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					Crop Irrigation Management
Support with the NASA
Terrestrial Observation and
Prediction System
Forrest Melton, Lee Johnson, Lars Pierce, Chris Lund,
Rama Nemani, Andrew Michaelis, Hirofumi
Hashimoto, Ed Sheffner

Ecological Forecasting Lab
CSU Monterey Bay & NASA Ames Research Center
Moffett Field, CA

Tom Trout & Dong Wang (USDA ARS), Sonia Salas
(Western Growers Association), Steve Balling (Del
Monte Produce), Daniel Bosch (Constellation Wines),
Kent Frame (DWR), Florence Cassel-Sharma & Dave
Gooraho (CSU Fresno)

  George C. Marshall
  Space Flight Center
                         Motivation: Water in California

• California recently experienced three
  years of drought, with reported
  cumulative and projected agricultural
  losses approaching $900m (DWR CA
  Drought Report, Dec 2009 Update)

• Residential, industrial, agricultural, and
  environmental demands increasingly
  compete for limited water supplies

• Continued environmental/regulatory
  constraints on water supplies likely to be               Credit: Jose Phillip

  typical of future as population growth and
  climate change begin to impact state
  water supply

• Recent technological advances and
  change in USGS Landsat data policy
  provide opportunity to provide timely
  information at farm scale

   George C. Marshall
   Space Flight Center
             Deriving Indicators of Crop Condition from Satellite Data

                                                                                                      Recent USDA studies
                                                                                                      provide basis for linking
                                                                                                      NDVI to fractional cover,
                                                                                                      and fractional cover to
                                                                                                      crop coefficients for
                                                                                                      multiple crops.


                                               Basal Crop Coefficient, Kcb


From Trout et al., 2009 ; Trout et al., 2008
                                                                             0.4                                                 Pepper
Challenge: How to apply these                                                                        Kcb = 1.13*CC + 0.14
                                                                                                          R2 = 0.99
                                                                                                                                 Garlic (CIMIS)
results to support irrigation                                                                                                    Garlic (Lys)
management?                                                                        0.0      0.2          0.4         0.6         0.8              1.0
                                                                                                        Canopy Cover, CC

                                                                             From Trout & Johnson, Int'l Council Irrigation Drainage, 2007;
   George C. Marshall                                                        Trout et al., Irrigation Science, in review.
   Space Flight Center
Landsat Satellite

• NASA Landsat
  5/7satellites pass
  over California
  every 8 days

• Collect data at
  30m resolution

• Landsat 8
  scheduled for
  launch in 2012

   George C. Marshall
   Space Flight Center
Previous Success Applying Satellite Data: Forecasting
         Irrigation Demand for Wine Grapes
LAI                                                                                       Maintaining vines at optimal
from                                                                             stress level for producing high quality wines

Limited Farm-scale Soils Data
                 30                                                         90
                              Tavg, C

Met Data         25

                              ETo, mm
                              Ppt, mm                                       70





                                                                                                        Irrigation Forecasts


                      J   F       M     A   M   J   J   A   S   O   N   D

                                                                                                         Crop Monitoring


George C. Marshall
                          Inputs                                                 Modeling                     Outputs
Space Flight Center

• Approach builds on work supported by USDA and CA DWR,
  previous work with Mondavi, DWR investment in CIMIS, and
  experience of CSIRO in developing irriGATEWAY
• Integrates meteorological data from CIMIS, weather forecasts
  from NWS, satellite data from NASA, wireless sensor
  networks, and decades of research by NASA, USDA, DWR,
  and University of California, and California State University
  Monterey Bay
• Computing infrastructure builds on NASA Terrestrial
  Observation and Prediction System, a modeling and data
  processing system housed on a 128-CPU compute cluster at
  NASA Ames Research Center

George C. Marshall
Space Flight Center
                           Combining Weather and Satellite Data to
                        Support Irrigation Scheduling and Management

• Use of crop coefficients provides a standard
  approach for incorporating weather
  information into irrigation management
                 ETc = ETo * Kc

                  CIMIS          Look-up table (or satellite)
                                                                      Photo credit: DWR CIMIS

• California Irrigation Management Information
  System (CIMIS)
    – Operating since 1982
    – More than 125 stations currently providing
      daily measurements of ETo
    – Spatial CIMIS data available recently added
      for 2km statewide grid

• Challenges:
    – Satellite data processing in real-time
    – Data distribution
      NASA Terrestrial Observation &
  George C. Marshall
  Space Flight Center                                           CIMIS ET0, Sept 16, 2010
       Prediction System
               User Requirements for Information Products

Requirements for Kc/ETc mapping (from workshops with
• Timely: available within 24-48 hours of satellite overpass (system must
  be fully automated)

• Frequent: ETc updated daily, Kc updated at least every 8-16 days

• High resolution: must provide multiple measurements per field for fields
  5 acres or larger

• Accessible: quantitative information available via web browers, mobile

• Easy to use: must be convertible to run-times for irrigation systems;
  compatible with other irrigation scheduling software

  George C. Marshall
  Space Flight Center
                Information Products: Mapping Kc and ETc

• Information and data available via web browser
• Kc maps updated weekly
• ETc maps updated daily

  George C. Marshall
  Space Flight Center
George C. Marshall
Space Flight Center
                        Information Products: Summary Reports
 TOPS-CIMM Report, 08Aug2010

• Summary reports planned for delivery via text messages / PDF sent to mobile

• Parameters include measures of mean values and variability in Kc and ETc
  values for each field

• Plan to implement ETo forecasts from WRF in Phase 2 of project

      George C. Marshall
      Space Flight Center
                      Information Products: Summary Reports

TOPS-CIMM Report, 08Aug2010                            • Reports designed
Field: F-01
                                                         to graphically
                                                         summarize spatial
                                                         and temporal
                                                         variability in Kc
                                                         and ETc values.

                                                       • Useful for
                                                         identifying spatial
                                                         variability in crop
                                                         canopy conditions
                                                         and irrigation

    George C. Marshall
    Space Flight Center
                        System Evaluation

• Partnership with growers: Grower input, evaluation, and
  feedback is critical. Comparison with high efficiency
  operations is one of the best available evaluation strategies.
  Project includes partnership with growers in San Joaquin
  Valley and Salinas Valley, and deployment of instrumentation
  at 15 demonstration sites.

• The project will also test the use of wireless weather and soil
  moisture sensor networks for tracking relative changes in soil
  water balance over time

• System evaluation will also include comparison with
  lysimeters, surface renewal monitoring stations, other
  methods for deriving ET estimates (e.g., energy balance
  George C. Marshall
  Space Flight Center
                                 Field Instrumentation
       Volumetric Soil Water Content                           Soil Water Potential
            Delta-T ML2 ADR Probe                           Irrometer Watermark 200SS-V
            2 per mote, 16 per field                            2 per mote, 16 per field

    Will also test
Decagon 10HS probes

                                                                         Irrigation Volume
                                                                      Badger Flow Meters + RTR
                               Deep Drainage                                 2 per field
                      Decagon Passive Capillary Lysimeter
                                 2 per field

    George C.     Tracking of relative changes in soil water balance over the growing
    Space Flight Center
season to support evaluation of ETc estimates
                      Back-up slides

George C. Marshall
Space Flight Center
     IT Infrastructure for Irrigation Monitoring / Forecasting

• Application of TOPS to integrate satellite and
  weather data to estimate ET, water balance, and
  irrigation demand
• Builds on previous success in vineyards
• Data exchange with users via applications for web and mobile devices
• Use of wireless soil moisture sensor networks for calibration / validation
• Collaborating with CA Dept. Water Resources, USDA-ARS, CSIRO,
     George C. Marshall
     Space Flight Center
  Agricultural producers, Universities, Private Companies
                        Grower Partnerships

Contributions from partners:
• Provide input on design requirements for maps and reports
• Review and evaluate Kc and ETc maps
• For field demonstration sites, collaborate on placement of
  instruments on 1-2 acre site (optional)
• Share information on irrigation practices at demonstration site
  only (optional -- all data treated as proprietary and confidential)

Potential benefits to participating growers:
• Opportunity to provide input and guidance on project and
  information product design
• Customized reports and satellite-derived information
  developed for field demonstration sites
• Opportunity to evaluate different types of wireless sensors for
  soil moisture monitoring (NASA/CSUMB provides and installs

 George C. Marshall
 Space Flight Center

Fall 2010: Initial deployment of wireless sensor networks in Fall 2010

Jan 2011: Completion of web interface for distribution and query of Kc and ETc
maps to facilitate review and evaluation

Feb 2011: Full deployment of wireless sensor networks at 12-15 sites in SJV

Mar 2011: Deployment of web interface for creation of custom reports and

June 2011: Target date for completion of ETo forecasting system

Sept 2011: Project complete, instrumentation retrieved

George C. Marshall
Space Flight Center
                        Criteria for Evaluation Sites

  •      The site has access to water on-demand and has control over
         timing/amounts of water applied.
  •      The field size is large enough to accommodate the resolution of
         Landsat (>5 acres).
  •      Weed control is exercised at the site.
  •      Partner willing to characterize and share information on water
         application rates and uniformity for sites of 1-2 acres in size.
  •      Partner willing to uplink information on irrigation and precipitation data
         at the demonstration site.
  •      Partner willing to allow placement of instruments in fields, and work
         with NASA/CSUMB team to identify suitable locations and to ensure
         that instrumentation will not interfere with field operations.

  All data on irrigation and field management practices will be stored
  securely and treated as confidential, proprietary data. Any aggregated
  data used for publication of reports and scientific papers will be cleared
  first by all participating growers.

George C. Marshall
Space Flight Center
            Water Supply and Management in California,
           Scalable to Regional and National Applications
Project components:
      – Water supply (precipitation and snow water equivalent) monitoring and
            forecasting (NASA Jet Propulsion Lab)
      – Hydrology and energy exchange (NASA Marshall Space Flight Center)
      – Crop Irrigation Monitoring and Management Support (NASA Ames Research
      1) Construct computing and data processing infrastructure for use of
            NASA/USGS/DWR/USDA data and models to support irrigation monitoring and
            management support
      2) Add value to current investments in ground-based monitoring networks (e.g., DWR
            investments in CA Irrigation Management Information System)
      3) Demonstrate delivery of satellite-based estimates of crop coefficients (Kc) and
            evapotranspiration (ETc) in near-real time to support water management and
            irrigation scheduling.

 George C. Marshall
 Space Flight Center
                         NASA Applied Sciences Program

• NASA’s science objectives
  include extending the
  benefits of Earth science
  research results to the
  American public

• The NASA Applied
  Sciences Program partners
  with public and private
  organizations on ways to
  apply data from NASA’s
  environmental satellites and
  scientific findings in their
  decision-making activities
  and services, helping to
  improve the quality of life
  and strengthen the
   George C. Marshall
   Space Flight Center
                          Wireless Sensor Network

• Wireless sensor
  networks will facilitate                                         iMote

  monitoring of soil                               iMote                       iMote

  moisture and weather
  conditions for use in       Data to server via
  evaluation of ETc and      GSM connection for
                                web access.
  irrigation estimates                                             iMote wireless range
                                                                      of 2km NLOS;
• Data can be retrieved                                               mesh network
  automatically or via
  nearby network, if                  Station              iMote             iMote
• Wireless range of 2-5km               iCell
• Initial deployment
  scheduled for Fall 2010,               Met
  full deployment (10-15                Station
  sites) in Feb-Mar 2011
    George C. Marshall
    Space Flight Center
                     Comparison of ET and Soil Moisture
                       via a Soil Water Balance Model

                          ET + ∆S + D + R = P + I
                               ET = P + I - ∆S - D - R
    calculated by difference                                              surface runoff
                                                                       assumed to be zero

             precipitation                                   deep drainage, measured w/
         measured w/met station                              passive capillary lysimeters

                                  irrigation volume
                               measured w/flow gauges
                                                         ∆ volumetric water content
                                                        measured w/ML2 ADR probes

Will facilitate tracking of relative changes in soil water balance over the growing
      George C. Marshall
      Space Flight Center
season and support evaluation of ETc estimates
                      Previous Success: CSIRO irriGATEWAY

courtesy Dr. J. Hornbuckle, CSIRO
    George C. Marshall
    Space Flight Center
                       Approach: Mapping Transpiration for
                             the San Joaquin Valley

                                               NDVI from satellite
                                                              From previous field studies

crop type from
                                                    canopy cover
DWR/USDA maps                                                                               map: Kcb
                From USDA lysimeter, field studies, and
                published relationships
                                         basal crop coefficient Kcb

           ETo from CIMIS                         T = Kcb * ETo

           WRF forecast                                                            map: T
                                                    Data distributed via web browser / web services

 George C. Marshall
 Space Flight Center
       Approach: Tracking Irrigation Demand & Providing
            Irrigation Systems Run-time Estimates

                          Irrig/precip uplink from grower
                                 and sensor network                       Information on current
                                                                          water balance and
                                                                          irrigation system
                                                                          runtime to restore
                                                                          zero water balance
  Ke evap coeff after FAO56                          Water gain           delivered via web and
                                                                          mobile devices to
                                                                          growers and irrigation
                                                                          PDF / text msg
             Water loss                                balance

     (Kcb and ETo as per previous slide)                     Irrig application rate
                           Data distributed via cell phones / handheld devices and web browser
Grower inputs: crop type, irrigation system type, irrigation application rate,
      George C. Marshall
      Space Flight Center
irrigation system run-times
     NASA Modeling and Data Assimilation Frameworks:
     Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS)
& forecasting at
multiple scales

• TOPS provides
  solution to the
  data processing

• Previously used
  to support a wide
  range of

• Modular
  integration of
    George C. Marshall
    Space Flight Center
Comparison of Satellite Methods for Estimating Kc/ETc

                              NDVI      SEBAL              FAO56
Spatial                       Y         Y                  N
Accts for actual conditions   Y         Y                  N

Resolution                    30m       60-120m            n/a
Bands needed                  optical   optical, thermal   n/a
Satellites available          many      few                n/a
Fully automated               Y         N                  N
Accts for stress              N         Y                  option
Sensitive to soil evap        N         Y                  option
Output                        T         ET                 T, ET

 George C. Marshall
 Space Flight Center
    Grower Evaluation: Kc and ETc Profiles from Landsat

    Grape                                  Almond

SamplesC.shown: approach designed to support all major crop types grown in
    George    Marshall
    Space Flight Center
San Joaquin Valley
                  Objectives for Field Measurements

                      ET = P + I - ∆S - D - R

     • Provide real time data on soil volumetric water
     content, irrigation volume, etc. for growers, these
     data also provide us with an independent estimate
     of evapotranspiration using a simple water budget
     equation. This value can then be compared with
     estimates of ETc from satellite observations.

George C. Marshall
Space Flight Center

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