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People have dreamt of travelling into space for hundreds of years

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									TRAVELLING IN SPACE                                                                                                                            Laika and Yuri
                                                                                                                                               The first living animal to be sent
                                                                                                                                               into space was a dog called Laika in
                                                                                                                                               1957. The dog died during this flight.
    People have dreamt of travelling into space for hundreds of                                         4. South Africa’s own                  The first man to go into space was
    years. But it is only in the last 50 years that people have                                            astronaut                           a Russian called Yuri Gargarin. He
    succeeded in travelling there.                                                                        Mark Shuttleworth was the first      orbited around the Earth in 1961.
                                                                                                          South African to travel into
                                                                                                          space. In 2002 he was launched
 1. How the Space Shuttle developed                                                                       into space from the Baikonur
                                                                                                          Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. He
     A spaceship is used for travelling
                                                                                                          travelled in a Russian spaceship                                              Fuel tank
     outside of the Earth’s atmosphere.
                                                                                                          called Soyuz TM-34.
     The first spaceships were launched
     using rockets which could not be                                                                     Mark Shuttleworth’s family
     used again. They were left in                                                                        watched the launch. Mark’s
     space and we have ‘space junk’                                                                       father said, …‘to see the flame
     which can never be used again.                                                                       come out and the rocket
                                                                                                          hovering before take-off … the                                                Booster rocket
     Later NASA in the United Sates of
                                                                                                          rocket looked horribly small. It
     America designed the Space Shuttles.
                                                                                                          was really quite horrifying’. Mark
     The Space Shuttles can be sent up into
                                                                                                          Shuttleworth said: ‘The re-entry
     space, and come back safely to Earth
                                                                                                          into the Earth’s atmosphere will
     to be used again. Using a spaceship
                                                                                                          be scary. You hit the atmosphere
     more than once is less expensive than
                                                                                                          at about 30 times the speed of
     leaving it in space.
                                                                                                          sound and temperatures are
                                                                                                          very high.’
2. A spaceship with many uses                                                                                                                                                           Astronauts sit
    The Space Shuttle is like a laboratory for doing scientific experiments                                                                                                             here
                                                                              In January 1986
    in space. It also carries scientists to the International Space Station   the Space Shuttle                                                                                         Payload cargo
    (ISS) and takes them back to Earth again. The Shuttle is also used to     Challenger was                                                                                            bay with
    launch satellites for sending TV and radio signals to and from Earth.     carrying seven                                                                                            satellite inside
    Satellites are also used for military purposes. The Shuttle has a large   astronauts, including
                                                                                                                                                                                        Doors to the
    room inside (called the payload bay) for carrying satellites.             a schoolteacher,                                                                                          payload bay
3. Working in space                                                           when It exploded just
                                                                              after it was launched.
    When the Space Shuttle
                                                                              This picture tells the
    arrives in space the doors
                                                                              story …                                                                                                   Tiles to protect
    open and the satellite
                                                                                                                                                                                        the spacecraft
    is unloaded. The Space                                                    More recently, in 2003,                                                     SPACE                         from the heat
    Shuttle took astronauts                                                   the Space Shuttle                                                          SHUTTLE
    to the Hubble Space                                                       Columbia broke into
    Telescope to repair the                                                   pieces and burned up
    mirror in the telescope.                                                  when it re-entered the                                                                                    Rocket engines
                                                                              Earth’s atmosphere on
RIGHT: View of the Space
Shuttle Atlantis with its payload                                             its way back to Earth.
open, connected to Russia’s Mir                                               All seven astronauts
Space Station.                                                                on board were killed.
NASA stands for: National Space and
Aeronautics Administration (USA)
                                                                                                                                                                                             Photographs: Nasa
                                     AfRICAN SkIES                                                                                     TRAVELLING IN SPACE
                                                                                                                          ACTIVITy 3. Make and test a glider
                                           The stages in a journey of a Space Shuttle                                     Learning area: Technology
                                                                                                                          Make the best design for a plane that will
                                                                                                                                                                     glid         e well
                                                                                                                          When the Space Shuttle returns to Earth it
                                                                                                                                                                      glides down gently. The shape and wings
                                                                                                                          are specially designed to make it glide, smo
                                                                                                                                                                       othly through the air.
                                                                                                                          1. Make a plane that can glide using any mat
                                                                                                                                                                         erials.
                                                                                                                          2. Test your plane and make any improvemen
                                                                                                                                                                         ts that you think are necessary.
                                                                                                                          3. Decide which plane design glides the best
                                                                                                                                                                        .
                                                                                                                          4. Can you think of a reason why one desi
                                                                                                                                                                     gn is better than another? Discuss this.



ACTIVITy 1. Take a journey in a Space Shuttle                                                               ACTIVITy 4. Becoming an astronaut
Learning area: Languages                                                                                    Learning area: Languages
There are different stages in the flight of a Space Shuttle                                                 How and why Eileen Collins became an astronaut
Sort the stages in the Space Shuttle’s journey into space.                                                  Eileen Collins was the first female commander on the Space Shuttle. She has
1. Read the sentences below (a–j), which show the stages in the flight of a Space Shuttle.                  spent more than 6 280 hours in 30 different types of aircraft. More than 537
    Make the following three headings on a sheet of paper:                                                  of those hours were spent in space.
    I	 The launch
                                                                                                            She was a very shy person and did not enjoy sport at school.
    I	 The flight in orbit around the Earth
                                                                                                            1. Read what she said about becoming an astronaut.
    I	 The return to Earth.
2. Sort the sentences below under the three main headings. Use the pictures to help you decide.                ‘I have always loved flying, ever since I was a small child. My family
    a) The Shuttle lifts off into space.                                                                       never had the money to get me flying lessons or even get me a ride
    b) The rocket boosters come away from the Shuttle.                                                         in an aeroplane. When I got a job at age 16 I started saving money.
    c) The empty external fuel tank falls away and burns up in the atmosphere.                                 Eventually I took my savings to my local airport, at age 19, and I
    d) The rocket boosters fall into the sea, slowed down by parachutes.                                        asked them to teach me how to fly. ... I’ve always been very interested
    e) The Shuttle leaves the Earth’s atmosphere and goes into orbit in space.                                  in science, astronomy and geology, and the history of the space                                                  Commander Eileen Collins
    f) The Shuttle opens its doors to launch a satellite.                                                       programme.                                                                                                       runs a flight check on the
    g) The Shuttle has its own rocket engines to move around in space and to return to Earth.                                                                                                                                    Space Shuttle Columbia.
                                                                                                                Flying is a challenge, and I found it was something that I could do well … We’re a nation of
    h) The Shuttle re-enters Earth’s atmosphere.
                                                                                                                explorers. We are the kind of people who want to go out and learn new things, and I would say take
    i) The atmosphere slows the Shuttle down and it glides in to land.
                                                                                                                risks, but take calculated risks that are studied and understood.’
    j) The runway is 4,5 km long. The Shuttle needs a parachute behind it to help it to stop.
                                                                                                             a) Then make a mind map about what kind of person would make a good astronaut. Think of what
                                                                                                                interests, skills, health and fitness, and what type of personality they must have.
                                                                                                             b) Imagine you are an astronaut waiting to be blasted into space. Write a short paragraph or poem about
          ACTIVIT y 2. What does                                                                                how you feel.
         Learning area: Languages
                                 the Space                       Shuttle do?
         The Space Shuttle is us
                                       ed for many different ac                          a) …… it helps to build th                                               B. When astronauts tra
                                                                                                                                                                                           vel into space the spaces
         A. Combine the sentence                                    tivities                                         e International Space Sta
                                                                                                                                               tion.                                                                  hip has to carry
                                    s in the lists below so th                          b) …… it can carry satellit                                                   everything that the astro
         1. The Space Shuttle is                              at they make sense.                                     es into orbit.                                                              nauts need in order to sta
                                   like a home because …..                              c) …… astronauts can live                                                    carry:                                                  y alive. It has to
                                                                                                                     in it.
         2. The Space Shuttle is                                                        d) …… astronauts do expe                                                     I Oxygen, food and wa
                                  like a taxi because …..                                                           riments on it.                                                              ter to support life.
        3. The Space Shuttle is                                                         e) …… it carries astronaut                                                   I Fuel, batteries and so
                                  like a science laboratory                                                         s to the Space Station.                                                      lar power to supply energ
                                                             because …...                      them back to Earth.                           Then, it brings             spacecraft into space an                          y to launch the
        4. The Space Shuttle is                                                                                                                                                                     d keep it moving forward.
                                 like a delivery truck beca                             f) …… it can carry ma                                                        I Machinery, computers
                                                            use ……                                            ny people to space.                                                                 and other equipment.
        5. The Space Shuttle is
                                 like a building workshop                               g) …… astronauts can                                                        I It has to take all the
                                                            because.                                          travel to space in it.                                                            waste back to Earth after
        6. The Space Shuttle is                                                         h) …… when it takes off                                                         have been living in the                            the astronauts
                                like a rocket because …                                                         , it flies straight up with                                                        spaceship.
                                                          ..                                                                                a huge explosion
                                                                                              of power.                                                         C. If you were going int
                                                                                                                                                                                          o space what else would
                                                                                                                                                                    and explain why you wo                           you carry? Make a list

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                                                                                                                                                                                             uld take those things.

								
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