migration in
         for the History and African Studies Seminar, 17           South Africa. Pretoria: IOM.
         October 2001.
                                                                   International Organization for Migration (IOM).
         Evian, C. 2000. Transport Company: Selected KZN,          2007c. Briefing Note on HIV and Labour Migration in
         Gauteng, and NW Provinces Operations – HIV                Namibia. Pretoria: IOM.
         Prevalence Survey. Pretoria.
                                                                   International Organization for Migration (IOM).
         Ferguson, A. and Morris, C.N. 2006. Mapping               2007d Regional Workshop on HIV in the Road
         Transactional Sex on the Northern Corridor Highway in     Transport Sector in Southern Africa. Pretoria: IOM.
         Kenya. Nairobi.
                                                                   International Organization for Migration (IOM).
         Govender, R. ‘SA Won’t Meet ARV Roll-Out Target, Says     2009a. Migrants’ Need and Vulnerabilities in the
         Motsoaledi’, Mail & Guardian, 15 September 2009.          Limpopo Province, South Africa. Pretoria: IOM.


26
                                                                                            Transport Sector Report




International Organization for Migration (IOM).           and Angola. Cape Town: Southern African Migration
2009b Baseline Survey Executive Summary Draft             Project, Policy Series No. 38.
Report. Not yet published.
                                                          Pendleton, W. and Frayne, B. 2000. ‘Migration as
International Organization for Migration (IOM) &          a Population Dynamic in Namibia’. In Fuller, B.
South African Migration Project (SAMP). 2005. HIV/        and Prommer, I. (eds), Population-development-
AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern       environment in Namibia: Background Readings.
Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda.            Windhoek: University of Namibia.
Pretoria: IOM.
                                                          Posel, D. 2003. ‘Have Migration Patterns in Post-
International Organization for Migration (IOM)            apartheid South Africa Changed?’ Paper prepared
& World Fish Centre. 2006. Proceedings of the             for Conference on African Migration in Comparative
International workshop ‘Responding to HIV & AIDS          Perspective, Johannesburg, 4–7 June.
in the fisheries sector in Africa’, Lusaka, Zambia, 21–
22 February 2006.                                         Poswa, N. and Levy, R. 2006. Migration Study in
                                                          Monwabisi Park (Endlovini) Khayelitsha. Strategic
LeBeau, D. n.d. Corridors of Mobility: Mobility and       Development Information and GIS Department:
HIV Vulnerability Factors in Four Sites along Transport   City of Cape Town.
Corridors in Namibia. International Organization for
Migration and Institute for Public Policy Research.       PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC). 2007. HIV/AIDS
                                                          Impact Assessment Study for the Transport Sector in
Lefko-Everett, K. 2007. Voices from the Margins:          Namibia: Condensed Report. Windhoek: GTZ.
Migrant Women’s Experiences in Southern Africa. Cape
Town: Southern African Migration Project, Policy          Rogerson, C.M. 1999. Building Skills: Cross-border
Series No. 46.                                            Migrants and the South African Construction Industry.
                                                          Cape Town: South African Migration Project, Policy
Ministry of Fishing and Marine Resources, Annual          Series No. 11.
Report. 2004. <http:/www.mfmr.gov.na>.
                                                          Singh, G. 2005. Patterns of Migration, Settlement
Ministry of Health and Social Services (MHSS).            and Dynamics of HIV/AIDS in South Africa. South
2008. Results of the 2008 HIV Sentinel Survey. Leaflet     African Cities Network.
published by MHSS.
                                                          Small, K. 2008. Demographic and Socio-economic
Naidoo, J. 2008. ‘What the Zimbabwean Crisis Costs        Trends for Cape Town: 1996–2007. Strategic
South Africa’. Article published by the MJ Naidoo         Development Information and GIS Department:
Foundation for Social Justice on 13 June 2008.            City of Cape Town. <http://www.capetown.gov.
<http://www.socialjustice.org.za/archives/17>.            za/en/stats/CityReports/Documents/2007%20
                                                          Community%20Survey%20Summary.pdf>.
Nangulah, S.M.W. and Nickanor, N.M. 2005. Northern
Gateway: Cross-border Migration between Namibia


                                                                                                                      27
     Transport Sector Report




         Smit, W. 1998. ‘The Rural Linkages of Urban                UNAIDS/GTZ/IOM. 2008. ‘Report of the Country
         Households in Durban, South Africa’, Environment           Consultation Meeting on HIV and Mobility in the
         and Urbanisation 10(1): 77–88.                             Transport Corridor of Namibia’. Unpublished Report.

         Southern African Development Community (SADC).             United Nations General Assembly Special Session
         2005. SADC HIV and AIDS Business Plan: 5-Year              (UNGASS). 2008. Namibia Country Report. Ministry of
         Strategic Plan 2005–2009. Gaborone: SADC.                  Health and Social Services.

         StatsSA, Quarterly Labour Force Survey, Second             Van Coller, J., Maasdorp, G. and Mavundla, K. 2007.
         Quarter.     2009.    <http://www.statssa.gov.za/          ‘Durban Maritime Industry: A Value Chain Analysis’.
         publications/P0211/P02112ndQuarter2009.pdf>.               Unpublished Report.

         Transnet. 2009. ‘Information on Durban Port’.              Van Onselen, C. 1996. The Seed is Mine: The Life of
         <http://www.transnetnationalportsauthority.net/            Kas Maine, a South African Sharecropper 1894–1985.
         NPA_ports_durban_overview.html>.                           Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball Publishers.

         Trotter, H. 2008. Sugar Girls and Seamen: A Journey        Williams, B., Gouws, E., Lurie, M. and Crush, J. 2002.
         into the World of Dockside Prostitution in South Africa.   Spaces of Vulnerability: Migration and HIV/AIDS in
         Auckland Park: Jacana.                                     South Africa. Southern African Migration Project,
                                                                    Policy Series No. 24.
         UNAIDS. 2008. South Africa: Country Situation.
         <http://data.unaids.org/pub/FactSheet/2008/                World Health Organization (WHO). 2008. Health
         sa08_soa_en.pdf>.                                          of Migrants: Report by the Secretariat, WHA61/12.
                                                                    Provisional Agenda Item 11.9. Geneva: WHO.




28
                                                                                                  Transport Sector Report




Annex 1: Details of the Transport Corridors in Southern Africa                                    3




BEIRA AND ZAMBEZI DEVELOPMENT CORRIDORS                      Nacala Development Corridors, an area that is rich in
                                                             natural resources. Key objectives of the two Corridors
                                                             are to re-establish and upgrade the infrastructural
                                                             linkages in the resource-rich inland region.

                                                             Infrastructure development projects include the Sena
                                                             Railway line, upgrading of Beira port, electricity supply,
                                                             gas and liquid fuels pipelines and other transportation
                                                             infrastructure projects such as the proposed Harare–
                                                             Beira toll road, Harare–Beira railway line upgrade, and
                                                             upgrade of airports. Some of the projects are already
                                                             being implemented, including the Sena Railway
                                                             line which was concessioned in 2004, and initiatives
                                                             to better facilitate trade. The development of the
                                                             Shire-Zambezi rivers into navigable waterways is an
                                                             additional strategic project to increase the transport
Route: Beira: Lusaka — Harare — Mutare — Beira;              options for access to the sea for landlocked Malawi.
Zambezi Valley: Tete — Sena/                                 Also important is the implementation of a number of
                  Lilongwe — Blantyre — Sena — Beira.        interrelated natural resources based projects. Major
                                                             projects include reopening of the Moatize coking coal
The Beira and Zambezi Development Corridors                  mine and development of a thermal power station,
initiatives aim to establish an economic development         agricultural development in Dondo and Chimoio,
region linking Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and                tourism in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe and
Zimbabwe anchored to the Port of Beira. Spatially, the       along the Zambezi Valley, and industrial zones and
Zambezi River Basin is located between the Beira and         parks near the major cities along the Corridors.



LIMPOPO DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR                                 are in the agriculture, mining and mineral processing,
                                                             tourism and related infrastructure sectors.
Route: no details provided.
                                                             The mining and mineral processing projects
This initiative among Mozambique, South Africa and           are focused on mineral sand deposits at the
Zimbabwe (and ultimately Botswana and Zambia) is             Limpopo river mouth at Chibito. Rehabilitation and
spatially focused on the Limpopo River Basin. The            expansion of irrigated agricultural development
primary development and investment focus areas               in the Combomune-Chokwe area is currently

3 International Transport Workers Federation ‘Transport Corridors in Southern Africa: A Focus on Angola, Mozambique,
Namibia and South Africa’ – the maps are taken from SADC Review 10th Anniversary 1997–2006.



                                                                                                                            29
     Transport Sector Report




         in progress. A development program has been            of the Transfrontier Park and to promote
         implemented in this area to rehabilitate the           tourism in general.
         irrigation infrastructure and for rural development.
         Rehabilitation is already underway to re-establish
         sugar growing and processing activities at Maragra
         Sugar and at Xinavane Sugar with a focus on
         small growers. From a tourism-led development
         perspective, the initiative aims to establish a
         nature-based tourism development zone of some
         260,000 square kilometers. This would include
         the key anchor projects of the Great Limpopo
         Transfrontier Park and several developments
         along the coast of Mozambique. Major existing
         infrastructure components of the Corridor include
         the concessioning and upgrading of the Limpopo
         Railway line, and the upgrading and building of
         various road linkages. More work on the road
         network is required to support the establishment



         LOBITO DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR                            The Lobito Development Corridor is important
                                                                to the regional transport system as it provides
                                                                a strategic outlet to the sea for much of the
                                                                Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic
                                                                of Zambia. It provides the shortest route linking
                                                                the major mining regions of the Democratic
                                                                Republic of Congo and Zambia to Western Europe
                                                                and America. Inside Angola, the Corridor serves
                                                                several regions where about 40% of the population
                                                                resides. The main transport infrastructure is the
                                                                port, the Benguela Railway line and the roads to
                                                                the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia.
                                                                The Lobito Development Corridor initiative is aimed
                                                                at the rehabilitation of the transportation network
                                                                within the Corridor region.

                                                                Critical initiatives are the ongoing rehabilitation and
         Route: Lusaka — Lubumbashi — Tenke — Kolwezi —         upgrading of the Benguela Railway and the Port of
         Dilolo — Kuito — Huambo — Benguela — Lobito.           Lobito. The second key element is the rehabilitation



30
                                                                                               Transport Sector Report




of the existing road network that extends about 1,800     base consisting of large oil, natural gas and
kilometers and has had only emergency repairs over        mineral reserves, together with extensive potential
the past 20 years. The rehabilitation would facilitate    in forestry, agriculture, fishing and electricity
far more efficient and effective linkages and access         generation. Economic development projects that
to services and inputs for all the urban centers along    have been identified for implementation along the
this route as well as contributing to greater levels of   Corridor are the construction of a new refinery, a fuel
intra-SADC trade. The development potential of the        and lubricant stocking base and various factories.
Corridor is also related to the rich natural resources



MAPUTO DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR
                                                          for broad economic development of the Corridor
                                                          area. The road, railway and port infrastructure
                                                          and operations have been concessioned in
                                                          Mozambique. The private-sector participation
                                                          plays an important role in the Corridor including
                                                          investments in upgrading/construction of a toll
                                                          road linking Witbank in South Africa to Maputo (the
                                                          N4 Toll road) and the improvement of rail and port
                                                          operations in Mozambique. Other major private
                                                          sector investments include the establishment of
                                                          the Mozambique Aluminium Smelter (MOZAL), the
                                                          Maputo Iron and Steel Plant, Beluluane Industrial
                                                          Park and various natural gas industry projects along
                                                          the Corridor. It is estimated that the developments
                                                          along the Corridor have created over 15,000 jobs
Route:                                                    since inception. In early 2004 the Maputo Corridor
Maputo North: Lilongwe/Blantyre — Tete — Harare —         Logistics Initiative (MCLI) was launched as a
Gweru — Rutenga — Maputo;                                 public–private sector partnership to create greater
Maputo: Johannesburg/Pretoria — Komatiport — Maputo;      awareness and utilization of the Corridor. Since
Maputo South: Manzini — Namacha — Maputo.                 then, the MCLI has emerged as one of the most
                                                          vibrant and inclusive private-sector driven Corridor
The Maputo Development Corridor was the first              institutions in southern Africa. It is playing a strategic
of the SDIs to be implemented in 1995. It links the       role in focusing on challenges that would otherwise
Gauteng Province of South Africa with Maputo              hinder continued development of the Corridor.
in Mozambique. Maputo is also the nearest port
for Swaziland. Developments along the Corridor
have focused on rehabilitation and upgrading
the traditional trade and transport links as a basis



                                                                                                                         31
     Transport Sector Report




         MTWARA DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR                                west on Lake Malawi. Key transport infrastructure and
                                                                    anchor of the Corridor is the Mtwara port. Transport
                                                                    projects include the expansion and upgrading of the
                                                                    Mtwara port, Mbamba Bay and Manda ports both
                                                                    located on Lake Nyasa, Mtwara Airport, and various
                                                                    roads and railways. The bridge that is proposed
                                                                    across the Rovuma, the Unity Bridge, will significantly
                                                                    contribute to improved road network connectivity
                                                                    within the Corridor region. Also of importance are
                                                                    the Mchuchuma Thermal Power Station and its
                                                                    transmission system, and the Mtwara-Mbamba Bay
                                                                    petroleum pipeline as well as the Songo Songo gas
                                                                    projects. The inherent development potential of the
                                                                    area is very high providing the basis for a wide range
                                                                    of economic activities based on agriculture, mining,
                                                                    tourism, forestry, wildlife and fisheries. Tanzania has
                                                                    the added advantage of good natural gas reserves
         Route: Nkhata Bay — Mbamba Bay — Songea — Tunduri          and a natural deep-water port, whilst Malawi also has
         — Masasi — Mingoyo — Mtwara.                               good potential for hydro-electric power generation.
                                                                    Within the Mtwara Corridor are two world heritage
         The Mtwara Development Corridor falls within               sites, namely the Selous Game Reserve and Kilwa
         the territories of Malawi, Mozambique, the United          Kivinje. The inherent development potential of the
         Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. It aims to uplift         area is very high providing the basis for a wide range
         the economic status of relatively poor regions of the      of economic activities based on agriculture, mining,
         four countries. The Corridor's strategic objective is to   tourism, forestry, wildlife and fisheries. Tanzania has
         link the southern regions of the United Republic of        the added advantage of good natural gas reserves
         Tanzania including Mtwara, Lindi, Ruvuma, Iringa and       and a natural deep-water port, whilst Malawi also has
         Mbeya with Malawi and Zambia across Lake Nyasa             good potential for hydro-electric power generation.
         and Mozambique; and to provide strategic access for        Within the Mtwara Corridor are two world heritage
         Malawi to the Port of Mtwara. The Corridor runs from       sites, namely the Selous Game Reserve and
         the Port of Mtwara in the east to Mbamba Bay in the        Kilwa Kivinje.



         NACALA DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR
                                                                    countries is that of generating economies of scale
         Route: Lilongwe/Blantyre — Liwonde — Nacala.               between the two countries in developing the related
                                                                    infrastructure required, marketing production, and
         The Nacala Development Corridor aims at developing         utilizing/exploiting the inherent natural resource based
         an economic Corridor linking landlocked Malawi to its      development potential that exists in the two countries.
         nearest Port of Nacala in Mozambique. A key rationale      From a demographic perspective about 70 percent of
         underlying the collaborative approach by the two           Malawi's population is resident in the Corridor.

32
                                                                                              Transport Sector Report




In order to unlock the investment potential there
is need to expand and rehabilitate the transport
infrastructure that underpins the Corridor. The railway
systems in Malawi and Northern Mozambique have
already been concessioned and the concessionaire has
started work on rehabilitating the sections that are in
poor condition while work has also started at regional
level to upgrade the Milange to Mocuba road in
Mozambique. The Corridor has considerable potential
for the development of specialized high-value crops
such as cashew kernel, sugar cane, cotton, citrus, tea,
sisal, copra, sunflower and tobacco to complement
the traditional crops, and to enhance export-oriented
diversification. The area also has a wide diversity of
tourism, mining and industrial development potential.
Development of the Nacala Corridor has the potential
to lift large numbers of people out of poverty.



NORTH-SOUTH CORRIDOR

                                                          South Section East: Johannesburg — Bloemfontein —
                                                          Maseru/Beaufort West — Cape Town.



                                                          The transport Corridor linking South Africa to the
                                                          countries to its north is the busiest regional transit
                                                          transport link in eastern and southern Africa. The
                                                          North–South Corridor, also known as the Durban
                                                          Corridor, is the most extensive Corridor system in
                                                          the region, linking the largest number of countries in
                                                          eastern and southern Africa. It connects Botswana,
                                                          the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi,
                                                          Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe,
                                                          and also interlinks to other Corridors including the
                                                          Trans-Kalahari, Beira, Lobito, Dar es Salaam and
Route: North Section: Namanga — Arusha —                  Nacala Corridors. The Corridor is critical because
Dar es Salaam;                                            South Africa is the largest African trading partner for
Central Section: Parts of Durban and Dar-es-Salaam        most of the countries in the region and the Port of
regional development corridors;
                                                          Durban handles a significant proportion of transit
South Section West: Lobatse — Ramatlabane —               traffic for the landlocked states.
Beaufort West — Cape Town;

                                                                                                                        33
     Transport Sector Report




         Key infrastructure is the port, the roads and railway   is a strategic road route, rail transport handles a
         lines. The Port of Durban has the largest capacity      significant amount of cross-border freight traffic. The
         amongst the regional ports. Despite the long            opening of the Beitbridge–Bulawayo railway link in
         overland distance to Durban, many importers and         1999 contributed significantly to reducing railway
         exporters from the region use Durban because of the     distances. Initiatives along the Corridor cover trade
         frequency of vessel sailings, discounted sea freight    facilitation with a focus on border post procedures
         rates and good communication with customers on          and infrastructure, HIV/AIDS, vehicle overload control
         the status of their consignments. While the Corridor    and the construction of a new bridge at Kazungula.




         TAZARA DEVELOPMENT CORRIDOR
                                                                 The Tazara Development Corridor (also called the
                                                                 Dar es Salaam Corridor) is a strategic artery linking
                                                                 southern Africa with East Africa and Central Africa as
                                                                 well as the Great Lakes Area. There is increasing traffic
                                                                 on this route from two directions, namely the south
                                                                 from South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zambia, and the
                                                                 north from the Nacala Corridor. The traffic is comprised
                                                                 largely of sugar, cement, fuel and machinery. The
                                                                 Tazara rail and road Corridor provides the shortest
                                                                 distance by rail from the Copperbelt to any port. The
                                                                 governments of the United Republic of Tanzania and
                                                                 Zambia, which have a long history of cooperation and
                                                                 collaboration, have agreed to develop this Corridor.
                                                                 The two countries already jointly own the Tazara
                                                                 Railway line. Tariffs are relatively low on the Tazara rail
                                                                 route as a means of aggressively marketing the route.
         Route:                                                  The Corridor traverses some of the most fertile land in
         Tazara South: Blantyre — Lilongwe/Chipoka —             Southern United Republic of Tanzania and Northern
         Itungi — Mbeya — Dar es Salaam;                         Zambia. The area and its proximity have large
         Tazara North: Kalemie — Mpulungu — Kasam —              potential for agriculture, tourism, mining, forestry
         Mbeya — Dar es Salaam;                                  and fishing. Specific Corridor projects in addition to
         Tazara South: Blantyre — Lilongwe/Chipoka —             infrastructure projects focus on the development of
         Itungi — Mbeya — Dar es Salaam;                         the hinterland's rich tourism, agriculture (including
         Tanzania Central: Lubumbashi/Kolwezi —                  food processing), fishing, forestry/furniture/pulp and
         Tenke — Kamina — Kabalo — Kalemie — Kigoma —            mining potentials (e.g. Ligana steel production), and
         Dar es Salaam.                                          tourism development. The objective is to develop the
                                                                 Corridor as a south-east growth zone as it is the belt
                                                                 that links Southern to East Africa.


34
                                                                                               Transport Sector Report




WALVIS BAY CORRIDOR                                       and via the Trans-Cunene Corridor connecting Angola
                                                          and Namibia. Due to its location and efficiency, the
                                                          Port of Walvis Bay offers substantial time savings and
                                                          reliability gains for time sensitive cargo from and to the
                                                          region. Initiatives within the Walvis Bay Corridor have
                                                          focused primarily on strategies to enhance further
                                                          the efficiency of the Corridor transport systems along
                                                          its three arms. Initial development efforts focused on
                                                          the Trans-Kalahari Corridor. Botswana, Namibia and
                                                          South Africa have already concluded an agreement
                                                          designed to enhance utilization of the Corridor.
                                                          The north-eastern leg, the Trans-Caprivi Corridor,
                                                          was completed in 2004 with the opening of a new
                                                          bridge at Katima Mulilo and provides an alternative
                                                          import-export route for the Copperbelt and agro
                                                          and agro-processing industries in the Democratic
                                                          Republic of Congo and Zambia. The Trans-Cunene
Route:                                                    Corridor into southern Angola bears great potential
Trans-Caprivi: Lusaka — Livingstone — Katima Mulilo       to serve as a supply route for the infrastructure
— Grootfontein — Okahandja — Walvis Bay;                  and economic rehabilitation of southern Angola.
Walvis Bay/Trans-Kalahari: Johannesburg/Pretoria          SADC, working with the Government of Angola and
— Lobatse — Gobabis — Windhoek — Okahandja —
                                                          the EU, is working on rehabilitating the road that
Walvis Bay;
                                                          leads from the border at Santa Clara to the town of
Walvis Bay South: Johannesburg — Upington —
                                                          Lubango in Southern Angola. Since 2000 Walvis Bay
Grunau — Windhoek — Okahandja — Walvis Bay.
                                                          has continuously been rated among the best three
The Walvis Bay Corridor serves the central and southern   harbors in Africa. In 2003 the UN Conference for Trade
SADC region: via the Trans-Kalahari Corridor linking      and Development (UNCTAD) selected the Walvis Bay
Botswana, Namibia and South Africa, via the Trans-        Corridor as a model Corridor on the African continent
Caprivi Corridor connecting Namibia and Zambia to         and best-case scenario for an inter-regional Corridor
the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zimbabwe             capacity-building program.




                                                                                                                         35
     Transport Sector Report




         Annex 2: Regional Framework to Upscale HIV Responses
                  in the Transport Sector in Southern Africa

         In order to facilitate regional coordination and
         networking on HIV responses in selected sectors            The objectives of the workshop were to share lessons
         amongst stakeholders in the region, PHAMSA – in            learnt about HIV responses in the road transport
         conjunction with the World Food Program (WFP),             sector in southern Africa; to facilitate coordination
         the Southern Africa Development Community                  among partners, agencies and stakeholders working
         (SADC), North Star Foundation (NSF), and the United        in the road transport sector in southern Africa; and,
         Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) –               ultimately, to create a regional framework for the
         organized the Regional Workshop on HIV in the              transport sector in southern Africa.
         Road Transport Sector for Southern Africa from
         26 to 28 September 2007 in Swaziland. Workshop             As a result of the workshop, a Regional framework
         participants came from the SADC secretariat, SADC          to upscale HIV responses in the transport
         governments, the private sector, international             sector in southern Africa was developed. The
         organizations, civil society, and research institutions.   framework is summarized in the diagram below




                                                                2
                                                          Coordination,
                                                          QA, Partnership
                                                             building
                    1 Integrated                                                                3
                      Health Clinics                                                      Coordination,
                      1a PHC                                                              QA, Parnership
                                                                                             building
                      1b ART/TB



                                                        Comprehensive
                                                     Programme to address
                                                     HIV in Transport Sector
                                                       in Southern Africa

                             6
                                                                                                    4
                         Advocacy
                                                                                              Regional M&E
                         and Policy
                                                                                                Framework
                        Development

                                                                 5
                                                             Strategic
                                                            Information




36

				
DOCUMENT INFO