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The Effects of Bilingualism on Metalinguistic Awareness


									There have been many studies undertaken on the effects of bilingualism on
metalinguistic awareness. Researchers include Ben-Zeev and Bialystok. This research
has, according to Cenoz, associated bilingualism with a higher ability to reflect on
language and to manipulate it. Ringbom presented one of the first renowned
discussions of the acquisition of a third language in 1987. This work describes
Sundqvist's study of school children, where Swedish-speaking Finns outperformed
Finnish-speaking Finns in the learning of English as a Thomas Sabo Charm foreign
  Thomas's study showed that English-Spanish bilinguals were found to have
metalinguistic advantages over monolingual English students when learning French in
a formal classroom environment. Bialystock makes reference to some tests which she
carried out in order to assess metalinguistic capabilities in children. For example, she
refers to grammaticality judgement tests carried out over a number of years on
bilingual and monolingual children, whereby sentences were grammatically correct
but contained a semantic error. According to the same author, Bilingual children have
repeatedly been shown to solve these high control judgements more successfully than
comparable monolingual children. Indeed, according to a number of studies
mentioned by Bialystock in the same article, bilingual advantages have been shown
for those tasks which involved high levels of control of processing.
  With regard to literacy, researchers such as Bild and Swain, Klein, Thomas and
Sagasta Errasti have shown that children who are exposed to two written codes have a
better chance of developing a greater sensitivity towards language use and therefore,
they may be faster at cracking the code of a third language. One of the central debates
regarding the acquisition of more than two languages has been, clearly, the level of
bilingualism required for the emergence of metalinguistic advantage. Eviatar and
Ibrahim have reported that some researchers, such as Yelland have reported positive
effects of bilingualism with only minimal exposure to the second language, while
others, such as Cummins and Ricciardelli have suggested that these advantages may
only be seen in children who have achieved a high level in both languages. Cummins'
dual iceberg view of bilingualism has implications for the development of
metalinguistic awareness.
  The evidence would suggest that the metalinguistic awareness of more balanced
bilinguals would be better developed than that of less balanced bilinguals. It has also
been made explicit that the presence of three languages in the curriculum may
improve children's levels of metalinguistic awareness. The evidence would seem to
suggest that children in immersion programmes would attain a higher level of
metalinguistic awareness than those children being educated in non-immersion
programmes, thus providing a response to one of the Thomas Sabo Earrings main
research questions.
  Scientists and government agencies are starting to use heat - sensing satellites to map
the fires and try new ways to extinguish them. But in many stances - particularly in
Asia - they are so widespread and stubborn that nines simply work around the flames.
There is geological evidence that grassland and forest fires, lightning and spontaneous
combust ion of oil have caused such fires for hundreds of thousands of years. In
Wyoming and northern China, broad layers of earth are composed of "clinker, " be
brittle baked rock left behind when underground coal burns. But the frequency of coal
fires appears to have raised, experts say, as lining has exposed more and more
deposits around the world to fires, both natural and set by people, and the oxygen that
feeds them.
  Increasingly, scientists are saying the problem needs to be more carefully sassed
both as a potential contributor to global warming and source of toxic air pollution.A
1999 report by the Clean Coal Center of the International Energy j Agency concluded
that the biggest coal fires, in China and India particularly, s "make a significant global

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