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					APUSH REVIEW

    APUSH
Which of the following statements about the settlers
that arrived at Plymouth in 1620 is not true?

A. their original goal was a landfall farther south, at the
   northern edge of Virginia Company territory
B. while English, they had lived for a time in the
   Netherlands
C. they had experienced persecution in England for
   their religious beliefs and sought to separate from
   the Church of England
D. they probably would have starved to death without
   the assistance of local Indians
E. they became the dominant political and religious
   force in New England in the 1630s and 1640s
      (E) they became the dominant political and
religious force in New England in the 1630s and 1640s
• Explanation:
  Often referred to as Pilgrims or Separatists, the 102
  passengers on the Mayflower sought religious freedom first
  in the Netherlands and then in the New World. While
  originally intending to land farther south near the Hudson
  River, the ship was buffeted by storms and landed first on
  Cape Cod and then Plymouth in what is now
  Massachusetts. Despite early hostile encounters, local
  Indians assisted the 53 who had survived the first winter.
  Another group of settlers, mainly composed of Puritans,
  established Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 and became
  the dominant force in New England.
The biggest surrender in American military history,
involving almost 12,000 U.S. soldiers, occurred
where during World War 2?

 A. Kasserine Pass in North Africa
 B. on the Bataan Peninsula in the Philippine
    Islands
 C. at the Battle of the Bulge in northern
    Europe
 D. on Guadacanal Island in the South Pacific
 E. at Anzio Beach in Italy
    (B) on the Bataan Peninsula in the
            Philippine Islands
• Along with the attack on Pearl Harbor in
  December 1941, Japanese forces invaded the
  Philippine Islands. After resistance proved futile,
  American General Ned King surrendered his
  troops to the Japanese. The captured American
  and Filipinos were then forced to participate in a
  brutal 75-mile march to prison camps which
  resulted in thousands dying of thirst, beatings,
  and executions. The Japanese commanding
  general, Masaharu Homma, was tried and
  executed for war crimes following Japan's
  surrender in 1945.
Henry Ford did which of the following in
mass-producing automobiles in the 1920s?
A. he hired more Jews in management positions
B. he utilized a style of management that
   delegated corporate decisions to professionals
   in specialized divisions
C. he paid his workers higher wages than they
   could receive with comparable jobs
D. he paid his workers lower wages than they
   could receive with comparable jobs
E. he instituted worker-management teams to
   share decision-making about
Answer: (C)      he paid his workers higher wages than
they could receive with comparable jobs

Explanation: Ford began paying his workers $5
  per an eight-hour work day in 1914, almost
  double the rate for comparable work with
  longer hours. His action reduced employee
  turnover and increased worker efficiency. Ford
  also used assembly lines for the mass
  production of inexpensive automobiles.
Vice-president George H.W. Bush succeeded Ronald
Reagan as president following the 1988 election. Before
him, the last incumbent vice-president who was directly
elected president rather than succeeding a president
who died in office was

 A.   Martin Van Buren
 B.   Lyndon Johnson
 C.   Calvin Coolidge
 D.   Theodore Roosevelt
 E.   Harry Truman
               Answer:
           (A) Martin Van Buren
Explanation: . George H.W. Bush followed Reagan's two
terms as president and built a solid reputation for
decisive action with the Operation Desert Storm
success against Iraq. Economic stagnation at home and
Bush's decision to break his "Read My Lips. No New
Taxes" pledge caused his popularity to fall and he was
defeated by Bill Clinton in 1992. Andrew Jackson's
second vice-president, Martin Van Buren, was elected
president in 1836. Johnson, Coolidge, Roosevelt and
Truman all succeeded presidents who died in office.
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
A. finally removed the British presence from the
   Ohio River Valley
B. reduced the authority of the federal
   government in the western territories
C. provided a procedure for admitting new states
   to the Union
D. resulted in Shays' Rebellion
E. divided land into sections that were then sold
   to investors
Answer: (C) provided a procedure for admitting new
states to the Union

Explanation: The Northwest Ordinance, in
  addition to prohibiting slavery in the
  Northwest Territories, provided that residents
  could apply for statehood when the
  population reached 60,000 inhabitants. New
  states came in on the same level as the
  original 13 states. In 1803 Ohio became the
  first state admitted under the provisions.
   In which pair is the first event an
   immediate cause of the second?
A. Assassination of James Garfield in 1881-the
   Pendleton Civil Service Act
B. Election of John Adams in 1796-Twelfth
   Amendment's adoption
C. Sinking of the Lusitana in 1915-U.S. entry into
   World War I
D. Assassination of Alexander Hamilton in 1804-
   end of the Federalist Party
E. Germany's invasion of the Sudetenland in 1936-
   U.S. entry into World War II
Answer: (A) Assassination of James Garfield-the
Pendleton Civil Service Act

Explanation: President James Garfield was
assassinated by a disappointed office-seeker in
1881. Congress passed the Pendleton Civil
Service Act in 1883, creating a set of civil service
exams for federal positions to reduce the spoils
system in which the president had the authority
to appoint many employees.
 Which of the following is not true of
      explorer Henry Hudson
A. he led voyages in search of both a Northeast and a
   Northwest Passage to Asia
B. his crew on the ship Discovery mutinied and either
   set him adrift or murdered him in what is now known
   as Hudson Bay
C. he sailed for both the British and Dutch
D. he assumed that any passage between the Atlantic
   and Pacific Oceans would be long and difficult
E. he explored the Hudson River and helped the Dutch
   establish a claim to New Netherlands (New York)
Answer: (D) Hudson assumed that any passage
between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans would be long
and difficult
Explanation: Hudson, who sought a route from
  Europe to Asia in both the eastward and
  westward directions, assumed that a narrow
  strip of land separated the Atlantic and Pacific
  Oceans. How he died is not known, though his
  mutinous crew on the Discovery is thought to
  have either murdered him or set him adrift on
  a small boat in Hudson Bay in 1611.
Which of the following statements about the World
War II Potsdam Conference is not accurate

A. Prime Minister Winston Churchill left the
   meeting following his party's defeat in an
   election in Great Britain
B. the Allied leaders decided to defeat Germany
   first, then focus on Japan
C. it was decided that Nazi leaders would be tried
   as war criminals
D. Pres. Truman officially informed Soviet Premier
   Stalin of the existence of the atomic bomb
E. all of the statements are accurate
Answer: (B) the Allied leaders decided to
defeat Germany first, then focus on Japan
Explanation: Germany had already surrendered
  by the time of the Potsdam Conference.
  Churchill was recalled to London and replaced
  by Clement Attlee. The planning for the
  Nuremberg Tribunals began at Potsdam. Stalin
  was informed about the atomic bomb, though
  Soviet spies on the Manhattan Project had
  probably already provided him that
  information.
Muckraking writers of the Progressive
Era exposed
A.   unsafe meat packaging
B.   corruption in city government
C.   unhealthy mining conditions
D.   the anti-competition tactics of trusts
E.   all of the above
Answer: (E) all of the above

Explanation: Muckraker was the
nickname given to a journalist or other
writer who exposed corruption. Ida
Tarbell (Standard Oil trusts), Lincoln
Steffens (city machine politics), and
Upton Sinclair (meat-packing practices)
were some of the more famous of these
early investigative reporters.
What type of multiple-family dwelling became
prevalent in New York City in the last quarter of
the 19th century

  A.   the dumbbell tenement
  B.   the skyscraper
  C.   Condominums
  D.   5th Avenue mansions
  E.   bed-and-breakfast hotels
Answer: (A) the dumbbell tenement
Explanation: Originally designed for one family, the
  dumbbell tenements were divided (often
  multiple times) to accommodate more families,
  mainly on Manhattan's Lower East Side. The
  Tenement Act of 1879 required each room to
  have a window, necessitating the construction of
  air shafts. This led to a dumbbell shape, wider at
  the street and back, narrower in the middle to
  accommodate the airshaft. The overcrowding,
  lack of adequate sanitation, and insufficient fresh
  air supply eventually led to their being banned in
  New York City. The New Law of 1901 required
  each tenement to have a large courtyard.
Which of the following were contributions of the
Protestant Reformation to the founding of America?
A. the creation of a number of denominations that suffered
   persecution and sought religious freedom in the New
   World
B. the concept of the priesthood of all believers, which
   promoted individualism and aided the development of
   democracy
C. an emphasis on literacy, as the Bible was translated into
   the language of the people and not limited to only those
   who could read Latin
D. a challenge to religious authority which led logically for
   some to a challenge to political authority
E. all of the above were contributions
Answer: (E) all of the above were
contributions
 Explanation: The Protestant Reformation, which began in
 Germany but soon spread to the rest of Europe and then
 the New World, led to the formation of many religious
 groups, as the challenge to religious authority gave many
 individuals and groups the confidence to form their own
 sects. Central to the Reformation is the concept of the
 priesthood of all believers, essentially stating that each
 Christian has direct access to God and needs no
 intermediary. This religious independence view easily
 translated to a similar attitude towards political authorities.
 Luther, besides breaking with the Roman Catholic Church,
 translated the Bible into German, thus giving access to it for
 those not able to read or understand Latin.
   Which of the following was not a
   characteristic of the Whig Party?
A. many of its members eventually became
   Republicans
B. it opposed President Jackson’s policies
C. it was united in its support for the expansion of
   slavery into the western territories
D. it was particularly popular among evangelical
   Protestants
E. It supported internal improvements paid for by
   the federal government
  Answer: (C) it was united in its support for the
   expansion of slavery into the western territories

Explanation: The Whig Party became deeply
  divided on the issue of slavery. Many of its
  members, including Abraham Lincoln, quit the
  party and joined the newly formed Republican
  Party which was formed in 1854. The Whigs
  generally opposed Jackson, supported Clay's
  American System which included internal
  improvements, and gained support from
  evangelical Protestant voters.
The Fugitive Slave Act was a provision
      of which of the following
A.   the Missouri Compromise
B.   the Wilmot Proviso
C.   the Compromise of 1850
D.   the Kansas-Nebraska Act
E.   the Ostend Manifesto
Answer:(C) the Compromise of 1850.

 Explanation:
 Although the Constitution supported the return of
 runaway slaves (Article IV, Section II) and fugitive slave
 bills had been passed prior to 1850, the inclusion of
 the Fugitive Slave Law in the Compromise of 1850
 proved to be the most controversial. Southerners
 demanded it in exchange for concessions to the North,
 such as California's admission as a free state.
 Abolitionists hated it and saw its federal enforcement
 as an example of Southern "slave power."
Which of the following decisions of the Marshall Court
is improperly matched with its description?
A.    Marbury v. Madison--established the principle of judicial
     review by overturning an act of Congress, the Judiciary Act
     of 1789
B.      McCullough v. Maryland--ruled that a state could not tax
       a federal agency, in this case the Bank of the U.S.
C.      Gibbons v. Ogden--gave the federal government
       undisputed control over interstate commerce
D.      Fletcher v. Peck--established the principle that state laws
       conflicting with the U.S. Constitution were invalid
E.      Dartmouth College v. Woodward--states were no longer
       sovereign since they had signed the Constitution
Answer:(E) Dartmouth College v. Woodward--states
were no longer sovereign since they had signed the
Constitution
Explanation:
  In the Dartmouth College decision, the Supreme
  Court upheld a charter that predated New
  Hampshire's statehood, thus establishing the
  principle that charters are binding contracts and
  cannot be broken by a state legislature. In Cohens
  v. Virginia, the Court ruled that ratifying the
  Constitution meant that states were no longer
  sovereign entities. State courts were required to
  submit to federal authority.
In Common Sense by Thomas Paine
A. Parliament is seen as the enemy of freedom, but King
   George III is viewed with respect
B. colonists are encouraged to cut their ties with Great
   Britain
C. colonists are encouraged to find areas of compromise
   with Parliament and King George III
D. colonists are encouraged to ignore political issues
   and focus on economic advancement
E. an argument is made that the colonists are
   represented virtually in Parliament because they are
   still British subjects
Answer: (B) colonists are encouraged to
cut their ties with Great Britain

 Explanation:
 Written in January 1776, following Lexington and
 Concord but prior to the Declaration of
 Independence, Common Sense directly
 challenged those who asserted that the American
 colonies should remain within the British Empire.
 Paine urged colonists to sever their ties with the
 mother country, contending that Great Britain
 had abused the colonies. He concluded that "'tis
 time to part."
Which of these was not a position formerly
held by President Thomas Jefferson?
A. governor of Virginia
B. secretary of state
C. vice-president of the United States
D. president of the 1787 Constitutional
   Convention
E. member of Virginia's House of Burgesses
Answer: (D) President of the 1787
Constitutional Convention
Explanation:

   George Washington served as president of the Constitutional
   Convention in 1787. Jefferson was Minister to France at that time.
   Jefferson did however serve in Virginia's House of Burgesses, as
   governor of Virginia during the Revolutionary War, as the first Secretary
   of State, and as vice-president to political enemy John Adams.
   Jefferson's greatest skills were probably not as a politican or diplomat,
   however, but as a political philosopher and visionary. He penned the
   Declaration of Independence and following his terms as president,
   planned the curriculum and designed the buildings of the University of
   Virginia. At a dinner of Nobel Prize winners in the White House in 1962,
   President John Kennedy ad libbed "I think this is the most extraordinary
   collection of talent and of human knowledge that has ever been
   gathered together at the White House – with the possible exception of
   when Thomas Jefferson dined alone."
Of the factors listed below, which one proved
critical to the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs?
A. the overwhelming number of Spanish
   soldiers
B. the total lack of organization of the Aztec
   political and military system
C. the support of Portuguese soldiers
D. the pacifist nature of the Aztecs
E. a smallpox epidemic spread by contact with
   the Spanish soldiers
Answer: (E) a smallpox epidemic spread by
contact with the Spanish soldiers
Explanation:
  Smallpox devastated the native populations of the New
  World. The Aztec population, estimated at 30 million when
  the Spanish arrived in Mexico, was down to 3 million by 1568
  and 1.6 million in 1620. Despite having an army of perhaps
  only 600 Spaniards, Hernan Cortes was able to eventually
  defeat the Aztec forces and claim Mexico City for Spain in
  1521. BUT IF “THE AZTEC USE OF A TRIBUTE SYSTEM” HAD
  BEEN A CHOICE IT WOULD BE JUST AS TRUE. And if the
  religious tenet concerning the return of the Gods in the year
  “Reed One” had been a choice, it would have been just as
  good b/c this idea predisposed Aztecs to the idea of
  apocalypse. Had it been JUST a matter of numbers, then 600
  v. 1.6 million is still a long shot
Which of the following 19th century social reformers
advocated a secular curriculum for public schools, more and
better-equipped schoolhouses, higher pay for teachers, and
universal compulsory education?

A.   Dorothea Dix
B.   Elijah P. Lovejoy
C.   Angelina Grimke
D.   Horace Mann
E.   Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Answer: (D) Horace Mann
Explanation:

   Known as the "father of American public
   education," Mann used his position as secretary
   of the Massachusetts board of education to
   effect change in schools first in Massachusetts
   and then throughout the U.S. He advocated
   better training for teachers, sought to remove
   religious influence from the curriculum, and
   urged increased public spending on education.
Which member of the Nixon administration was accused of
extortion, tax fraud, conspiracy, and bribery?

A.   Attorney General John Mitchell
B.   Commerce Secretary Maurice Stans
C.   Vice-President Spiro Agnew
D.   White House Counsel John Dean
E.   Press Secretary Ron Ziegler
Answer: (C) Vice-President Spiro Agnew

Explanation:
    Spiro "Ted" Agnew, governor of Maryland, was selected by Richard
    Nixon to be his running-mate in the 1968 election. Agnew was an
    important piece in Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and became a
    popular figure for his attacks on Democrats. Though there was
    some talk of replacing him in the 1972 election, Nixon chose
    Agnew again as his running-mate. After an investigation turned up
    a number of criminal charges, Agnew pleaded no contest,
    resigned from office, and was given a $10,000 fine. He later paid
    over $260,000 to the state of Maryland. Agnew was replaced by
    Gerald Ford as vice-president. Agnew was the second vice-
    president in history to resign, the first being Andrew Jackson's first
    vice-president, John C. Calhoun.
During World War I, anti-German
attitudes led to
A. some German cities and street names being
   renamed
B. libraries burning their German-language
   books in public bonfires
C. German being dropped from high school
   curricular offerings
D. mob violence
E. all of the above
        Answer: (E) all of the above

Explanation:
   Suspicion of the loyalty of German-Americans (and Dutch,
   Swiss, and other European-Americans confused with
   Germans) was widespread in the U.S. and resulted in a
   number of anti-German actions, including banning of
   German language instruction in schools, renaming
   sauerkraut "liberty cabbage," book-burnings, and mob
   violence, including a lynching of a German-American in
   Illinois who was accused of making disloyal remarks. The
   Committee of Public Information, led by George Creel,
   published inflammatory anti-German posters to sell
   Liberty Bonds and encourage army recruitment.
Name the individual who was described in the following
ways by these observers for his actions in 1859:

Herman Melville--"the meteor of the war“
Henry David Thoreau--"an angel of light“
Frederick Douglass--"His zeal in the cause of freedom
was infinitely superior to mine. Mine was as the taper
(candle) light; his was as the burning sun.“
A.   Abraham Lincoln
B.   John Brown
C.   Stephen Douglas
D.   Robert E. Lee
E.   William Lloyd Garrison
       Answer: (B) John Brown
• Explanation:
  Fanatical abolitionist John Brown led a raid on an
  arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia in 1859 in an
  attempt to start a slave uprising. The raid failed
  and Brown was captured and hanged. While
  many Southerners viewed him as an example of
  the irrational hatred of abolitionists, in the North
  he was seen by many as a martyr. Douglass wrote
  of Brown: "John Brown began the war that ended
  American slavery and made this a free Republic."
Who was the abolitionist leader and publisher of The
Liberator who referred to the U.S. Constitution as "the
most bloody and heaven-daring arrangement ever
made by men for the continuance and protection of a
system of the most atrocious villany ever exhibited on
earth?"
A.   Theodore Weld
B.   William Lloyd Garrison
C.   Lewis Tappan
D.   Elijah P. Lovejoy
E.   John Quincy Adams
  Answer: (B) William Lloyd Garrison
Explanation:
Garrison was a member of the American Colonization
Society which supported sending ex-slaves back to Africa,
but broke with them in 1830 and began publishing The
Liberator in 1831. He advocated for the immediate and
complete abolition of slavery and rejected any attempts
at compromise on the issue. He wrote: "I do not wish to
think, or speak, or write, with moderation. . . . I am in
earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will
not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD."
Which of the following is not an example of
religious revivalism in American history?
A. the mass rallies of Billy Graham
B. the preaching of George Whitefield during
   the Great Awakening
C. the Cane Ridge, Kentucky camp meetings
D. Billy Sunday's tent meetings
E. the radio broadcasts of Father Charles
   Coughlin
  Answer: (E) the radio broadcasts of
       Father Charles Coughlin
Explanation: Revivalism, usually appealing to listeners'
emotions, has a long tradition in American history.
Charles Coughlin was a Roman Catholic priest who
developed a following of radio listeners during the 1930s
by politically attacking the New Deal programs of Franklin
Roosevelt and preaching a message of anti-Semitism
while offering apologies for Italy's Mussolini and
Germany's Hitler. Billy Graham and Billy Sunday held huge
revival meetings to spread their message of the need for
religious conversion. George Whitefield was an inspiring
and highly effective preacher of the Great Awakening in
the 1730s, while the Kentucky Cane Ridge meetings
beginning in 1800 led to revivals through the frontier
regions of the U.S.
As a response to Booker T. Washington's call for
accommodation and gradualism in the Atlanta
Compromise, W.E.B. DuBois encouraged African-
Americans to
A. pursue vocational training
B. focus exclusively on economic gains and not
   become involved in politics or social reform
   issues
C. engage in activism and pursue higher education
D. adopt a passive and submissive attitude in their
   dealings with whites in authority
E. all of the above
 Answer: (C) engage in activism and
      pursue higher education
Explanation:

   Washington and DuBois provided two very
   different sets of recommendations for the
   advancement of African-Americans. Washington
   encouraged a gradual approach of economic
   and political progress and a reliance on
   developing skills through vocational education.
   DuBois urged an activist role and a liberal arts
   education for African-Americans.
Which of the following statements about the French & Indian War are
accurate?

I. The British national debt greatly increased as a result of fighting the war
II. The French gained a great deal of territory at the 1763 Peace of Paris
negotiations
III. Indian tribes were divided in their loyalties, with some assisting the French
and others the British
IV. Following the war, the British implemented several new colonial policies,
including restricting the westward settlements of American colonists
A.    I, II, and IV only
B.    I, III, and IV only
C.    I and III only
D.    I and IV only
E.    all of the statements are true
       Answer: (B) I, III, and IV only

Explanation:
The French & Indian War, known as the Seven Years' War
in Europe, pitted British and French forces against one
another in battles along the Ohio River Valley, New
England, and in Canada. Some Indian tribes, such as the
Huron, allied themselves with the French while others,
including the Mohawks, assisted the British. France gave
up almost all of its North American possessions at the
conclusion of the war and while the British gained
considerable territory, they also acquired a huge debt and
a growing sense that the American colonies should pay
for their own defense.
The Eisenhower administration opposed the
military actions of Great Britain and France in
which location in 1956?
A.   French Indochina
B.   Berlin
C.   Taiwan
D.   Egypt
E.   Cuba
           Answer: (D) Egypt

Explanation:

  After Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal in
  1956, Great Britain, France, and Israel
  coordinated attacks on Egypt in the Sinai
  Peninsula and at several locations in Egypt.
  The U.S. opposed the actions. After the
  invasion, which was largely successful, the
  U.S. pushed for a cease-fire and U.N.
  peacekeepers were put in place.
“You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this
crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a
cross of gold.” This quote is representative of
A. the bimetallism position of the 1890s
B. a supporter of Andrew Jackson in the war
   over the recharter of the Bank of the U.S.
C. a Democrat-Republican's response to
   Federalist policies
D. a supporter of Reaganomics
E. an opponent of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Answer: A) the bimetallism position
of the 1890s
A. Explanation: William Jennings Bryan, the
   Democrat and Populist candidate for
   president in 1896, delivered the "Cross of
   Gold" speech as he campaigned across the
   country in support of adding silver as an
   official currency in a fixed ratio in relation to
   gold. Bryan lost the election and bimetallism
   faded as a national issue.
Which of the following New Deal programs
funded artists, actors, and writers?
A.   Works Progress Administration
B.   Civilian Conservation Corps
C.   Civil Works Administration
D.   National Recovery Administration
E.   National Youth Administration
Answer: (A) Works Progress Administration

A. Explanation:

  The WPA funded theatrical productions,
  dance recitals, state histories, and art
  projects large and small in an attempt to
  assist out-of-work artists. The Federal Art,
  Theatre, and Writers' Projects were criticized
  by many for being a form of socialism.
 Which of the following was not an
accomplishment of John C. Frémont?
A. he invaded California during the Mexican-
   American War
B. he was the first Republican candidate for
   president
C. he led several significant explorations of the
   West
D. he was promoted by Pres. Lincoln for his actions
   in Missouri during the Civil War
E. he was a senator from California
(D) he was promoted by Pres. Lincoln for
his actions in Missouri during the Civil War
Explanation:
  Frémont, nicknamed "The Pathfinder," led several
  important expeditions through the West before his military
  and political careers. He served in both the Mexican-
  American and Civil Wars and was selected to represent
  California in the U.S. Senate when it became a state in
  1850. The newly formed Republican Party chose him as
  their candidate in 1856. Frémont was relieved of command
  in Missouri by Lincoln during the Civil War, however, when
  he emancipated slaves and confiscated the property of
  secessionists in 1861. Lincoln hoped to keep the border
  states from seceding and Frémont's actions, if allowed to
  stand, might antagonize those states.
Which president is incorrectly matched
with the quote?
A. Franklin Roosevelt--"the only thing we have to fear is fear
   itself“
B. Abraham Lincoln--"with malice towards none, with
   charity for all“
C. Gerald Ford--"my fellow Americans, our long national
   nightmare is over. Our Constitution works; our great
   Republic is a government of laws and not of men“
D. Theodore Roosevelt--"the world must be made safe for
   democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested
   foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to
   serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion“
E. Andrew Jackson--"nullification means insurrection and
   war; and the other states have a right to put it down"
(D) Theodore Roosevelt--"the world must be
made safe for democracy. Its peace must be
planted upon the tested foundations of political
liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We
desire no conquest, no dominion"
In Franklin Roosevelt's 1933 inaugural address, he stated "the
only thing we have to fear is fear itself." In his second inaugural
address in 1865, Lincoln pledged "with malice towards none,
with charity toward all." On pardoning Richard Nixon in 1974,
Ford declared "our long national nightmare is over." In his
address to Congress in April 1917, Woodrow Wilson stated "the
world must be made safe for democracy." Jackson, facing the
South Carolina nullification crisis in 1832, stated "nullification
means insurrection and war; and the other states have a right to
put it down."
The founders of the California missions
in California
A. were Jesuits
B. were universally praised for their
   compassionate policies towards Indians
C. established a series of missions roughly one-
   day's walk apart along California's coast
D. helped control the spread of disease
E. helped Spain establish a dynamic and lucrative
   economic system throughout California in the
   1700s
Answer:(C) established a series of missions
roughly one-day's walk apart along California's
coast
Explanation:
   Franciscan fathers established the California missions
   along El Camino Real (the King's Highway) in locations
   approximately one-day's walk apart. Mission
   administrators were criticized both in Mexico and
   Spain for cruel and exploitative practices involving
   Indians living near the missions. Concentrating
   populations near the missions resulted in the rapid
   spread of disease. Alta ("upper") California never
   proved to be a profit center for Spain, which
   relinquished its control with Mexico's independence
   in 1821.
Which of the following was not part of
George Washington's administration?
A.   Benjamin Franklin--Postmaster General
B.   Thomas Jefferson--Secretary of State
C.   John Marshall--Supreme Court Chief Justice
D.   John Adams--Vice-President
E.   Alexander Hamilton--Secretary of the
     Treasury
 Answer: (C) John Marshall--Supreme
         Court Chief Justice
Explanation:

  Marshall was appointed Chief Justice of the
  Supreme Court by John Adams in 1801. John
  Jay was the nation's first Chief Justice.
  Marshall ruled from the bench for 34 years,
  use the S.C. power of “precedence” to
  embed a STRONG federally supported pro-
  capitalist mentality into American culture.
The Port Huron statement, which begins "We are
people of this generation, bred in at least modest
comfort, housed now in universities, looking
uncomfortably to the world we inherit..." was
published by what 1960s-era organization?

A. Student Non-Violent Coordinating
   Committee
B. Students for a Democratic Society
C. Weather Underground
D. Black Panther Party
E. Vietnam Veterans Against the War
 Answer: (B) Students for a Democratic Society

Explanation:

   The SDS published the Port Huron Statement in
   1962 as its manifesto for change. Written largely
   by Tom Hayden, a student at the University of
   Michigan, the statement summarized feelings of
   discontent, alienation, and fear of some 1960s-
   era college students. Student protest for civil
   rights and against the Vietnam War was a strong
   voice in American society in the 1960s.
The 1862 Morrill Land Grant Act required that
funds acquired from the sale of federal lands be
used to support
A. the education of freed slaves
B. state colleges offering agricultural education
   programs
C. the purchase of guns, ammunition, and
   uniforms for Union soldiers
D. the education of Indian tribes
E. the construction of railroads linking the east
   and west coasts
 Answer: (B) state colleges offering agricultural
             education programs
Explanation:

   The Morrill Act, passed by Congress during the
   Civil War, proved to be a major contributor to
   the development of state colleges throughout
   the U.S. Each state received 30,000 acres of
   federal lands to be sold, with the proceeds going
   to colleges intending "to teach such branches of
   learning as are related to agriculture and the
   mechanic arts."
Slavery was officially outlawed in the
      border state of Kentucky
A. when Ulysses S. Grant expelled Confederate
   troops from the state
B. with the implementation of the Emancipation
   Proclamation\
C. with the ratification of the 13th Amendment
   to the Constitution
D. with the Supreme Court's decision in the
   Slaughterhouse Cases
E. with Lincoln's re-election in 1864
Answer: (C) with the ratification of the
  13th Amendment to the Constitution
Explanation:
   As a border state, Kentucky was excluded from the
   Emancipation Proclamation, which declared the end
   of slavery for those living in states in rebellion against
   the United States effective January 1, 1863. This was
   an important consideration for Lincoln, as he needed
   to keep the border states from joining the
   Confederacy while still convincing European nations
   to stay out of the war. The 13th Amendment, ratified
   in December 1865, officially ended slavery
   throughout the U.S.
   The 1924 National Origins Act
A. temporarily halted all African immigration
B. was designed to restrict immigration from
   northern and western Europe
C. created a quota system for immigration to the
   U.S.
D. was opposed by Samuel Gompers, head of the
   American Federation of Labor
E. focused exclusively on immigration from Latin
   America
                        Answer:
 (C) created a quota system for immigration to the U.S

Explanation: The National Origins Act, which
   was part of the Immigration Act of 1924,
   established the first national quotas on
   immigrants. Quotas were set at two percent
   of the number of foreign-born residents of a
   given country already living in the U.S.
   Germany, Great Britain, and Ireland had the
   largest quotas. Gompers, head of the
   American Federation of Labor, supported
   immigration restrictions.
  The U.S. committed to giving the
Philippine Islands their independence
A. following Emilio Aguinaldo's uprising after
   the Spanish-American War
B. with the passage of the 1916 Jones Act
C. with the Platt Amendment
D. in 1946 after WWII showed the problems of
   colonialism
E. with the Teller Amendment
 Answer: (B) with the passage of the 1916 Jones Act


Explanation:
   The Treaty of Paris transferred control of the
   Philippine Islands from Spain to the U.S.,
   although many in America opposed the
   continued U.S. presence there. The Jones (or
   Philippine Autonomy) Act of 1916 declared the
   intention of the U.S. to give the Philippines their
   freedom, though no date was specified. Their
   independence was achieved with the surrender
   of the Japanese in 1945.
The nullification crisis during the Jackson
administration arose over which issue?
A.   the re-charter of the U.S. Bank
B.   protective tariffs
C.   the Maysville Road
D.   the Peggy Eaton affair
E.   removal of the Cherokee Indians
       Answer: (B) protective tariffs
Explanation: The concept of nullification, that states need not
obey federal laws they felt unconstitutional, emerged first
during the Federalist Era in the Kentucky and Virginia
Resolutions of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Tariffs,
which are taxes on imports, were seen by many Southerners
as benefiting the North while placing a financial burden on
Southern citizens, who lacked a significant manufacturing
basis and thus had to import more products. South Carolina's
legislators, angered by the 1828 Tariff of Abominations, were
still unhappy even though the Tariff of 1832 passed by
Congress and signed by Jackson, reduced tariff duties. A state
convention voted 136-36 that the tariffs were
unconstitutional and unenforceable in South Carolina. This
controversy, which Jackson saw as a challenge to his authority
as president, provided states' rights arguments later used in
the secession of the South before the Civil War.
“The wilderness masters the colonist. It finds him a European in
dress, industries, tools, modes of travel, and thought. . . It strips
off the garments of civilization and arrays him in a hunting shirt
and moccasin. . . .Little by little he transforms the wilderness, but
the outcome is not the old Europe. . . .The fact is, that here is a
new product that is American. . . .”

This statement was made by which famous American historian?
A.   Carl Degler
B.   Charles A. Beard
C.   Frederick Jackson Turner
D.   Steven Ambrose
E.   Henry Adams
Answer: (C) Frederick Jackson Turner
Explanation: Turner delivered a paper entitled
"The Significance of the Frontier in American
History" to the 1893 American Historical
Association. Using the statement from the 1890
Census that the American frontier was officially
closed, Turner developed an explanation of the
impact of the "westering" character of the
American people on institutions, economics,
and attitudes.
In which case did the U.S. Supreme Court
conclude that state governments could regulate
railroad and grain elevator companies?
 A. Baker v. Carr
 B. Munn v. Illinois
 C. Commonwealth v. Hunt
 D. Plessy v. Ferguson
 E. Muller v. Oregon
    Answer: (B) Munn v. Illinois
Explanation:
   In the 1876 Munn case the Supreme Court
   supported the position of the Grange which
   held that business interests used for public
   good could be regulated by state
   governments. The case proved important to
   the growth of government regulation of
   businesses, including railroads.
           Baker v. Carr, (1962)
• A landmark United States Supreme Court case
  that retreated from the Court's political question
  doctrine, deciding that reapportionment
  (attempts to change the way voting districts are
  delineated) issues present justifiable questions,
  thus enabling federal courts to intervene in and
  to decide reapportionment cases. The defendants
  unsuccessfully argued that reapportionment of
  legislative districts is a "political question," and
  hence not a question that may be resolved by
  federal courts.
        Commonwealth v. Hunt
• The MASSACHUSET TES Supreme Court
  established that trade unions were not
  necessarily criminal or conspiring
  organizations if they did not advocate violence
  or illegal activities in their attempts to gain
  recognition through striking. This legalized the
  existence of trade organizations, though trade
  unions would continue to be harassed legally
  through anti-trust suits and injunctions.
             Muller v. Oregon (1908)
• In Justice David Josiah Brewer's unanimous opinion in Muller, the
  Court upheld the Oregon regulation making it illegal for a female
  employee to work more than ten hours in a single day. The Court did
  not overrule Lochner 1905 (HOWEVER - a New York law restricting
  the weekly working hours of bakers was invalidated), but instead
  distinguished it on the basis of "the difference between the sexes."
  The child-bearing physiology and social role of women provided a
  strong state interest in reducing their working hours.
• "That woman's physical structure and the performance of maternal
  functions place her at a disadvantage in the struggle for subsistence is
  obvious. This is especially true when the burdens of motherhood are
  upon her. Even when they are not, by abundant testimony of the
  medical fraternity continuance for a long time on her feet at work,
  repeating this from day to day, tends to injurious effects upon the
  body, and as healthy mothers are essential to vigorous offspring, the
  physical well-being of woman becomes an object of public interest
  and care in order to preserve the strength and vigor of the race." 208
  U.S. at 412.
The dramatic increase in numbers of printed periodicals
(newspapers and magazines) in the period between
1828 and 1860 was partly a result of
A. improvements in education making literacy
   almost universal
B. changes in the printing process which allowed
   photographs to be included in periodicals
C. the rapid increase in population as economic
   conditions drastically improved
D. the transportation revolution which led to more
   rapid movement of information
E. the impact of the Second Great Awakening
Answer: (D) the transportation revolution which led
to more rapid movement of information

Explanation: Publications--local, regional, and
  even national--exploded in numbers in the
  19th century. By 1828, New York City alone
  produced 161 newspapers. The speed by
  which information could be disseminated
  increased as improvements in transportation
  developed. In addition, political parties and
  candidates could broaden their appeal by
  gaining exposure beyond a limited geographic
  area.
The Three Mile Island incident of 1979
A. resulted in a loss of power to most of the state of
   Pennsylvania
B. demonstrated the potential danger of a nuclear
   power plant meltdown
C. made clear that foreign oil was not sufficient to
   supply American energy needs
D. led to an increase in terrorist attacks on power-
   generating facilities
E. caused the U.S. to cease all nuclear power plant
   usage
Answer: (B) demonstrated the potential
danger of a nuclear power plant meltdown
Explanation: The release of radioactive gas and
  a near meltdown of the Three Mile Island
  nuclear power plant resulted in the
  evacuation of over 100,000 residents of the
  nearby area. Consequences were that
  Americans became overly fearful of nuclear
  power, the cost of constructing new plants
  became impossible to justify, and the US
  became increasingly vulnerable to the whims
  of OPEC
Which of the following provisions is not an example of
the Constitution modifying the Articles of
Confederation?
A. Congress has the power to control interstate
   commerce
B. amending the Constitution requires 2/3 vote of
   Congress and 3/4 approval of states
C. passage of legislation requires a majority vote in both
   houses of Congress plus the president's signature
D. two houses of Congress, one based on population
   and one giving equal votes to each state, hold
   legislative power
E. only the Congress, not the states, is allowed to
   declare war
Answer: (E) only the Congress, not the
states, is allowed to declare war

Explanation: The Constitution sought to create "a more
perfect Union" and many of its provisions drastically modified
the Articles of Confederation, adopted by the Second
Continental Congress. Under the Articles, Congress had no
effective control of interstate commerce, amending the
Articles required a unanimous vote of the states, legislation
required nine of the 13 states approving, and there was one
house of Congress with each state equally represented. The
Articles did reserve the right to declare war for Congress,
which is also one of its powers under the Constitution, but did
provide that " no State shall engage in any war without the
consent of the United States in Congress assembled, unless
such State be actually invaded by enemies."
Which of the following was not true of
protective tariffs in the first half of the 19th
century?
 A. they resulted in revenue for the federal
    government, often funding internal
    improvements
 B. they were generally favored by New England
 C. they were generally opposed in the South
 D. they resulted in lower prices for consumers
 E. they were resented by European product
    manufacturers
Answer: (D) they resulted in lower prices for
consumers
Explanation: Protective tariffs increased the
prices of European imports, thus making home-
grown manufactured goods more competitive.
This supported the expansion of manufacturing
interests, particularly in the New England states,
but increased prices for consumers.
Nearing defeat in the Korean War, North Korea
launched a successful counterattack on the United
Nations forces in 1950 Immediately following
A. President Truman's removal of Douglas
   MacArthur
B. the entrance of China into the war
C. the withdrawal of most of the American
   troops
D. promises from the Soviet Union of nuclear
   weapons
E. the withdrawal of Japanese troops
Answer: (B) the entrance of China into
the war
Explanation: United Nations forces had
successfully pushed North Korean troops north
of the 38th parallel in 1950. Then China added
200,000 ground troops in support of North
Korea. A force of 30,000 U.N. troops was
surrounded at Chosin Reservoir but managed to
escape. The combined Chinese and North
Korean forces quickly recovered North Korean
territory, though the war continued until the
signing of the armistice in 1953.
The chief reason for legislators from northern
states favoring the passage of the Missouri
Compromise was that it
A. prohibited slavery's expansion in the Louisiana
   Territory lands north of 36° 30' latitude, with
   the exception of Missouri
B. quieted residents of Maine who had been
   clamoring for statehood
C. added Missouri to the U.S. as a slave state
D. finally settled the slavery question in the U.S.
E. ended slavery in the border states of Maryland,
   Delaware and Kentucky
Answer: (A) prohibited slavery's expansion in the
Louisiana Territory lands north of 36° 30' latitude

Explanation: The Missouri Compromise prevented
slavery's expansion into the territories north of the
36° 30' line, but allowed Missouri, north of the line,
to enter as a slave state. To maintain the balance in
the Senate between slave and free states, Maine
was separated from Massachusetts and became its
own state. Far from settling the controversy, the
Missouri Compromise postponed legislative
solutions to the 1850s. Jefferson, in referring to the
Missouri discussion, described it as being "a fire bell
in the night, [it] awakened and filled me with terror.
I considered it at once as the knell of the Union."
After Mo. comp
During the Progressive Era, the Prohibition movement
was supported by all but which of the following?

A. the Anti-Saloon League
B. several Protestant denominations, including
   Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians
C. the Women's Christian Temperance Union
D. German and Irish immigrants
E. prominent female reformers such as Susan
   B. Anthony and Frances Willard
  Answer: (D)     German and Irish immigrants

Explanation: Prohibitionists, who sought to limit
  the sale and consumption of alcohol, gained their
  widest political support during the Progressive
  Era and in 1919 persuaded enough states to
  approve the 18th Amendment, the only
  amendment that was later repealed. The Anti-
  Saloon League, many mainline Protestant
  denominations, the WCTU, and women
  reformers, including leading suffragists,
  supported Prohibition. German and Irish
  immigrants, mostly Roman Catholic, generally
  opposed Prohibition.
One of the truly national forms of architecture that
developed in all regions of the country in the early 19th
century, this style often featured porticos, pilasters
(shallow rectangular columns projecting from a wall),
and friezes and reflected a growing pride in democracy.
A.   Georgian
B.   Prairie School
C.   Baroque
D.   Egyptian Revival
E.   Greek Revival
Georgian Architechture
Prairie Style (Frank Lloyd Wright)
If it ain’t Baroque
Egyptian Revival
Greek Revival
Jackson’s Hermitage
“Here With The Breeze” Tara
     Answer: (E) Greek Revival
Explanation: The Greek Revival style was used
  extensively in both public buildings and homes
  throughout the U.S. in the first half of the 19th
  century. Strongly encouraged by Thomas
  Jefferson, who chose Benjamin Latrobe to design
  the U.S. Capitol, it often featured exterior
  columns like those in Greek temples. It often
  mixed American motifs with the classical Greek
  elements. Latrobe, for example, used tobacco
  leaves and corn cobs in his Capitol details.
  The U.S. committed to giving the
Philippine Islands their independence
A. following Emilio Aguinaldo's uprising after
   the Spanish-American War
B. with the passage of the 1916 Jones Act
C. with the Platt Amendment
D. in the 1898 Treaty of Paris
E. with the Teller Amendment
 Answer: (B) with the passage of the 1916 Jones Act


Explanation:
   The Treaty of Paris transferred control of the
   Philippine Islands from Spain to the U.S.,
   although many in America opposed the
   continued U.S. presence there. The Jones (or
   Philippine Autonomy) Act of 1916 declared the
   intention of the U.S. to give the Philippines their
   freedom, though no date was specified. Their
   independence was achieved with the surrender
   of the Japanese in 1945.
What is not true of the presidential
election of 1960?
A. John F. Kennedy won the national popular vote by less
   than 1/10 of one percent
B. Richard Nixon's background as a Quaker proved
   controversial
C. televised debates provided an important advantage for
   Kennedy
D. when Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested during the
   campaign, Kennedy attempted to get him released, while
   Nixon refused to become involved
E. Kennedy chose a vice-presidential running-mate from the
   South, while Nixon chose a running-mate from New
   England
   Answer:     (B) Richard Nixon's background as a
              Quaker proved controversial

Explanation: While Kennedy had to explain to Protestant
voters that his Roman Catholic faith would not impact his
presidency, Nixon's religious background was not an
issue. The 1960 election's popular vote margin (118,000)
was the smallest in the 20th century (Al Gore won over
500,000 more votes in the 2000 election but George Bush
was awarded Florida's electoral votes and the presidency
by a Supreme Court decision). The series of televised
presidential debates were seen as significant pluses for
Kennedy, as was his support for King after his arrest.
Lyndon Johnson of Texas and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. of
Massachusetts were the Democratic and Republican vice-
presidential candidates.
Alfred T. Mahan's influential 1890
book asserted that
A. the great empires of history had great navies
B. infantry was more important in wartime
   than ships
C. establishing naval bases around the world
   was unimportant
D. the U.S. should not establish a colonial
   empire
E. war with Spain in the Caribbean was unwise
(A)     the great empires of history had
               great navies
• Explanation: Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan
  wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon
  History, 1660-1783 in 1890. In it, he reviewed
  military history and concluded that great
  navies were essential for success. His writings
  had tremendous impact on the U.S., which
  developed a battleship fleet partly because of
  his ideas, as well as other nations, particularly
  Japan.
Which of the following statements are true about Indians living in North
America before Spanish explorers reached the continent?

I. Tribes in the Southwest developed elaborate canal systems to sustain
agriculture
II. Several written languages were developed
III. Mississippi River Valley residents built huge temple mounds and a city near
present-day St. Louis that may have had 40,000 residents
IV. Horses enabled hunters to range far from their tribe in search of food
V. The buffalo was a major source of food and clothing for Plains Indians



 A.   I, II, and V
 B.   I, III, and V
 C.   III, IV, and V
 D.   I, III, and IV
 E.   All of the statements are true
        Answer: (B) I, III, and V

Explanation:
   The Hohokan people of the Southwest used a
   sophisticated system of canals to bring water to their
   crops. Cahokia, where huge mounds were built, was a
   city that may have been larger in population than
   London, England in 1250 AD. Several Plains Indian
   tribes were dependent on the buffalo for their
   survival. No evidence of written Indian language
   exists until Sequoyah, a Cherokee, created his
   syllabary in 1821. Horses, which eventually became
   very important to Indian life, were brought by the
   Spanish.
Which of the following is not part of
the Bill of Rights?
A. "the privilege of habeas corpus shall not be
   suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or
   invasion the public safety may require it...“
B. "excessive bail shall not be required...nor cruel and
   unusal punishments inflicted...“
C. "no soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any
   house without the consent of the owner...“
D. "Congress shall make no law...abridging the freedom
   of speech...“
E. "no person...shall be compelled in any criminal case
   to be a witness against himself..."
Answer: (A) "the privilege of habeas corpus shall not be
suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the
public safety may require it..."

Explanation:

Habeas corpus, literally "you shall have the
body," is protected in Article I, Section 9 of the
Constitution. It requires an authority such as a
jailer to allow an individual to have a formal
hearing to be informed of an alleged crime and
not be unlawfully detained. B is part of the 8th,
C the 3rd, D the 1st, and E the 5th Amendments,
all part of the Bill of Rights.
The following quote is from which American educator?
“The reason that the present school cannot organize itself as a
natural social unit is because…common and productive activity is
absent…When the school introduces and trains each child of society
into membership with such a little community, saturating him with
the spirit of service, and providing him with the instruments of
effective self direction, we…shall have the deepest and best
guarantee of a larger society which is worthy, lovely, and
harmonious.”

  A.   James Conant
  B.   Horace Mann
  C.   John Dewey
  D.   Charles Eliot
  E.   Theodore Sizer
          Answer: (C) John Dewey
Explanation:
   John Dewey, American educator and philosopher,
   emphasized the importance of relevant education for
   students. He opposed rote memorization and encouraged
   teachers to place students at the center of the curriculum.
   Dewey viewed education as a critical element in democracy
   and established what became known as the progressive
   education movement. He wrote "Education is a social
   process. Education is growth. Education is not a preparation
   for life; education is life itself.“ Horace Mann was more
   concerned about removing sectarian dogma from schools,
   and public supported, content rich schools taught by
   trained teachers at “Normal” schools
 One purpose of the previous World
        War I poster was to
A. cut into the profits being made by American
   farmers trying to take advantage of the
   increased demand for food
B. give ordinary citizens the opportunity to
   participate in the war effort
C. sell Liberty Bonds
D. allow American agricultural goods to compete
   against German goods on the world market
E. discourage American families from eating
   foreign-grown vegetables
   Answer: (B) give ordinary citizens the
  opportunity to participate in the war effort

Explanation:

  The Victory Gardens encouraged by the
  Committee of Public Information in this
  poster provided Americans with a chance to
  feel part of the war effort, in addition to
  reducing domestic demand for agricultural
  products. Victory Gardens were also
  encouraged during World War II.
France signed an alliance with the United States
and participated openly in the American
Revolutionary War following

A. a demonstration of American strength in
   winning a major battle
B. the issuance of the Declaration of
   Independence
C. the diplomatic mission of Thomas Jefferson
D. Spain's concluding a treaty with the United
   States
E. growing opposition to the war in Great Britain
   by Whigs
Answer: (A) a demonstration of American
strength in winning a major battle
Explanation:
     The American victory at Saratoga in 1778
   resulted in the surrender of 5800 British troops
   under the command of Gen. Burgoyne. This was
   the largest surrender in British history and
   convinced the French who had previously
   resisted Benjamin Franklin's requests to provide
   money, soldiers, and naval support to the
   American cause which proved crucial to the
   eventual victory at Yorktown in 1781.
According to British economist John Maynard Keynes,
who has had a major impact on U.S. economic policies
since the 1930s, which of the following is true?
A. an increase in tariff rates is useful in overcoming
   a depression
B. a balanced budget is the key to economic
   stability and prosperity
C. the best cure for a depression is a reduction in
   the national debt
D. the primary problem of the Great Depression
   was excessive government spending
E. budget deficits can lead to an expanding
   economy
Answer: (E) budget deficits can lead to an
expanding economy
Explanation:
    British economic theorist John Maynard Keynes was an advocate
    of government spending as a source of economic growth. He
    advocated governmental deficit financing (spending more in a
    budget year than collected revenue). While not publicly
    embracing Keynsian ideas, Franklin Roosevelt created a number of
    new federal jobs, particularly in the Second New Deal. Despite
    frequent calls for fiscal responsibility and a balanced budget from
    politicians in both the Republican and Democratic parties, in
    practice virtually all administrations have used deficit financing. In
    1965 economist Milton Friedman was quoted as saying "We are
    all Keynsian now" and in 1971 Republican President Richard Nixon
    remarked "I am now a Keynesian in economics" as he took the
    U.S. off the gold standard.
At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, the North had
all of the following advantages except:

A.   more railroad mileage
B.   more industry
C.   unity of opinion concerning war aims
D.   an established government
E.   superior naval resources
Answer: (C) unity of opinion concerning war aims

Explanation:

The North had overwhelming advantages at the
start of the Civil War, including a larger free
population, more railroads, greater industrial
capacity, a government that was recognized by
foreign nations, and a navy. The South, at the same
time, had much greater unity among its white
population in support of its war aims which helped
it to endure across five Aprils (1861-1865).
           President Bill Clinton
A. was successful in his campaign to end discrimination
   against homosexuals in the military
B. was openly criticized by his vice-president, Al Gore,
   who condemned his interaction with Monica
   Lewinsky as not just inappropriate, but immoral
C. strongly supported the passage of the North America
   Free Trade Agreement
D. became the only president in American history to be
   impeached and convicted
E. admitted to having extramarital affairs with Jennifer
   Flowers, Paula Jones, and Monica Lewinsky
Answer: (C) strongly supported the passage
of the North America Free Trade Agreement

Explanation:
   Clinton's early efforts to end anti-gay
   discrimination in the armed forces failed. Al
   Gore did not comment on Clinton's behavior
   which led to impeachment, only the second for
   a president in American history. While
   impeached by the House of Representatives, he
   was not convicted by the Senate. Clinton never
   admitted directly to having affairs with a series
   of women. He did push for passage of the North
   America Free Trade Agreement in 1993.
 Who is the author of the following quote:
"But I take higher ground.
I hold that in the present       A.   Thomas Jefferson
state of civilization, where     B.   William Lloyd Garrison
two races of different origin,   C.   Robert E. Lee
and distinguished by color,      D.   Jefferson Davis
and other physical               E.   John C. Calhoun
differences, as well as
intellectual, are brought
together, the relation now
existing in the slaveholding
States between the two, is,
instead of an evil, a good - a
positive good. "
   Answer: (E) John C. Calhoun
Explanation:

   Calhoun, who served as Andrew Jackson's first
   vice-president, was a staunch defender of
   slavery. Rather than apologizing for it, he
   asserted in an 1837 speech to the U.S. Senate,
   that without slavery, white supremacy would be
   at risk. Southern slavery, he added "exempts us
   from the disorder and dangers resulting from
   this conflict[of whites and free blacks]."
A fundamentalist in the 1920s would
believe all but which of the following?
A. the words of the Bible were inspired by God
B. Jesus was the son of Virgin Mary
C. the world was created in six days in 4004
   B.C.
D. the first five books of the Bible were written
   over many years by many different authors
E. Jesus rose from the dead following his
   crucifixion
 Answer: (D) the first five books of the Bible were
 written over many years by many different authors
Explanation: Fundamentalism became a powerful force in
American Protestantism in the first two decades of the 20th
Century. Fundamentalists believed in the deity of Jesus, the
virgin birth, the Atonement at the Crucifixion, the resurrection of
Jesus, and the inerrancy of the Bible, among other tenets of
Christianity. Other Christians rejected this approach as narrow
and anti-science and interpreted the Bible, particularly Genesis
in a figurative way. The most famous forum for fundamentalism
came at the 1925 Scopes Trial in which William Jennings Bryan
was cross-examined by Clarence Darrow on his literal
interpretation of the Bible. Fundamentalists of the 1920s
believed (as modern fundamentalists still do) that the
Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible, were all written by
Moses.
   All of the following were goals of
       MOST Progressives except
A. the end of corruption in municipal
   governments
B. making government more efficient
C. end of child labor
D. a rejection of capitalism and the adoption of
   socialism
E. protecting the interests of consumers
Answer: (D) a rejection of capitalism
and the adoption of socialism
Explanation:

   While some Progressives were sympathetic with
   aspects of socialism, most rejected it as being
   too extreme. Progressives sought to use
   government and social action to reform society.
   Political corruption, political bosses, child labor,
   poor working conditions, and unsafe foods and
   drugs were all targets of Progressive reformers.
"Under a government which imprisons unjustly, the true place for
a just man is also a prison.…Cast your whole vote, not a strip of
paper merely, but your whole influence...If a thousand men were
not to pay their tax bills this year, that would not be a violent and
bloody measure, as it would be to pay them, and enable the State
to commit violence and shed innocent blood."

These sentiments from Henry David Thoreau’s essay “Civil
Disobedience” profoundly influenced which pair below?

  A.   Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas
  B.   Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman
  C.   John C. Calhoun and Jefferson Davis
  D.   Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.
  E.   W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington
Answer: (D) Mahatma Gandhi and Martin
Luther King, Jr.
Explanation:

Thoreau refused to pay his taxes in Concord,
Massachusetts because of his opposition to the
Mexican-American War, inspiring America's
most famous single night in jail. Gandhi and
King utilized Thoreau's ideas in crafting their
successful campaigns of civil disobedience by
opposing political authority and oppression in
India and the southern U.S. in the 20th Century.
While the U.S. remained neutral, Americans
volunteered for the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in 1936 to
support the Republican side in which nation's civil war?


A.   Manchuria
B.   Ethiopia
C.   Palestine
D.   Spain
E.   Ireland
           Answer: (D) Spain
Explanation:
   Americans numbered about 450 out of the
   3,000 volunteers in the International Brigade
   which fought against the forces of Francisco
   Franco beginning in 1936. Communist and
   liberal groups in the U.S. provided support to
   the Brigade and Paul Robeson visited the troops
   and gave a concert. Franco's forces, aided by
   Germany and Italy, defeated the Republicans in
   1938.
The U.S., along with the other Western powers,
refused to become involved in which African
nation's civil war in 1994 between Hutu and
Tutsi forces that resulted in over 800,000
deaths?
            A.   Somalia
            B.   Sudan
            C.   Rwanda
[Default]   D.   Congo
[MC Any]
[MC All]    E.   Zimbabwe
         Answer:           (C) Rwanda
Explanation:
Civil war broke out in Rwanda between Hutu and Tutsi
armed forces and common people following the plane
crash of Rwanda's president in 1994. Despite repeated
requests for peacekeeping assistance from Western
powers, including the U.S. and France, no major outside
help came for the few United Nations troops sent as
peacekeepers. The resulting violence took 800,000 lives.
In a famous press conference exchange about what
constituted genocide, a U.S. State Department official
refused to label the Rwanda situation genocidal, instead
stating that "acts of genocide" had taken place.
Which of the following is not true about the growth of
American railroads prior to the Civil War?

A. the early standarization of track widths allowed rapid
     expansion and the use of imported British
     locomotives
B. the need for accurate clocks and timekeeping became
     more important as rail routes developed
C. transporting goods on canals was still cheaper in
     many cases than on railroads
D. by 1850, the U.S. had more miles of track than all of
     Europe combined
[Default]
E. Any] engines were fueled by wood, an inexpensive
[MC most
     energy source
[MC All]
Answer: (A) the early standarization of track widths allowed
rapid expansion and the use of imported British locomotives

Explanation: One of the obstacles to expansion of American
railroads in the second quarter of the 19th century was the lack
of standardized track width, which did not become established
until after the Civil War. Before then, as many as 20 different
widths were used in addition to the eventually adopted standard
of four feet eight and one-half inches. Railroad schedules
required accuracy in timekeeping and helped spur the adoption
of time zones. While transporting goods on railroads was much
cheaper than roads in most cases, canals remained cheaper in
many markets, though railroads had the advantage of being able
to run year-round. The growth in railroad mileage was massive,
particularly in the 1840s and 1850s. Abundant and cheap wood,
rather than coal, fueled most American steam engines, unlike
the British railroads.
   Which of the following is not true
        about Thanksgiving?
A. Thanksgiving did not actually become a national
     holiday until 1941
B. the 1621 feast of Separatists at Plymouth Plantation
     included a Patuxet Indian named Squanto
C. Abraham Lincoln made the last Thursday in November
     the national day of Thanksgiving in 1863
D. George Washington was the first president to issue a
     national proclamation of Thanksgiving
[Default]
E. Any] almost certain that the 1621 Plymouth
[MC it is
     Thanksgiving menu included sweet potatoes
[MC All]
Answer: (E) it is almost certain that the 1621
Plymouth Thanksgiving menu included sweet
potatoes
Explanation:
   While cranberries, a native American fruit, may have
   been on the 1621 menu, sweet potatoes, a New
   World crop Columbus introduced to Europe following
   his visits, almost certainly were not, as they were not
   in the Wampanoag diet and potatoes, both the white
   and sweet varieties, did not become a staple crop in
   western Europe until the 18th century. We know the
   Wampanoag Indians who shared the meal with the
   Plymouth settlers brought deer, so venison was
   undoubtedly consumed. As for turkeys, a definite
   maybe.
Which of the following is not accurate
about the 1783 Newburgh Conspiracy?
A. it was mainly the result of American Revolutionary War
     veterans not being paid by Congress
B. Britain had already removed all of its troops from the
     colonies so there was no danger of war resuming
C. the conspiracy collapsed because of respect for General
     Washington among the Continental Army officers
D. Alexander Hamilton and others hoped to use pressure on
     Congress to create a stronger federal government that
     included a tax on imports
E. it occurred in Newburgh, New York about 60 miles outside
[Default]
     New
[MC Any] York City.
[MC All]
Answer: (B) Britain had already removed all of its
troops from the colonies so there was no danger of war
resuming
Explanation: Although the British had surrendered at Yorktown in
1781 and peace negotiations were continuing in Paris, British troops
still occupied New York City. A group of Continental Army officers,
many of whom had not been paid for months, hatched a plan to force
Congress to pay their wages. Alexander Hamilton quietly supported
their efforts, as he saw it as a way to have Congress enact tariff duties,
which he felt were vital for the new nation's economic success.
Washington read a speech to the officers in Newburgh, New York
which was not persuasive. But after he took out a letter and had to put
on glasses to read it, he said "Gentlemen, you will permit me to put on
my spectacles, for I have not only grown gray but almost blind in the
service of my country." This apparently reminded the officers of
Washington's leadership and personal sacrifices during the war and
the conspiracy died. The back-pay issue was not resolved by Congress
for many years.
President Wilson sent General John Pershing
across the Mexican border in pursuit of which
Mexican rebel leader?
      A.    Pancho Villa
      B.    Francisco Madero
      C.    Victoriano Huerta
      D.    Venustiano Carranza
      E.    Porfirio Diaz
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
    Answer: (A) Pancho Villa
Explanation:
   Villa expected support from the U.S. in his
   struggle for power with Mexico's president
   Venustiano Carranza. When Pres. Wilson did not
   offer help, Villa launched a series of raids across
   the U.S. border into New Mexico in 1916, killing
   18 and burning a town in one attack. Wilson
   dispatched Pershing to capture Villa, who
   successfully eluded the U.S. Army. Villa was
   assassinated in 1923.
Which of the following American presidents had
absolutely no military experience before taking
office?
A.   Andrew Jackson
B.   William Henry Harrison
C.   Zachary Taylor
D.   Theodore Roosevelt
E.   Woodrow Wilson
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
  Answer: (E)                Woodrow Wilson
Explanation:
Jackson, elected in 1828, fought in the Creek War and the War
of 1812. Harrison, elected in 1840, was the victorious general
at the Battle of Tippecanoe against the Shawnee Confederacy
in 1811 and also served in the War of 1812. Taylor, elected in
1848, was a general in the Mexican-American War. Roosevelt,
who took office in 1901, led a group of Rough-Riders into
battle in Cuba during the Spanish-American War. Wilson, a
history professor and later president of Princeton University,
had no military experience upon his election in 1912, though
he served as commander-of-chief of American forces during
World War I from 1917-1918.
Which Spanish conquistador explored the American
Southwest in search of the Seven Cities of Cibola and
may have ventured as far north as Kansas in 1542?
A.   Hernando de Soto
B.   Ponce de Leon
C.   Francisco Coronado
D.   Hernan Cortes
E.   Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
 Answer: (C) Francisco Coronado
Explanation:

  Coronado and his group of about 300
  Spanish soldiers and four Franciscan priests
  ventured north from Mexico, reached the
  Grand Canyon, and encountered a number of
  Indian tribes while searching for the mythical
  Seven Cities of Cibola in a 1540-1542
  expedition.
Which famous Depression-era American novel
depicted the journey of the Joad family from
Oklahoma to the Central Valley of California?
    A.      Tender is the Night by F. Scott Fitzgerald
    B.      Babbitt by Sinclair Lewis
    C.      A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway
    D.      Sister Carrie by Theodore Dreiser
    E.      The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
 Answer: (E) The Grapes of Wrath by
           John Steinbeck
Explanation:

   Steinbeck's novel was met with severe criticism
   when it was published in 1939 for its
   sympathetic portrayal of Tom Joad, a young
   father who supports farm workers in opposition
   to the agricultural owners of California. It later
   won both the Nobel and the Pulitzer Prize for
   literature and became a feature film starring
   Henry Fonda.
Significant domestic anti-war sentiment developed in
which of the following American wars?

I. War of 1812
II. Mexican-American War
III. World War II
IV. Korean War
V. Vietnam War           A. I, II, and III
                          B.   I, II and
[Default]                 C.   II, IV, and V
[MC Any]
[MC All]                  D.   I, III, and V
                          E.   all of the above
Answer: (B) I, II and V
Explanation:
New England was the center of anti-war agitation during the
War of 1812 as the residents felt the brunt of the trade
embargo with Great Britain. Some Federalists plotted at the
1814 Hartford Convention to secede from the U.S. and join
Canada. During the Mexican-American War, New England
again had the largest group opposing the war, as abolitionists
and other northerners saw the attack on Mexico as a means
of adding slave territory to the U.S. While in its early years,
the Vietnam War enjoyed the support of a cross-section of
Americans, by 1965 a significant anti-war element emerged,
particularly on college campuses. World War II and the Korean
War were generally supported by the American public.
Which of the following was not one of the issues that
caused the War Hawks to recommend war with Great
Britain in the years leading up to the War of 1812?
A. the forced impressment of American sailors
     on to British ships
B. desire for Canadian land
C. a dispute over the Oregon border
D. British military support for Indian tribes in
     the Ohio River Valley
[Default]
[MC Any] Chesapeake-Leopard incident
     the
E. All]
[MC
     Answer: (C) a dispute over the
            Oregon border
Explanation:
The War Hawks, mostly Democrat-Republicans from the
south and west in the U.S. House of Representatives,
urged President Madison to make war with Great Britain
for a variety of reasons, including the impressment of
American sailors, desire for Canadian lands, military aid
to the Shawnee Confederation by the British, and the
Chesapeake-Leopard incident, in which the British
Leopard fired on the U.S. frigate Chesapeake off the
Atlantic coast in 1807. The Oregon boundary dispute
arose during the 1840s and was settled by the Oregon
Treaty of 1846.
Which of the following 1960s Supreme Court decisions
affirmed the principle of "one person, one vote" and
required states to reapportion districts so that rural
districts with small population did not exert more
power than urban districts with larger population?


          A.   Tinker v. Des Moines
          B.   Miranda v. Arizona
          C.   Baker v. Carr
[Default]
[MC Any]D.     Gideon v. Wainwright
[MC All]
          E.   Loving v. Virginia
        Answer: (C) Baker v. Carr
Explanation:
The 1962 Baker v. Carr decision ruled that reapportionment
was a judicial, not merely a political matter and that courts
could intervene to insure a fair distribution of voters within a
state. Before this decision, rural (and often more conservative)
districts wielded more political influence than more heavily
populated urban districts. The decision still permitted the type
of gerrymandering present in the map above, in which
districts are drawn in such a way to protect incumbents. As
long as the number of voters is roughly equal in districts, this
practice has not been successfully challenged in federal
courts.
An example of a "gerrymandered"
district, Illinois, 2005
Which American wrote:
"I have sworn upon the altar of God, eternal
hostility against every form of tyranny over the
mind of man."
     A. Elijah P. Lovejoy
     B. Thomas Paine
     C. John Adams
     D. Thomas Jefferson
[Default]
     E.
[MC Any] George Washington
[MC All]
  Answer: (D) Thomas Jefferson
Explanation:
   This quote of Jefferson's, which circles his statue
   in the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C., is
   from a letter to Benjamin Rush in 1800.
   Jefferson explains his belief that the First
   Amendment separates church and state and
   forbids the establishment of a state religion,
   which is the "tyranny over the mind of man"
   that Jefferson opposes. Obviously he was NOT
   referring to SLAVERY!
Which of the following World War II-era (December
1941-August 1945) events did not occur in California?

A. the establishment of the Manzanar camp for
     interned Japanese-Americans
B. the Zoot Suit riots in which Mexican-Americans
     were beaten by soldiers on leave
C. a Japanese submarine shelling a pier north of
     Santa Barbara in 1942
D. a 1943 riot in a federally-sponsored housing
     project left 35 blacks and 9 whites dead
[Default]
E. Any] movie "Casablanca" starring Humphrey
[MC the
     Bogart and Ingrid Bergman was produced in
[MC All]
     Hollywood
Answer: (D) a 1943 riot in a federally-sponsored
housing project left 35 blacks and 9 whites dead

Explanation:
The 1943 race riots occurred in Detroit, Michigan and
lasted for three days. Racial tension between blacks and
whites led to violence. Early in June 1943, 25,000
Packard plant workers, who produced engines for
bombers and PT boats, stopped work in protest of the
promotion of three blacks. Police were accused of
harassing and arresting blacks while ignoring the illegal
actions of whites. Federal troops finally were called in to
quell the rioting. All of the other events took place in
California during World War II.
While better known for his patent of the cotton gin, Eli
Whitney also promoted the process of interchangeable
parts in the manufacture of what items?
A.   Shoes
B.   Muskets
C.   Clocks
D.   Locomotives
E.   Steam engines
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
          Answer:(B) muskets
Explanation:
   Whitney, who was plagued by a number of
   lawsuits in his efforts to manufacture cotton
   gins, won a government contract to produce
   muskets in 1798. While Whitney did not invent
   the concept of interchangeable parts nor even
   completely achieve it in his gun factory which
   finally met the government's order in 1809, he
   did contribute to the American industrial
   revolution with his methods of specialized
   divisions of labor.
Which of the following headlines would not
have been published during the administration
of the 43rd U.S. president, George W. Bush?

A. "Hurricane Katrina Devastates New Orleans“
B. "World Trade Center, Pentagon Attacked by
     Hijacked Planes“
C. "Iraq Invades Kuwait“
D. "No Child Left Behind Signed Into Law“
[Default]
E. Any]
[MC "John Roberts Succeeds William Rehnquist as
     Chief Justice"
[MC All]
Answer:(C) "Iraq Invades Kuwait"
Explanation:

  The 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait was a cause
  of the first Gulf War, conducted during the
  administration of George H.W. Bush, the 41st
  president. All of the other headlines could
  have been seen from 2001-2009 during
  George W. Bush's two terms in office.
What a GREAT idea!!!
Which American religious group expected the Second
Coming of Christ on several dates in the 1840s and
whose followers became the core of the Seventh Day
Adventist denomination?

            A.   Mormons
            B.   Millerites
            C.   Shakers
            D.   Christian Scientists
[Default]
[MC Any]    E.   Congregationalists
[MC All]
        Answer: (B) Millerites
Explanation:
   While founder William Miller resisted his
   follower's requests to identify the specific date
   of the Second Coming of Christ, he finally
   predicted October 22, 1844 as the date. After
   what became known as the Great
   Disappointment to Miller's followers as life
   continued normally on that day, they split into
   several groups, one of which formed the
   Seventh-Day Adventist Church.
While the U.S. remained neutral,
Americans volunteered for the Abraham
Lincoln Brigade in 1936 to support the
Republican side in which nation's civil war?
          A.   Manchuria
          B.   Ethiopia
          C.   Palestine
          D.   Spain
[Default]
[MC Any] E.    Ireland
[MC All]
           Answer: (D) Spain
Explanation:
   Americans numbered about 450 out of the
   3,000 volunteers in the International Brigade
   which fought against the forces of Francisco
   Franco beginning in 1936. Communist and
   liberal groups in the U.S. provided support to
   the Brigade and Paul Robeson visited the troops
   and gave a concert. Franco's forces, aided by
   Germany and Italy, defeated the Republicans in
   1938.
           Which of the following is true
           of women in Iroquois society?
A.   they controlled all aspects of tribal life
B.   they sometimes became chiefs
C.   they served as religious priests
D.   their main responsibilities were hunting and
     fishing
E. the elder women selected the male chief
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
Answer: (E) the elder women
selected the male chief
Explanation:
   In the matrilineal system of Iroquois government,
   women played an important role in the political and
   social life of the tribe. Clan mothers selected the
   representatives to speak at tribal meetings. Property
   passed from mother to daughter, and women had the
   responsibility of nominating the male chiefs and also
   removing them if duties were not correctly
   performed. Women participated in tribal discussions
   and were consulted in all matters of importance to
   the community and the Iroquois Confederacy.
Which of the following groups was the first to be
the target of immigration restriction by federal
congressional legislation?

   A.       Norwegians and Swedes
   B.       Mexicans
   C.       Italians
   D.       Chinese
   E.       Africans
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
        Answer: (D) Chinese
Explanation:
   The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act implemented
   the first governmental restriction on
   immigration from a nation or region and
   prevented virtually all new immigration from
   China for a period of ten years. It was not until
   the 1920s that a system of quotas was
   established according to nationality. The Chinese
   Exclusion Act was repealed in 1943 by the
   Magnuson Act which allowed a total of 105
   Chinese immigrants per year.
         The Gospel of Wealth
A. was developed and promoted in an essay by
     John D. Rockefeller
B. directly and immediately provided handouts to
     homeless individuals
C. encouraged wealthy individuals to contribute to
     the betterment of others
D. was the impetus for the Social Gospel
     movement
[Default]
E. Any]
[MC reflected closely the values expressed in the
     New Testament
[MC All]
 Answer: (C) encouraged wealthy individuals
 to contribute to the betterment of others
Explanation:

In contrast to the Social Gospel which was based on the New
Testament and sought to promote social justice for the poor, the
Gospel of Wealth advocated that rich Americans distribute their
money to the needy in ways that made sure it would not be
wasted. In The Gospel of Wealth, Andrew Carnegie wrote "we
shall have an ideal state, in which the surplus wealth of the few
will become, in the best sense, the property of the many,
because administered for the common good, and this wealth,
passing through the hands of the few, can be made a much
more potent force for the elevation of our race than if it had
been distributed in small sums to the people themselves."
The “Breakers” Newport R.I.
Both the "South Carolina Exposition and
Protest" and the Kentucky and Virginia
Resolutions were concerned with

A. the Alien and Sedition Acts
B. tariff policies
C. the concept of states' rights
D. the spread of slavery into the territories
E. the conflict between Andrew Jackson and his
[Default]
[MC Any]
     first vice-president, John C. Calhoun
[MC All]
                 Answer:
      (C) the concept of states' rights
Explanation:
States' rights is based on the concept of nullifcation, the idea
that a state can choose to disobey a federal law it finds
unconstitutional, which was first developed by Thomas
Jefferson and James Madison during the crisis caused by the
passage of the Federalist Party-sponsored Alien and Sedition
Acts. John C. Calhoun built on this argument in his "South
Carolina Exposition and Protest" in the struggle that
developed between South Carolina and the federal
government over tariffs and state vs. federal powers. When
the southern states seceded to form the Confederacy in 1861,
the sentiments of nullification and states' rights provided the
ideological framework for the new government.
"Under a government which imprisons unjustly, the true place for a just man is
also a prison.…Cast your whole vote, not a strip of paper merely, but your whole
influence...If a thousand men were not to pay their tax bills this year, that would
not be a violent and bloody measure, as it would be to pay them, and enable the
State to commit violence and shed innocent blood."

These sentiments from Henry David Thoreau’s essay “Civil Disobedience”
profoundly influenced which pair below?


         A.    Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas
         B.    Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman
         C.
   [Default]   John C. Calhoun and Jefferson Davis
   [MC Any]
         D.
   [MC All]
               Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.
         E.    W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington
 Answer: (D) Mahatma Gandhi and
      Martin Luther King, Jr.
Explanation:

   Thoreau refused to pay his taxes in Concord,
   Massachusetts because of his opposition to the
   Mexican-American War, inspiring America's
   most famous single night in jail. Gandhi and
   King utilized Thoreau's ideas in crafting their
   successful campaigns of civil disobedience by
   opposing political authority and oppression in
   India and the southern U.S. in the 20th Century.
Reconstruction policies between 1867 and
1876 followed most closely the wishes of
A.    President Abraham Lincoln
B.    President Andrew Johnson
C.    Southern plantation owners
D.    Northern Democrats in Congress
E.    Northern Republicans in Congress
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
Answer: (E) Northern Republicans in
            Congress
Explanation: Northern Republicans, particularly the
group labeled the Radical Republicans, exerted the
most influence on Reconstruction policies following the
end of the Civil War. Lincoln's assassination in April
1865 was probably the worst possible scenario for the
post-war Southern WHITES, as he had proposed a
much more lenient set of policies than the Radicals,
who wished to not only see the Republican Party
succeed in southern states (as did Lincoln), but to
punish the former Confederates for slavery and the Civil
War.
Which of the following statements about the 1968 Chicago Democratic
Convention are accurate?
 I. Anti-war activists, including the Youth International Party (Yippies),
assembled in Chicago to protest Vietnam War policies.
II. Protestors and members of the media were attacked by members of the
Chicago police during demonstrations.
III. Vice-president Hubert Humphrey received the Democratic nomination.
IV. Mayor Richard Daley urged police officers to use restraint in their dealings
with protestors in Grant and Lincoln Park


A.   I, II, and III only
B.   I, II, and IV only
C.   I and II only
D.   I, III, and IV only
E.   all of the statements are true
   Answer:            (A) I, II, and III only
Explanation: The eventful spring of 1968 witnessed President
  Lyndon Johnson announcing his decision not to seek re-
  election, the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. and
  Robert Kennedy, and Vietnam War protestors assembling in
  Chicago to protest governmental policies during the
  Democratic Convention. Violent clashes between protestors
  and the police escalated during the Convention week and
  Mayor Daley was criticized from the Convention's podium
  for his forces using "Gestapo tactics" by Senator Abraham
  Ribicoff. Many members of the media covering the protests
  were treated for injuries suffered as a result of police
  beatings. Humphrey received the nomination but lost to
  Richard Nixon in the November general election.
"The God that holds you over the pit of hell,
much as one holds a spider, or some loathsome
insect over the fire, abhors you, and is
dreadfully provoked" is from "Sinners in the
Hand of an Angry God," a sermon delivered by
which of the following?
  A. Cotton Mather
  B. Jonathan Edwards
  C. George Whitefield
  D. Charles G. Finney
  E. Dwight L. Moody
 Answer:           (B) Jonathan Edwards
Explanation: Edwards was perhaps the most
  famous preacher of the 18th century Great
  Awakening which split Puritans into Old and New
  Light factions and spurred religious revivals
  throughout the American colonies. Edwards'
  imagery of hell was alleged to be so effective that
  parishoners held onto the pew in front of them to
  prevent their falling into hell's fires. In contrast to
  the emotional, overwrought preaching style
  characteristic of later revivalists, Edwards
  dispassionately read his long sermons while
  staring at the bell rope at the back of the church.
Which of the following was not part of the
background of President Herbert Hoover, who
served from 1929 to 1933?

A. worked as a mining engineer throughout the world,
   including Australia and China
B. administered the U.S. Food Administration during
   World War I
C. served as Secretary of Commerce for Presidents
   Harding and Coolidge
D. elected governor of California
E. coordinated assistance efforts after the Great
   Mississippi River Flood of 1927
 Answer:          (D) governor of California
Explanation: Hoover, the first president born west of the
  Mississippi River (in Iowa) attended Stanford
  University, obtained a degree in mining, and began a
  successful career as a mining engineer. Woodrow
  Wilson asked him to head the Food Administration
  during World War I for which he received high praise
  for his administrative skills, and both Republican
  presidents Harding and Coolidge included him in their
  cabinets as Secretary of Commerce. When the 1927
  flood occurred, the governors of several affected states
  asked Hoover to coordinate the relief efforts. His first
  and only elected position was president of the U.S. and
  he served only one term.
"Call me Ishmael" is the opening line of what famous
example of 19th century American Romantic literature?

A. The Legend of Sleepy Hollow by Washington
   Irving
B. Moby-Dick by Herman Melville\
C. Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore
   Cooper
D. The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe
E. The dying need but little, dear by Emily
   Dickinson
Answer:      (B) Moby-Dick by Herman Melville

Explanation: While critically panned by many when
  published in 1851, Moby-Dick by Herman Melville
  has been since viewed as one of the greatest
  novels in world literature. It depicts the search for
  a great white whale by Captain Ahab. Melville
  writes: "The White Whale swam before him as
  the monomaniac incarnation of all those
  malicious agencies which some deep men feel
  eating in them, till they are left living on with half
  a heart and half a lung."
Which of the following New Deal critics developed a
very popular Share Our Wealth plan during the Great
Depression using the slogan "Every man a king but no
one wears a crown?"

A.   Dr. Francis Townsend
B.   Father Charles Coughlin
C.   John L. Lewis
D.   Huey Long
E.   Norman Thomas
     Answer:         (D) Huey Long
Explanation: Huey Long served as both governor
  and senator from Louisiana and built a
  following with his populist message of taxing
  the rich and providing $5000 for every family.
  Share Our Wealth clubs were set up across the
  nation and Franklin Roosevelt saw Long as a
  political threat in the 1936 presidential
  election. Long was assassinated, however, in
  September 1935.
The incident between Congressman Preston Brooks and
Senator Charles Sumner in 1856 proved that

A. slavery would result in war if compromises were
   not enacted between the North and South
B. sectional violence had spread to the Kansas
   territory
C. sectional violence had spread to the floor of
   Congress
D. the violence that occurred during Bleeding
   Kansas would be repeated in other territories
E. the Constitution was not meant to include
   African-American slaves
  Answer: (C) sectional violence had
   spread to the floor of Congress
• Brooks was removed from office in a
  Congressional Censure, but was re-elected by
  his south Carolina constituents and sent back
  to Congress. They also sent him thicker,
  bigger canes in the hope that next time…
When the Soviets and East Germans
blockaded highway, river, and rail traffic into
Berlin in 1948, the United States and its Allies

A. initiated the Marshall Plan
B. built the Berlin Wall
C. airlifted supplies into West Berlin
D. allowed for Soviet control of Hungary in
   exchange for a promise of lifting the
   blockade
E. refused to act
               Answer:
(C) airlifted supplies into West Berlin

Explanation: The Berlin Airlift provided a
dramatic response to the Soviet and East
German attempt to force the Allies to abandon
West Berlin. Over 200,000 flights brought
13,000 tons of food and supplies to Berlin each
day for nearly a year. The Soviets abandoned the
blockade in May 1949.
Who drew this? What theme?
The disputed presidential election in 1876
between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden
was decided by
A. an electoral commission
B. the Supreme Court
C. the House of Representatives
D. the Electoral College
E. the Freedmens
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
       Answer: (A) an electoral
              commission
Explanation: Several Southern states had disputed
electoral results. An electoral commission was
appointed to select the president. The commission
divided 8-7 to give all 20 disputed votes, and hence
the election, to Republican Hayes, who trailed
Democratic candidate Tilden considerably in the
popular vote. Along with the Republican victory,
troops were removed from the South in what is
often referred to as the Compromise of 1877 and
seen as the end of Reconstruction.
Arrange the following in correct time order:
 I. the restoration of the English monarchy
II. the Puritans' Great Migration
III. the Separatists arrival at Plymouth
IV. the Protestant Reformation
            A.   I, II, III, IV
            B.   IV, III, II, I
            C.   III, IV, I, II
            D.   IV, II, III, I
[Default]
[MC Any]    E.   IV, I, III
[MC All]
     Answer:           (B) IV, III, II, I
A. Explanation: The Protestant Reformation
   began with Martin Luther's nailing of the 95
   Theses to the Wittenberg church door in 1517.
   The Separatists (or Pilgrims) arrived at
   Plymouth at 1620 following a brief time in
   Holland. The Puritan Great Migration occurred
   during the 1630s as Puritans fled England under
   the reign of Charles I who was executed for
   treason in 1649. Charles II became king in 1661
   in the restoration of the monarchy.
For the first time in its history, NATO forces were
sent into combat in 1994 in what region of the
world?

  A.   Afghanistan
  B.   Somalia
  C.   Libya
  D.   Bosnia
  E.   Kuwait
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
        Answer: (D) Bosnia
Explanation: NATO planes shot down four
  Bosnian Serb planes while enforcing a United
  Nations no-fly zone over Bosnia in 1994. This
  marked the first use of NATO air forces since
  its creation in 1949.
Which of the following sectors of the American
economy did not experience growth during the 1920s?

A.   automobile manufacturing
B.   the steel industry
C.   home appliances
D.   the oil industry
E.   farming
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
     Answer:         (E) farming

Explanation: American farmers, who had
generally prospered with the increase in
demand for agricultural products in the years
during and immediately after World War I,
saw their farm income drop by two-thirds
from 1920 to 1930.
The British military strategy in the critical
American Revolution year of 1777 was to
A. build military strength in southern colonies
B. isolate New England from the rest of the
     colonies
C. occupy the city of Boston
D. control all of the major cities of the colonies
E. capture the Continental Congress
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
Answer: (B) isolate New England from the
rest of the colonies
Explanation: Following the defeat of Hessian
  and British forces at Trenton and Princeton, in
  1777 the British sought to pursue a strategy of
  isolating New England, seen as the hotbed of
  colonial opposition, from the rest of the
  colonies. The plan failed with the surrender of
  over 5800 of General Burgoyne's troops at
  Saratoga in New York.
Arrange the following in correct time order:

I. the restoration of the English monarchy
II. the Puritans' Great Migration
III. the Separatists arrival at Plymouth
IV. the Protestant Reformation

               A.   I, II, III, IV
               B.   IV, III, II, I
               C.   III, IV, I, II
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
               D.   IV, II, III, I
               E.   II, IV, I, III
      Answer:           (B) IV, III, II, I
Explanation: The Protestant Reformation began
  with Martin Luther's nailing of the 95 Theses to
  the Wittenberg church door in 1517. The
  Separatists (or Pilgrims) arrived at Plymouth at
  1620 following a brief time in Holland. The
  Puritan Great Migration occurred during the
  1630s as Puritans fled England under the reign of
  Charles I who was executed for treason in 1649.
  Charles II became king in 1661 in the restoration
  of the monarchy.
President Nixon resigned in August
1974 after
          A. Vice-President Ford requested him to do so
          B. the Supreme Court ruled 8-0 against him in U.S.
             v. Nixon
          C. White House Counsel John Dean admitted
             illegal actions when interviewed by the Senate
             Watergate Committee
          D. the House of Representatives voted to impeach
             him on 11 charges
[Default]
[MC Any]E. he lost the support from Senate Republicans
[MC All]     that he needed to avoid Watergate-related
             impeachment convictions
Answer: (E) he lost the support from Senate
Republicans that he needed to avoid Watergate-related
impeachment convictions

Explanation: President Nixon sought to avoid the
  political fallout from the Watergate scandal, despite
  the resignation of his closest aides, transcripts of White
  House conversations, and widespread calls for his
  resignation from the media and Democrats. On August
  5, 1974, formerly supportive Republican members of
  Congress announced they would vote for impeachment
  . On August 9th Nixon became the first president to
  resign from office. New President Gerald Ford later
  pardoned Nixon for any Watergate crimes, stating "Our
  long national nightmare is over."
The principles of the women's rights movement
developed at the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention were
expressed in a document patterned after
A.   the Magna Carta
B.   Common Sense
C.   the Declaration of Independence
D.   the Bill of Rights
E.   the French Declaration of the Rights of Man
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
   Answer: (C) the Declaration of
           Independence
Explanation: At the Seneca Falls Convention,
  women and men gathered together for the
  first time to demand the right to vote for
  women. Elizabeth Cady Stanton read the
  Declaration of Sentiments, modeled after the
  Declaration of Independence, which included
  "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that
  all men and women are created equal," along
  with a list of abuses in which "man" was
  substituted for King George.
Which of the following was not an example of
the increasing tension between rural and urban
America in the 1920s?
A. the Scopes "Monkey" Trial
B. the rise of the Ku Klux Klan
C. the 18th Amendment
D. the Sacco-Vanzetti case
E. fundamentalism vs. modernism struggles
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
 Answer: (D) the Sacco-Vanzetti case
Explanation: The trial of John Scopes in Dayton,
  Tennessee pitted rural fundamentalists against
  urban modernists. The KKK experienced a 1920s
  revival and was a growing force in rural America.
  The 18th Amendment, outlawing the purchase,
  sale, and transportation of liquor was particularly
  resented in rural areas. Sacco and Vanzetti were
  convicted and executed for killing a paymaster in
  Massachusetts, causing international protests,
  but had little impact in rural parts of the U.S.
In which of the following did the U.S. and Great Britain
agree to limit naval armaments on the Great Lakes?

A.   Rush-Bagot Agreement
B.   Webster-Ashburton Treaty
C.   Oregon Treaty
D.   Convention of 1818
E.   Jay Treaty
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
Answer: (A) Rush-Bagot Agreement
Explanation: The Rush-Bagot Agreement, signed
  by the U.S. and Great Britain in 1817,
  demilitarized the Great Lakes and Lake
  Champlain and helped improve relations
  between the U.S. and Great Britain. It led to
  the establishment of a demilitarized border
  between Canada and the U.S. which is 5527
  miles long.
    During the 1968 Tet Offensive
     A. North Vietnamese and Vietcong forces
          launched major attacks on U.S. and South
          Vietnamese positions throughout South
          Vietnam
     B. U.S. warships were allegedly fired upon in the
          Gulf of Tonkin
     C. South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem
          was assassinated in Saigon
[Default]
     D.
[MC Any] B-52 bombers launched a massive air attack
[MC All] on Hanoi and Haiphong in North Vietnam
     E. American forces secretly invaded Cambodia
Answer:    (A) North Vietnamese and Vietcong forces
launched major attacks on U.S. and South Vietnamese positions
throughout South Vietnam

Explanation: The January 1968 Tet Offensive of
  North Vietnamese forces caught American
  military leaders by surprise, as targets were
  attacked throughout South Vietnam. In Saigon,
  the American Embassy was temporarily overrun
  by enemy troops. American public support for the
  war dropped following Tet and by March 31st,
  President Lyndon Johnson announced that he
  would not seek re-election to the presidency.
["In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the
momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no
conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in
heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to
'preserve, protect, and defend' it. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be
enemies. Though passion may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection.
The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to
every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of
the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our
nature."
In which speech and when did Abraham Lincoln make the statement? question here]


                 A.   Lincoln-Douglas debate—1858
                 B.   Cooper Union speech--1860
[Default]        C.   1st Inaugural Address-1861
[MC Any]
[MC All]         D.   Gettysburg Address—1863
                 E.   2nd Inaugural Address--1865
     Answer:   (C) 1st Inaugural
            Address-1861
Explanation: In his March 1861 Inaugural
Address, Lincoln faced the difficult task of
dealing with the Southern states which had
seceded. While he could not ignore their
challenge to the Union and the Constitution, he
also did not want to adopt a belligerent tone
that might push the border states into a state of
rebellion.
In which of the following rulings did the Supreme Court
declare that states could not tax federal institutions,
specifically the Bank of the U.S.?
A.   Marbury v. Madison
B.   McCullough v. Maryland
C.   Cohens v. Virginia
D.   Dartmouth College v. Woodward
E.   Gibbons v. Ogden
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
     Answer:      (B) McCullough v.
                  Maryland
Explanation: In the 1819 case, the state of
  Maryland sought to tax the Bank of the U.S.
  Chief Justice John Marshall wrote the opinion
  ruling that "the power to tax was the power to
  destroy," forbidding a state from taxing a
  federal institution. This decision strengthened
  the implied powers of Congress and the
  federal government.
Which of the following was not a belief of the Puritans
who settled in New England in the 1630s and 1640s?

          A. predestination--God chose those who were
             destined for heaven before they were even born
          B. the Bible should be read by everyone, so
             education was essential
          C. worship should be plain (no musical instruments),
             as should churches (no stained glass)
          D. the individual congregation chooses its own
             ministers and recognizes no other religious
[Default]
[MC Any]     authority
[MC All] E. the confessional booth was a necessary element
             of each Puritan church
Answer: (E) the confessional booth was a necessary
element of each Puritan church

Explanation: Confession of sins to a priest and the
confessional booth were two of the elements of
Roman Catholic worship that were rejected by
Protestant leaders in the 16th century Protestant
Reformation. The Puritans who emigrated to New
England felt that the Church of England was
becoming too much like the Catholic Church which
Henry VIII had rejected during the English
Reformation. Puritans did believe, however, in
predestination, universal education, plain worship,
and the autonomy of individual congregations.
Which of the following were part of the Great Society programs
of the Lyndon B. Johnson presidential administration?

 I. Food Stamp Act
II. Head Start
III. Medicare
IV. Civil Rights Act of 1965
V. Elementary and Secondary Education Act

               A.   I, III, and V only
               B.   I, II, III, and IV only
[Default]      C.   I and III only
[MC Any]
[MC All]       D.   II, III, IV and V only
               E.   all were Great Society programs
 Answer:        (E) all were Great Society
                   programs
Explanation: In a speech in May 1964, Johnson
stated "We are going to assemble the best thought
and broadest knowledge from all over the world to
find these answers. I intend to establish working
groups to prepare a series of conferences and
meetings—on the cities, on natural beauty, on the
quality of education, and on other emerging
challenges. From these studies, we will begin to set
our course toward the Great Society.” Great Society
programs sought to eliminate poverty and racial
injustice.
Which of the following was an element of the Commerce
Compromise at the 1787 Constitutional Convention that would
have been promoted by delegates from New England states?


            A. no taxes on exports
            B. federal tariffs to restrict the importation of
               European products
            C. 2/3 vote rather than a simple majority needed
               to pass commerce bills in Congress
            D. slaves counted for 3/5 of white citizens for the
               purpose of representation in the House of
[Default]      Representatives
[MC Any]    E. no congressional interference with slavery for
[MC All]
               20 years
Answer: (B) federal tariffs to restrict the
   importation of European products
Explanation: New England, the center of American
  manufacturing, strongly favored protective tariffs
  to keep out European goods and produce
  revenue for the federal government. Southern
  states favored (A) no taxes on exports and (C) a
  2/3 vote for the passage of any commerce bill.
  Southerners would have also favored (D) slaves
  being counted for the purpose of representation
  and (E) no interference with slavery for 20 years,
  both elements of the Three-Fifths Compromise.
At which of the following conferences did Franklin
Roosevelt and Winston Churchill support self-
determination, a new permanent system of general
security (a new League of Nations), and the right of
people to regain governments abolished by dictators?

            A.   San Francisco Conference
            B.   Yalta Conference
            C.   Atlantic Conference
[Default]   D.   Casablanca Conference
[MC Any]
[MC All]    E.   Potsdam Conference
 Answer:        (C) Atlantic Conference
Explanation: Held in August 1941 before the
U.S. entry into World War II, the Atlantic
Conference produced the bilateral Atlantic
Charter which basically set
international diplomacy standards for the post-
war world, including the creation of an
organization that would become the United
Nations at the San Francisco Conference in
1945.
The “clear and present danger” doctrine for the
boundaries of permissible speech was established in
this Supreme Court case dealing with the distribution
of anti-draft flyers during World War I

            A.   Tinker v. Des Moines
            B.   Schenck v. U.S.
            C.   U.S. v. Debs
[Default]
            D.   Feiner v. New York
[MC Any]
[MC All]
            E.   U.S. v. Spirit of ’76
   Answer:        (B) Schenck v. U.S.
Explanation: In upholding a 10-year jail
   sentence for the distribution of ant-war
   pamphlets, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes
   wrote ''The question in every case is whether
   the words used are used in such
   circumstances and are of such a nature as to
   create a clear and present danger that they
   will bring about the substantive evils that
   Congress has a right to prevent. It is a
   question of proximity and degree.''
Which of the following groups supported gradually
eroding slavery's presence in the U.S. and encouraged a
back-to-Africa program?

     A.     Republican Party
     B.     American Anti-Slavery Society
     C.     American Colonization Society
     D.     Free Soil Party
     E.     Liberty Party
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
 Answer:    (C) American Colonization Society

Explanation: The American Colonization Society, co-
  founded by Henry Clay, included Thomas
  Jefferson and James Monroe as strong
  supporters, pursued a gradualistic approach to
  ending slavery in the U.S., and helped establish
  the nation of Liberia as a home for repatriated
  slaves. Its influence waned in the 1830s as more
  strident abolitionist groups arose, though
  Abraham Lincoln was still referring to African
  colonization as an option in 1862. Perhaps as
  many as 13,000 ex-slaves settled in Liberia.
Which of the following European nations established a
17th century colonial presence on the north rim of
South America, in the Caribbean, and in the American
colonies of Delaware and New York?

            A.   the Netherlands
            B.   France
            C.   Portugal
            D.   Spain
[Default]   E.   Sweden
[MC Any]
[MC All]
  Answer:        (A) the Netherlands
Explanation: The Dutch, perhaps the
   preeminent commercial power in Europe in
   the 17th century, established several colonies
   throughout the New World, usually focusing
   on trade as the chief economic activity. Their
   presence in the American colonies was never
   large-scale, with perhaps 1500 Dutch
   residents in New York in 1664 when the
   British took control.
Which of the following New Deal legislative enactments
guaranteed savings deposits to prevent bank failures?

A.   Glass-Steagall Act
B.   Wagner Act
C.   National Industrial Recovery Act
D.   Public Works Administration Act
E.   Emergency Relief Appropriation Act
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
 Answer:        (A) Glass-Steagall Act
Explanation: The Glass-Steagall Act, or Banking
  Act of 1933, created the Federal Deposit
  Insurance Corporation and introduced other
  banking reforms intended to control
  speculation. The Glass-Steagall Act was
  repealed in 1999.
Which of the following statements is true
concerning the 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act?
  A. it was used by the federal government to
       effectively crush monopolies
  B. it led to the federal government’s control of the
       utilities
  C. it was effective against all trusts except the
       railroads
  D. it resulted in greater harmony between
       businesses and the federal government
  E.Any]
       it
[Default] had little immediate impact on big business
[MC
       corporations
[MC All]
Answer:    (E) It had little immediate
 impact on big business corporations

 Explanation: Due to the Supreme Court’s
 interpretation of the phrase “combinations in
 restraint of trade,” it had little immediate
 effect. The Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) was
 able to target monopolists more effectively.
Anti-slavery groups in the 1830s and 1840s could often
find support from which of the following?
 I. Second Great Awakening evangelicals such as Charles
G. Finney
II. women's rights advocates such as Angelina Grimke
III. Democratic Party politicians such as Andrew Jackson
IV. the Whig Party
 A. I and II only
 B. II and IV only
 C. I, II, and III only
[Default]
 D. I,
[MC Any]II, and IV only
[MC All]
 E. all were supportive of anti-slavery groups
  Answer:          (D) I, II, and IV only
Explanation: Charles Finney founded Oberlin
  College which was a center of abolitionism.
  Women's rights leaders recognized that the
  slaves and women had similar issues with
  oppressive white males. The Whig Party
  provided a base for anti-slavery politicians and
  offshoots formed the Republican Party.
  Democratic Party leaders such as Jackson did
  not generally support anti-slavery groups.
While it may have been diplomatically significant and inspirational to slaves,
free blacks, and abolitionists, the Emancipation Proclamation can be seen as
being morally flawed because

A. it was ignored by everyone involved
B. it did not free slaves in the border states of
     Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware
C. Lincoln signed it only to prevent the
     imminent collapse of Union forces following
     Antietam
D. Jefferson Davis announced that all free blacks
[Default]
     in
[MC Any] the North were now slaves
[MC All]
E. Democratic politicians opposed it
   Answer: (B) it did not free slaves in the border
 states of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware

Explanation: Lincoln, while seeing both the domestic and
  international advantages of announcing the end of
  slavery in the South, needed to avoid offending the
  border states, so he exempted their slaveholders from
  the decree, which took effect on January 1, 1863. "I
  think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the
  whole game," he commented. "Kentucky gone, we can
  not hold Missouri, nor, as I think, Maryland. These all
  against us, and the job on our hands is too large for us.
  We would as well consent to separation at once,
  including the surrender of this capital." Lincoln hoped
  the border states would renounce slavery voluntarily.
Which explorer is incorrectly matched
with the region he explored?
A.   Cabrillo—California
B.   Pizarro—Peru
C.   DeSoto—Florida
D.   Balboa—Cuba
E.   Coronado--New Mexico
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
 Answer:         (D) Balboa--Cuba

Explanation: Vasco Nuñez de Balboa is best
known for his exploration of the isthmus of
Panama. He is the first European to have seen
the Pacific Ocean from the New World.
   Notice how
  “Caucasian”
 they made her
to get sympathy
  Which anti-slavery theme did Harriet
        Beecher-Stowe exploit
A.   Democracy would be harmed
B.   Breaking apart families
C.   Brutality of the whip
D.   constitutionality
E.   Economic harm to the North
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
  Answer – B) Breaking apart families

Although the 2nd Middle Passage to the Deep
South as the soil in the Old South wore out –
families were “usually” kept together to increase
control.
Which of the following Supreme Court cases
determined that in most cases a confession was
inadmissable in court if it was obtained before a
suspect had been read his or her constitutional
rights?
            A.   Baker v. Carr
            B.   Miranda v. Arizona
            C.   Gideon v. Wainwright
[Default]
[MC Any]
            D.   Tinker v. Des Moines
[MC All]
            E.   Loving v. Virginia
Answer:           (B) Miranda v. Arizona

 Explanation: In 1963 Ernesto Miranda was convicted of
 rape based on a confession after he had been arrested
 for robbery. The Supreme Court overturned an Arizona
 court's ruling which had upheld his conviction. Chief
 Justice Earl Warren wrote "The person in custody must,
 prior to interrogation, be clearly informed that he has
 the right to remain silent, and that anything he says
 will be used against him in the court of law; he must be
 clearly informed that he has the right to consult with a
 lawyer and to have the lawyer with him during
 interrogation, and that, if he is indigent, a lawyer will
 be appointed to represent him..."
One of the advantages of the South at
the start of the Civil War was
A. a diversified economy with a strong
     manufacturing base
B. a comprehensive railroad system
C. a well-trained and experienced group of
     military officers
D. a large navy
[Default]
     a
E. All] larger population than the North
[MC Any]
[MC
Answer:      (C) a well-trained and
experienced group of military officers

Explanation: The Confederacy was able to
draw on a large number of officers who had
been trained at West Point and who had
served in the Mexican-American War. Robert
E. Lee was asked by President Lincoln to
command the Union forces in 1861. Lee
declined, as his home state of Virginia had
seceded and he chose not to prosecute war
against it.
Which of the following events from the 1850s is
not in the correct chronological order?
A.   publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin
B.   execution of John Brown
C.   Kansas-Nebraska Act
D.   Dred Scott decision
E.   Lincoln-Douglas debates
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
   Answer: (B) execution of John
              Brown
Explanation: The correct order of events is
(A) publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin--1852,
(C) Kansas-Nebraska Act--1854,
(D) Dred Scott decision--1857,
(E) Lincoln-Douglas debates--1858,
(B) execution of John Brown--1859.
 Which of the following environmental
 catastrophes involved nuclear power?
A.   Three-Mile Island
B.   the Exxon Valdez incident
C.   Love Canal
D.   the 1971 Santa Barbara spill
E.   the 1969 Cuyahoga River fire
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
Answer:         (A) Three-Mile Island

Explanation: Three-Mile Island refers to a
Pennsylvania nuclear power plant partial core
meltdown in 1979. The Exxon Valdez oil tanker
ran aground in Alaska in 1989, spilling millions of
gallons of oil into the Gulf of Alaska. Love Canal, a
neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, was
built near a toxic waste dump. Serious health
problems for residents resulted in the relocation
of hundreds of families. An oil spill bespoiled
California beaches off Santa Barabara in 1971.
“When a nation is at war many things that might be
said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its effort
that their utterance will not be endured so long as men
fight and that no Court could regard them as protected
by any constitutional right.” This statement was made
by…in which Supreme Court decision?


  A. John Marshall // Cherokee Nation vs Georgia
  B. Roger Taney // Dred Scott vs Sanford
[Default]
  C. Antonin Scalia // Griswold vs Connecticut
[MC Any]
[MC All]
  D. Oliver Wendell Holmes // Schenck vs U.S.
  E. Earl Warren // Gideon vs Wainwright
                 Answer:
   D) Oliver Wendell Holmes // Schenck vs U.S.


Explanation: Holmes delivered the majority
opinion in the Schenck case, in which he also
presented the "clear and present danger"
doctrine.
  Samuel Gompers attempted to win
          gains for labor by
A. uniting skilled and unskilled workers into one
     big union
B. organizing industrial or vertical unions
C. campaigning actively for the election of AFL
     members
D. organizing skilled craft unions
[Default]
     urging civil disobedience as a means to win
E. All]
[MC Any]
[MC
     public support
             Answer:
     D) organizing skilled craft unions

Explanation: Unlike the earlier Knights of Labor
which welcomed skilled and non-skilled
members, the AF of L focused on skilled craft
members. Gompers was its president from its
founding in 1885 until his death in 1924.
Gompers emphasized economic gains for
workers, including higher wages, shorter hours,
and safe working conditions.
  Which of the following is not true of the Iran-
  Contra scandal of the Reagan administration
A. Oliver North testified about his involvement before
     Congressional hearings
B. weapons were sold to Iran with the profits going to
     the pro-American Contras in Nicaragua
C. it was illegal for aid to be given to the Contras without
     Congressional approval
D. the goal was to foment ill-feelings between Iran and
     Iraq
E. Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger was
[Default]
     convicted of lying about the scandal and sentenced to
[MC Any]
     prison, but was pardoned by President George H.W.
[MC All]
     Bush
                Answer:
      (D) the goal was to foment ill-
     feelings between Iran and Iraq


Explanation: The goal of the complicated Iran-
Contra arms-for-hostages scheme was to obtain
funds to aid the anti-communist Contras in
Nicaragua without congressional knowledge.
In the 1869 Black Friday or Gould-Fisk
               scandal
A. railroad companies were involved in illegally
     creating monopolies
B. two speculators attempted to use their
     influence with the Grant administration to
     control the gold market in the United States
C. Southern scalawags used Reconstruction funds
     for their own enrichment
D. Indian agents in the Black Hills of South Dakota
[Default]
     overcharged for supplies delivered to Sioux
[MC Any]
     Indians
[MC All]
E. the New York Stock Exchange collapsed
Answer: (B) two speculators attempted to use their influence
with the Grant administration to control the gold market in the
United States


  Explanation: Jay Gould and James Fisk almost
  accomplished their goal of controlling much of
  the gold in the United States by recruiting
  Grant's brother-in-law and convincing
  President Grant not to sell government gold.
  When Grant became aware of the scam, he
  sold millions of dollars of gold to lower the
  price. The result was a financial panic that
  tarnished the Grant administration.
Which of the following were sources of the new imperialist American
ideology of the 1890s?

I. Social Darwinism
II. The belief in the inherent superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race
III. A new manifest destiny strain, suggesting that every nation
should be English in language, religion, and customs
IV. The idea that as the American frontier closed, interests would
turn outward to foreign frontiers

     A.     none of the above
     B.     II, III, and IV only
     C.
[Default]
[MC Any]
            I and IV only
[MC All]
     D.     I, III, and IV only
     E.     all of the above
  Answer:          (E) all of the above
Explanation: The 1890s witnessed a new form of
  manifest destiny, with Latin America and the
  Pacific as areas of focus. Social Darwinism
  suggested that as in nature, in society, only the
  strong survive. The superiority of white-skinned
  people, particularly Anglo-Saxons, was also a
  factor, characterized in Rudyard Kipling's poem
  "The White Man's Burden." Frederick Jackson
  Turner's thesis that the close of the American
  frontier would lead to looking for further areas of
  expansion was also part of the 1890s ideology.
Which of the following were results of the 1773 Boston Tea
Party?

I. Quebec Act passed, expanding colony of Quebec and
challenging claims of Massachusetts Bay to Ohio River Valley
lands
II. town meetings were restricted
III. port of Boston closed
IV. new Quartering Act passed, allowing easier access to colonial
homes by British soldiers
                 A.   all of the choices above
[Default]        B.   I, II, and III only
[MC Any]
[MC All]
                 C.   I, II, and IV only
                 D.   II, III, and IV only
                 E.   none of the above
           (A) all of the above
Explanation: he explanation should have been
  reworded to read: Angered by the destruction of the
  chests of tea and the challenge to British authority
  that the Boston Tea Party represented, Parliament
  passed a series of laws known as the Coercive or
  Intolerable Acts, all of which provided even more
  reason for resentment among those chafing at the
  colonies' treatment by Great Britain. The Quebec
  Act, passed by Parliament soon after the Coercive
  Acts, also caused resentment in Massachusetts as it
  extended the borders of Quebec and challenged land
  claims in the Ohio River Valley.
Which of the following does not describe
the depression beginning in 1929?
A. decline in international trade
B. decline in the purchasing power of the
     American people
C. inability to produce goods to supply demand
D. decline in agricultural prices
E. rise in unemployment
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
  Answer: (C) inability to produce
      goods to supply demand
Explanation: American industry had significant
   production capacity in 1929, but the
   Depression's economic effects significantly
   reduced the demand for products. As wages
   fell and unemployment increased, consumers
   purchased fewer goods, leading to higher
   inventories, price drops, and even more
   unemployment.
In the 1972 Furman v. Georgia decision, the
Supreme Court ruled that to be constitutional,
the death penalty needed to

   A. be administered by lethal injection
   B. not be arbitrary and inconsistent
   C. decided by a 12-0 jury decision
   D. appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court
   E.
[Default]applied to those with a normal or higher IQ
[MC Any]
[MC All]
 Answer: (B) not be arbitrary and
           inconsistent
Explanation: The Supreme Court determined in
   the Furman decision that arbitrary and
   inconsistent administration of the death
   penalty violated the Eighth and Fourteenth
   Amendment protections of the Constitution.
   This led many states to alter their procedures
   for death penalty cases.
     The purpose of the 1964 Freedom
       Summer in Mississippi was to
A. protest the escalation of the Vietnam War
B. help and encourage African-Americans to
     become registered voters
C. force the Interstate Commerce Commission to
     declare segregated transportation facilities
     unconstitutional
D. persuade the state legislature to ratify the Equal
     Rights Amendment
[Default]
E. Any]
[MC desegregate schools
[MC All]
  Answer: (B) help and encourage African-
    Americans to become registered voters
Explanation: Freedom Summer, also known as the
Mississippi Summer Project, sought to register as
many black voters as possible in a state where very
few had registered previously. Fierce resistance to
the over 1000 volunteers who poured into
Mississippi resulted in violence and the deaths of
four civil rights workers. While a small percentage
of Mississippi's black citizens registered to vote, the
campaign brought national attention to the
segregation practices of the South.
  In the Scottsboro Boys case of the 1930s
A. white boys were accused of raping two white
     women
B. the defendants were found guilty by all-white
     juries
C. all nine defendants were eventually executed
D. a gang fight occurred between whites and blacks
E. the U.S. Supreme Court intervened to stay the
     executions of the boys
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
 Answer:    (B) the defendants were
    found guilty by all-white juries

Explanation: The nine Scottsboro boys were
   African-Americans accused of raping two
   white women in Alabama in 1931. They were
   convicted by all-white juries and sentenced
   to death, though eventually all were released
   from prison.
Which of the following are true of writs of habeas corpus
I. According to the Constitution, they cannot be suspended
except in cases of rebellion or invasion
II. President Lincoln temporarily suspended them during the Civil
War
III. They prevent cruel or unusual punishment
IV. They require a court to determine if a person is being
detained lawfully

             A.   all of the above
             B.   I, II, and III only
[Default]    C.   I, II, and IV only
[MC Any]
[MC All]
             D.   II and IV only
             E.   I and II only
Answer:           (C) I, II, and IV only
Explanation: A writ of habeas corpus guarantees
   that an individual may not be unlawfully
   detained and that an imprisoning authority
   such as a jailer must deliver a person to a
   court to determine if this has taken place.
   The Constitution gives Congress the right to
   suspend it in time of war and President
   Lincoln did just that in 1861 because of
   concern over unrest in Maryland.
        President Richard Nixon
A. was impeached by the House of Representatives for
     obstruction of justice and abuse of power
B. resigned to allow Vice-President Spiro Agnew to
     take over the reins of power
C. apologized to the American people for his decisions
     and declared he was wrong to abuse power
D. resigned from office before the House could
     impeach him, which it was likely to do
[Default]
E. Any]
[MC gained increasing support from the Republican
     Party and the American public as he released
[MC All]

     information about his involvement
Answer: (D) resigned from office before the House
    could impeach him, which it was likely to do

Explanation: After the U.S. Supreme Court ruled
   in the 1974 U.S. v. Richard M. Nixon decision
   that the White House tapes needed to be
   turned over to the Special Prosecutor,
   members of Nixon's Republican Party
   convinced him to resign rather than fight
   impeachment hearings. Nixon became the
   first president to resign from office.
  According to the 19th century cult of
              domesticity
A. men and women entered marriage as equal partners
     in terms of duties and responsibilities
B. men's first responsibility were as husbands, not as
     wage-earning providers
C. women were encouraged to work outside the home
D. religion was of little importance to a woman fulfilling
     her role
E. the home was the proper sphere for women, who
[Default]
     were expected to be virtuous and submissive
[MC Any]
[MC All]
Answer: (E) the home was the proper
sphere for women, who were expected to
be virtuous and submissive.

Explanation: The cult of domesticity reasoned
   that women should be pious, subservient to
   their husbands, and focused on the home in
   their activities.
            [Enter question here]
A.   [Option 1]
B.   [Option 2]
C.   [Option 3]
D.   [Option 4]
E.   [Option 5]
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
            [Enter question here]
A.   [Option 1]
B.   [Option 2]
C.   [Option 3]
D.   [Option 4]
E.   [Option 5]
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
            [Enter question here]
A.   [Option 1]
B.   [Option 2]
C.   [Option 3]
D.   [Option 4]
E.   [Option 5]
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
            [Enter question here]
A.   [Option 1]
B.   [Option 2]
C.   [Option 3]
D.   [Option 4]
E.   [Option 5]
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
            [Enter question here]
A.   [Option 1]
B.   [Option 2]
C.   [Option 3]
D.   [Option 4]
E.   [Option 5]
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
            [Enter question here]
A.   [Option 1]
B.   [Option 2]
C.   [Option 3]
D.   [Option 4]
E.   [Option 5]
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
            [Enter question here]
A.   [Option 1]
B.   [Option 2]
C.   [Option 3]
D.   [Option 4]
E.   [Option 5]
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
            [Enter question here]
A.   [Option 1]
B.   [Option 2]
C.   [Option 3]
D.   [Option 4]
E.   [Option 5]
[Default]
[MC Any]
[MC All]
           [Enter question here]
A.   [Option 1]
B.   [Option 2]
C.   [Option 3]
D.   [Option 4]
E.   [Option 5]
           [Enter question here]
A.   [Option 1]
B.   [Option 2]
C.   [Option 3]
D.   [Option 4]
E.   [Option 5]
           [Enter question here]
A.   [Option 1]
B.   [Option 2]
C.   [Option 3]
D.   [Option 4]
E.   [Option 5]

				
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